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Nama: Rizky Ananda Putri tugas tanggal: 7 Desember 2015

Akuntansi 2015 Sebagai Tugas Kuis


Kelas: CB

Analisis Perusahaan Disandingkan dengan Model “Tujuh S”


(sumber: https://businessleadershipmanagement.wordpress.com/2013/06/11/the-7s-framework/)
Nama Perusahaan: PT. Coca-Cola
The Coca-Cola Company didirikan tahun 1892 oleh Asa G.Chandler di Atlanta, yang juga
mempatenkan merek dagang Coca-Cola, Perusahaan ini merupakan induk dari semua perusahaan
pembotolan yang memiliki merek dagang Coca-Cola di seluruh Negara di dunia dengan
menyediakan bahan baku consetratnya.
PT. Coca-Cola hadir di Indonesia sekitar tahun 1927, ketika De Nederland Indische Mineral
Water Fabriecj (Pabrik Air Mineral Hindia Belanda) membotolkannya untuk pertama kali di
Batavia (Jakarta). Pada tahun 1971 didirikan pabrik pembotolan modern pertama di Indonesia
dengan nama baru PT. Djaya Beverages Bottling Company. Di Indonesia, The Coca-Cola Company
melalui PT. Coca-Cola Indonesia bermitra dengan Coca-Cola Amatil, salah satu jaringan pabrik
pembotolan yang memiliki lisensi dari merk-merk dagang The Coca-Cola Company yang terbesar.
1. Sasaran Tingkat Tinggi
Pada tahun 2010, Coca-Cola menetapkan sistem pendapatan ganda sampai tahun 2020 dengan
mengembangkan produk minuman baru (NPD) dan melakukan pertemuan preferensi pelanggan
dengan menyelaraskan strategi visi 6P, yaitu profit (keuntngan), people (manusia), portfolio
(portofolio), partners (kolega), planet, dan productivity (produktivitas).
2. Strategi
Untuk menggapai 6P yang telah menjadi visi perusahaan, Coca-Cola melakukan beberapa
strategi, diantaranya:
Strategi perusahaan. Mengakuisisi merek khusus di Asia untuk membangun pijakan di Asia
Pasifik, mengembangkan tampilan kemasan untuk meningkatakan volume pelanggan, melakukan
ekspansi asset dengan Cina dan India, dan memanfaatkan sinergi biaya di fasilitas produksi dan
pembotolan sehingga memastikan efisiensi.
Strategi fungsional. Pemasaran, didukung oleh kekuatan seluruh merek Coca-Cola. Manajemen
bakat strategi, Coca-Cola mungkin tidak melibatkan karyawannya tapi dengan mengurangi tingkat
turnover tenaga kerja dan perlu untuk mengencangkan retensi dan pengembangan kebijakan.
Strategi produksi, memanfaatkan sinergi biaya dengan mengintegrasikan fasilitas pembotolan.
Strategi distribusi, hubungan distributor yang kuat dengan menempatkan merek Coke dalam
jangkauan dan memastikan cakupan distribusi yang baik melalui berbagai cara.
Srategi bisnis. Menyataan dengan jelas adopsi diferensiasi terhadap kepemimpinan harga dan
faktor-faktor kritis kompetisi yang akan bekerja.
3. Struktur
Coca-cola memiliki Head Office Segment yang bertanggung jawab untuk memberikan Coca-
Cola keseluruhan arah dan memberikan dukungan untuk struktur regional. Keputusan strategis yang
dibuat oleh ExCo dari 12 Perusahaan Petugas. Ketua ExCo berperan juga sebagai CEO yang
bertanggung jawab, baik untuk daerah besar atau memiliki spesialisasi penting bisnis misalnya
CFO. Perusahaan beroperasi di lima segmen geografis operasi atau SBU serta korporasi (Kantor
Pusat) yaitu di Amerika Latin , Pasifik , Eurasia dan Afrika , RU , N.America. Di mana pada setiap
SBUnya dibagi menjadi beberapa divisi.
4. Sistem
Sistem directional, untuk memantau visi 6P agar tetap selaras dengan tujuan visi untuk 2020.
Sistem proses, masing-masing sub-divisi dikelola untuk mencapai visi 6P. Sistem manajemen hari
ke hari, pada tingkat manajeriallangah-langkah procedural dan umpan balik akan ditetapkan secara
bersamaan untuk memberikan pengetahuan tentang hasil seiring dengan imbalan untuk keselarasan
dengan tujuan.
5. Style (gaya)
Coca-cola memiliki gaya melihat ke depan dan menekankan kesatuan. “Satu Perusahaan. Satu
Tim. Satu Gairah.” Satu perusahaan, bermakna memberikan kesempatan belajar kepada staf untuk
berkontribusi untuk kebaikan Coca-Cola. Satu tim, bermakna ikatan hubungan yang dibangun
dilakukan untuk kesuksesan karir. Satu gairah, mendukung masyarakat dan melestarikan dan
melindungi lingkungan ini.
6. Staff
Sistem manajemen kinerja lebih baik dikelola untuk menurunkan tingkat omset 19,1%. Beberapa
praktek juga dibutuhkan untuk menekan inovasi yang juga melibatkan staff. Imbalan dari
kepemilikan saham di Coca-Cola juga dapat menumbuhkan minat karyawan untuk membangun
bersama dengan perusahaan.
7. Skills (keterampilan)
Untuk menerapkan ke enam S yang lain, dibutuhkan beberapa keterampilan, yaitu dalam hal
sasaran tingat tinggi, visi 6P membutuhkan pendekatan inovatif dalam mencapai tujuan, terutama
hubungannya dengan konten produk, volume, dan inovasi efisiensi. Target jelas mengatur mengenai
apa tindakan utama yang diperlukan Coca-Cola untuk mencapai target untuk setiap tingkat. Dalam
hal sistem, diperluan alokasi staff dan sumber daya teknologi untuk memberikan ide-ide inovatif.
Dan dalam hal staff, rekrutmen staf untuk spin-off ide-ide kreatif dan bekerja sama dengan pusat-
pusat R & D.
MATERI

