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COSMETICS

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Content
• Introduction to skin
• Definition of Cosmetics
• Classification
• Preparations.
• Face powder.
• Cold Cream.
• Vanishing Cream.
• Moisturizing Cream.
• Foundation Cream.
• Oral Hygiene Products.
• Dentifrices.
• Mouthwashes.
Functions of Skin
• Mechanical/Chemical damage – keratin protects
skin damage due to mechanical or chemical.
• Bacterial damage – skin secretions are acidic
and inhibit bacteria.
• Ultraviolet radiation – melanin produced to
protect from UV damage
Functions of Skin
• Thermal control
– regulates body temperature
– Heat loss: sweat to cool the skin
– Heat retention: prevents blood to rush into capillary
beds
• Waterproofing – contains lipids to prevent drying out
• Excretion of waste – urea and uric acid secreted in
sweat
• Makes vitamin D – modifies cholesterol molecules in
skin and converts it to vitamin D
Skin Structure
• Epidermis
Outer layer
Stratified epithelium
Often keratinized (hardened by keratin)
• Dermis
 Dense connective tissue
• Subcutaneous tissue
 Hypodermis
Skin Structure

Summary of layers from


deepest to most superficial:

Stratum basale
Stratum spinosum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum lucidum
Stratum corneum
Layers of the Epidermis
• Stratum basale
– Deepest layer of epidermis
– Cells actively undergoing cell division
– New cells are pushed upward to become the more
superficial layers
• Stratum spinosum – intermediate layer
• Stratum granulosum – another layer
Layers of the Epidermis
• Stratum lucidum
– Formed from dead cells of the deeper layers
– Occurs only in thick, hairless skin of the palms of
hands and soles of feet
• Stratum corneum
– Outermost layer of epidermis
– Scale-like dead cells are filled with keratin which is
a protective protein preventing water loss from
skin
Dermis
• Two layers
– Papillary layer (upper dermal region)
• Projections called dermal papillae
– Some contain capillary loops containing blood
– Some pain receptors and touch receptors
– Reticular layer (deepest skin layer)
• Blood vessels
• Sweat and oil glands
• Deep pressure receptors
Dermis
• Overall dermis structure
– Collagen and elastic fibers located throughout the
dermis
• Collagen fibers give skin its toughness
• Elastic fibers give skin elasticity
– Dermal papillae – extend toward the epidermis and
deliver nutrients, remove waste products (sweat =
urea and uric acid) and aid in regulating body
temperature.
Layer of hypodermis
• Subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) is deep to dermis
– Not part of the skin
– connect skin to underlying organs, bones and muscles
– Contains half of the body’s fat; acts as padding and insulation.
Keratinization
• Cells migrate to the epidermis where eventually they
fall off.

• As they move upward, keratin is added.

• The cells in the epidermis contain a lot of keratin which


resists damage.

• Distinct layers of cells are called strata.


Melanin

• Pigment (melanin) produced by melanocytes

• Melanocytes are mostly in the stratum basale

• Color is yellow to red to brown to black

• Amount of melanin produced depends upon


genetics and exposure to sunlight
Albinism
• A single mutation can cause a deficiency or complete
absence of melanin.
• Albinos have fair skin, white hairs, and unpigmented
eyes
What causes Normal Skin Color
• Melanin
– Yellow, brown, or black pigments
• Carotene
– Orange-yellow pigment from some vegetables
• Hemoglobin
– Red coloring from blood cells in dermal capillaries
Definition of Cosmetics

COSMETICS:-
 It means any articles intended to be rubbed, poured,
sprinkled, or sprayed on or introduced in to or applied to any part
of the human body, for cleaning, beautifying, promoting-
attractiveness or altering the appearance & Includes any articles
intended for use as a component of cosmetics.

e.g. Cosmetics Products includes;


Creams, Emulsions, lotions, Gels, Oils, for skin, hand,
feet.etc……

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CLASSIFICATION OF COSMETICS
Cosmetics are categories as follow.
1) Cosmetics according to their use.

SKIN- e.g. Creams, Powders, lotions etc

NAIL- e.g. Nail polish,

TEETH- e.g. Dentifrices.

EYE- e.g. Eye creams, Eye lotion etc…

HAIR- e.g. Shampoo, Hair remover, etc….


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2) Cosmetics according to their function.

CURATIVE - e.g. Antiperspirant.

PROTECTIVE- e.g. Face powder.

CORRECTIVE - e.g. . Face powder.

DECORATIVE - e.g. Liptics,Nail polish.

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3) Cosmetics according to their physical nature:

AEROSOLS- e.g. Hair perfumes

CAKES - e.g. Makeup compact

EMULSION - e.g. Cold & Vanishing creams.

OILS - e.g. hair oils.

PASTE- e.g. Tooth paste.

POWDER - e.g. Face & Tooth powder.

