Anda di halaman 1dari 11


C57.1 No. 12
ARCHIES January-1934






Approved as
by the
June 8, 1933


Published by
33 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York
Development of the Standards
of the
American Institute of Electrical Engineers

Recognizing the importance in the development of electrical engineering, of standardization

in the electrical field, the A.I.E.E. in 1898 appointed a Committee on Standardization, consisting
of seven members having qualifications and experience from designing, manufacturing and operat­
ing standpoints. The report of this Committee was accepted at a meeting of the Institute in
June 1899.
Experience gained in applications of the standards and further developments in electrical
apparatus and methods showed the necessity of revision, and a committee was appointed which
after consultation with manufacturing and operating engineers presented the first revised report on
Standardization Rules of the A.I.E.E. in June 1902.
The next revision was undertaken by a committee of ten, which presented its report in
May 1906.
In September 1906, a Standards Committee of eleven members was appointed for further
revision, and its report was presented in June 1907.
The appreciation of the importance and value of standardization resulted in the formation of a
Standing Committee, with the title of Standards Committee of the A.I.E.E. This became
effective in the Constitution of June 1907. The scope and amount of work necessitated increasing
the number of members from time to time until in 1922 there were 37 members divided into a
number of subcommittees specializing on various subjects.
A.I.E.E. Standards published in a single volume as each revision was adopted have been
generally accepted as Standards of the electrical industry of the United States since the adoption
of the first report in 1899. Subsequent reports on Standards were made and published, in some
cases in several editions. The dates of adoption by the Board of Directors of such reports are as
foUows: June 20, 1902; June 21, 1907; June 27, 1912; July 10, 1914; June 30, 1915; June 28, 1916;
November 8, 1918; October 8, 1920, and June 29, 1922.
On June 29, 1922, in view of the increasing complexity of the work, a reorganization of the
Standards Committee was effected, and a working organization established which provided for an
increase in standardization work and for the appointment on Working Committees of the Standards
Committee of non-Institute members.
The present plan under which the Institute Standards are being issued involves the separation
of the complete body of Standards into more than forty sections, each published as a separate
pamphlet and dealing with a specific subject. Each section of the Standards has been formulated
either by a Working Committee of the Standards Committee which was made as representative
as possible for the work in hand or by a Sectional Committee organized according to the procedure
of the American Engineering Standards Committee. The division of the Standards into a number
of separate publications simplifies the process of keeping the Standards revised to conform with the
latest development and enables those interested in a particular field to obtain in concise form the
material relating to that field. In framing the Institute Standards the chief purpose has been to
define terms and conditions which characterize the rating and behavior of electrical machinery and
apparatus, with special reference to the conditions of acceptance tests.
This A.I.E.E. Standard on Constant Current Transformers was submitted to the American
Standards Association by the Institute under the existing standards procedure. It was approved
by ASA on June 8, 1933. Future revisions will come under the jurisdiction of the Sectional Com­
mittee on Transformers of which the sponsor is the Electrical Standards Committee.
The A.I.E.E. Standards Committee takes this occasion to draw attention to the value of sug­
gestions based upon experience gained in the application of the Standards to general practise.
Any suggestions looking toward improvement in the Standards will be welcomed for the guidance
of the Committee in preparation of future editions, and should be communicated to the Secretary
of the A J.E.E, Standards Committee, 33 West 39th Street, New York.
Scope 5

Service Conditions 5


Apparatus Classification 5
Parts of Apparatus 5
Properties of Apparatus 5
Systems 5
Duty Classification 5

Rating 6

Temperature Limitations 6
Conditions and Methods of making the Temperature Test 7

Efficiency and Losses 8

Dielectric Test 9

Insulation Resistance 10

Lead Markings for Transformers 10

Variation in Voltage 10

The Institute wishes to acknowledge its indebtedness to those who have

so freely given their time and knowledge, and have conducted experi­

mental work on which many of the A.I.E.E. Standards are based.

