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" G E O M O R P H O L O G I C A L A S S E S S M E N T OF G R O Y N E T Y P E

B U N D S A N D THEIR IMPACT ON V A R S O L I CREEK,

MAHARASHTRA"

CHAPTER - 1

INTRODUCTION

Coastal erosion and siltation

Coastal erosion is becoming an increasing problem all over the world.


Maharashtra State has 720 Km long coast, which is divided in 5 districts as: 1)
Sindhudurg - 120 Km 2) Ratnagiri - 238 Km 3) Raigad - 121 Km 4) Mumbai - 114
Km 5) Thane - 127 Km. Out of the coastal length of 720 Km about 262 Km length is
vulnerable to erosion (NCRMP 2008). Major uses of these coastal zones include
commercial and industrial development along the coastal belt, human habitation,
military defense, extraction of living and non-living resources, recreational facilities,
waste disposal, in addition to the construction of port and harbors. For all this
development, more and more land along the coastal belt is being used by the humans
(NCRMP 2008).
The coast represents the meeting point between the land and sea. Coasts are
very dynamic areas and they are constantly changing. This change is due to 3 main
processes such as erosion, transportation and deposition which operate at the coast.
1) Erosion
Natural forces such as wind, waves and currents are constantly shaping the
coastal regions. The landward displacement of the shoreline caused by the forces of
waves and currents is termed as coastal erosion. Coastal erosion occurs when wind,
waves and longshore currents move sand from the shore and deposit it somewhere
else. The sand can be moved to another beach, to the deeper ocean bottom, into an
ocean trench or onto the landside of a dune. The removal of sand from the sand-
sharing system results in permanent change in beach shape and structure. The impact
of the event is not seen immediately as in the case of tsunami or storm surge. It is
equally important when we consider loss of property. It generally takes months or
years for the impact of erosion to be visible. Therefore, this is generally classified as a
"long term coastal hazard" (Chambers 2007).
2) Transportation
The second process operating at the coast is the material transport. Material
eroded by the sea is carried within the water in a number of ways, minerals dissolved
from rocks are carried in solution, whilst small rock fragments, light enough to be
held within the water, float in suspension. The largest rock fragments which are too
heavy to be picked up by the waves, are transported by the process of traction, this is
where they roll along the bed when the waves pick up enough energy. Finally,
medium sized rock particles, which cannot be carried by the waves all the time, are
moved by siltation. This is where during times of higher wave energy the particles are
picked up and then dropped again as the wave looses its energy (Chambers 2007).
3) Deposition
Material is moved up the beach by the swash at an angle which is controlled
by the prevailing wind. The backwash then carries material back downs the beach at
right angles to the coastline under the influence of gravity. Gradually the material is
moved along the coastline, its direction being controlled by the prevailing wind
direction. The final process operating at the coast is that of deposition. This is where
material that is too heavy to be transported any more is left behind, building up the
beach. Due to the importance of energy in transporting sand and shingle, it is the
largest material that is deposited first (Chambers 2007). Material that is transported by
the waves along a coastline is eventually deposited forming distinctive deposition
features. There are four main depositional features developed on coasts. These are
beaches, spits, bars, tombolos. Beaches are the main feature of deposition found at the
coast. These consist of all the material (sand, shingle etc.) that has built up between
the high and low tide mark. There are number of different sources of beach material,
the main source being rivers, where fine muds and gravels are deposited at the river
mouth. Other sources of beach material include longshore drift (bringing material
from elsewhere along the coast), constructive waves (bringing material up the beach
from the sea) and from cliff erosion.
Erosion is the most significant process on the coast. It works as follows : -
a) Corrasive action
Waves equipped with sand, boulders and pebbles perform erosive work.
Hurling of sand, shingle and boulders against the cliffs are destructive in action.
These have abrasive effect. It is physical erosion caused by loose solid material during
its journey. Vertical and lateral corrasion occurs on the coast. Undercutting the coastal
rocks pave out into caves. Finally the ceiling of the cave collapses and the rock mass
is eroded. Collapsing of the cave roof or overhanging cliff is assisted by weathering or
sub aerial erosion, pull of gravity, structural weaknesses and rain action (Singl998).
b) Attrition
The pieces of beach material as they are thrown up against sea rocks, they are
swirled up and down the beach. Due to swash and backwash of waves rock fragments
are repeatedly hitted within each other and get broken and ground up. This is known
as attrition. It mainly occurs due to coalescence of eroded particles among each other.
c) Hydraulic action
The waves that attack against cliffs and sea walls put pressure upon the coast.
At the time of breaking of the waves against cliff face the air in gaps, cracks, crevices
is locked up, it gets compressed and this high pressure acts like a wedge, forcing the
gap and side walls apart. With the backwash the pressure is released and compressed
air expands again. The compression and expansion of the air in the cracks and gaps
