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www.elsevier.com/locate/ijpvp

using a local fracture criterion

Chang-Kyun Oha, Yun-Jae Kima,, Jong-Hyun Baekb, Young-Pyo Kimb, Woo-Sik Kimb

a

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, 5 Ka, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136 701, Republic of Korea

b

Korea Gas Corporation Research and Development Center, 638-1, Il-dong Ansan Kyonggi-do 425 150, Republic of Korea

Received 3 January 2006; received in revised form 5 March 2007; accepted 5 March 2007

Abstract

A local failure criterion for API X65 steel is applied to predict ductile failure of full-scale API X65 pipes with simulated corrosion and

gouge defects under internal pressure. The local failure criterion is the stress-modiﬁed fracture strain as a function of the stress triaxiality

(deﬁned by the ratio of the hydrostatic stress to the effective stress). Based on detailed ﬁnite element (FE) analyses with the proposed

local failure criterion, burst pressures of defective pipes are estimated and compared with experimental data. For pipes with simulated

corrosion defects, FE analysis with the proposed local fracture criterion indicates that predicted failure takes place after the defective

pipes attain maximum loads for all cases, possibly due to the fact that the material has sufﬁcient ductility. For pipes with simulated gouge

defects, on the other hand, it is found that predicted failure takes place before global instability, and the predicted burst pressures are in

good agreement with experimental data, providing conﬁdence in the present approach.

r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: API X65 steel; Ductile fracture; Finite element (FE) analysis; Gouge; Local fracture strain criterion

the authors have proposed a stress-modiﬁed fracture strain

For ﬁtness-for-service analyses of underground gas for API X65 steel as a function of stress triaxiality (deﬁned

pipelines, engineering assessment methods against possible by the ratio of the hydrostatic stress to the effective stress)

defects need to be developed, such as corrosion and gouge [19]. To determine the stress-modiﬁed fracture strain,

(see for example Refs. [1–3]). Noting that typical gas smooth and notched tensile bars with ﬁve different notch

pipelines are made of sufﬁciently ductile materials, the net- radii were tested, from which true fracture strains were

section limit load approach can be used, where a damaged determined as a function of the notch radius. Experimental

pipe is assumed to fail at the load when the net section is in results were compared with the results from detailed

the fully plastic state [4,5]. Although the net-section limit elastic-plastic, ﬁnite element (FE) analyses based on the

load approach is simple for practical application, valida- large geometry change option, which led to the local failure

tion is rather expensive, requiring a large number of full- criterion in terms of the fracture strain as a function of the

scale pipe test data. A more fundamental approach would stress triaxiality.

be based on local failure criteria for ductile fracture. It has In this paper, the local failure criterion for the API X65

been shown that ductile fracture strongly depends on the steel, proposed by the authors in Ref. [19], is applied to

stress state and can be effectively predicted using strain predict ductile failure of full-scale pipes with simulated

corrosion and gouge defects under internal pressure. Based

on detailed FE analyses with the proposed local failure

Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 2 3290 3372; fax: +82 31 290 5276. criterion, burst pressures of defective pipes are estimated

E-mail address: kimy0308@korea.ac.kr (Y.-J. Kim). and compared with experimental data. Noting that

0308-0161/$ - see front matter r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijpvp.2007.03.002

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assessment equations for gouge defects are not yet X65 steel are summarized in Tables 1 and 2, respectively.

available, a parametric study is also performed. True stress–strain data at room temperature and values of

the Charpy energy as a function of temperature are also

shown in Fig. 1. Even at 60 1C, the Charpy impact energy

2. Stress-modiﬁed fracture strain criteria was more than 250 J and all specimens failed by 100%

dimple fracture, indicating that the present material is

The authors have recently proposed a local failure sufﬁciently tough. One interesting point is that, as most of

criterion to predict ductile fracture of API X65 steel. The the API X65 gas pipelines in Korea have been built within

criterion is in terms of true strain as a function of the stress the last 10 years, mechanical properties of API X65 gas

triaxiality, and has been determined from results of smooth pipelines in Korea tend to have quite uniform properties.