This Standard was developed by a subcommittee of

The A.I.E.E. Committee on Electrical Machinery.


American Institute of Electrical Engineers

(Adopted by the Board of Directors, May 23,1930)
(Approved as American Standard, June 8, 1933)

SCOPE circuit under varying conditions of load imped­

The standards of this section apply to constant ance when supplied from a constant potential
current transformers of the moving coil type. source.
Standards for other types of transformers are Parts of Apparatus
the subjects of separate sections. 12-101 Primary and Secondary Windings.—The terms
"primary" and "secondary" serve to distinguish
SERVICE CONDITIONS the windings in regard to energy flow, the pri­
12-50 Usual Service Conditions.—Apparatus con­ mary being that which receives the energy from
forming with these standards shall be suitable the supply circuit and the secondary that which
for carrying their rated load. receives the energy by electro-magnetic induc­
(a) When and where the temperature of the tion from the primary.
cooling medium does not exceed 40 deg cent Properties of Apparatus
for air. 12-102 Rated Secondary Current of a Constant Cur­
(b) When the power factor of the load is not rent Transformer.—The rated secondary current
less than the rated power factor. of a constant current transformer is the secondary
current for which the transformer is designed.
12-51 Conditions Affecting Constructional or Pro­ 12-103 Rated Primary Voltage of a Constant Current
tective Features.—There are conditions which, Transformer.—The rated primary voltage of a
while not usually affecting the rating, may constant current transformer is the primary
require special consideration, principally with voltage for which the transformer is designed.
respect to constructional or protective features. 12-104 Regulation of a Constant Current Trans­
When such conditions exist it is recommended former.—The regulation of a constant current
that they be brought to the manufacturer's . transformer is the maximum departure of the
attention. Among such conditions are: secondary current from its rated value, expressed
(a) Exposure to damaging fumes. in per cent of the rated secondary current, with
(b) Operation in damp places. rated primary voltage and frequency applied,
(c) Exposure to excessive dust. at rated secondary power factor, and with the
(d) Exposure to gritty dust. current variation taken between the limits of a
(e) Exposure to steam. short circuit and rated load.
(/) Exposure to excessive oil vapor. Regulation for a more limited range may be
(g) Exposure to explosive gases. expressed similarly as the maximum departure
(h) Exposure to salt air. in this range.
(*) Exposure to abnormal vibration or shock.
(j) Consideration should be given to the loca­ Systems
tion relative to other apparatus and metal­ 12-105 Rated Circuit Voltage.—In systems employing
lic structures, of constant current trans­ transformers the rated voltage of the circuit is
formers not fully shielded, in order to the highest rated voltage of the secondaries of
minimize the effects of possible stray transformers supplying the circuit. By "Circuit
fields. Voltage" is meant the voltage from line to line as
distinguished from line to neutral. This voltage
DEFINITIONS rating applies to all parts of the circuit. In the
The definitions given herein apply specifically case of transformers having a series multiple
to the apparatus treated in this section. They secondary connection the circuit voltage is
are included with all other standard definitions determined by the series or the multiple con­
in a separate section. nection as used.
Duty Classification
Apparatus Classification 12-106 Continuous Duty.—Continuous duty is a re­
12-100 Constant Current Transformer.—A constant quirement of service that demands operation at
current transformer is one which automatically substantially constant load for an unlimited
maintains a constant current in its secondary period.

Method of Temp Limits of Temp Rise in 1
Item Type Duty Duration of Test Determination DegCentt Class A Insul

1 Pole Short time *8hrs Resistance checked by

Thermometer 55

2 Station and manhole Short time *15hrs Resistance checked by

Thermometer i 55

3 All types ^Continuous Until constant Resistance checked by

Thermometer 55

4 Metallic parts in contact with any kind of insulation shall not attain a temperature in excess of that allowed for the adjacent
1 Metallic parts other than those covered by Item No. 4 may attain such temperatures as shall not be injurious in any respect.
♦These durations shall be considered standard for the purpose of rating.

fSee paragraph 12-206 for temperature rise of apparatus intended for service at an altitude greater than 1000 meters (3300 ft).
J(See 12-106). For Special applications such as tunnel lighting.