The 7S framework courtesy of the McKinsey consulting firm will help you to do this well. The
7S framework stands for:
1. Structure 5. Staff
2. Systems 6. Superordinate goals/Shared Values
3. Skills 7. Strategy
4. Style
Shared Vision
Double CC’s 2010 system revenue by 2020 by developing new beverage products (NPD),
meeting evolving customer preferences by aligning the strategy with their 6P vision. 1.Profit 2.
People 3. Portfolio 4. Partners 5. Planet 6. Productivity
The shared vision to achieve these 6Ps will be through:
Strategy (further divided to 5 types of sub-strategies):
i) Corporate Strategy:
1. Building of portfolio – acquisitions of Fruit/Veg and Asian Specialty brand in China to establish
foothold in Asia Pac.
2. Riding on HW trend – Convert health switchers towards FVJ
3. Amending of packaging to increase volume per customer
4. Asset expansion with “china-India” focused approach
5. Exploiting cost synergies across its production and bottling facilities thereby ensuring efficiency.
ii) R&C Strategy
Human:
Weak talent management with a high staff turnover rate of 19.1%, when industry average is
about 5.7%. Will need to tighten up.
Tangible:
a. strong financials:
b. A+ credit rating (Standard & Poor)
c. Debt/ Equity ratio 43% (compare to Pepsico. 99%)
d. Total cash and equivalent of $14 billion (compare to Pepsico $4 billion)
e. 2007-2011 revenue growth from U$ 28.8 billion to U$46.5 billion increase over 61%
f. Operating income has increased from U$7 billion to U$10.5 billion from 2007-2011
Good backing of Physical assets:
a. Total book value of property, plant and equipment $15 billion
b. Total 102 production facilities and manufacturing plants worldwide and 183 distribution
warehouses.
c. TCC holds majority interest in 97 bottling plants worldwide
Intangible:
a. Latest SAP systems to ensure alignment with distributors.
b. Top brand in the world. -COCA-COLA world’s largest beverage company. Own, license and
market more than 500 non-alcoholic beverage brands. Own and market 4 of the world’s top 5
non-alcoholic sparkling beverage brands: Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta and Sprite. Finished
beverage products bearing Coca-Cola trademarks, sold in the United States since 1886, are now
sold in more than 200 countries.
c. Trademark values at U$6.4 billion
d. goodwill consisting of brands, reputation and other intangible values at U$12.2b.
iii) Functional Strategy
Marketing strategy – well supported by the overarching CC brand strength, each product-line
across the 7 categories of CC.
Talent management strategy – CC may not have engaged its employees sufficiently and thereby
reducing the labour turnover rate. Will need to tighten its retention and development policies.
Production strategy – capitalise on cost synergies by vertically integrating bottling facilities.
Supply chain management well supported by latest SAP/ERP software on a global scale.
Distribution strategy – strong distributor relationships, proximity strategy to put a Coke brand
within reach though use of vending machines and ensuring good distribution coverage through
various means.
iv) Business Strategy
Clearly defined competitors, price-quality points. Adoption of differentiation rather than price
leadership clearly stated and critical factors of competition to be worked at clearly indicated.
v) Operational Strategy
What are we good at doing? Providing the preferred beverage/drink across 7 product categories.
Advantage? Yes, this allows for brand momentum to built which translates to revenue and
volume growth.
Who will buy it? Our existing customers as well as new “converts”.
Structure
CC – has head office segment responsible for giving CC overall direction and providing support
to the regional structure. Key strategic decisions made by an ExCo of 12 Company Officers. ExCo
shapes the 6Ps set out earlier. Chair of the ExCo is figurehead for CC, also the CEO. Other
executives are responsible either for the major regions or have an important business specialization
e.g. the CFO.
Needs to meet local consumers’ needs – CC therefore organised into a regional structure which
combines centralisation and localisation. The Company operates 5 geographic operating segments
or SBUs as well as the corporate (Head Office) segment – Latin America, pacific, Eurasia & Africa,
RU, N.America.
Each regional SBUs sub-divided into divisions. For Pacific SBU, Singapore fits into the ASEAN