and notched round bar tests, combined with those from To investigate the effect of triaxial stress states on ductility,

detailed FE analyses. The procedures and resulting tensile tests were also performed using notched bars with

criterion are brieﬂy summarized below. Detailed informa- four different notch radii (see Fig. 1), extracted from the

tion can be found in Ref. [19]. same pipe (outer diameter Do ¼ 762 mm and wall thickness

To determine mechanical properties, tensile and Charpy t ¼ 17.5 mm). The test results showed that, as the notch

tests were performed using specimens extracted from a pipe radius decreases, yield and tensile strengths increase, but

of outer diameter Do ¼ 762 mm and wall thickness engineering strain to fracture decreases (see Fig. 2 for

t ¼ 17.5 mm (in the longitudinal direction), made of the selected results). Such a trend is due to the fact that the

American Petroleum Institute (API) 5L X65 steel [20], triaxial stress increases with decreasing notch radius.

popularly used for gas pipelines in Korea. Chemical To simulate tensile tests of smooth and notched speci-

compositions and tensile properties of the present API mens, detailed elastic-plastic, axi-symmetric FE analyses

were performed using ABAQUS [21] with the large

Table 1 geometry change option, and variations of the triaxial

Chemical composition of the API X65 steel, used in the present work stress and strain within the specimen were determined. To

Element (wt %) avoid problems associated with incompressibility, the

reduced integration element within ABAQUS (2002)

C P Mn S Si Fe Ceq (element type CAX8R) was used. For all cases except for

0.08 0.019 1.45 0.03 0.31 Balance 0.32 the case of the 0.2 mm notch radius, elements with a length

of 0.15 mm were uniformly spaced in the minimum section,

which was shown to be sufﬁciently ﬁne for the present

purpose. As the fully plastic state is of main interest, stress

Table 2 and strain gradients ahead of the notch tip were not so

Mechanical tensile properties at room temperature of the API X65 steel, steep. For the case of the 0.2 mm notch radius, ﬁner meshes

used in the present work

with the smallest element size of 0.05 mm were used in the

Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Yield strength Tensile strength notch tip region. Materials were modeled as isotropic

E (GPa) n sy (MPa) su (MPa) elastic-plastic materials that obey the incremental plasticity

theory. True stress–strain experimental data from smooth

210.7 0.3 464.5 563.8

tensile bar tests were directly given in the FE analysis.

Fig. 1. (a) True stress–strain data at room temperature and (b) Charpy energy as a function of temperature for API X65 steel.

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strain data from notched tensile bars with the FE results,

1 0:5

suggesting that the FE analysis can simulate tensile se ¼ pﬃﬃﬃ ðs1 s2 Þ2 þ ðs1 s3 Þ2 þ ðs3 s2 Þ2 . (2)

deformation behavior even after necking but cannot 2

simulate failure of tensile test specimens. Fig. 4 shows the The equivalent strain, ee, on the other hand, is deﬁned by

radial variation of the stress triaxiality and equivalent pﬃﬃﬃ

strain in the minimum (necked) section of smooth and 2 0:5

e ¼ ð1 2 Þ2 þ ð1 3 Þ2 þ ð3 2 Þ2 . (3)

notched bars at the point of failure initiation (see Fig. 3 to 3

identify failure initiation points). The stress triaxiality is The distance (r) is normalized with respect to the radius of

deﬁned by the ratio of the mean normal (hydrostatic) the minimum section (a), and the values of r/a ¼ 0 and

stress, sm, to the equivalent stress, se r/a ¼ 1 mean the center and the free surface of the

specimen, respectively. Application of the damage indica-

sm s1 þ s2 þ s3 tor based on the Rice and Tracey formula [7] showed that,

¼ , (1)

se 3se for all cases except for the case of the 0.2 mm notch radius,

failure is expected to occur from the center of the specimen.

where si (i ¼ 1–3) denote the principal stresses.