alternate repeatedly so that, rocks are weakened and cavities are enlarged by hydraulic
action.
d) Solvent action
Solvent action denotes chemical reaction of sea water and corrosion effects.
Sea water with dissolved chemicals induces solvent action. Rocks like chalk and
limestone are eaten by solvent action of sea water.
Following are the major natural factors of coastal erosion :-
1) Waves
Waves are generated by offshore and nearshore winds, which blow over the
sea surface and transfer their energy to the water surface. As they move towards the
shore, waves break and the turbulent energy released stirs up and moves the sediments
deposited on the seabed. The wave energy is a function of the wave heights and the
wave periods (Chambers 2007).
2) Wind
Wind acts not just as a generator of waves but also as a factor of the landward
movement of dunes which is necessarily aeolian erosion.
3) Tides
Tides result in the water elevation of water surface due to the attraction of
water masses by the moon and the sun. During high tides, the energy of the breaking
waves is released higher on the foreshore or the cliff base (cliff undercutting).
4) Near-shore currents
Sediments scoured from the seabed are transported away from their original
location by currents. In turn the transport of coarse sediments defines the boundary of
coastal sediment cells, i.e. relatively self contained system within which coarse
sediments stay. Currents are generated by the action of tides (ebb and flood currents),
waves breaking at an oblique angle with the shore (longshore currents), and the
backwash of waves on the foreshore (rip currents). All these currents contribute to
coastal erosion processes (Chambers 2007).
5) Storms
Storms result in raised water levels (known as storm surge) and highly
energetic waves induced by extreme winds (Cyclones). Combined with high tides,
storms may result in catastrophic damages. Beside damages to coastal infrastructure,
storms cause beaches and dunes to retreat by tenths of meters in a few hours, or may
considerably undermine cliff stability.
6) Catastrophic events
In addition to the daily, slow erosion of the coast, other events like tsunamis
result in major coastal changes over very short time periods. These are referred to as
catastrophic events because of the extensive damage that is caused and the
unpredictable nature of the event.
7) Slope processes
The term "slope processes" encompasses a wide range of land-sea interactions
which eventually result in the collapse, slippage, or topple of coastal cliff blocks.
These processes also involve terrestrial processes such as rainfall and water.
8) Vertical land movements (compaction)
Vertical land movement including isostatic rebound, tectonic movement, or
sediment deposition may have either a positive or negative impact on coastline
evolution.
Problem of coastal erosion and deposition
Coastal erosion is becoming an increasing problem all over the world. Before
finding solution to stop the erosion at a specific location, the cause of erosion must be
found at that location. Therefore it is important to understand how sediment is
removed and transported. The different types of erosion may be split up into two
groups.
1) Erosion due to natural causes
2) Erosion resulting from human interference (Perdok 2002).
The problem of erosion calls for the protection of houses, cultivable lands,
valuable properties, monuments etc. in the coastal belt. It is well known that the
erosion of a coast is mainly due to action of waves in addition to the currents setup by
the oblique attack of waves. Erosion of the coast depends on many natural factors
like storm waves, nature of the beach, beach material and the shape of the coast, tidal
level changes, movement and quantity of the littoral drift material. Storms may occur
seasonally, sand spits may grow in a few decades and the sea level rise that involves
centuries. The various natural causes have different time scales. The best natural
defense against erosion is however an adequate beach on which waves expends their
energy. Waves are the prime cause of beach erosion; it is natural that the protective
methods are evolved so as to dissipate the energy of waves either by absorbing this
energy on the beach or dissipating / diverting the same before the waves approach the
beach.
The erosion due to human activities may include the removal of beach
material, changing direction of sediment movement etc. The process of coastal
erosion after a certain time finds an equilibrium stage by redistributing sediment along
the shorelines. To identify the cause of erosion at a certain location, the problem area
itself must be investigated, along with a much larger area along the neighboring coast
(Perdok 2002).
Sediment transport and deposition
Sediment transport plays an important role in many coastal engineering
problems. If the volume of sand that enters an area is smaller than the volume that
leaves the area, erosion takes place. On the other hand, accretion will occur if more
sediment is brought into the area than that which leaves the area. In a coastal zone
both waves and currents are of importance for the sediment transport. The total
transport in a certain direction is found by adding up the transport at each level in the
water. As the transport largely differs at each level, it is difficult to measure the
precise amount of sediment transport.
In general the sediment transport processes can be divided into three stages -
1) The stirring-up or the loosening of bottom material
2) The horizontal displacement of these particles by the water
3) The re-sedimentation of these particles
Each stage depends on the water movement and the sediment characteristics.
