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CE 591

Fall 2013
Lecture 7: Plate Girders; Design
 Rules of Thumb
 Flange-to-web weld
 Design Aids
 Design Example
Proportioning the Section
 Goals
 Satisfy limit states
 Strength
 Serviceability
 Minimum cost
 assume cost proportional to
weight of steel
 but remember that least-weight
may not provide the most cost
effective design!
Rules of Thumb
 Span-Depth Ratio
 Salmon & Johnson, Steel Structures, 4th ed.
bf
L
 10 to 12
d
 Rules of Thumb, MSC 2000

L d
 15
d

L
Modern Steel Construction, 2000
“Design It Like You Are Going to Build It”
Karl Frank 2013 NASCC Educator Session: Bridge Design for the
Classroom media.aisc.org/NASCC2013/ES1.mp4

 Recommendations for composite plate

girders for bridges
“Design It Like You Are Going to Build It”
Karl Frank 2013 NASCC Educator Session: Bridge Design for the
Classroom media.aisc.org/NASCC2013/ES1.mp4

 Recommendations for composite plate

girders for bridges
AASHTO Cross Sectional Limits

Similar to AISC
eq. F13-2
Not stable if
outside limit
Rules of Thumb – Flange Width
bf

bf
 0.2 to 0.3
d

d
“shallow
section”
“deep
section”
Optimum Depth (another option)
 Based on minimizing weight (i.e. gross
cross-sectional area), supposing no depth
restriction
 f is average stress on flange (i.e. Fcr)
 bw is an assumed constant h/t
 bw of 320 for ‘optimum’ proportion A36
 C1 is a factor to account for reducing
flange size at regions of lower moment
 C2 is factor to account for reducing web
thickness at regions of reduced shear
Optimum Depth, cont’d
3MC1bw
h3
f (3C 2  C1)
 Suppose C1= C2= 1 (i.e. no section
reduction in regions of lower stress)

3Mbw
h3
2f
Rules of Thumb – Flange Area
Mu/f
bf Af
C
M Aw
Af  
d h Aw
fh 6
Average
T stress on Sx / h
flange
Rules of Thumb – Plate dimensions
 Plate widths
 2” increments
 Stiffener spacing
 3” multiples
Rules of Thumb – Plate thickness

Increments Range
(inches) (inches)
1/16 t ≤ 9/16

1/4 t > 1-1/2

Rules of Thumb – Flange Plates, p. 1
 Based on minimum volume (weight) and Af
equation used earlier

L/2
Mmax

Groove weld Af 1 1

Af 2

Af1 Af
Rules of Thumb – Flange Plates, p.2

Mmax
L/3 Af 1 5
L 
Af 9
Groove weld

 Unless save 200 – 300 lbs of

makes flange plate
transition uneconomical
Af1 Af (Salmon et al., Steel Structures, 5th ed.)
Other flange plate recommendations
 If concerned about LTB, keep bf /2tf at
about the lp value in maximum moment
regions
 Could then reduce flange thickness in low
moment regions (reduce thickness instead of
width)
 No LTB? Reduce width if desired
 “slight advantage in fatigue strength”
 Transition slope should be less than 1 in 2-1/2
for either width or thickness change
 1 in 4 to 1 in 12 recommended for change in
width
2013 NASCC Educator Session: Bridge Design for the Classroom
media.aisc.org/NASCC2013/ES1.mp4
Weld of flange to web
 Must provide for factored
horizontal shear flow

X X 1st moment
Vu Q of area
shear flow  of flange
neutral axis
(kips/in)
Weld of flange to web, p.2
 DOTs typically require SAW
for these welds
 “more thermally efficient”
 More uniform weld cross section
and strength
X X
 no stops/starts and other
irregularities that concentrate
stress
 SMAW uses stick electrodes of
limited length and diameter
Rules of Thumb – Web
 “Reasonable range” for web stress

fVn
 12 to 16 ksi
Aw
 < 9 ksi? May be able to use thinner web

 Practical minimum web thickness (tw)

