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In this research, total acceleration equation is formulated where there is time scale coefficient at its time differential term. The formulation was done based on Courant Number equation and by using Taylor series. Then this total acceleration is applied to kinematic free surface boundary condition and Euler momentum equations. Potential velocity and water surface equations of linear water wave theory as well as wave number conservation equation were substituted to momentum and kinematic free surface boundary condition equations produced dispersion equation with wave amplitude as its variable and which fits with wave number conservation equation. Wave number conservation equation is an equation that regulates changes in wavelength as a result of water depth changes. This equation was extracted from potential velocity equation.

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Equation on Wavelength Calculation

Syawaluddin Hutahaean

Ocean Engineering Program, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering,-Bandung Institute of Technology

(ITB), Bandung 40132, Indonesia

syawaluddin@ocean.itb.ac.id

Abstract—In this research, total acceleration equation is derivative where in this case, truncation error can only be

formulated where there is time scale coefficient at its time reduced by reducing the s ize of its interval. Based on

differential term. The formulation was done based on Courant criteria it is assumed that Taylor series for a

Courant Number equation and by using Taylor series. spatial and time function must contain a coefficient at the

Then this total acceleration is applied to kinematic free time interval. Then minimizing truncation error at Taylor

surface boundary condition and Euler momentum series obtains time coefficient value and interval s ize that

equations. Potential velocity and water surface equations produces the level of accuracy that fits with what has been

of linear water wave theory as well as wave number demanded.

conservation equation were substituted to momentum and

kinematic free surface boundary condition equations II. THE FORMULATION OF TOTAL

produced dispersion equation with wave amplitude as its ACCELERATION EQUATION WITH

variable and which fits with wave number conservation COEFFICIENT

equation. Wave number conservation equation is an In this section total acceleration equation will be

equation that regulates changes in wavelength as a result formulated where there is a coefficient at the time

of water depth changes. This equation was extracted from differential term.

potential velocity equation.

Keywords—Courant Number, Taylor Series, Total 2.1. Base of the Theory

Derivative, Wave Number Conservation Equation. a. Courant Number

Courant (1928) introduced Courant Number which is a

I. INTRODUCTION criteria relation between length interval (𝛿𝑥) with time

This research aims at finding a dispersion equation with a step (𝛿𝑡) to conduct numerical analysis at the fluid flow,

wavelength that fits with what exists in the nature. i.e.

Dispersion equation of linear wave theory (Dean, 1991), 𝑢𝛿𝑡

𝐶= < 𝐶𝑚𝑎𝑥 .......(1)

𝛿𝑥

was formulated using kinematic free surface boundary

where 𝑢is a velocity, 𝛿𝑡is time step and 𝛿𝑥is length

condition and Bernoulli equations where this Bernoulli 𝛿𝑥

equation is formulated from Euler momentum equation. interval,𝐶𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1. If at (1) 𝑢 = is defined, hence 𝐶 = 1

𝛿𝑡

Both at the kinematic free surface boundary condition and which does not meet the Courant Number criteria.

𝛿𝑥

Euler momentum equations there are total change term of However, if 𝑢= is defined where 𝛾 is a positive

𝛾𝛿𝑡

spatial and time function.

number greater than 1, then it will meet (1). From this

In the formulation of total acceleration equation, it is

𝑑𝑥

equation, a conclusion can be made that there is a

defined that at lim𝑑𝑥 and 𝑑𝑡 close to zero, 𝑢 = , where coefficient 𝛾 at time step 𝛿𝑡 to define a velocity. This

𝑑𝑡

𝑢 is a velocity of material movement. Courant number in coefficient can be stated as a time scale coefficient.

fluid mechanics (1928) stated that in order to be defined

𝑑𝑥

that 𝑢 = , there are certain criteria for the size of space b. Taylor Series Review

𝑑𝑡

length (𝑑𝑥) and time step (𝑑𝑡) . In general, it can be stated Taylor series is often used only up to the first derivative

that in order to be defined that at lim𝑑𝑥 and 𝑑𝑡 close to or with an accuracy of 𝑂( 𝛿 1 )at numerical analysis as

𝑑𝑥 well as the formulation of a conservation law. Total

zero, 𝑢 = , there are certain conditions.

𝑑𝑡 acceleration equation, at Euler momentum equation at

The accuracy of Taylor series is determined not only by fluid flow, is also often formulated using Taylor series

the number of its terms but also by its interval size. 𝑂( 𝛿 1 ). Using Taylor series up to the first derivative, the

Meanwhile, Taylor series is often used only up to the first

accuracy is depended only on the interval measurement.