The water movement is basically different for currents, waves, or for both waves and
currents together. Important factor in sediment transport is the nature of sediments.
The main characteristics of sediments are the diameter and the mass density. When
water flows over a beach, the currents cause horizontal and vertical movement of
particles. In order to initiate a sediment transport, the fluid stresses have to overcome
the particles' threshold of movement. Obviously shingle has a larger threshold of
movement than sand (Perdok 2002).
The horizontal displacement may be divided into three modes of transport.
1) Bed load 2) Suspended load 3) Sheet flow. Mode of transport is primarily
dependent on the intensity of water movement. Generally at first there will only be
bed load, and small ripples will start to form. If the velocity of the water increases, the
ripples will increase in size and particles will be brought into suspension. If the
current increases even more, the ripples will be washed away, resulting in sheet flow.
The difference between the various modes of transport is difficult to define, and often
both the lower, or higher modes take place simultaneously (Perdok 2002).
Coastal regions are the most dynamic zones where the effects of these
processes are immediately reflected in the morphological characteristics of the region.
Beaches are the constantly changing features. They change over hourly, daily and
yearly time-periods. Any sea defenses built on or near the beach influence the natural
processes. Sea defense may result in beach accretion or erosion, or both of these on
different parts of the beach. Sometimes, the changes may be seen just months after the
structure is built. There are three main groups of solid structures, which protect land
or beaches. 1) Structures built parallel to the shore (Seawalls, bulkheads, revetment)
2) Structures built at right angles to the shore (groynes and jetties) 3) Offshore
structures like offshore breakwaters.
When waves approach the shoreline at angle, they generate a longshore
current which transports sand suspended in the water along the shore. In addition, the
wave generated turbulence carries sand up the beach face in the general direction of
wave approach. As the water returns seaward, it moves directly down the beach face
in response to gravity. Thus, sand moves along the beach face in a zig - zag motion.
Structures designed to trap this moving sand are called groynes.
A groyne is a method of coastal defense against erosion. They are the
structures running perpendicular to the shoreline. They go across a beach and into the
sea. The effect of a groyne is to accumulate sand on the updrift side where longshore
drift is predominantly in one direction. They are effective at causing the deposition of
beach material on one side. Groynes are extremely cost-effective coastal defense
measures, requiring little maintenance. However, groynes are increasingly viewed as
detrimental to the aesthetics of the coastline, and there is a strong opposition to such
structures in many coastal communities.
Coastal protection measures and methods
Coastal protection measures are usually divided into two groups. 1) Hard
engineering 2) Soft engineering. Hard engineering means the building of structures
that could prevent erosion, such as seawall, breakwaters, groynes, gabions, revetment,
offshore breakwaters, training walls, beach drains, floodgates and rock armour. Hard
engineering options tend to be expensive and short-term options. They may also have
a high impact on the landscape or environment. Soft engineering is a cheaper option
than hard engineering. They are usually also more long -term and sustainable, with
less impact on the environment. In this method beach nourishment, dune construction,
planting mangroves, encouraging the growth of coral reefs are included (USAGE
2002).
Coastal protection methods are used to protect coastal lands from erosion.
Beaches can exist only where a delicate dynamic equilibrium exists between the
amount of sand supplied to the beach and the inevitable losses caused by wave
erosion. Coastal structures are mainly used in coastal defense schemes with the
objective of preventing shoreline erosion and flooding of the hinterland. Other
objectives include sheltering of harbor basins and harbor entrances against waves,
stabilization of navigation channels and inlets, and protection of water intakes
and outfalls.
The coastal protection measures often used are as given below -
A) Hard engineering methods
1) Groynes
Groynes are built to stabilize a stretch of natural or artificially nourished
beach against erosion that is due primarily to a net longshore loss of beach material.
Groynes function only when longshore transport occurs. Groynes are narrow
structures, usually straight and perpendicular to the preproject shoreline. The effect of
a single groyne is accretion of beach material on the updrift side and erosion on the
downdrift side; both effects extend some distance from the structure. Consequently, a
groyne system (series of groyne) results in a saw -tooth-shaped shoreline within the
groyne field and a differential in beach level on either side of the groynes (USAGE
2002) (Figure 1.1).
Groynes create very complex current and wave patterns. However, a well-
designed groyne system can arrest or slow down the rate of longshore transport and,
by building up of material in the groyne bays, provide some protection of the
coastline against erosion. Groynes are also used to hold artificially nourished beach
material, and to prevent sedimentation or accretion in a downdrift area (e.g., at an
inlet) by acting as a barrier to longshore transport. Deflecting strong tidal currents
away from the shoreline might be another purpose of groynes.

