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“An anti-aliasing filter”

Solution: (c) “is an analog filter realised before sampling to remove low frequency errors due to

a too low rate of sampling”

“An anti-aliasing filter” is used before sampling an analog signal as it attenuates the signals with

frequencies more than the desired bandwidth. It is done to remove the effect of aliasing which is

caused by sampling at lower rate than the theoretical Nyquist rate. When aliasing occurs

frequencies towards the lower end of bandwidth get more effected.

2. The block diagram of a P-I controller is given in Fig. 1. How much time (in seconds) the

controller output (u) will take to reach 12 units when it is driven by a ramp error signal of slope

1 as shown in the figure? Assume initial condition of the integrator to be zero.

ee e 4

u

+

0 1t

u

+

2

Fig. 1

Solution: 2

1

Given e t tu t Its Laplace Transform will be: E s

s2

2

Controller transfer function: C s 4

s

1 2 4 2

Controller output: U s E s C s 2 4 2 3

s s s s

Taking inverse Laplace: u t 4 t u t t u t

2

Solving for the time taken (t) by the controller to reach 12 units we get:

4t t 2 12

t 2 4t 12 0

4 42 4.12

t

2

4 16 48

2

4 8

2

2

3. A controller of a closed loop system can be designed by optimising the performance

specification of the error. The choice of this specification used in designing the optimal

controller affects the nature of the error performance of the overall closed loop system. Match

the types of error specification given in the left column with the corresponding natures of their

error performances in the right column.

A. Integral Square error

errors with equal weights

II. Strongly suppresses large

B. Integral Absolute error

errors

III. Suppresses long persistent

C. Integral Time Absolute error

errors

Ketd s

4. The open loop transfer function of a system is given by, G ( s) . Unit step response

1 s

(input applied at t=0 second) of this system is shown in Fig. 2. Compute the initial guess of

Proportional Band (PB) and Integral Gain (KI) of a PI controller to be used with the given

open loop plant by Ziegler Nichols method of tuning based on the open loop step response. (Select

the closest option)

Fig. 2

Solution: (d) PB=74.07, KI =0.405

Ketd s

Given G s where td 1sec as seen from Fig. 2

1 s

K 2 as the steady state value of G(s) for a unit step input is 2

One time constant is calculated as the time taken to reach 63.2 % of the steady state value

which is 3sec (4 – 1 = 3 sec, since 1 sec is the delay time)

Applying Ziegler Nichols method of tuning based on the open loop step response

K 2

M

3

0.9 0.9

Kp 1.35

M td 2 3 1

Ti 3.33 td 3.33 1 3.33

100

PB 74.07

Kp

K p 1.35

KI 0.4054

Ti 3.33

1

5. Consider a closed loop unity feedback system with plant G p ( s) , controlled

s( s 2)(s 6)

using a PID controller tuned by Ziegler-Nichols closed loop continuous cycling method. The transfer

1

function of the PID controller is given by G c (s) K P 1 TDs . Initial guess of controller

TI s

parameters (KP, TI, TD) using Ziegler- Nichols are: (Select the closest option)

Period of sustained oscillation = PC

Use the following relations: K P =0.6KC , TI = 0.5PC , TD =0.125PC

K

Characteristic equation: 1 0 where K is the proportional gain of the PID

s s 2 s 6

controller assuming TD = 0 and TI = infinity. This is done to calculate critical gain KC.

Characteristic equation s3 8s2 12s K 0

Applying Routh Hurwitz criterion

1 12

8 K

96 K P 0

96 K p

0 K P 96

8

Kp

Critical gain Kc 96

Auxiliary eqn.

8s2 Kc 0

8s2 96 0

s2 12

s 12

jc 12 j c 12 3.464 rad/s

2

Period, Pc c 2 f c

c

2 1 2

Pc

3.464 fc c

1.814sec

K P 0.6 96 57.6

TI 0.5 1.814 0.907

TD 0.125 1.814 0.22675

Here,

q1 is the inflow rate of water;

q2 is the outflow rate of steam;

h denotes the level of water in the boiler which is to be controlled;

p1 and p2 are the water pressures at the inlet and outlet pipe, respectively;

x1 is the position of inlet valve;

x2 is the stem position of the outlet valve which is controlled to meet the steam demand.