For the case of the 0.2 mm notch radius, the notch tip was

The equivalent stress, se, is expressed in terms of three

found to be the critical site for failure initiation. By

combining FE results with notched bar tensile test ones,

ductile failure criteria in terms of the equivalent strain to

failure as a function of the stress triaxiality were

established. Noting that point-wise information on stress

and strain is obtained from FE analyses, two different

approaches were taken in the previous work. One approach

was to develop a failure criterion based on stress and strain

at the location where failure is most likely to initiate. Such

a point should correspond to the location with the highest

stress triaxiality and strain, for instance. This approach was

termed the ‘‘critical location criterion.’’ The other ap-

proach was based on average stress and strain over the

minimum section, and was termed the ‘‘section average

criterion.’’ Fig. 5 shows the evolution of the stress

triaxiality in terms of the equivalent strain, measured in

the center of the minimum section of smooth and notched

tensile bars. For the case of the 0.2 mm notch radius,

failure initiation was estimated to occur at the notch tip,

and thus the data are excluded for the critical location

Fig. 2. Schematic illustrations: (a) smooth tensile bars; (b) and (c) notched criterion. The results in Fig. 5 show that the stress

tensile bars (dimensions in mm). triaxiality in the center of the specimen depends strongly

Fig. 3. Comparison of experimental engineering stress–strain data for notched tensile bars with FE results: (a) notched bar with the 3 mm notch radius

and (b) notched bar with the 6 mm notch radius.

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Fig. 4. (a) Stress triaxiality distributions and (b) equivalent strain distributions for smooth and notched tensile bars at the failure initiation point,

determined from the FE analyses.

Fig. 5. Variations of the stress triaxiality with the equivalent strain for smooth and notched bar specimens: (a) based on the critical location criterion and

(b) based on the section average criterion.

on the equivalent strain. As a ductile failure criterion whereas for the section average criterion

should include the history of stress and strain, average

sm

stress triaxiality is introduced, deﬁned by ef ¼ 3:41 exp 2:23 þ 0:22. (6)

Z se

sm 1 ef sm

¼ de , (4) Application of Eq. (5) or (6) to tensile test results of

se ave ef 0 se notched bars led to correct predictions of failure loads and

where eef denotes the equivalent strain to failure initiation. fracture strain for all cases considered, including the case of

Such a deﬁnition incorporates the history effect of stresses the 0.2 mm notch radius.

and strains on ductile fracture. For a given notch radius, To predict ductile failure of defective pipes made of API

the calculated average stress triaxiality is constant, and is X65 steels using the present approaches, the proposed

shown in Fig. 5. Fig. 6 summarizes the resulting equivalent equation, Eq. (5) or (6), should be combined with detailed

strain to failure initiation (true fracture strain, eef), as a elastic-plastic FE analyses from which local stresses and

function of the stress triaxiality for the API X65 steel, strains are determined. For instance, from the FE analysis,

considered in the present work. For the critical location stress and strain information can be monitored as a

criterion, fracture strain was expressed as function of load. Over the loading history, the stress

triaxiality should be averaged according to Eq. (4), which

sm in turn gives fracture strain from Eq. (5) or (6). When the

ef ¼ 3:29 exp 1:54 þ 0:10, (5)

se (equivalent) strain from the FE analysis equals the fracture

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from Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) (same as those

Fig. 6. True fracture strains (equivalent strain to fracture) as a function of from which smooth and notched tensile bars were extracted

stress triaxiality [19]. in Section 2). A pipeline of total length 12 m was cut into

pieces with 2.3 m length, and both ends were capped by

strain estimated from Eq. (5) or (6), then ductile failure circumferential welding. The geometrical conﬁguration of

is assumed to initiate. One notable point is that the use of the pipe tested is shown in Fig. 7, and dimensions of test