 5/16”
Design Aids – Shear, Stiffeners
 Tables 3-16a, 3-17a (without TFA)
 36 ksi and 50 ksi steel
 Starting on AISC Manual p. 3-152
 Tables 3-16b, 3-17b (with TFA)

NOTE: here, Aw = d tw (AISC G2)

---- means
exceeded
“practical limit”
on
stiffener spacing
2
a  260 
  
h  h tw 

a/h > 3.0

kv = 5.0
Corresponds approximately
to limit for vertical
flange buckling
Plate Girder Design Example
Consider a simply supported plate girder that carries the factored
doubly symmetric, non-hybrid girder with A36 steel. Assume
that lateral support is provided at the ends and at the

150 k 150 k
5 k/ft

A B C D Lateral
24' 24' 24' Support
Lateral Support
330 k
Design Example, p. 2
150 k 150 k
5 k/ft

A B C D Lateral
24' 24' 24' Support

330 k
210
Shear 60
(kip)
60
210 330
Moment
(ft-kip)

6480 6480
6840
Design Example, p. 3a
 Sizing the Section, try ‘Rule of Thumb’

L (72 ft )(12 in / ft)

 10 to 12  72 in
d 12

 Try h = 72” h 72"

 Try tw = 5/16”
  230
tw 5 / 16"
Design Example, p. 3b
 Sizing the Section, try formula for h

3Mbw 3( Mu / f ) bw
h3 3
2f 2 RpgFcr
3(6840kipft / 0.9)(12in / ft )(320)
h3
2(1.0)(36ksi)
 107in
Design Example, p. 3c
 Try h = 107” h 107"
 Try tw = 5/16”
  342
tw 5 / 16"
 AISC F13.2 for a/h ≤ 1.5

h 29000ksi
   12.0  341
 tw  max 36ksi
 a/h > 1.5 limit will be even smaller …
 Also, web substantially heavier than for h=72”
with practical minimum web thickness
 So, try h=72”
Design Example, p. 4
 Slender Web?

E 29000ksi
lr  5.70 lr  5.70  162
Fy 36ksi
Table B4.1b (Case 15)
h
 230  lr
tw
 Check shear stress (recommended)

fVn Vu 330kips
 12 to 16 ksi  
5
 14.7
Aw Aw ( 72" )( ")
16
Design Example, p. 5
 Double check AISC Limitations, h/tw = 230

h E a
 12.0 for  1.5 (F13-3)
tw Fyf h

29000 ksi
 12.0  341
36 ksi
h 0.40 E a
 for  1.5 (F13-4)
tw Fy h

0.40(29000ksi) √ OK, Limitations

  322 satisfied
36ksi
Design Example, p. 6
 Estimate Flange Size
M Aw Mu Aw
Af    
fh 6 fb RPG Fcr h 6

6840 ft  kip(12in / ft ) 72" (5 / 16" )

Af    31.4in 2

(0.9)(1.0)(36ksi)(72" ) 6
Design Example, p. 7
bf
 Possible flange dimensions
tf
tf (in) bf (in) Af (in2) bf /2tf
1.375 24 33.0 8.72
1.25 26 32.5 10.4
1.125 28 31.5 12.4

 Use FLB compactness limit to help

choose size (optional) – Table B4.1b

E 29000
l p  0.38  0.38  10.8
Fyf 36
 Flange width rule bf 26"
of thumb   0.34 > 0.3
d (72"2(1.25" ))
Design Example, p. 8a
 LTB – Flexural Capacity; Lb = 24 ft
1 1 5 3
bf =26” ( 26 3
)(1.25)  (12 )( )
rt  12 12 16  7.1 in
5
tf =1.25” (26)(1.25)  (12)( )
16
hc/6
E E
=72”/6 Lp  1.1rt Lr   rt
=12” Fy 0.7 Fy
tw
(F4-7) (F5-5)
=5/16”
29000ksi
Lp  1.1(7.1in )  222in  18.5 ft
36ksi
29000ksi
Lr   (7.1in )  757in  63.1 ft
0.7(36ksi)
150 k 150 k
5 k/ft

Design Example, p. 8b
Lp = 18.5 ft < Lb = 24 ft < Lr =24'63.1 ft 24'
A B C D Lateral
24' Support