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-2, Feb- 2019]

https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijaers.6.2.31 ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)

Therefore, interval size that produces a good accuracy Another equation is needed, therefore Taylor series is

should be determined. . performed with a change in 𝑡time only,

( ) 𝑑𝑓 𝛿𝑡2 𝑑 2 𝑓

For a continuous function 𝑓 = 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑡 , where 𝑥is 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡 + 𝛿𝑡) = 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) + 𝛿𝑡 + + ⋯ (8)

𝑑𝑡 2 𝑑 𝑡2

horizontal axis and 𝑡is time, Taylor series approach

In this case the time scale coefficient γ was not performed

𝑂( 𝛿 1 ) (Thomas (1996)), since the one to be reviewed is only the change in

Ƌ𝑓 Ƌ𝑓

𝑓 (𝑥 + 𝛿𝑥, 𝑡 + 𝛿𝑡) = 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) + 𝛿𝑥 + 𝛿𝑡 function against time 𝑡. In order for (8) to be able to be

Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑡

Using time scale coefficient γ, performed only up to the first derivative, then

Ƌ𝑓 Ƌ𝑓 𝛿 𝑡 2𝑑2 𝑓

𝑓 (𝑥 + 𝛿𝑥, 𝑡 + 𝛾𝛿𝑡) = 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) + 𝛿𝑥 + 𝛾𝛿𝑡 𝑑𝑡2

Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑡 |2 𝑑𝑓 | ≤ ɛ ....(9)

𝛿𝑡

........(2) 𝑑𝑡

At (2) there is a truncation error, Substitute𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡to (9) and the equation is

𝛿𝑥2 Ƌ2𝑓 𝛾2 𝛿𝑡2 Ƌ2 𝑓 Ƌ2 𝑓 performed at 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡, hence

𝑅= + + 𝛿𝑥 𝛾𝛿𝑡 +⋯

2 Ƌ𝑥2 2 Ƌ𝑡2 Ƌ𝑥Ƌ𝑡 2ɛ

𝑅can be ignored if 𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥 < ....(10)

𝜎

𝑅

𝛿𝑡at (10) is the value of 𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥 since it is determined only

| Ƌ𝑓 Ƌ𝑓 |<ɛ .......(3) based on the function of time without the interaction with

𝛿𝑥 +𝛾𝛿𝑡

Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑡

where ɛis a very small number. (3) can be achieved by a the changes toward space. With𝛿𝑡 = 𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥 , the value of γ

small size of 𝛿𝑥and𝛿𝑡and with a time scale value of γ. can be calculated at (7).

The size of𝛿𝑥and𝛿𝑡and the value of γ where Taylor series

can be used only up to the first derivative can be Table.1: The Value of 𝛾and𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥 for 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑡) =

determined with (3). 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 .

𝛾 𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥

2.2. Determining 𝛿𝑥,𝛿𝑡 and 𝛾. Wave period 𝑇: 7 sec.

With an assumption that there are the values of 2

𝑅 3 0,02228

𝛿𝑥,𝛿𝑡and𝛾, where the number of the third derivative term 𝑅 3

3,14301 0,02243

with higher derivatives is much smaller than the number 4

𝑅 3,15978 0,02214

of the second derivative term, then as 𝑅, only the second

Wave period 𝑇: 8 sec.

derivative that can be used, and (3) becomes

𝛿 𝑥2Ƌ2 𝑓 𝛾2 𝛿𝑡 2 Ƌ2𝑓 Ƌ2𝑓 𝑅2 3 0,02547

+ +𝛾𝛿𝑥𝛿𝑡

2 Ƌ𝑥2 2 Ƌ𝑡2 Ƌ𝑥Ƌ𝑡

| Ƌ𝑓 Ƌ𝑓 | < ɛ ......(4) 𝑅 3 3,14301 0,02564

𝛿𝑥 +𝛾𝛿𝑡

Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑡

𝑅4 3,15978 0,0253

Wave length is 𝐿 = 𝐶𝑇where𝐶 is wave celereties or wave

velocity and T is wave period. From this wave length Wave period 𝑇: 9 sec.

2

equation, 𝛿𝑥 = 𝐶𝛿𝑡 is defined. With 𝐿 =

2𝜋

where 𝑘is 𝑅 3 0,02865

𝑘 3

𝜎 𝑅 3,14301 0,02884

wave number, relation 𝐶 = is obtained, then, 4

𝑘 𝑅 3,15978 0,02846

𝜎𝛿𝑡

𝛿𝑥 = ..........(5) Wave period 𝑇: 10 sec.