Groyne

Original
shoreline

(After Chua 2013) Figure 1.1

The orientation, length, height, permeability, and spacing of the groynes


determine, under given natural conditions, the actual change in the shoreline and the
beach level. Because of the potential for erosion of the beach downdrift of the last
groyne in the field, a transition section of progressively shorter groynes may be
provided to prevent the formation of a severe erosion area. Even so, it might be
necessary to protect some part of the downdrift beach with a seawall or to nourish a
portion of the eroded area with beach material from an alternative source.
Groynes are occasionally constructed non-perpendicular to the shoreline, can
be curved, have fishtails, or have a shore-parallel T-head at their seaward end. Also,
shore-parallel spurs are provided to shelter a stretch of beach or to reduce the
possibility of offshore sand transport by rip currents. However, such refinements,
compared to the simple shape of straight perpendicular groynes, are generally not
deemed effective in improving the performance of the groynes. In most cases, groynes
are sheet-pile or rubble-mound constructions. The latter is preferably used at exposed
sites because of a rubble-mound structure's ability to withstand severe wave loads and
to decrease wave reflection.
The landward end of the groynes must extend to a point above the high-water
line in order to stay beyond the normal zone of beach movement and thereby avoid
outflanking by back scour. The groynes must, for the same reason, reach seawalls
when present or connect into stable back beach features. The position of the seaward
end is determined such that the groyne retains some proportion of the longshore
transport during more severe wave conditions. This means that the groyne must
protrude some distance into the zone of littoral transport, the extent of which is
largely determined by surf zone width.
Groynes can be classified as either long or short, depending on how far across
the surf zone they extend. Groynes that transverse the entire surf zone are considered
long, whereas those that extend only for a part limited the surf zone are considered
short. These terms are relative, since the width of the surf zone varies with water
level, wave height, and beach profile. Most groynes are designed to act as short
structures during severe sea conditions and as long structures under normal
conditions. Groynes might also be classified as high or low, depending on the
possibility of sediment transport across the crest. Significant cost savings can be
achieved by constructing groynes with a variable crest elevation that follows the
beach profile rather than maintaining a constant crest elevation. These groynes would
maintain a constant cross section and allow increasing amounts of sand to bypass as
water depth increases. At some point the crest of the groyne becomes submerged.

10
Terminal groynes extend far enough seaward to block all littoral transport, and these
types of groynes should never be used except in rare situations, such as where
longshore transported sand would be otherwise lost into a submarine canyon.
Some cross-groyne transport is beneficial for obtaining a well-distributed
retaining effect along the coast. For the same reason permeable groynes, which allow
sediment to be transported through the structure, may be advantageous. Examples of
permeable groynes include rubble-mound structures built of rock and concrete armor
units without fine material cores, and structures made of piles with some spacing.
Most sheet-pile structures are impermeable. Low and permeable groynes have the
benefit of reduced wave reflection and less rip current formation compared with high
and impermeable groynes (USAGE 2002) (Plate 1.1).