Lb  Lp 330 k
210

Fcr  Cb[ Fy  (0.3Fy )(Shear

)]  Fy 60
(F5-3)
Lr  Lp
(kip)
60
210 330
 ~5% difference in Moment

Mu within Lb –
(ft-kip)

assume constant
moment 6480
6840
6480

24  18.5
Fcr  (1.0)[36  (0.3(36))( )]  36ksi
63.1  18.5
Fcr  34.5ksi
Design Example, p. 9
26”
 Calculate Section Modulus, etc.
1.25”

1 5 72 1.25 2 1
( )(723 )  2(26)(1.25)(  )  2( )(26)(1.253 )
S x  12 16 2 2 12
72
(  1.25)
2 72”
 2602 in 3
5/16”

hctw (72" )(5 / 16" )

aw  aw   0.69
bfctc (26" )(1.25" )
(F4-12)
<10 √ OK
Design Example, p. 10
 Calculate Flexural Capacity
aw hc E
Rpg  1  (  5.7 )  1.0 (F5-6)
1200  300aw tw Fy

0.69 72" 29000ksi

 1 (  5.7 )  0.97
1200  300(0.69) 5 / 16" 36ksi

 0.9(2602in 3 )(0.97)(34.5ksi)  78368kip  in  6531kip  ft

< Mu = 6840 kip-ft N.G.
Design Example, p. 11
28”
 TRY 28” x 1.5” flange 1.5”
 Recalculate properties:

Af  42 in 2 bf  28"  9.33  lp  10.8

2t f 2(1.5" ) compact wrt FLB
72”
rt  7.74in
5/16”
Lp  20.1 ft  Lb  24  Lr  68.7 ft
Fcr  35.8ksi
S x  3285in 3 aw  0.535
Design Example, p. 12
 Recalculate Flexural Capacity, cont’d.

0.535 72" 29000ksi

Rpg  1  (  5.7 )  0.973
1200  300(0.535) 5 / 16" 36ksi

fM n  fb S xc R pg Fcr
 0.9(3285in )(0.973)(35.8ksi)
3

 102985 kip  in  8582 kip  ft

Design Example, p. 13
 Check against Mu including self-weight

5
Area  2(28in )(1.5in )  (72in )( in )  106in 2

16
106in 2
Weight  (490 pcf )  361 lb / ft
in 2
144
ft 2
361lb / ft
(72 ft )2
1000lbs / kip
M u  6840kip  ft  1.2  7120kip  ft
8
< 8582 kip-ft
fM n  M u 
flexural capacity of section is adequate
Design Example, p. 14
 Check Deflection Limits
150 k 150 k
5 k/ft

a
A B C D Lateral
24' 24' 24' Support

330 k
wu  5k / ft  1.2(0.210
361k / ft )  5.43k / ft
60
wShear
service
(kip)
 5.43 / 1.5  3.62k / ft
Pservice  Pu / 1.5  150kips / 1.560 100kips
210 330
Moment
Design Example, p. 15
 Deflection limits, cont’d.
1 72" 1.5" 2 1 5
I x  2( )(28" )(1.5"3 )  (2)(28" )(1.5" )(  )  ( " )(72"3 )  123,183in 4
12 2 2 12 16

5wservice L4 Pservicea 5( 3.62 k / ft )( 72 ft 4

)(1728in 3 / ft 3)
  (3L  4a ) 
2 2

384 EI 24 EI 384(29,000ksi)(123,183in ) 4

100kips(24 ft )(1728in 3 / ft 3)
( 3( 72 ft 2
)  4 ( 24 ft 2
))  0.61  0.64  1.25in
24(29,000ksi)(123,183in ) 4

L 72 ft (12in / ft )
 max    2.40in > 1.25 in √ OK
360 360
Design Example, p. 16
150 k 150 k
5 k/ft
 Low shear demand –
Region BC
h
A
24'
B
24'
C
24'
D Lateral
Support  230  260
330 k
tw
210
Shear 60 260 is limit for unstiffened girders
(kip)
60 (F13.2); stiffeners not required
210 330 unless needed for capacity
Moment
(ft-kip)
h kv E 5.0(29000ksi)
 230  1.37  1.37  87.0
tw Fyw 36ksi
6480 6480
6840

