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CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION

Introduction.

In this chapter begins with the summary of all of research findings : activated carbon in
the durian peel and combination of activated carbon with HCl solution, NaOH solution and
NaCl solution with different concentration. Then, the chapter explains the conclusion for each
finding research and recommendation in order to improve the results of the experiment.

Summary

The experiment was conducted in order to study durian peel as a new energy sources
where the voltage was tested using voltmeter as the durian peel contain activated carbon. Based
on the results, the electrode inside the battery was replaced by the durian and the voltage was
recorded in table 4.1. The activated carbon inside the durian peel play the main factor to
generate electricity throughout the electrical field between two electrode. Besides that, in this
experiment also used the chemical substance which are sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride
and hydrochloric acid with the different molarity. This chemical were added to the sample of
durian peel in the different battery. The voltage was recorded in the table 4.2 and the data
shown increased by the concentration. This method is used to identify and modified the life
cycle of durian peel battery for long term. Basically, the chemical that used classified as strong
alkaline (NaOH), strong acid (HCl) and salt solution (NaCl). Thus, different effect for each
chemical to the durian peel battery. Besides, high concentration will affect the production of
voltage where it increased when the concentration increased.
Preparation and characterization

As conclusion to this topic, the shape of durian peel need to be changed as to replace in
the battery electrode. Inner surface of durian peel must cut to small pieces before the sample
was blended in order to get semi-solid as the sample. Then, the sample was washed with water
in order to avoid the contamination occurred. Then, The empty battery was done by removing
the activated carbon and replace it by durian peel. Test the voltage within three days and the
data was recorded in table 4.1. Note that,

Voltage testing for original durian sample

From the optimization study, it can be conclude that durian peel have a potential to
conduct the electricity. After carbon inside the battery was removed and it replaced with the
durian peel sample as a electrolyte in the battery. Within 24 hours, the voltage was measured
by using voltage meter and the data was recorded in table 4.1. This is because the durian peel
have their own chemical such as activated carbon and it can react to produce electric. The
electron can move freely from the anode to cathode which is from one electrode to the another
electrode across the electrical field. The activated carbon inside the durian peel same as the
activated carbon in the pure battery where it can generate the electric but in small voltage and
short of period time. The average of results was 0.929V in the first day while 1.119V in the
third day

Voltage testing with chemical

From the study, the durian peel battery need to be modified due to the short time of
period. Thus, it need to add some chemical which are NaOH solution, HCl solution and NaCl
solution with the different concentration. The concentration that have been used are 0.1M,
1.0M, 3.0M, and 5.0M for each chemical solution. This topic also to investigate the chemical
solution with different concentration affected the production of voltages. The highest voltage
produced based on the table 4,2 is hydrochloric acid with high concentration. Basically, the
chemical that used classified as strong alkaline (NaOH), strong acid (HCl) and salt solution
(NaCl). Thus, different effect for each chemical to the durian peel battery. Besides, high
concentration will affect the production of voltage where it increased when the concentration
increased.

Recommendation for preparation and characterization of sample

The recommendation for future study is essential in order to bring the new idea in
technology, which is agricultural waste where can be used as a new electrical energy sources
for battery. The novelty and potential in this study can be improved. As the recommendation
to this topic, ensure that a sample in a good condition. The aim is to increase the surface area
between particle samples. Theoretically, high surface area will results in increment for the
reaction rate. Therefore, increasing the surface of the durian peel sample will increase the
reaction pf electrochemical, thus the high voltage is produced.

Recommendation for FTIR spectra analysis

FTIR spectrum were conducted to analyse the functional group sample. The durian peel
basically is a waste product which the undesired product also attached to the durian peel. Thus,
the sample required to clear in order to remove undesired product . This is because to ensure
that the undesired material in sample will affect the FTIR spectra analysis with the presence of
other solution. The function of FTIR is to known the functional group of the durian peel.
Besides, this functional group will describe inside the chemical inside the durian peel.
Recommendation of solute solution and the equipment

As known that, the solution comes from the solid form where it need to be diluted first.
Instead of time, it suitable to used the suitable equipment as the mass of the solid solution
increase when the high concentration. Besides, the magnetic bar also need to enough as varies
equipment that have been used.