Eq. (5) will in general give a different failure point from specimens are summarized in Table 3. The mechanical

that of Eq. (6). It will be shown, however, in this paper, defect to simulate corrosion was machined in a rectangular

that both equations provide practically the same failure shape as shown in Fig. 7. The defect was machined to keep

loads. the same thickness at the bottom, and corner edges were

The proposed ductile failure criteria are physically sound rounded to avoid excessive stress concentration. For

and quite simple to use. To validate applicability of the characterizing a corrosion defect, the depth d, the width c

proposed ductile failure criteria, they are applied to predict and the length l are used, as depicted in Fig. 7.

ductile failure of defective pipes made of the API X65 steel The pipes were pressurized by water and burst pressures

and compared with experimental data from full-scale pipe were experimentally determined at the point when the

tests in the next section. Two kinds of defects are ligament failed. The burst testing equipment is shown in

considered; metal loss due to corrosion and gouge due to Fig. 8a. All specimens showed bulging deformation around

third party damage, which are typical degradation mecha- the defect area, and ﬁnal failure occurred at the bottom of

nisms for underground gas pipes. the defect area with crack-like penetration in the long-

itudinal direction as shown in Fig. 8b. The defect area

shows a signiﬁcant amount of thickness reduction along

3. Application to failure predictions of corroded API X65 the penetration line, probably caused by local necking

pipes prior to ﬁnal failure. The resulting burst pressures are

summarized in Table 3. This shows that burst pressures are

Development of assessment methods against corrosion affected by the defect depth and length, but the effect of the

defects has been active in the last two decades. A number of defect width is much less signiﬁcant.

methods have been proposed, such as ASME B31G [22],

RSTRENG [23] and PCORRC [24]. Note that these 3.2. FE analysis

methods are in principle based on limit load analysis of

pipes with corrosion defects. When the pipe materials have Three-dimensional elastic-plastic FE analyses were

medium- to high-toughness, application of the limit load performed to simulate the pipe burst tests using ABAQUS

approach is plausible and thus it has been popularly used in [21]. Fig. 9 depicts a typical FE mesh. A quarter of a full

practice due to its simplicity. In the present work, however, pipe was modeled due to symmetry conditions. The

pipes with simulated corrosion defects are assessed using machined pit was modeled as a rectangular shape with

the proposed stress-modiﬁed strain criteria and the results rounded corners in accordance with the test specimen, and

are compared with full-scale pipe test data. the model is designed with 20-node iso-parametric brick

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Table 3

Summary of full-scale tests of pipes with corrosion defect

Pipe no. Do (mm) L (mm) t (mm) l (mm) c (mm) d/t Pexp (MPa)a Ratio Pmax/Pexpb Ratio PPCORRC/Pexpc

DB 200 50 0.5 21.76 1.044 0.940

DC 200 50 0.75 17.15 1.035 0.902

LA 762 2300 17.5 100 50 0.5 24.30 1.025 0.939

LC 300 50 0.5 19.80 1.042 0.943

CB 200 100 0.5 23.42 0.967 0.874

CC 200 200 0.5 22.64 0.989 0.904

a

Pexp, experimentally-measured burst pressure.

b

Pmax, predicted burst pressure from FE.

c

PPCORRC, burst pressure predicted from Eq. (7).