12-107 Short Time Duty.—Short time duty is a re­ 12-153 Rating Implied.—In the absence of any speci­
quirement of service that demands operation fications as to the kind of rating, the short time
at a substantially constant load for a specific rating shall be implied. See Table I and
limited period. 12-600 and 12-601.
12-154 Units in Which Rating Shall be Expressed.—
RATING The rating of constant current transformers shall
be expressed in kilowatts output available at the
12-150 Rating Defined.—A rating of a machine, ap­ secondary terminals with rated primary voltages
paratus, or device is an arbitrary designation of and frequency, and with rated secondary current
an operating limit.* and power factor.*
For the purpose of this section of the Standards 12-155 Rating of a Transformer Having Taps.—When
the rating of a constant current transformer is the a transformer is provided with taps on the wind­
output, together with any other characteristics, ing they should be distinguished as follows:
such as voltage, current, frequency, and power (a) Taps to allow for variation of primary
factor assigned to it by the maker. It shall be voltage with rated output.
regarded as a test rating which defines an output (b) Taps for reducing secondary output.
based on, but not exceeding the maximum These may be—
output which can be taken from the apparatus 1. Taps in secondary
when tested in accordance with these Standards. 2. Extended primary winding
The kind of rating recognized is: Performance guarantees on constant current
transformers shall be based on rated frequency,
12-151 Continuous Rating, f—The continuous rating load power factor and primary voltage, and the
defines the load of a constant current transformer proper primary and secondary windings for which
which, starting cold, will operate continuously the transformers are designed and specified.
under any load not less than 50 per cent of its
rating without causing any of the limitations HEATING
established herein to be exceeded. Temperature Limitations
12-200 Limits of Temperature Rises.—The tempera­
12-152 Short Time Rating, f—The short time rating ture rise above the temperature of the cooling
defines the load of a constant current trans­ medium of apparatus or parts shall not exceed
former which, starting cold, will operate for the the values given in Table I when tested under
specified time under any load not less than 50 conditions of rated primary voltage, frequency,
per cent of its rating without causing any of the secondary current and secondary power factor
limitations established herein to be exceeded. for the time specified in the table at 50 per cent
of rated load. This load is the minimum at
*A rating is arbitrary in the sense t h a t it must necessarily be which these transformers may be expected to
established by definite fixed standards and cannot, therefore, indi­ operate under usual service conditions. Tem­
cate the safe operating limit under all conditions t h a t may occur
in service.
peratures shall be determined by method indi­
cated in the Table.
fThis form of statement is necessitated by the fact that a moving
coil constant current transformer cannot be overloaded and usually *A small reduction in secondary power factor will result in a con­
reaches its maximum temperature under minimum load. siderable reduction in maximum output.