The inlet water is drawn from a feed-water pipe fed by a pump and the steam flowing out is

going to the turbine. The power demand is met by supplying appropriate steam to the turbine

which is done by operating the outlet valve from time to time.

Steam Control Valve

Steam

Steam Flow

Level FT Transmitter

Water Level Transmitter

Feedwater h

Feedwater

Control Valve

Feedwater Flow

FT

Transmitter

Differential Relay

Flow

Controller ID => Input Disturbance

Set Point PI Controller OD => Output Disturbance

Auto/Manual

Selector Switch

Fig. 3

Choose the correct option

As explained in the question, here p1 is ID as the water entering the inlet is fed by a pump which

is far away from the tank. Therefore, this pressure may vary due to irregularities in the input

flow. x1 is not ID because it is being controlled by the actuator which is quite precise in its

operation. x2 is OD because this valve is operated from time to time i.e., not on a regular basis.

This valve may be operated manually also. p2 is not OD because this pressure depends on the

water level of the tank which is controlled precisely in spite of the ID p1.

reference input and disturbance. Set points can change randomly. This change can be an

increase/decrease of high step input. Due to this sudden change, the controller output can also

rise/drop suddenly which can have adverse effect on the actuator. To avoid this, a command

pre-filter is required in a dynamic reference feed-forward controller.

8. The diagram shown in Fig. 4 is a typical structure a closed loop control system along with a

feed-forward controller. Gc is a PI controller and H is the feedback transfer function of the

Kd Kp

system. Suppose G d = , Gp= , G t =K t , Gv =Kv . The dynamic transfer function model

τds+1 τ ps+1

of the feed forward controller (Gf) which will mitigate the transient effect of disturbance from

D

the output response is:

Gf Gt

FF controller Disturbance

PFF sensor/trans Gd

mitter

Yd

PFB + Disturbance

Ysp E P U Yu + Y

K +- Gc + Gv Gp + Model

Ym

H

Sensor/transmitter Plant

Fig. 4

K d τps+1

Solution: (b) -

K t K v K p τds+1

D

Gf Gt

PFF

PFB +

+ Gd

+ Y

Gv Gp +

Kp

G v =K v Gp =

τps+1

Kd

Gd = G t =K t

τds+1

Y=PFBGvGpPFB

PFB Gf Gt DGvGp DGd

Output Y when there is No disturbance = Output Y when there is disturbance D.

PFB GvGp PFBGvGp G f Gt GvGp D DGd

DGd Gf Gt GvGp D

Kd

Gd d s 1

Gf

Gt GvGp Kp

Kt K v

ps 1

Kd s 1

p

Kt K v K p d s 1

9. Consider a liquid level control system (modelled as a first order system) of an industrial

process shown in Fig. 5.1. The effect of disturbance in this process will take a lot of time to

reflect in the output. So a feed-forward controller is used to reduce this time taken. Let the

1

nominal transfer function of the process be . But the actual plant transfer function is

5s 2

1

. The effect of output disturbance on the process output is modelled by the transfer

4.9s 2.1

1

function (Assume actual and nominal models are same for this). A PI controller is used as

s 1

a feedback controller to achieve a desired performance by taking care of the modelling error.

The parameters of the PI controller are: KP=10 and TI=1 unit.

A unit step is applied at reference (R) of the closed loop system assuming all initial conditions

to be zero. At t=10 secs, through an actuator a unit step disturbance (D) affects the process.

Output responses of the above mentioned closed loop system using different control schemes

like only feedback, only feedforward and feedback-feedforward are shown in Fig. 5.2. Match each

response with its corresponding control scheme:

Feedforward Controller

+ - D

Eff Process

Yd

Feedback Controller Uff

R Efb Ufb + U Yr + Y

+- + +

Fig. 5.1

Fig. 5.2

I: Using only feedback controller

II: Using only feedforward controller

III: Using feedback-feedforward controller

Controller is of PI type and the system is modelled as a first order type-0 system.