𝑘

Substitute (5) to (4) and the upper and lower part of the 𝑅 2

3 0,03183

equation are divided by 𝛿𝑡 3

𝑅 3,14301 0,03205

1 𝜎 2 Ƌ2f 𝜎 Ƌ2f γ2 δt Ƌ2f

( ) 𝛿𝑡 +γ( 𝛿𝑡) +

2 𝑘

| Ƌx2 𝑘 ƋtƋx 2 Ƌt2

| < ɛ ....(6) 𝑅4 3,15978 0,03162

𝜎 Ƌf Ƌf

( ) +γ

𝑘 Ƌx Ƌt

Furthermore a sinusoidal function is reviewed with the Table (1) presents the result of the calculation of values

form𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 . This equation is a water 𝛾and𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥 for various wave periods and various level of

wave surface elevation equation of the linear wave theory accuracy 𝑅, where𝑅 2 shows that 𝑅is calculated only with

(Dean, 1991). Substitute 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 to (6) and the second derivative only, 𝑅 3 shows that𝑅is calculated up

perform it at the condition 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 = to the third derivative and 𝑅 4 , 𝑅is calculated up to the

𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡, will produce fourth derivative. It can be seen that for the same period,

2

|− 1+ 𝛾− 𝛾 |𝜎𝛿𝑡

2 2

the higher the accuracy of 𝑅the bigger the value of γ but

(1+𝛾)

≤ ɛ ....(7) with small change. Whereas at the similar accuracy level

At (7), the lower part of equation can be taken out from of 𝑅, for different wave period, the value of γ is the same.

the absolute operation | | , since it always has positive The uses of accuracy up to 𝑅 5 does not change the value

value. At (7) there are two unknowns, i.e. 𝛾and𝛿𝑡.

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-2, Feb- 2019]

https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijaers.6.2.31 ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)

𝛿𝑥5 𝛿𝑡5 Ƌ𝑓 Ƌ𝑓

of γconsidering the terms of and at𝑅 5 is a very small 𝑓 (𝑥 + 𝛿𝑥, 𝑡 + 𝛿𝑡) = 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) + 𝛾𝛿𝑡 + 𝛿𝑥

120 120 Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑥

number close to zero. The first term of the right side of the equation is moved to

the left and the equation is divided by 𝛿𝑡

The function 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 has been used to 𝑓 (𝑥 + 𝛿𝑥, 𝑡 + 𝛿𝑡) − 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) Ƌ𝑓 𝛿𝑥 Ƌ𝑓

=𝛾 +

calculate the value γ. If the form of function 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝛿𝑡 Ƌ𝑡 𝛿𝑡 Ƌ𝑥

𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡 is used, where this equation is the change of With the presence of time coefficient 𝛾at time differential

water particle velocity at space and time for standing term, it can be defined that at lim𝛿𝑥, 𝛿𝑡approaches zero

𝛿𝑥

wave, then relation equation between 𝛾and𝛿𝑡is obtained can be defined that = 𝑢. Therefore, the total

𝛿𝑡

which is similar to (7) for accuracy 𝑅 2 , i.e. acceleration equation is

2

|− 1+ 𝛾− 𝛾 |𝜎𝛿𝑡 𝐷𝑓 Ƌ𝑓 Ƌ𝑓

2 2 =𝛾 +𝑢 ........(12)

(1+𝛾)

< ɛ .......(11) 𝑑𝑡 Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑥

III. EQUATIONS FROM VELOCITY

produce different value 𝛾, although with a not too big

POTENTIAL

different, as shown on Table (2).

This part has been written by Hutahaean (2019), however;

considering that equations in this part are very important

Table.2: The Value of𝛾and𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥 for𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡

for this research, it will be rewritten.

𝛾

𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥

3.1. Velocity Potential Equation

(sec.)

Velocity potential from linear wave theory which is the

Wave period 𝑇 = 7 sec. product of Laplace equation operation (Dean, 1991) is

2

𝑅 3 0,02228 𝛷 (𝑥, 𝑧, 𝑡) = 𝐺𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡 ......(13)

𝑅3 2,85619 0,02243 𝑥is horizontal axis,𝑧is vertical axis where 𝑧 = 0at the

𝑅4 2,87499 0,02214 surface of still water level, 𝑡time, 𝐺wave constant, 𝑘

2𝜋

Wave period 𝑇 = 8 sec wave number, 𝜎 = , angular frequency, 𝑇 wave period

𝑇

2

𝑅 3 0,02547 andℎ still water depth.

𝑅3 2,85619 0,02564

𝑅4 2,87499 0,0253 The equation was formulated at flat bottom condition,

Wave period 𝑇 = 9 sec however Hutahaean (2008) found out that the effect of

slopping bottom on velocity potential is small, only on its

𝑅2 3 0,02865

3 hyperbolic term, i.e.