12*201 Class A Insulation Defined.—Class A insula­ 12-206 Altitude.—(a) Standard Apparatus Tested at
tion consists of cotton, silk, paper, and similar an Altitude Not Exceeding 1000 Meters:—
organic materials when impregnated* or im­ Apparatus rated in accordance with these
mersed in oil; also enamel as applied to standards may be tested at any altitude not
conductors. exceeding 1000 meters (3300 ft) and no correc­
tion shall be applied to the observed temperature
12-202 Thermometer Method of Temperature Deter­
mination Defined.—This method consists in
the determination of the temperature by mer­ (b) Standard Air Cooled Apparatus Tested
cury or alcohol thermometers, by resistance at an Altitude Greater than 1000 Meters: If the
thermometers, or by thermo-couples, any of test is made at an altitude greater than 1000
these instruments being applied to the hottest meters (3300 ft) it shall be assumed that the
part of the apparatus accessible to mercury or temperature rise at any altitude less than 1000
alcohol thermometers. meters (3300 ft) will be the temperature rise
observed at the higher altitude reduced by 0.4
12-203 Resistance Method of Temperature t>eter­ of 1 per cent for oil immersed transformers and
mination Defined.—This method consists in the 0.5 of 1 per cent for natural draft transformers
determination of temperature by comparison of for each 100 meters (330 ft) of altitude in excess
the resistance of the winding at the temperature of 1000 meters (3300 ft).
to be determined with the resistance at a known
temperature. 12-207 Measurement of the Cooling Air Temperature
During Tests.—(a) Placing of Thermometers:
12-204 Determination of the Mean Temperature of a The cooling air temperature of self-cooled ap­
Copper Winding by Measurement of its Electrical paratus shall be measured by means of several
Resistance when there is known the Resistance thermometers placed at different points around
at Some Reference Temperature. and approximately half way up the apparatus
Let / be the reference temperature at a distance of 1 to 2 meters (3 to 6 ft) and
r be the resistance at the reference tem­ protected from drafts, and abnormal heat
perature radiation, preferably as in (c).
R be the observed resistance (b) Use of Idle Unit: It is sometimes
Then T (the temperature soughtf) desirable, to avoid errors due to time lag in
temperature changes, to employ an idle unit of
the same size and subjected to the same con­
- - £ - (234.5 + *) — 234.5
ditions of cooling as the unit under test, for
obtaining the temperature of the cooling medium.
Conditions and Methods of Making the Temperature (c) Use of Oil Cup*: In order to avoid errors
Test due to the time lag between the temperature of
12-205 Value of the Cooling Air Temperature During large apparatus and the variations in the cooling
Tests.—Air cooled apparatus may be tested at air temperature, all reasonable precautions must
any cooling air temperature preferably not be taken to reduce these variations and the errors
below 10 deg cent. It shall be assumed that the arising therefrom. Thus, the thermometer for
temperature rise is the same for all cooling determining the cooling air temperature should
air temperatures between the limits of 10 deg be immersed in a suitable liquid, such as oil, in a
cent and 40 deg cent. suitably heavy metal cup when the cooling air
temperature is subject to such variations that
""Impregnated cotton, paper or silk. An insulation is considered error in the temperature rise might result.
to be impregnated when a suitable substance replaces the air be­ (d) Mean Temperature: The value to be
tween its fibers, even if this substance does not completely fill the
spaces between the insulated conductors. The impregnating sub­
adopted for the cooling air temperature during a
stance, in order to be considered suitable, must have good insulating test is the mean of the readings of the thermom­
properties; must entirely cover the fibers and render them adherent eters [placed as in (a)J taken at approximately
to each other and to the conductor; must not produce interstices hourly intervals during the last three hours of
within itself as a consequence of evaporation of the solvent or through
any other cause; must not flow during the operation of the apparatus
at full working load or at the temperature limits specified; and must *A convenient form for such an oil cup consists of a metal cylinder
not unduly deteriorate under prolonged action of heat. with a hole drilled partly through it. This hole is filled with oil and
the thermometer is placed therein with its bulb well immersed. The
tThis formula is derived from the experimentally determined response of the thermometer to various rates of temperature change
relation between temperature and resistance of copper: will depend largely upon the size, kind of material, and mass of the
R 234.5 + T containing cup and may be further regulated by adjusting the amount
of oil in the cup. The larger the machine under test, the larger
234.5 + t should be the metal cylinder employed as an oil cup in the determina­
The temperature rise is the difference between the calculated tion of the cooling air temperature. The smallest size of oil cup
temperature T and the temperature of the cooling medium at time employed in any case shall consist of a metal cylinder 25 mm in
of test. diameter and 50 mm high (1 in. in diameter and 2 in. high).