Low Groynes

(After Winter 2008) Plate

2) Seawalls
Seawalls are onshore structures with the principal function of preventing or
alleviating overtopping and flooding of the land and the structures behind due to
storm surges and waves. Seawalls are built parallel to the shoreline as a reinforcement
of a part of the coastal profile. Quite often seawalls are used to protect promenades,

11
roads, and houses placed seaward of the crest edge of the natural beach profile.
Seawalls range from vertical face structures such as massive gravity concrete walls,
tied walls using steel or concrete piling, and stone-filled cribwork to sloping
structures with typical surfaces being reinforced concrete slabs, concrete armor units,
or stone rubble. Erosion of the beach profile landward of a seawall might be stopped
or at least reduced. However, erosion of the seabed immediately in front of the
structure will in most cases be enhanced due to increased wave reflection caused by
the seawall. This results in a steeper seabed profile, which subsequently allows larger
waves to reach the structure. As a consequence, seawalls are in danger of instability
caused by erosion of the seabed at the toe of the structure, and by an increase in wave
slamming, runup, and overtopping. Because of their potential vulnerability to toe
scour, seawalls are often used together with some system of beach control such as
groynes and beach nourishment (USAGE 2002) (Plate 1.2).

Seawalls

•J«

(After Wallingford, Brampton, George, Coates 2000)

3) Gabions
Gabions is a strong wired fence filled with rocks and pebbles (Plate 1.3).
Gabions protect the cliffs by stopping the wave crashing and eroding the cliffs. The

12
advantages are that it helps to protect the coast hne by stopping the waves pounding at
the cHffs. It does this by breaking the power of the waves when it hits the little rocks
inside the cage. Gabions are quite natural as rubble or pebbles can be used. Gabions
are used to protect a cliff or area in the short term only, since they are easily damaged
by powerful storm waves and the cages tend to rust quite quickly. Gabions are
relatively cheap but their life span is short (USAGE 2002).

Gabions

(After Edom, Street, Cunninghum, Davis, Freemantle 2005) plate 1.3

4) Revetments
Revetments are onshore structures with the principal function of protecting
the shoreline from erosion. Revetment structures typically consist of a cladding of
stone, concrete, or asphalt to armor sloping natural shoreline profiles (Plate 1.4). In
stream restoration river engineering or coastal management revetments are sloping
structures placed on banks or cliffs in such a way as to absorb the energy of incoming
water. In military engineering they are structures, again sloped, created to secure an
area from artillery, bombing, or stored explosives. In architecture they are a variety of
structures, normally vertical, used to retain a wall, or sometimes just to decorate it.

13
River or coastal revetments are usually built to preserve the existing uses of the
shoreline and to protect the slope, as defense against erosion (USAGE 2002).

Revetments

(After Wallingford, Brampton, George, Coates 2000) | Platel.4~|

5) Jetties
Jetties are used for stabilization of navigation channels at river mouths and
tidal inlets. Jetties are shore-connected structures generally buiU on either one or both
sides of the navigation channel perpendicular to the shore and extending into the
ocean (Plate 1.5). By confining the stream or tidal flow, it is possible to reduce
channel shoaling and decrease dredging requirements. Moreover, on coastlines with
longshore currents and littoral drift, another function of the jetties is also to arrest the
crosscurrent and direct it across the entrance in deeper water where it represents less
hazard to navigation. When extended offshore of the breaker zone, jetties improve the
maneuvering of ships by providing shelter against storm waves. Jetties are constructed
similar to breakwaters (USAGE 2002).