𝑅 2,85619 0,02884

Flat bottom :

𝑅4 2,87499 0,02846 ( ) ( )

𝑒 𝑘 ℎ+𝑧 + 𝑒 −𝑘 ℎ+𝑧

Wave period 𝑇 = 9 sec 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) =

2

𝑅2 3 0,03183 Slopping bottom :

3 ( ) ( )

𝑅 2,85619 0,03205 𝛽(𝑧 ) = 𝛼𝑒 𝑘 ℎ+𝑧 + 𝑒 −𝑘 ℎ+𝑧

𝑅4 2,87499 0,03162 Where𝛼is a coefficient that is a function of bottom slope

(equation 14). It is seen that𝛼 ≈ 1.Therefore, (13) can be

Table (2) shows that at 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡 ,the value of performed at sloping bottom where there will be values of

γ is fluctuating against the level of accuracy 𝑅but with Ƌ𝑘 Ƌ𝐺

and .

Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥

relatively small fluctuation. From the two analysis of 1+

𝜕ℎ

1−

𝜕ℎ

1 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥

coefficient γ for the two shapes of the function, the .𝛼= ( 𝜕ℎ + 𝜕ℎ ) ......(14)

2 1− 1+

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥

hydrodynamic analysis for water wave can use the value

Ƌℎ

of 𝛾 = 3. For numerical analysis where discretization of is bottom slope.

Ƌ𝑥

space and time is needed, than the space length size 𝛿𝑥 =

𝜎𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥 3.2. Wave Number Conservation Equation

with time step𝛿𝑡 = .

𝑘 𝛾

The velocity potential equation (13) is obtained from

variable separation method, where velocity potential is

2.3. Total Acceleration with coefficient

considered as multiplication between 3 functions, i.e.

As has been shown that by performing coefficient on time

𝛷 (𝑥, 𝑧, 𝑡) = 𝑋 (𝑥) 𝑍(𝑧) 𝑇(𝑡) , 𝑋 (𝑥) is just an 𝑥function

differential term, Taylor series can be performed up to the

,𝑍 (𝑧) is just a 𝑧function and 𝑇 (𝑡) is just a time function. At

first derivative, i.e.

(1), 𝑍(𝑧 ) = cosh 𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) . If (13) is performed at sloping

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-2, Feb- 2019]

https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijaers.6.2.31 ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)

Ƌ𝑍 (𝑧) Ƌ cosh 𝑘 (ℎ+𝑧) Ƌ 𝑘 (ℎ+𝑧) simplest way is by performing the assumption of a long

bottom = = sinh 𝑘(ℎ + 𝑧) = 0,

Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ2𝐺

in this equation the one with the value of zero is , wave where can be ignored, and in this case the

Ƌ𝑥2

Ƌ𝑘 (ℎ+𝑧 )

= 0 ..................(15) following equation is obtained,

Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝐺 𝐺 Ƌ𝑘

for all 𝑧 value. Therefore the value of𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) = 𝑐, =− , .................(24)

Ƌ𝑥 2𝑘 Ƌ𝑥

where 𝑐is constant, i.e. the same for the entire flow fieldof (23) can be written as,

Ƌ𝑘ℎ Ƌ2 𝐺 Ƌ𝑘 Ƌ𝐺

the wave moves. If(3) is performed on 𝑧 = 0, then = =𝐺 + 2𝑘 .....................(25)

Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥2 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥

0or, (25) is differentiated twice against horizontal-𝑥axis and

Ƌ𝑘 𝑘 Ƌℎ Ƌ2𝐺

=− ...........(16) substituted to the term , and an assumption is

Ƌ𝑥 ℎ Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥2

With (16), derivative equations higher than wave number Ƌ4 𝐺

performed that is a very small number that is

can be formulated, for example for 𝑧 = 0, by ignoring Ƌ𝑥4

Ƌ2 ℎ considered to be equal to zero which produce,

, Ƌ𝐺

Ƌ𝑥2 = µ𝐺 .........(26)

Ƌ2 𝑘 2𝑘 Ƌℎ 2 Ƌ𝑥

= ( ) ............(17) Ƌ3𝑘 Ƌ𝑘 2 Ƌ2𝑘 Ƌ𝑘

Ƌ𝑥2 ℎ 2 Ƌ𝑥 ( 3+5( ) +2𝑘 2+4𝑘2 )

Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥

Ƌ𝑘 Ƌ2 𝑘 µ=− ..........(27)

From this point onward, the calculation of and refers Ƌ2𝑘 Ƌ𝑘

Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥2 (4 +16𝑘 +8𝑘3 )

Ƌ𝑥2 Ƌ𝑥

to𝑧 = 0. With (17) the third differential can be obtained, Therefore particle velocity equation at horizontal-

and so forth. Based on (15), the following relations apply, 𝑥direction becomes

𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝜂) = 𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ 𝑘0 ( ℎ0 + 𝜂) = 1 ......(18a) 𝑢 = 𝐺 (𝑘𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 − µ𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥 ) 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡

𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝜂) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘0 ( ℎ0 + 𝜂) ........(18b) ....(28)

𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝜂) = 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ𝑘0 ( ℎ0 + 𝜂) ........(18c)

𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘0 ( ℎ0 + 𝜂) = 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ 𝑘0 ( ℎ0 + 𝜂) ........(18d) IV. DISPERSION EQUATION

Where𝜂is the water surface elevation. Therefore, based on At the potential velocity equation (13), there are 2 (two)

(18a-d), equations containing the three elements are unknowns, i.e. energy constant 𝐺and wave number 𝑘;

elements with values similar to the value in deep water. therefore, two equations are needed to calculate those two

unknowns. Governing equation for analyzing the two

3.3. Energy Conservation Equation unknowns are kinematic free surface boundary condition

From velocity potential (1) horizontal−𝑥 velocity and momentum equation. In its movement from the deep

equation is obtained water to shallower water, evolution or transformation of

Ƌ𝛷 Ƌ𝐺 the two unknown values will happen. The evolution is

𝑢 =− = (𝐺𝑘𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥 )

Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥 arranged by wave number conservation equation (15) and

𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡 ..........(19) energy conservation (23) or (25). The two conservation

Ƌ𝑢 Ƌ𝑘 Ƌ𝐺 equations are absorbed to the two governing equations.

= (𝐺 𝑘 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥 + 𝐺 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 + 2 𝑘𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥

Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥

Ƌ2 𝐺 4.1 Kinematic Free Surface Boundary Condition

− 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥)

Ƌ𝑥 Using total derivative equation(12), kinematic free

𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡 ......(20) surface boundary condition becomes 𝑤𝜂 = 𝛾 + 𝑢 𝜂 .

Ƌ𝜂 Ƌ𝜂

Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑥

and vertical−𝑧 velocity equation,

Substitute (21) , (28) and𝜂(𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝐴𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 and the

Ƌ𝛷

𝑤 (𝑥, 𝑧, 𝑡) = − = −𝐺𝑘𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡 equation is performed at the condition 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 =

Ƌ𝑧

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡 ,

......(21)

Ƌ𝑤 𝐴 𝑘𝐴

= −𝐺𝑘 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡 .....(22) 𝐺 (𝑘 𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ) − 𝛾𝜎𝐴 − (𝑘 − µ) ( ))

Ƌ𝑧 2 2

Substitute equations (20) and (22) to continuity equation

𝐴

Ƌ𝑢 Ƌ𝑤 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ) − 𝛾𝜎𝐴 = 0 ....(29)

+ = 0and performed at the condition 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥 = 2

Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑧

√2 𝐴

𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡 = and 𝑧 = 𝜂 = , then the 4.2. Horizontal Momentum Equation

2 2

𝐴

equation is divided by 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ), to obtain, For a function𝑓 = 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑧, 𝑡) , where the main change is in

2

Ƌ𝑘 Ƌ𝐺 Ƌ2 𝐺 the direction of horizontal-𝑥 axis, then (12) can be

𝐺 + 2𝑘 − = 0..................(23) performed to obtain total acceleration equation, and

Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥2

This equation is another form of energy conservation horizontal-𝑥 and vertical-𝑧 total velocity equations are

Ƌ𝐺 𝐷𝑢 Ƌ𝑢 Ƌ𝑢 Ƌ𝑢

equation. This equation is a relation between 𝐺and . The =𝛾 +𝑢 +𝑤 .......(30)

Ƌ𝑥 𝑑𝑡 Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑧

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𝐷𝑤 Ƌ𝑤 Ƌ𝑤 Ƌ𝑤

=𝛾 +𝑢 +𝑤 ........(31) 𝐴 𝑘𝐴

𝑑𝑡 Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑧 𝛾 2 𝜎 2 (𝑘 − µ) = 𝑔𝑘 (𝑘 𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ) − (𝑘 − µ) ( ))

respectively, where𝑢is water particle velocity at 2 2

horizontal-𝑥direction and 𝑤is particle velocity vertical-𝑧 .......(37)

direction. With (30) and (31), then Euler momentum If the bottom slope is ignored, then (37) becomes

equation becomes, 𝐴 𝑘2 𝐴

𝛾 2 𝜎 2 = 𝑔 (𝑘 𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ) − ) ......(38)

Ƌ𝑢 Ƌ𝑢 Ƌ𝑢 1 Ƌ𝑝 2 2

𝛾 +𝑢 +𝑤 =− ......(32)

Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑧 𝜌 Ƌ𝑥 If wave amplitude is considered as a very small number,

Ƌ𝑤 Ƌ𝑤 Ƌ𝑤 1 Ƌ𝑝

𝛾 +𝑢 +𝑤 =− − 𝑔 .......(33) both to water depth and wave length, (38) becomes

Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑧 𝜌 Ƌ𝑧

𝛾 2 𝜎 2 = 𝑔𝑘𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ𝑘ℎ ......(39)

At (33) the characteristics of irrotional flow is performed

Ƌ𝑤 Ƌ𝑢 Then if𝛾 = 1is taken, (39) becomes

at space differential, = , and integrated against

Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑧 𝜎 2 = 𝑔𝑘𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ𝑘ℎ ......(40)

vertical-𝑧 axis and dynamic free surface boundary (40) is a dispersion equation of linear wave theory (Dean,

condition is performed where 𝑝𝜂 = 0, pressure equation is 1991).

obtained, i.e.