the test or for the time of the specified load if (a) For Oil Immersed Apparatus: When the
less than three hours. copper loss, as determined by wattmeter meas­
12-208 Covering of Thermometer Bulbs.—The bulbs urement, does not exceed 30 watts per pound,
of thermometers used for taking temperatures of the correction in degrees centigrade may be taken
apparatus other than oil immersed shall be as the product of the watts loss per pound of
covered by felt pads cemented to the apparatus, copper for each winding multiplied by a factor
except that when pads may interfere with that depends upon the time elapsed between
ventilation, as in ventilating ducts between the instant of shut-down and the time the resist­
coils, grooved wooden sticks may be used. ance measurement is taken, as given in the fol­
Dimensions of felt pads for use with large lowing table.
apparatus shall be 4 cm by 5 cm by 3 mm
thick (1}*} in. by 2 in. by % in. thick).
12-209 Measurement of Apparatus Temperatures inutes Factor
During Tests.—As far as practicable tempera­
ture measurements shall be taken during the 1 0.19
test as well as immediately after shutdown. 1^ 0.26
The highest measurements obtained shall be the 2 0.32
accepted values. 3 0.43
4 0.50
12-210 Duration of Temperature Test of Apparatus
with a Short-time Rating.—The duration of the
For intermediate times the values of the factor
temperature test of apparatus with a short-time
may be obtained by interpolation.
rating shall be the time required by the rating.
When the copper loss, measured by watt­
In every case the short-time test shall commence
meter, does not exceed seven watts per pound an
only when the windings and other parts of the
arbitrary correction of 1.0 deg cent per minute
apparatus are within 5 deg cent of the tempera­
may be used, provided the time elapsed between
ture of the cooling medium at the time of start­
the instant of shut-down and the measurement
ing the test.
of the hot resistance does not exceed four
12-211 Duration of Temperature Test of Apparatus minutes.
with a Continuous Rating.—The temperature For determining the copper loss in watts per
test shall be continued until the temperature pound, the total loss in both windings as meas­
rises that can be observed during test have ured by wattmeter, shall be apportioned between
attained a steady final value; or until sufficient primary and secondary windings in the ratio of
evidence is available to show that the tempera­ their respective I2 R losses.
ture rises would not exceed the requirements of
(jb) For Air Cooled Apparatus: An arbitrary
the standards, if the test were prolonged until
correction of 1.0 deg cent per minute may be
the attainment of steady final values.
used, provided that the time elapsed between
12-212 Omission of Temperature Test of Duplicate the instant of shut-down and the measurement
Apparatus.—A temperature test shall not be of the hot resistance does not exceed four minutes*
required when a record of a test made on a dupli­
cate unit in accordance with these standards
can be furnished.
12-218 Temperature Correction for Cooling of Wind­ Efficiency
ings of Apparatus During Interval of Time 12-800 Efficiency Defined.—The efficiency of a con­
Between Shut-down and Measurement of Resist­ stant current transformer is the ratio of the
ance.—Since a drop in temperature occurs in a useful power output to the total power input.
winding between the instant of shut-down and
12-801 Methods of Determining Efficiency Recog­
the time of measuring the hot resistance, a correc­
nized.—The following methods of determining
tion shall be applied to the temperature deter­
efficiency are recognized as Standard.
mined from this measurement so as to obtain as
nearly as practicable, the temperature at the (a) Conventional Efficiency: The efficiency
instant of shut-down. This correction may be is obtained from a determination of the I2 R
determined approximately by making a series losses at 75 deg cent and of the core loss when
of resistance measurements and from these the transformer is excited at rated voltage and
calculating and plotting a time-temperature frequency with the secondary circuit open.
curve which is extrapolated back to the instant Although this method does not take the stray
of shut-down. load losses into consideration, it provides a
Other permissible simplified methods of deter­ convenient basis for comparison of constant
mining the correction factor are: current transformer performances.