SOLUTION- e.g. Aftershave & hand Lotion.


STICKS- e.g. lipsticks
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PREPARATIONS
1) FACE POWDER:-
 Face powder is a cosmetic preparation meant for
improvement of overall attractiveness of the face.
 It is applied on the face by means of a powder puff &
provides visual coving to the skin.
FORMULATION
Formula:-
Talcum powder 75.0g
Kaolin 50.0g
Chalk precipitated 5.0g
Zink oxide 10.0g
Zinc stearate 5.0g
Perfumes & Color Q.S.

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General Method of Preparation of face powder:-
1) All the sold ingredients are powdered & pass through sieve
number 120.

2) Mix them thoroughly, incorporate the required quantity of


perfumes & packed in powder box.

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2) COLD CREAM:-

 Cold cream is an emulsion, which when applied on the skin,


a cooling effect is produced due to slow evaporation of water
present in the emulsion.

FORMULATION:
Formula
Bees wax 5.0g
liquid paraffin 45.0g
White soft paraffin 10.0g
Hard paraffin 7.0g
Borax 0.2g
Water 32.8ml
Perfumes & Preservative Q.S.
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General Method of Preparation of Cold Cream:
1) Melt the wax, white soft paraffin, hard paraffin on a
water bath.

2) Add liquid paraffin & heat the mixture to 700 C.

3) Dissolve the borax in water at 750 & melt fats with


continuous stirring.

4) Cool with stirring to 400 C.

5) Add the required quantity of preservative & perfumes .

6) Transfer the cream to the container while hot.

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3) VANISHING CREAM:
 These are the Oil in Water emulsion which when applied to
the skin leave an almost invisible layer on it. hence; they are
called as vanishing cream.

FORMULATION:

Formula
Stearic acid 18.0g
Glycerin 3.0g
lanolin 2.0g
Triethanolamine 1.0g
Water 80.0ml
Preservative 1.0g
Perfumes Q.S.
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Methods of Preparation of Vanishing Cream.

1) Melt stearic acid & lanolin, mix water, glycerin &


triethanolamine & warm to same temperature as that of
melted stearic acid & lanolin.

2) Mix the to with continuous stirring.

2) Mix them thoroughly in order to obtained a uniform product.

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PREPARATIONS FOR ORAL HYGIENE
1) DENTRIFICES:
 Dentifrices are the preparations meant to be applied to the
teeth with a tooth brush for the purpose of cleaning the
accessible surface of the teeth.

Dentifrices are used in the following cases.


 Cleansing of tooth.

 Polishing of the tooth root.

 Removal of the stain from the teeth.

 Reduction of mouth bad odour.

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The common dentifrices are available in the form of
 Tooth Powder

 Tooth paste.

 Liquid Preparation.

TOOTH POWDER
FORMULATION:
Formula
Hard soap in fine powder 50.0g
Precipitated calcium carbonate 935.0g
Saccharin Sodium 2.0g
Peppermint oil 4.0g
Cinnamon oil 2.0g
Methyl salicylate 80.g 15
METHOD OF PREPARATION OF TOOTH POWDER

1) Triturate the saccharine sodium, the oil & methyl salicylate


with one of the half of the precipitated Calcium carbonate.

2) Mix the soap with remaining portion of the precipitated


calcium carbonate .

3) Mix the two powder thoroughly.

4) Pass it through fine sieve.

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MOUTH WASHES

 These are the aqueous solution with a pleasant taste &


odour used to make clean & deodorize the buccal cavity.

FORMULATION:

Formula:- Compound Sodium chloride mouth wash B.P.C.

Sodium Chloride 15.0g


Sodium bicarbonate 10.0g
Peppermint water to produce 1000 ml

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METHO OF PREPARATION OF MOUTH WASHES

1) Dissolve the weighed quantity of sodium chloride & sodium


bicarbonate in 3/4th of peppermint water.

2) Add more peppermint water to produced required volume.

3) Transfer to a bottle and dispense.

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Ultra Violet Radiation

UVA UVB UVC

Stimulates Tanning, Causes Burning Blocked


Causes Aging, Can lead & Tanning, Can lead
by Atmosphere
to chronic skin issues to chronic skin issues

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BOOTS STAR SYSTEM SUN PROTECTION FACTOR


(SPF)
Ultra Violet Radiation

• UVA: 320 – 400 nm – ca.


95% of total UV radiation
reaching the Earth
• UVB: 290 – 320 nm ca. 5%
of total UV reaching the
Earth
• UVC: 100 – 290 nm does
not reach the Earth (blocked
by the ozone layer)
REFERENCES

1) Pharmaceutics II by “R.M. Mehta” Vallabh Prakashan,


Page no 193-221

2)Textbook of Cosmetics by “M.Vimaladevi”, C.B.S.


Publication. Page no.3-6 & 128- 130.

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