𝜂

𝑝 Ƌ𝑤 1 1 Dispersion equations (37), (38), (39) and (40) have not

= 𝛾∫ 𝑑𝑧 + (𝑢 2𝜂 + 𝑤𝜂2 ) − (𝑢 2 + 𝑤 3 )

𝜌 𝑧 Ƌ𝑡 2 2 met wave number conservation equation. At (37) wave

+𝑔 (𝜂 − 𝑧) number conservation equation (18a) is performed, hence

The pressure equation is differentiated against horizontal- 𝑘𝐴

𝛾 2 𝜎 2 (𝑘 − µ) = 𝑔𝑘 (𝑘 − (𝑘 − µ) ( )) .....(41)

2

𝑥axis and substituted to (32) where at (32) the

characteristics of irrotional flow is performed (41) is used to calculate wave number at the deep water.

Ƌ𝑢 Ƌ 𝜂 Ƌ𝑤 1Ƌ Ƌ𝜂 The dispersion equation at the shallow water is obtained

𝛾 = −𝛾 ∫ 𝑑𝑧 − ( (𝑢 2𝜂 + 𝑤𝜂2 ) + 𝑔 ) by substituting wave number conservation (15) that can

Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑥 𝑧 Ƌ𝑡 2 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥

Ƌ 𝜂 Ƌ𝑤 be stated as

The completion of ∫ 𝑑𝑧 will be done using potential 𝐴 𝐴0

Ƌ𝑥 𝑧 Ƌ𝑡

𝑘 (ℎ + ) = 𝑘0 ( ℎ0 + )

velocity theory of the linear wave theory(21). 2 2

Ƌ𝑤 𝐴

Keeping in mind that𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ𝑘0 ( ℎ0 + 0) =

= −𝐺𝜎𝑘𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 2

Ƌ𝑡 𝐴0

𝜂

Ƌ𝑤 1where𝑘0 ( ℎ0 + ) = 𝜓𝜋, this research used 𝜓 = 1.1,

∫ 𝑑𝑧 = −𝐺𝜎 (𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝜂) − 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) ) 2

𝑧 Ƌ𝑡 where𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ (1.1𝜋) = 0.998009 ,

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 𝐴

𝑘 (ℎ + ) = 𝜓𝜋 ,or

𝑘𝐴

= 𝜓𝜋 − 𝑘ℎ ......(42)

Ƌ 𝜂 Ƌ𝑤 2 2

∫ 𝑑𝑧 = 𝐺𝜎 (𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝜂) − 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) ) Substitute (42) to (41),

Ƌ𝑥 𝑧 Ƌ𝑡

(𝑘𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 − µ𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥) 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 𝛾 2 𝜎 2 (𝑘 − µ) = 𝑔𝑘 (𝑘 − (𝑘 − µ)(𝜓𝜋 − 𝑘ℎ) )...(43)

This equation is dispersion equation at the shallow water.

From (28),

Ƌ𝑢 However,calculation with (43) should be performed

= 𝐺𝜎 (𝑘𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 − µ𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥 ) 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡, ,hence

Ƌ𝑡 consecutively from deep water depth. To obtain deep

Ƌ 𝜂 Ƌ𝑤 Ƌ𝑢𝜂 Ƌ𝑢

∫ 𝑑𝑧 = − , horizontal-𝑥momentum equation water depth,𝑘0 is calculated with (41), then deep water

Ƌ𝑥 𝑧 Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑡

𝐴0

becomes depth ℎ0 is the deepest between 𝑘0 (ℎ0 + ) = 𝜓𝜋 and

2

Ƌ𝑢𝜂 1 Ƌ Ƌ𝜂 𝐴0

𝛾 = −( (𝑢 2𝜂 + 𝑤𝜂2 ) +𝑔 ) .....(34) ≤ 0.10. For water depth more than ℎ0 the wave

Ƌ𝑡 2 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥 2ℎ 0

number conservation equation can’t be applied.