Fig. 8. (a) Test set-up of full-scale burst test for pipes, (b) defect, and (c) failure.

elements with the reduced integration option. The numbers A monotonically increasing hydrostatic pressure was

of elements and nodes are from 2376 elements/11,673 applied to the inner surface of the model, together with

nodes to 6150 elements/29,688 nodes and through the axial force to simulate closed cap conditions. True

thickness, three elements were used in the corroded section. stress–strain data, determined from uni-axial tension tests,

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takes place. The pipe burst test, however, is load

controlled, and thus when the pressure takes its maximum

value, unstable burst takes place. Accordingly the max-

imum pressure is independent of the use of Eq. (5) or (6). In

fact, such behavior occurs for all cases considered in the

present work. Load–displacement records for all cases are

summarized in Fig. 12. This shows that failure occurs after

maximum load, except for two cases (d/t ¼ 0.25,

l ¼ 200 mm and c ¼ 50 mm; and d/t ¼ 0.5, l ¼ 100 mm

and c ¼ 50 mm) where calculations stopped at the max-

imum load point due to numerical difﬁculties. Even when

Fig. 9. A FE mesh for the pipe with the simulated corrosion defect. calculations were ceased, strains did not reach critical

values. Thus the present approach suggests that failure of

the present API X65 pipes with simulated corrosion is

governed by global plastic instability (zero slope in

load–displacement curves), possibly due to sufﬁciently high

ductility of the material considered in the present work (see

Fig. 2b).

Although the present approach suggests that failure is

governed by global plastic instability, and thus these

experimental data are not appropriate to validate the

present approach, at least the maximum loads predicted by

the FE analysis could be compared with experimental data.

Table 3 lists ratios of the maximum pressure (Pmax),

predicted from the FE analysis, to experimental ones

(Pexp). Overall the predicted values are in good agreement

with experimental ones, and differences are no more than

5% for all cases considered. For corroded pipes with

sufﬁcient ductility, one solution to estimate the burst

pressure of pipes with local wall thinning is the so-called

PCORRC equation [24]

" !!#

2t d l

Pf ¼ su 1 1 exp 0:157 pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ,

Do t Ro ðt dÞ

(7)

Fig. 10. A typical FE load–radial displacement record for pipes with

simulated corrosion defects with failure points predicted from the present where Do and Ro denote the outer diameter and radius,

approach. respectively; and su is the ultimate tensile strength. It is

known that Eq. (7) is based on limit load analysis for pipes

with constant depth thinning under internal pressure.

as shown in Fig. 1a, were directly given in the FE analysis. Table 3 lists ratios of the maximum pressure (PPCORRC),

Incremental plasticity with the large geometry change predicted from Eq. (7), to experimental ones (Pexp). Overall

option was invoked. the predicted values are less than the experimental ones,

but generally by no more than 13%.

3.3. Comparisons

Fig. 10 shows a typical load vs. radial displacement 4. Application to failure predictions of API X65 pipes with

record, determined from the FE analysis. It also includes gouges

failure points, predicted by the present approach, namely,

when the equivalent strain from the FE analysis equals the The second type of defect considered in the present work

fracture strain according to Eq. (5) or (6). This shows that is a gouge due to third party damage. The proposed

radial displacement increases initially with internal pres- method is applied to predict the maximum pressure of

sure, and then the pressure takes its maximum value and pipes with gouges, and the results are compared with full-

decreases with increasing radial displacement. A typical scale pipe test data. Having sufﬁcient conﬁdence, further

deformed shape in the defective region is shown in Fig. 11, parametric FE analyses are performed to provide an

clearly showing local necking. Failure points, predicted by engineering assessment equation for gouge defects.

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Fig. 11. Deformed shape in the defective region for pipes with simulated corrosion defects.

Fig. 12. Effects of defect geometries on FE load–radial displacement records for pipes with simulated corrosion defects.