(b) Directly Measured Efficiency: The effi­ 12-401 Standard Test Voltages Between Turns to be
ciency is obtained from simultaneous measure­ Induced in the Windings.—Constant current
ments of input and output, or by an accurate transformers shall, in addition to the tests
determination of all the component losses. provided in 12-400, be tested by applying be­
12-302 Method of Determining Efficiency to be tween the terminals of one winding a voltage
Employed.—Unless otherwise specified, the con­ of twice the normal voltage developed in that
ventional efficiency shall be employed. winding, corresponding voltages being induced
in the free windings. For this test the secondary
12-303 Normal Conditions for Efficiency Determina­ coil should be in the full load position.
tion.—(a) Voltage, Current and Frequency: The
efficiency shall be determined for the rated volt­ 12-402 Duration of Application of Test Voltage.—(a)
age, current and frequency. General: The test voltage shall be applied
(b) Load: When the efficiency is stated with­ continuously for a period of 60 seconds. See
out specific reference to the load conditions, rated exceptions (6).
load shall be understood. For efficiencies at (b) Transformers Tested by Induced Voltage:
other loads, the winding connections used should Where the high-voltage test in transformers is
be stated. made by inducing the required voltage in the
(c) Wave Shape: The sine wave shall be windings, frequencies higher than normal are
standard unless a different form is inherent in generally employed, in order to avoid over
the operation of the apparatus. saturation of the iron and also in large trans­
formers to enable the test to be made with small
(d) Power Factor: When the efficiency is testing equipment. When higher frequency
stated without specific reference to the load than normal is used the severity of the test is
power factor, 100 per cent power factor shall be increased and for that reason it is recommended
understood. that when a frequency greater than 120 cycles is
(e) Temperature of Reference: The efficiency employed, the time for test be reduced so that the
of apparatus at all loads, shall be corrected to a equivalent cycles of a 120 cycle one-minute test
reference temperature of 75 deg cent. is secured. These equivalents, for the purposes
of standardization, are as follows:
12-400 Standard Test Voltage to be Applied Between
Windings and Between Windings and Ground.— Time in
Constant Current transformers, except as listed Frequency seconds
below, shall be tested by applying between each
winding successively and ground an alternating 120 60
voltage from an external source of twice the rated 180 40
voltage of the circuit to which the winding under 240 30
test is to be connected, plus 1000 volts.* All 360 20
other electric circuits and metal parts shall be 400 18
grounded during this test.
Exceptions: 12-403 Condition of Apparatus to be Tested.—Com­
(a) Windings Rated 4500 Volts and Below: mercial tests shall, in general, be made with the
Rated 1000 volts completely assembled apparatus and not with
and below.... Test voltage 4,000 individual parts. The apparatus shall be in
Rated 1001 to good condition, and high voltage tests, unless
4500 volts... .Test Voltage 10,000 otherwise specified, shall be applied before the
(b) Transformers for Use on Single-Phase, machine is put into commercial service, and shall
Earth-Return Systems of more than 300 Volts. not be applied when the insulation resistance is
low due to dirt or moisture. High voltage tests
Transformers used under these conditions shall to determine whether the specifications are ful­
be tested by applying 2.73 times the rated voltage filled are admissible on new apparatus only.
of the circuit plus 1000 volts between the winding
which will be connected to ground and the other 12-404 Where High-Voltage Tests are to be Made.—
windings and core. Unless otherwise agreed upon, high-voltage tests
of apparatus shall be made at the factory.
♦Since figures may not be available for the exact rated voltage of
the circuit to which transformers may be connected, this test require­ 12-405 Temperature at Which High-Voltage Tests are
ment is considered as practically met by assuming (when testing to be Made.—High-voltage tests shall be made
transformers having primary voltage rating 50,000 volts or below) at the temperature assumed under normal
a figure for the rated voltage of the circuit 5 per cent above the
the rated voltage of the transformer, provided the transformer has a operation or at the temperature attained under
single voltage rating. the conditions of commercial testing.