4.3. Simple Dispersion Equation

To obtain a simple dispersion equation, convective 4.4.Complete Dispersion Equation

acceleration at (34) is ignored, In this complete dispersion equation, the surface

∂u ∂η

𝛾( ) = −𝑔 ........(35) momentum equation is used completely and the wave

∂t z=η ∂x

number conservation equation is applied. The resulted

Substitute (28) and water surface equation 𝜂(𝑥, 𝑡) =

equation is for calculating wave number at the shallow

𝐴𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡, and the equation is performed at the

water only. Substitute (42) to (29) the first 𝑓 (𝑘, 𝐺 ) =

condition 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡

𝐴

0equation is obtained.

𝛾𝐺𝜎 (𝑘 − µ)𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ) = 𝑔𝑘𝐴 ....(36)

2

Equation (29) is written as an equation for 𝐺and 𝑓1 (𝑘, 𝐺 ) = 𝐺 (𝑘 − (𝑘 − µ)(𝜓𝜋 − 𝑘ℎ) )

substituted to (36), 𝐴

𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ) − 𝛾𝜎𝐴 = 0 .....(44)

2

The second equation is surface momentum equation, i.e.

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Ƌ𝑢 𝜂 1 Ƌ Ƌ𝜂 8 2,58 7,12 8 0,32

𝑓2 (𝑘, 𝐺 ) = 𝛾 +( (𝑢 2𝜂 + 𝑤𝜂2 ) + 𝑔 ) = 0

Ƌ𝑡 2 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥 9 3,26 8,02 9 0,32

..... (45) 10 4,03 8,91 10 0,32

Where, 11 4,88 9,8 11 0,32

Ƌ𝑢𝜂 𝐴

𝛾 = 𝛾𝐺𝜎 (𝑘 − µ) 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ) ....(46a) 12 5,8 10,69 12 0,32

Ƌ𝑡 2

Ƌ𝑢𝜂 1 2 2 𝐴 13 6,81 11,58 13 0,32

𝑢𝜂 = 𝐺 𝑘 (𝑘 − µ) 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ 𝑘 (ℎ + ) ....(46b)

2

Ƌ𝑥 2 2 14 7,9 12,47 14 0,32

Ƌ𝑤𝜂 1 𝐴

𝑤𝜂 = − 𝐺 2 𝑘 2 (𝑘 − µ) 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ2 𝑘 (ℎ + ) ....(46c) 15 9,07 13,36 15 0,32

Ƌ𝑥 2 2

Ƌ𝜂

𝑔 = −2𝑔 (𝜓𝜋 − 𝑘ℎ) ...(46d)

Ƌ𝑥

The result of the calculation on Table (3) was done using

At (46d) 𝑘𝐴is substituted with wave number conservation

the value of 𝛾 = 2.483 . Wavelength 𝐿 on Table (3) was

equation (42). Keep in mind that based on wave number 𝐻𝑚𝑎𝑥

𝐴 calculated using (47) obtained that for all reviewed

conservation equation, 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ) is constant number, 𝐿

2 1

𝐴 𝐴0 wave period is 0.318 or , where it is in accordance with

i.e. 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘0 ( ℎ0 + ), where𝑘0 is 𝜋

2 2

the analytical result ( Hutahaean (2019)) i.e. breaking

calculated with (41) and deep water depth ℎ0 is the 𝐻𝑏 1

𝑘0 𝐴0 1 𝐴0

occurs when = , 𝐻𝑏 breaker height and𝐿𝑏 breaker

𝐿𝑏 𝜋

deepest betweenℎ0 = (𝜓𝜋 − ) and ≤ 0.10. The

2 𝑘0 2ℎ 0 length. Therefore 𝐻𝑚𝑎𝑥 on column 2 is deep water wave

values of 𝑘and𝐺can be obtained by completing (35) and height maximum for wave period on column 1, where the

(36) with Newton-Rhapson method, with the inputs wave wave period is similar to 𝑇𝑊𝑖𝑒𝑔 and is close enough to

period, wave amplitude and water depth.

𝑇𝑆𝑖𝑙 that was calculated using 𝐻𝑚𝑎𝑥 on column 2. Therefore

a conclusion can be made that the value of 𝛾 = 2.483is a

V. THE ADJUSTMENT OF γ VALUE

quite good value, and the maximum deep water wave

The value of 𝛾 = 3from the previous analysis is

height 𝐻0 for wave period on column 1 is on column 2.

theoretical value based only on Laplace equation solution.

In this part, the adjustment of 𝛾value will be done using

VI.

EXAMPLE OF THE RESULT OF

observation on deep water wave height. The adjustment is

WAVELENGTH CALCULATION

done using the relation between deep water wave height

The example of the result of wavelength 𝐿calculation

and wave period from Silvester (1974) and from Wiegel

wave with wave period of 8 second, with𝐴0 = 0.6 m

(1949 and 1964). 𝑑ℎ

By ignoring bottom slope, then (41) which is a dispersion and = −0.01 is shown on Fig.1., Fig 2. and Fig.3.