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4.1. Experiments pipe thickness (d/t ¼ 0.5). The axial length of the gouge, on

the other hand, was systematically varied from ‘ ¼ 50 to

Fig. 13 schematically depicts a pipe with a simulated 600 mm. The pipes were pressurized by water and burst

gouge, and some important dimensions are summarized in pressures were experimentally determined at the point when

Table 4. The geometry of the pipe is the same as that in the ligament failed. Fig. 14 depicts photos of the gouge

Section 3, having the diameter of Do ¼ 762 mm, the before and after the test. During the test, strain values were

thickness of t ¼ 17.5 mm, and the total length of monitored using strain gauges, as shown in Fig. 14a. Note

L ¼ 2300 mm. The gouge is characterized by a 451 V-notch that two gauges, S1 and S2, were circumferentially located

with a circular notch radius of 2 mm. In all tests, the depth 24.9 and 54.9 mm, respectively, away from the center of the

of the gouge is ﬁxed as d ¼ 8.75 mm which is 50% of the gouge. The measured maximum pressures from full-scale

Fig. 13. Schematic illustrations for pipes with gouge. Fig. 15. A typical ﬁnite element mesh for pipes with gouge.

Table 4

Summary of full-scale tests of pipes with gouge defect

Pipe no. Do (mm) L (mm) t (mm) d/t l (mm) Pexp (MPa)a Ppred/Pexp Eq. (5)b Ppred/Pexp Eq. (6)b

MNB 0.5 200 22.48 0.960 0.973

MNC 762 2300 17.5 0.5 300 17.70 1.103 1.117

MND 0.5 400 18.14 1.003 1.011

MNE 0.5 600 16.57 1.020 1.021

a

Pexp, experimentally-measured burst pressure.

b

Ppred, predicted burst pressure.

Fig. 14. (a) Initial gouge defect and strain measurement locations, and (b) gouge at failure.

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pipe tests are summarized in Table 4, which shows that the that the results for the MNC test are the worst, and for all

burst pressure decreases with increasing gouge length. other cases the FE results agree very well with experimental

values, as in the MNA case. From FE analyses, the

4.2. FE analysis equivalent strain and stress triaxiality were monitored as a

function of internal pressure. Fig. 17 shows typical radial

The pipes with gouges were modeled using FEs. A typical variations of stress triaxiality and equivalent strain. In

FE mesh is shown in Fig. 15, with a detailed view of the these ﬁgures, the radial distance is normalized with respect

defective region. The number of elements and nodes in FE to the minimum ligament size, and the values of 0 and 1

meshes were from 7290 elements/33,838 nodes to 11,345 denote the inner surface and the notch tip of the pipe,

elements/52,145 nodes, depending on the gouge length. For respectively. These show that the equivalent strain takes

all cases, however, the smallest element size in the defective the maximum value at the notch tip, but the maximum

area was ﬁxed at 0.32 mm 0.67 mm 1.19 mm. It is value of stress triaxiality occurs somewhere in between the

believed that the present mesh size is appropriate for notch tip and the center. To apply the critical location

engineering purposes, as meshing using smaller mesh sizes criterion, stress and strain information at all points in the

with appropriate aspect ratios was quite difﬁcult due to minimum ligament were monitored to ﬁnd out the failure

increasing number of elements. Internal pressure was initiation location. For the present cases, failure initiation

applied to the inner surface of the pipe, together with end is found to occur always at the tip of the notch, and thus

forces to simulate the closed end condition. the failure criterion is checked using stress and strain

information extracted from the ﬁrst element at the notch

4.3. Comparisons tip. For the criterion based on averaged information, stress

and strain were averaged over the minimum ligament from

Fig. 16 compares axial and hoop strains measured from the notch tip to the inner surface. Fig. 18 shows typical

tests (S1 and S2) with FE results for selected cases. Note variations of the stress triaxiality with equivalent strain for

Fig. 16. Comparison of strain variations measured from pipe tests with FE results: (a) MNA pipe test and (b) MNC pipe test.