Using only feedback controller, the system will take time to settle when a disturbance is applied

to it. In this case it is observed that the response has a high overshoot. Steady state error of the

system is 0 as PI controller is used for this type 0 system. These can be observed by calculating

settling time, maximum peak overshoot and steady state error of the following system with

Y (s)

transfer function ]

D( s)

+ - D

Eff Process

Yd

Feedback Controller

R Efb Ufb + U Yr + Y

+- + +

It can be seen from Plot C that the time taken to nullify the effect of disturbance is high and

overshoot is also high.

Using only feedforward controller, the effect of disturbance to the system can be nullified quickly.

But there will always be some steady state error due to modelling inaccuracy. It can be observed

Y ( s)

by calculating the steady state error ( y(t ) r(t ) , at t or R( s) lim s R( s) ) of the following

s 0 R ( s )

system.

Feedforward Controller

+ - D

Eff Process

Yd

Uff

R Efb Ufb + U Yr + Y

+- + +

It can be seen from Plot A that there exists a steady state error.

Using both feedback and feedforward controller, the effect of disturbance will be taken care of

quickly by the feedforward controller and the effect of modelling inaccuracies will be taken care

of by the feedback controller. It can observed from Plot B.

10. A ratio control scheme as shown in Fig. 6 is to be used to maintain a stoichiometric ratio of

H2 and N2 as feed to ammonia synthesis reactor. Individual Flow Controllers (FC) will be

used for both H2 and N2 streams. The electronic Flow Transmitters (FT) have built-in-square

root extractors. The spans of the flow transmitters are 45 L/min for H2 and 20 L/min for N2.

The control valves have pneumatic actuators. Each current-to-pressure (I/P) transducer has

a gain of 0.75 psi/mA. The Ratio Station (RS) is an electronic instrument with 4-20 mA input

and output signals. The ratio station is a device with an adjustable gain. The input signal to

the ratio station is dm i.e., the measured H2 flow rate. Its output signal usp serves as the set

point for the N2 flow control loop. The gain setting of the ratio station takes into account the

spans of the two flow transmitters.

The stoichiometric equation for the ammonia synthesis reaction is: 3H2 + N2=2NH3

Note: For the sake of simplicity, assume that the ratio of the molar flow rates is equal to the ratio

of the volumetric flow rates. But in general, the volumetric flow rates also depend on the

temperature and pressure of each stream (from ideal gas law).

d

(H2)

FT

I/P FC dm

Ratio RS NH3

synthesis

station Set-point, usp reactor

I/P FC

um

FT

u

(N2)

Fig. 6

3H2 + N2=2NH3

In order to introduce the feed mixture in stoichiometric proportions, the ratio of the molar

flow rates (H 2/N 2) should be 3:1.

We assumed that the ratio of the molar flow rates is equal to the ratio of the volumetric flow

rates. But in general, the volumetric flow rates also depend on the temperature and pressure

of each stream (cf., the ideal gas law).

The H2 flow rate is considered to be the disturbance variable, although this choice is arbitrary

because both the H 2 and N 2 flow rates are controlled. Note that the ratio station is merely a

device with an adjustable gain. The input signal to the ratio station is dm, the measured H 2

flow rate. Its output signal usp serves as the set point for the N 2 flow control loop. It is

calculated as usp = KR dm.

From the stoichiometric equation, it follows that the desired ratio is Rd = u/d = 1/3.

KR = Rd × ( Sd/Su)

where R d is the desired ratio, Su and Sd are the spans of the flow transmitters for the

manipulated and disturbance streams, respectively.

The spans of the flow transmitters H2 , Sd = 45 L/min

The spans of the flow transmitters N2 , Su = 20 L/min

KR = (1/3) × [(45 L/ min)/ (20 L/ min)]=3/4

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