𝑑𝑥

equation at deep water, becomes a quadratic equation for

𝑘. Fig.1 shows the comparison between wavelength (40),

𝑘𝐴 (39), (38) and (43) where it is seen that (40) as dispersion

𝛾 2 𝜎 2 = 𝑔𝑘 (1 − ( )) .........(47)

2 equation of linear wave theory produces wavelength that

This equation has a solution if the determinant value is is much longer than the three comparing equations.

𝐷 ≥ 0, where Wavelength (39), (38) and (43) look close, but further

𝑔𝐴

𝐷 = 𝑔2 − 4 ( ) (𝛾 2 𝜎 2 ). information can be seen on Fig.2.

2

𝑔

For𝐷 = 0, 𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥 = With the value of𝐻𝑚𝑎𝑥 =

2𝛾2 𝜎2

80

2𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥 ,wave period is calculated from empirical

Wave Length L (m)

60

equations of Silvester (1974), 𝑇𝑆𝑖𝑙 = √19.68𝐻 1⁄ and

3

40

𝐻𝑚 0.5

Wiegel equation (1949 and 1964), 𝑇𝑊𝑖𝑒𝑔 = 15.6 ( ) ,

𝑔 20

𝐻𝑚 is maximum deep water wave height,𝑔is the force of

0

gravity. As 𝐻1⁄ and𝐻𝑚 ,𝐻𝑚𝑎𝑥 is used.

3 0 2 4 6 8 10

Table.3: Wave height maximum at deep water, at𝛾 = Water Depth h (m)

2.483.

𝑇 𝐻𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑇𝑆𝑖𝑙 𝑇𝑊𝑖𝑒𝑔 𝐻𝑚𝑎𝑥 eq. (40) eq. (39)

(sec.) (m) (sec.) (sec.) 𝐿 eq. (38) eq. (43)

6 1,45 5,34 6 0,32

7 1,97 6,23 7 0,32 Fig.1: Comparison between wavelength (40), (39), (38)

and (43).

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Wave Length L (m)

20 VII. CONCLUSION

This research concludes that at a space and time function,

15

there is a time scale coefficient at total change or total

10 acceleration. For a function 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑧, 𝑡) with the main

5 direction of change at axis −𝑥 direction, the total

0 acceleration coefficient has a value of 2.483. The

0 2 4 6 8 10 application of total acceleration equation with time scale

Water Depth h (m) coefficient at wavelength analysis produces wavelength

that fits with the one exists in the nature.

eq. (39) eq. (38) There are 3 factors affecting wavelength, i.e. total

acceleration equation, wave number conservation law and

eq. (43) eq. (44+45)

wave amplitude. However, the main factors are the first

Fig.2: Wavelength (39), (38), (43) and (44+45) and the third factors. Total acceleration plays a role in

determining wavelength as a whole i.e at deep water and

Fig. 2 shows the result of the calculation using (39), (38), shallow water, wave number conservation equation plays

(43) and (44+45). At shallow water, wavelength from a role in the transformation of wavelength at the change

(39) and (38) looks much bigger than from (43) and of water depth at shallow water. With the presence of

(44+45). Whereas at deep water, (38) produces wave amplitude effect on wavelength, the correct

wavelength similar to that of (43) and (44+45). This wavelength analysis is if it is performed together with

shows that wave number conservation has a major role in shoaling analysis.

the transformation of wavelength at shallow water, where Convective acceleration term at the momentum equation

at (39) and (38) wave number conservation equation is is shortening wavelength although it is relatively small.

not performed. In addition, the changes in wavelength For practical purposes dispersion equation formulated

from (43) and (44+45) look linear which shows that the without taking into account convective acceleration can

changes in wavelength as a result of water depth changes be used.

is dominated by wave number conservation equation (15). Wavelength research with physical model has never been

Between (39) and (38), there is a relatively big difference, done before. Considering that the truth of a wave theory is

where at (39) there is no wave amplitude as its variable as also shown by the produced wavelength, therefore the

it is with (38). This shows that the effect of wave availability of wavelength data as the result of physical

amplitude on wavelength is shortening wavelength. To model is highly needed.

study the effect of wave amplitude on wavelength, (38) is

performed with different wave amplitude, i.e. 0.30 m and REFERENCES

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20

[2] Courant, R.,Friedrichs,K., Lewy, H. (1928). Uber

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die partiellen Differenzengleic hungen der

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Fig.3: Wavelength (38) with different wave amplitude 𝐴 [5] Koteweg, D.J. and De Vries, G. (1895). On the

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