business unit. This structure recognises:
a. Varying tastes and psychographics, demographics (incomes and consumption patterns)
b. Markets at different stages of development.
At a more local level CC management involves a number of functional specialisms. management
structure for Singapore:
CCS combines elements of centralisation and decentralisation. Divisions and regions operate as
business unit teams, with each country Director reports to the Division President.
However, there is a matrix structure for each function e.g. the Finance Director in the CCS
Division reports to the CCS President, but also to (dotted line) the Finance Director of Pacific
Division. In addition, functions within the Company operate across geographical boundaries to
share best practice.
Local decision making at a regional (local) level the various SBUs are responsible for region-
specific market research, and for developing local advertising, e.g. using the languages of the
countries in which CC operates. A major region like Asia Pac has its own marketing structure,
organised as shown on the diagram.
Key challenges in structural alignment (noting Cooperation vs Coordination Problems)
Cooperation Problems: Coordination Problems:
a. Agency problems a. Functional silos – given the structural setup
b. Global Integration of CC, silos may result.
c. Organizational Culture b. Communication Channel – integration of
d. Solutions (in combination): information
e. Control mechanisms c. Solutions (in combination)
f. Institute HR policies including incentivizing d. Rules and directives.
to encourage teamwork. e. Routinize work. Implication: mechanistic
g. Reinforce Shared Values (Culture) approach can result in higher staff turnover.
f. Reliance on ERP, SAP, and staff channels.
Systems
Directional systems: to monitor 6Ps with following objectives to align to vision 2020
Process systems: each sub-division to break these into manageable tasks and provide milestones
for initiatives to achieve the 6Ps.
Day to day management systems: at the managerial level, procedural measures to be set in place
along with frequent feedback and reports given at the subordinate level to provide knowledge of
results. Along with rewards and incentives to tie in performance to alignment to objectives.
Style
Culture of Coke – forward looking and driven, emphasizing oneness. One Company. One Team.
One Passion. As One Company, meaningful and accelerated learning opportunities are provided to
staff to contribute to the greater good of CC. One Team, CC ties in relationships built to career
success. One Passion goes farther than the portfolio of brands, to sustainability, and supporting the
communities and preserving and protecting the planet.
Staff
Benchmarked attraction and retention policies against industry. Providing Career development
pathways. Performance management systems to be better managed in order to lower the turnover
rate of 19.1%. Given the silo nature of some staff functions, EIP practices have to be incorporated
to tap on innovation and to also engage staff. This provides recognition. Financial rewards of stock
ownership at CC. Encourages employee to build along with the company.
Skill
Applied to all the other 6Ss.
In terms of Shared Vision, Vision 2020 requires innovative approaches in reaching the goal,
particularly to do with product content (new tastes, riding the health-wellness trend), volume, and
efficiency innovation. Targets clearly set as to what primary actions for CC to take and what needs
to be achieved for each level.
In terms of Strategy, resource commitment towards innovation in product content (R&D centres
to be set up), volume (new packaging to incorporate at least 10% more volume), and efficiency
(lighter weight packaging to encourage more take-up rate, clearer health information).
In terms of Structure, R&D division is to be closely linked with all other geographical divisions
to incorporate feedback on tastes, packaging, etc. based on real time information provided by the
ERP and SAP systems in the backdrop.
In terms of Systems, allocation of staff and technological resources to provide innovative ideas is
required.
In terms of Staff, the recruitment and using staff to spinoff creative ideas, and to work closely
with the R&D centres.
Finally, in terms of Style, to inculcate a forward looking and driven culture of CC, setting pace
for innovation.