14
Jetties

(After Aurofillo 2010)

6) Breakwaters
Breakwaters are built to reduce wave action in an area in the lee of the
structure. Wave action is reduced through a combination of reflection and dissipation
of incoming wave energy. When used for harbors, breakwaters are constructed to
create sufficiently calm waters for safe mooring and loading operations, handling of
ships, and protection of harbor facilities. Breakwaters are also built to improve
maneuvering conditions at harbor entrances and to help regulate sedimentation by
directing currents and by creating areas with differing levels of wave disturbance.
Protection of water intakes for power stations and protection of coastlines against
tsunami waves are other applications of breakwaters. When used for shore protection,
breakwaters are built in nearshore waters and usually oriented parallel to the shore
like detached breakwaters (Plate 1.6).
The layout of breakwaters used to protect harbors is determined by the size
and shape of the area to be protected as well as by the prevailing directions of storm
waves, net direction of currents and littoral drift, and the maneuverability of the
vessels using the harbor. Breakwaters protecting harbors and channel entrances can be

15
either detached or shore-connected. The cost of breakwaters increases dramatically
with water depth and wave climate severity. Also poor foundation conditions
significantly increase costs. These three environmental factors heavily influence the
design and positioning of the breakwaters and the harbor layout.
Breakwaters can be classified into two main types - 1) sloping-front 2) vertical-front
structures. Sloping-front structures are in most cases rubble-mound structures armored
with rock or concrete armor units, with or without wave wall superstructures.
Vertical-front structures are in most cases constructed of either sand filled concrete
caissons or stacked massive concrete blocks placed on a rubble stone bedding layer.
In deep water, concrete caissons are often placed on a high mound of quarry rock for
economical reasons. These breakwaters are called composite structures. The upper
part of the concrete structure might be constructed with a sloping front to reduce the
wave forces. For the same reason the front wall might be perforated with a wave
chamber behind to dissipate wave energy. Smaller vertical structures might be
constructed of steel sheet piling backfilled with soil, or built as a rock-filled timber
cribwork or wire cages (USAGE 2002).

Breakwaters

(After Wallingford, Brampton, George, Goates 2000) Plate 1.6

16
7) Bulkheads
Bulkhead is the term for structures primarily intended to retain or prevent
sliding of the land, whereas protecting the hinterland against flooding and wave action
is of secondary importance. Bulkheads are built as soil retaining structures, and in
most cases as a vertical wall anchored with tie rods. The most common application of
bulkheads is in the construction of mooring facilities in harbors and marinas where
exposure to wave action is minimized (USAGE 2002) (Plate 1.7). Bulkheads are
normally constructed in the form of a vertical wall built in concrete, stone, steel or
timber. Bulkheads are normally smaller than seawalls (Mangor, Karsten 2007).

Bulkheads

(After Brad 2012)

8) Sea dikes
Sea dikes are onshore structures with the principal ftinction of protecting

17
low-lying areas against flooding. Sea dikes are usually built as a mound of fine
materials like sand and clay with a gentle seaward slope in order to reduce the wave
run-up and the erodible effect of the waves (Plate 1.8). The surface of the dike is
armored with grass, asphalt, stones, or concrete slabs (USAGE 2002).

Sea dikes

(After Jackson 2012)


1
Plate 1.8

9) Detached breakwaters
Detached breakwaters are small, relatively short, nonshore-connected
nearshore breakwaters with the principal function of reducing beach erosion (Plate
1.9). They are built parallel to the shore just seaward of the shoreline in shallow water
depths. Multiple detached breakwaters spaced along the shoreline can provide
protection to substantial shoreline frontages. The gaps between the breakwaters are in
most cases on the same order of magnitude as the length of one individual structure.
Each breakwater reflects and dissipates some of the incoming wave energy, thus
reducing wave heights in the lee of the structure and reducing shore erosion. Beach
material transported along the beach moves into the sheltered area behind the
breakwater where it is deposited in the lower wave energy region. The nearshore

18
wave pattern, which is strongly influenced by diffraction at the heads of the
structures, will cause salients and sometimes tombolos to be formed, thus making the
coastline similar to a series of pocket beaches. Once formed, the pockets will cause
wave refraction, which helps to stabilize the pocket-shaped coastline. Like groynes, a
series of detached breakwaters can be used to control the distribution of beach
material along a coastline. Just downdrift of the last breakwater in the series there is
an increased risk of shoreline erosion. Detached breakwaters are normally built as
rubble-mound structures with fairly low crest levels that allow significant overtopping
during storms at high water. The low-crested structures are less visible and help
promote a more even distribution of littoral material along the coastline. Submerged
detached breakwaters are used in some cases because they do not spoil the view, but
they do represent a serious nonvisible hazard to boats and swimmers. Properly
designed detached breakwaters are very effective in reducing erosion and in building
up beaches using natural littoral drift. Moreover, they are effective in holding
artificially nourished beach material (USAGE 2002).