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Fig. 17. Distributions of stress triaxiality and equivalent strain for pipes with gouge: (a) MNB pipe test and (b) MNE pipe test

Fig. 18. Variations of the stress triaxiality with the equivalent strain for pipes with gouge for the critical location criterion and the section average

criterion: (a) MNA pipe test and (b) MNE pipe test.

selected cases. This also includes constant stress triaxiality section average, although they are practically the same.

values averaged over the loading history according to The results also show that failure predicted by the present

Eq. (4). Note that for other cases, trends are quite similar approach occurs before global plastic instability points

to those in Fig. 18. It can be seen that the magnitude of the (characterized by zero slope in load–displacement curves).

stress triaxiality does not depend on the equivalent strain This is in contrast to the cases of pipes with simulated

and is almost constant, and accordingly is also close to the corrosion defects in Section 3, where failure is indeed

average stress triaxiality, deﬁned by Eq. (4). Another governed by global plastic instability. Estimated burst

notable point is that the values of the stress triaxiality are pressures are compared with experimentally measured data

quite low: for the critical location criterion, it is about 0.55, in Table 4 and in Fig. 20. Note that the pressure is

and for the section average criterion, is about 0.85. Such normalized with respect to the theoretical limit pressure of

low values are typical for pipes under internal pressure. a plain pipe

Fig. 19 shows radial displacements, determined from FE t t sy þ su

analysis, as a function of pressure. Note that the average Po ¼ sf ¼ , (8)

Rm Rm 2

stress triaxiality for the critical location criterion is lower

than that for the section average criterion. However, the where sf, sy and su denote the ﬂow strength, yield strength

magnitude of strain for the critical location criterion is and ultimate tensile strength, respectively. As shown in

much higher than that for the section average criterion. As Table 4, the estimated burst pressures are in good

a result, the criterion based on the critical location provides agreement with experimentally measured ones with differ-

a slightly lower burst pressure than that based on the ences less than 3%, except the MNC case where the

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ment of gas pipelines.

Noting that an engineering assessment equation for

gouge defects is not currently available, gouge defects

could be assessed using an expression of failure pressure of

axial surface cracked pipes under internal pressure,

assuming that the gouge is idealized as an axial crack.

One popular expression in [5] is given by

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1 a=t ‘2

Pf ¼ Po ; M ¼ 1 þ 1:61 , (9)

1 ða=tÞð1=MÞ 4Rm t

where a and ‘ denote the crack depth and length,

respectively. As the gouge is idealized as an axial crack,

Eq. (9) can be used to estimate failure pressure, simply by

replacing the crack depth a with the gouge depth d.

Resulting predictions are compared in Fig. 20, showing

that Eq. (9) gives conservative (lower) failure loads, as

expected.

Fig. 19. Variations of pressure with radial displacement, determined from A large number of full-scale tests might be needed to

the FE analyses, indicating predicted failure points. develop an engineering assessment equation against

gouges, which is not only expensive but also time

consuming. Having sufﬁcient conﬁdence in the use of the

proposed approach to assess gouge defects, systematic

parametric FE analyses are performed to provide an

engineering assessment equation for gouge defects. For

the parametric study, the dimensions of the pipe are ﬁxed

to those in the previous cases; the diameter of

Do ¼ 762 mm, the thickness of t ¼ 17.5 mm, and the total

Fig. 20. Comparison of experimental burst pressure for pipes with gouge

with the FE results and Eq. (9).

is still not signiﬁcant, it can be seen from Fig. 16 that the

experimental data for the MNC case are somewhat lower

than expected from the trend curve. Good agreement Fig. 21. Comparison of burst pressure solutions with FE results for pipes

shown in this example provides conﬁdence in application with gouge.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

524 C.-K. Oh et al. / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 84 (2007) 512–525

length of L ¼ 2300 mm, and the axial length of the gouge gouge defects, on the other hand, it is found that predicted

(‘) is systematically varied from 100 to 600 mm. The gouge failure takes place before global instability, and the

depth (d), on the other hand, is varied from 4.375 to predicted burst pressures are in good agreement with

13.125 mm, leading to the relative gouge depth (d/t) from experimental data, providing conﬁdence in the present

0.25 to 0.75. A total of 25 FE calculations are performed. approach. A parametric study is performed, from which a