1.51kv E
Cv  
1.51(5)( 29000ksi)
 0.12
h 2 2
( ) Fy (230 )(36ksi)
tw (G2-5)
Design Example, p. 17
 Shear Capacity – Region BC

fVn  0.9(0.6 Aw FyCv ) (G2-1) and AISC G1

5
 0.9(0.6)(75")( ")(36ksi)(0.12)  54.6kips
16
<Vu = 60 kips
  2 w/o self-weight N.G.
a  260   
2
260
    1.28
h h   230 
 tw 
a = 90”
a  1.28h  1.28(72" )  92.2" a/h=1.25
Design Example, p. 18
 Shear Capacity – Region BC
5 5
kv  5  kv  5   8.2
( a / h) 2 (1.25) 2

kv E 8.2(29000ksi) h
1.37  1.37  111   230
Fy 36ksi tw

1.51kv E
Cv  
1.51(8.2)(29000ksi)
 0.19
h 2 2
( ) Fyw (230 )(36ksi)
tw
(G2-5)
Design Example, p. 19
 Shear Capacity – Region BC
1  Cv
fVn  0.9(0.6 Aw Fy )(Cv  ) (G3-2)
1.15 1  (a / h)2
5 1  0.19
 0.9(0.6)(75")( ")(36ksi)(0.19  )
16 1.15 1  1.252
 86  200  286 kips >>Vu = 60 kips √ OK
including self-weight

24 ft (12in / ft ) 24 ft (12in / ft ) a 72"

 3.2 panels a  72in;   1.0
90in / panel 4spaces h 72"
Small adjustment needed later since ‘a’ is clear distance between stiffeners
Design Example, p. 20
150 k 150 k
5 k/ft
 Shear Capacity –
Regions AB and CD
A B C D Lateral
24' 24' 24' Support

330 k
210 Design End Panels first
Shear
(kip)
60
NO TFA Permitted
60
210 330
Moment
(ft-kip)
361lb / ft
(72 ft )
1000lbs / kip
Vu  330
6480 kips  1.2 6480  346 kips
6840
2
Required 346kips
 14.8 ksi
Stress (75")(5 /16")
Design Example, p. 21
 Shear Capacity, End
Panels
 Use Table 3-16a (No
TFA) for estimate

Will need a/h < 0.5

fVn  Vu  346kips
Requires:
Cv >0.791
kv > 34.4
a/h < 0.41
a < 29.5”
Design Example, p. 22
 Shear Capacity, End Panel
Try a = 27”; a/h = 0.375
5 5
kv  5  2
 5 2
 40.6
( a / h) (0.375)
kv E 40.6(29000ksi) h
1.37  1.37  247   230
Fy 36ksi tw
kv E 40.6(29000ksi) h
1.10  1.10  199   230
Fy 36ksi tw
1.10 kvE Fy 1.10 (40.6)(29000ksi) (36ksi)
Cv    0.86
h tw 230
5
Vn  0.9(0.6 Aw Fy Cv )  0.9(0.6)(75")( ")(36ksi)(0.86)  392 kips
16
√ OK
Design Example, p. 23
150 k 150 k  Shear Capacity –
5 k/ft
Regions AB and CD

A B C D Lateral After End Panels

24' 24' 24'
TFA Permitted?
Support

330 k

Shear
210
60 Check AISC G3.1
(kip)
60
(a) and (b) satisfied;
~27” 210 330 (c) and (d) ??
Moment
(ft-kip)
2 Aw 2(72" )(5 16" )
  0.54 < 2.5 TFA OK!
( Afc  Aft ) 2(28" )(1.5" )
6480 6480
6840
h h 72"
   2.6 < 6.0 TFA OK!
bfc bft 28"
Design Example, p. 24
150 k 150 k  Shear Capacity –
5 k/ft
Regions AB and CD

After End Panels

A B C D Lateral
24' 24' 24' Support

330 k
210
TFA Permitted
Shear 60
(kip)
60
~27” 210 330
Moment
(ft-kip)