Detached breakwaters

(After Deborah 2011) Plate 1.9

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10) Reef breakwaters
Reef breakwaters are coast-parallel, long or short submerged structures built
with the objective of reducing the wave action on the beach by forcing wave breaking
over the reef (Plate 1.10). Reef breakwaters are normally rubble-mound structures
constructed as a homogeneous pile of stone or concrete armor units. The breakwater
can be designed to be stable or it may be allowed to reshape under wave action. Reef
breakwaters might be narrow crested like detached breakwaters in shallow water or,
in deeper water; they might be wide crested with lower crest elevation like most
natural reefs that cover a fairly wide rim parallel to the coastline. Besides triggering
wave breaking and subsequent energy dissipation, reef breakwaters can be used to
regulate wave action by refraction and diffraction. Reef breakwaters represent a
nonvisible hazard to swimmers and boats (USAGE 2002).

Reef breakwaters

(After Setz, Molly 2010) Plate 1.10

11) Submerged sills


A submerged sill is a special version of a reef breakwater built nearshore and
used to retard offshore sand movements by introducing a structural barrier at one

20
point on the beach profile (Plate 1.11). However, the sill may also interrupt the
onshore sand movement. The sill introduces a discontinuity into the beach profile so
that the beach behind it becomes a perched beach as it is at higher elevation and thus
wider than adjacent beaches. Submerged sills are also used to retain beach material
artificially placed on the beach profile behind the sill. Submerged sills are usually
built as rock-armored, rubble-mound structures or commercially available
prefabricated units. Submerged sills represent a nonvisible hazard to swimmers and
boats (USAGE 2002).

Submerged sills

(After Carl 2013)

12) Beach drains


Beach drains are installed for the purpose of enhancing accumulation of beach
material in the drained part of the beach (Plate 1.12). In principal, the drains are
arranged at an elevation just beneath the lowest seasonal elevafion of the beach profile
in the swash zone. Pumping water from the drains causes local lowering of the
groundwater table, which helps reduce the backwash speed and the groundwater
outflow in the beach zone. This allows more beach material to settle out on the

21
foreshore slope. Beach drains are built like normal surface drain systems consisting of
a stable granular filter, with grain sizes ranging from that of the beach material to
coarse materials like pebbles, arranged around closely spaced perforated pipes. The
drain pipes are connected to few shore-normal pipelines leading to a pump sump in
the upper part of the beach profile. Replacing the granular filter with geotextiles is not
recommended because of the increased tendency to clog the drainage system (USAGE
2002).

Beach drains

« - ^ .

-> - -4^.,

^Rs^^Sr^^^^^^
r
(After Mira 2012) Plate 1.12

13) Floating breakwaters


Floating breakwaters represent an alternative solution to protect an area from
wave attack, compared to conventional fixed breakwaters (Plate 1.13). It can be
effective in coastal areas with mild wave environment conditions. Therefore, they
have been increasingly used aiming at protecting small craft harbours or marinas or,
less frequently, the shoreline, aiming at erosion control. Floating breakwaters might
be a proper solution where poor foundations possibilities prohibit the application of
bottom supported breakwaters. In water depths in excess of 6 m, bottom connected

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breakwaters are often more expensive than floating breakwaters. Floating breakwaters
present a minimum interference with water circulation and fish migration. Floating
breakwaters have a low profile and present a minimum intrusion on the horizon,
particularly for areas with high tide ranges. Floating breakwaters can usually be
rearranged into a new layout with minimum effort. Floating breakwaters are very
effective when their width is of order of half the wavelength or when their natural
period of oscillafion is much longer compared to the wave period (USAGE 2002).

Floating breakwaters

(After Ruol 2008)

14) Scour protection


The function of scour protection of the seabed is to prevent instability of
coastal structures with foundations that rely on stable seabed or beach levels. Both
granular material and clay can be eroded by the action of waves and currents. Scour
potential is especially enhanced by a combination of waves and currents. In most
cases scour protection consists of a rock bed on stone or geotextile filter; however,
several specially designed concrete block and mattress systems exist. Scour protecfion
is commonly used at the toe of seawalls and dikes; and in some instances scour

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protection is needed around piles and pillars, at the toe of vertical-front breakwaters,
and at groyne heads. Scour protection might also be needed along structures that
cause concentration of currents, such as training walls and breakwaters extending
from the shoreline. Highly reflective structures like impermeable vertical walls are
much more susceptible to near structure scour than sloping rubble-mound structures.
(USAGE 2002) (Plate 1.14).