12-406 Frequency and Wave Shape of Test Voltage.— LEAD MARKINGS FOR CONSTANT CURRENT
The frequency of the test voltage shall be not TRANSFORMERS
less than the rated frequency of the apparatus 12-550 Scope.*—These rules specify the markings of
tested. A sine wave shape is recommended. leads brought out of the case but not the mark­
The test shall be made with alternating voltage ings of winding terminals inside the case, except
having a crest value equal to \ / 2 times the that these terminals shall be marked with num­
specified test voltage. bers in any manner that will permit of convenient
12-407 Measurement of Test Voltage.—For a de­ reference and that cannot be confused with the
scription of the methods of measuring the markings of the leads brought out of the case.
voltage used in making dielectric tests see a 12-561 Markings of Leads—General.—The leads shall
separate section entitled "Standards for the be distinguished from one another by suitable
Measurement of Voltages in Dielectric Tests." marking. All lead markings shall be legibly
placed on the transformer adjacent to the lead.
12-552 Diagrammatic Sketch of Connections.—The
12-450 General.—The insulation resistance of machinery manufacturer shall furnish with each trans­
is of doubtful significance as compared with the former, a complete diagrammatic sketch showing
dielectric strength. It is subject to wide varia­ the leads and terminal connections and their
tion with temperature, humidity and cleanliness marking and the voltage obtainable with vari­
of the parts. When the insulation resistance falls ous connections. This sketch should preferably
below prescribed values, it can in most cases of be on a suitable plate attached to the transformer
good design and where no defect exists be case.
brought up to the required standard by cleaning
and drying the machine. The insulation resist­ 12-553 Transformers Having Two Primary and Two
ance, therefore, may afford a useful indication as Secondary Outlet Leads.—The primary leads
to whether the machine is in suitable condition may be marked "primary," "prim," or capital
for application of the dielectric test, but shall not P, and the secondary leads may be marked
be considered a requirement of these standards. "secondary," "sec", or capital S; or the primary
leads may be identified by marking "prim" on
12-451 Tests.—The insulation resistance test shall be the tank or framework adjacent to the primary
made with all circuits of equal voltage above leads.
ground connected together. Circuits or groups 12-554 Transformers Having More than Two Pri­
of circuits of different voltage above ground mary or Secondary Leads, Order of Number
shall be tested separately. Leads in any Winding.—The leads shall be desig­
nated "primary" and "secondary" by suitable
VARIATION IN VOLTAGE markings stamped into or securely attached to
12-500 Allowable Variation from Rated Voltage.— the tank or framework adjacent to the leads.
All transformers shall operate successfully at ♦It is recognized that special cases will arise from time to time
rated load when excited on full winding at 5 per that these rules will not cover and that it will be very difficult to
cent above or below rated voltage. cover by any set of general rules.
(List correct to February, 1934. For latest revision of this list see the current issue of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING,
Advertising Section.)