The burst pressures, resulting from the present FE simple equation is proposed to predict burst pressure for

analyses, are shown in Fig. 21. In Fig. 21, failure loads, gouge defects in gas pipes made of the particular API X65

predicted using Eq. (9) assuming that the gouge is idealized steel considered in the present work.

by the crack, are shown. Predictions using Eq. (9) are quite The methodology of predicting ductile failure of

conservative, and the trend of the gouge length effect is defective structures using a local fracture strain criteria is

somewhat different. Inspired by Eq. (9), the following not a new but an old concept. The signiﬁcance of the

equation is proposed to estimate the burst pressure of API present work, however, is validation of the methodology by

X65 pipes with gouge defects based on the FE results systematic comparison with full-scale pipe test data. The

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ results in this paper suggest that the local fracture strain

1 d=t d ‘2 criteria could be successfully applied to predict ductile

Pf ¼ Po ; M g ¼ 1 þ 0:64 .

1 ðd=tÞð1=M g Þ t 4Rm t failure of pipes with notch-type defects and could reduce

(10) expensive and time-consuming full-scale tests. It should be

also noted that the developed fracture strain criteria should

Resulting predictions are compared with the FE results in be applied to the speciﬁc material (API X65 steel)

Fig. 21. Eq. (10) agrees well with the FE results for larger d/ considered in the present work. As API X65 gas pipelines

t, but tends to be slightly conservative for smaller d/t and in Korea tend to have quite uniform mechanical properties,

larger ‘. It should be noted that the FE results are for the developed fracture strain criterion is at least useful to

speciﬁc values of pipe geometry (Do ¼ 762 mm and assess notch-type defects in gas pipelines within Korea. For

t ¼ 17.5 mm, giving Rm/t ¼ 21.3) and for the speciﬁc API instance, one interesting application area is to assess

X65 steel considered in the present work, and thus the use combined gouge and dent. Systematic full-scale experi-

of Eq. (10) should be limited. In particular, Eq. (10) does ments are quite difﬁcult due to the many variables

not include the term related to the material’s toughness and involved, and the present approach could be used to

thus should only be used to assess gouges in gas pipes made develop assessment equations with limited experimental

of the particular API X65 steel considered in the present data. For another material, the same procedure can be

work. On the other hand, as noted, most of the API X65 taken to develop the local fracture strain criteria speciﬁc to

gas pipelines in Korea have been built within the last 10 that material.

years, and mechanical properties of API X65 gas pipelines In the present work, only notch-type defects, not crack-

in Korea tend to have quite uniform properties. Thus, Eq. like defects, are considered. Although the present approach

(10) would be useful to assess gouges in API X65 gas can be applied to crack-like defect problems in principle,

pipelines in Korea. micro-mechanical based damage models, such as the model

based on Gurson [10], are popularly used these days and

5. Concluding remarks seem to be better suited. The authors have also developed a

micro-mechanical model of ductile fracture for the same

In this paper, a local failure criterion for the API X65 steel using the Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman (GTN)

steel is applied to predict ductile failure of full-scale pipes model [25].

with simulated corrosion and gouge defects under internal

pressure. The local failure criterion is the stress-modiﬁed

Acknowledgments

fracture strain for the API X65 steel as a function of the

stress triaxiality (deﬁned by the ratio of the hydrostatic

This research is performed under the program of Basic

stress to the effective stress). Based on detailed FE analyses

Atomic Energy Research Institute (BAERI), is a part of the

with the proposed local failure criteria, burst pressures of

Nuclear R&D Programs funded by the Ministry of Science

defective pipes are estimated and compared with full-scale

& Technology (MOST) of Korea, and under the program

pipe test data.

of the Brain Korea 21 Project in 2006.

For pipes with simulated corrosion defects, FE analysis

with the proposed local fracture criterion indicates that

predicted failure takes place after the defective pipes attain References

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