Scour protection

(After Verhagen 2013)

15) Storm surge barriers


Storm surge barriers protect estuaries against storm surge flooding and related
wave attack. These barriers also prevent excessive intrusion of salt-water wedges
during high-water episodes. In most cases the barrier consists of a series of movable
gates that normally stay open to let the flow pass but will be closed when storm surges
exceed a certain level. The gates are sliding or rotating steel constructions supported
in most cases by concrete structures on pile foundations. Scour protection on either
side of the barrier sill is an important part of the structure because of high flow
velocities over the sill (USAGE 2002) (Plate 1.15).

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storm surge barriers

(After Craven 2013)

16) Pile structures


The most common pile structures in coastal engineering are bridge piers
extending from the shore into the water where they are exposed to loads fi-om waves,
currents, and in cold regions, ice loads (Plate 1.16). The purpose of pile structures
might be to provide open coast moorings for vessels, in which case the deck and the
piles must carry loads from traffic, cranes, goods, and pipeline installations. The
supporting pile structure might consist of slender wood, steel or reinforced concrete
piles driven into the sea-bed, or of large diameter piles or pillars placed directly on the
seabed or on pile work, depending on the bearing capacity and settlement
characteristics of the seabed. Large diameter piles would commonly be constructed of
concrete or be steel pipes filled with mass concrete. Pillars would most commonly be
constructed as concrete caissons, concrete block work, or backfilled steel sheet piling
(USAGE 2002).

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Pile structures

(After Jason 2013)

17) Training walls


Training walls are structures built to direct flow (Plate 1.17). Typical training
wall objectives might be to improve mooring conditions in an estuary or to direct
littoral drift away from an area of potential deposition. Most training walls are
constructed using sheet piles (USAGE 2002).

Training walls

(After Gillian 2012)

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B) Soft engineering methods
1) Beach nourishment
Beach nourishment is a soft structure solution used for prevention of shoreline
erosion. Material of preferably the same, or larger, grain size and density as the
natural beach material is artificially placed on the eroded part of the beach to
compensate for the lack of natural supply of beach material (Plate 1.18). The beach
fill might protect not only the beach where it is placed, but also downdrift stretches by
providing an updrift point source of sand (USAGE 2002).

Beach nourishment

(After Wallingford, Brampton, George, Goates 2000) Plate 1.18

2) Dune construction
Dune construction is the piling up of beach quality sand to form protective
dune fields to replace those washed away during severe storms (Plate 1.19). An
essential component of dune reconstruction is planting of dune vegetation and
placement of netting or snow fencing to help retain wind-blown sand normally
trapped by mature dune vegetation. Storm over wash fans may be a viable source of
material for dune construction (USAGE 2002).

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Dune construction

(After Wallingford, Brampton, George, Coates 2000) Plate 1.19


3) Planting of mangroves
Planting mangroves along the shore (Plate 1.20). Mangroves with their prop
roots help trap sediments and reduce coastal erosion. As mangrove communities grow
seawards, they extend the coastal land seawards. It can affect the depth of coasts and
has implications for port activities/coastal transportation. However, young mangroves
are very vulnerable, thus the help of the local people is needed to help take care for
these plants.

Planting of mangroves

(After Cleveland 2010) Plate 1.20

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4) Encouraging growth of coral reefs
Coral reefs are underwater structures made from calcium carbonate secreted
by corals. Coral reefs are colonies of tiny animals found in marine waters that contain
few nutrients. Coral reefs are masses of rock like substance called corals growing in
shallow water. They protect beaches against coastal erosion by reducing the speed of
the waves approaching the coast. Resulting the waves losing most of their energy.
Negative impact of this method is human activities like dynamite fishing and land
reclamation destroyed coral reefs, water pollution affected the growth of reefs (Plate
1.21).

Encouraging growtli of coral reefs

(After Wijgerde, Houlbreque, Ferrier 2008) Plate 1.21

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