Available Adopted Standards

No. 1 (April, 1925) General Principles upon Which Temperature Limits Are Based in the
Rating of Electrical Machinery. Price 20 cents.
4 (May, 1928) The Measurement of Test Voltages in Dielectric Tests. Price 30 cents.
5 (July, 1925) Direct-Current Generators and Motors and Direct-Current Commutator
Machines in General. Price 40 cents.
7 ( D e c , 1927) Alternators, Synchronous Motors and Synchronous Machines in General.
Price 40 cents.
*8 (March, 1925) Synchronous Converters. Price 40 cents.
9 (June, 1927) Induction Motors and Induction Machines in General. Price 40 cents.
10 (July, 1925) Direct-Current and Alternating-Current Fractional Horse Power Motors.
Price 30 cents.
* 11 (July, 1925) Railway Motors. Price 30 cents.
*12 (Jan. 1934) Constant Current Transformers. Price 30 cents.
13 (May, 1930) Transformers, Induction Regulators and Reactors. Price 40 cents.
*14 (March, 1925) Instrument Transformers. Price 30 cents.
*15 (May, 1928) Industrial Control Apparatus. Price 40 cents.
*16 (Jan., 1933) Electric Railway Control Apparatus. Price 40 cents.
* 17f (Feb., 1928) Mathematical Symbols. Price 30 cents.
*17g1 (Nov., 1928) Letter Symbols for Electrical Quantities. Price 20 cents.
*17g2 (Jan., 1934) Graphical Symbols Used for Electric Power and Wiring. Price 20 cents.
*17g3 (Jan., 1934) Graphical Symbols Used for Radio. Price 20 cents.
*17g5 (Jan., 1934) Graphical Symbols Used for Electric Traction Including Railway Sig­
naling. Price 40 cents.
*17g6 (March, 1929) Graphical Symbols for Telephone and Telegraph Use. Price 20 cents.
19 (July, 1925) Oil Circuit Breakers. Price 30 cents.
20 (May, 1930) Air Circuit Breakers. Price 30 cents.
22 (July, 1925) Disconnecting and Horn Gap Switches. Price 30 cents.
26 (May, 1930) Automatic Stations. Price 30 cents.
27 (Oct., 1930) Switchboards and Switching Equipment for Power and Light.
Price 30 cents.
*30 (Sept., 1932) Wires and Cables. (Definitions and General Standards.) Price 40 cents.
33 (Jan., 1927) ' Electrical Measuring Instruments. Price 30 cents.
♦36 (Feb., 1928) Storage Batteries. Price 20 cents.
*38 ( J a n - 1934) Electric Arc Welding Apparatus. Price 40 cents.
*39 (Jan., 1934) Electric Resistance Welding Apparatus. Price 30 cents.
Ml (March, 1930) Insulator Tests. Price 30 cents.
*42 ( D e c , 1923) Symbols for Electrical Equipment of Buildings. Price 20 cents.
45 (Oct., 1930) Recommended Practise for Electrical Installations on Shipboard (Marine
Rules). Price $1.50.
*46 (June, 1927) Hard Drawn Aluminum Conductors. Price 20 cents.
*60 (Sept., 1928) Specifications for Tinned Soft or Annealed Copper Wire.
*61 (Sept., 1928) Specifications for Soft or Annealed Copper Wire.
(No. 60 and 61 published as one pamphlet.) Price 30 cents.
*63 (Sept., 1928) Specifications for 30 Per Cent Rubber Insulation for Wire and Cable for
General Purposes. Price 30 cents.
*69 (Sept., 1928) Specifications for Cotton Covered Round Copper Magnet Wire.
*70 (Sept., 1928) Specifications for Silk Covered Round Copper Magnet Wire.
*71 (Sept., 1928) Specifications for Enameled Round Copper Magnet Wire.
(No. 69, 70 and 71 published as one pamphlet.) Price 30 cents.
*72 (Sept., 1932) Specifications for Weatherproof Wires and Cables.
*73 (Sept., 1932) Specifications for Heat-Resisting Wires and Cables.
(No. 72 and 73 published as one pamphlet.) Price 20 cents.
♦Approved by American Standards Association as American Standard.

Reports on Standards
No. 2 (Aug., 1932) Electrical Definitions. Price $1.00.
JC50 Rotating Electrical Machinery. Price 50 cents.
118 Capacitors.
f23 Relays.
f28 Lightning Arresters. (Revised 1931.)
f40 Electrical Recording Instruments.
tAvailable in pamphlet form for suggestion and criticism. No charge.
{Report on proposed American Standard. Will eventually replace Standards Nos. 5, 7, 8, 9 and 10 listed above.

Related Publications
No. 100 (June, 1930) Recommendations for the Operation of Transformers. Price 20 cents.
(Oct., 1931) Test Code for Transformers. N o charge.
(Jan., 1933) Test Code for Synchronous Machines. N o charge.
(60% discount to Institute members from above prices. Member discount not allowable on extra copies
unless ordered for other members.)