Vu  334kips Including self-weight

6480 6480
Required
6840
334kips
 14.2 ksi
Stress (75")(5 /16")
Design
Example, p. 25
 Shear Capacity, after
End Panels
 Use Table 3-16b (with
TFA) for estimate
 Based on required
stress, try a/h = 0.80?
Design Example, p. 26
 Shear Capacity, after End Panel, with TFA
5 5
Try a = 56”; a/h = 0.78 kv  5  2
 5 2
 13.2
(a / h) (0.78)
kv E 13.2(29000ksi) h
1.37  1.37  141   230
Fy 36ksi tw
1.51kv E 1.51(13.2)( 29000ksi)
Cv   2
 0.304
h 2 (230 )(36ksi)
( ) Fy
tw
1  Cv
Vn  0.9(0.6 Aw Fy )(Cv  )
1.15 1  (a / h) 2

5 1  0.304
 0.9(0.6)(75)( )(36)(0.304  )  356kips >334 kips
16 1.15 1  0.78 2
√ OK
Design Example, p. 27
150 k 150 k  Shear Capacity –
5 k/ft
Regions AB and CD

After first 2 panels;

A B C D Lateral
24' 24' 24' Support

330 k
210
TFA permitted
Shear 60
(kip)
60

Moment
(ft-kip)

Vu  309kips Including self-weight

6480 6480
Required
6840
309kips Based on Table 3-16b,
 13.2 ksi 
Stress (75")(5 /16") repeat a/h= 0.78
Design Example, p. 28
Repeat process for next panel(s); determine stiffener
27” layout (another layout might be more efficient)
CL
sym.

Note: ‘a’ dimension used for stiffener spacing; therefore,

actual ‘a’ (clear distance) will be smaller
(May also modify to get multiples of 3” for spacing)
Design Example, p.29
 Size flange-to-web
weld h tf
Q  Af (  )
2 2
72" 1.5"
 28" (1.5" )(  )  1544 in 3
2 2

X X Vu Q
shearflow 
Ix

346kips(1544in 3)
 4
 4.34kips / in
123,183in
Design Example, p. 30
 Flange-to-web welds,
cont’d
 AISC Table J2.4 minimum
size
 3/16” fillet for 5/16” plate
(thinner part joined)
 Assume Submerged Arc X X
Weld (SAW)
 Try w=1/4”
 Use matching weld
electrode, 70ksi
Design Example, p. 31
 Flange-to-web weld, cont’d.
Weld Metal (AISC J2)
2
fRn  f (0.6FEXX ) Aw  0.75(2)(0.6)(70ksi) (0.25" )  11.1kips / in
2
Base Metal – Shear Yield (AISC J4.2)

fRn  f (0.6Fy ) Ag  1.0(0.6)(36ksi)(0.3125" )  6.75kips / in

CONTROLS
Base Metal – Shear Rupture (AISC J4.2)

fRn  f (0.6Fu ) Anv  0.75(0.6)(58ksi)(0.3125" )  8.2kips / in

>4.34 kips/in
√ OK
Design Example, p. 32
 Intermediate Transverse Stiffeners
 Assume single-plate A36 stiffeners

TFA

End panel a/h = 0.375; adjacent panel (TFA) a/h = 0.78

Design Example, p.33
28”
28" 5 16"
bst   13.8" 1.5”
2
Try bst = 8”
bst
b t st  0.56 E
 0.56
29000
 15.9 72”
Fyst 36
5/16”
(G3-3)
8"  15.9
tst
tst  0.503"

Try tst = 9/16”

Design Example, p. 34
 Intermediate Transverse Stiffeners, cont’d. (adequate
stiffness for web buckling; AISC G2.2)
End panel a/h = 0.375; adjacent panel (TFA) a/h = 0.78

2.5 2.5
j 2
 2  0.5  2
 2  15.7
( a / h) 0.375
5 3
I st  btw j
3
 (27" )( " ) (15.7)  12.9in 4
16
for adjacent panel a/h = 0.78, Ist = 3.61 in4

Check 8” x 9/16”
0.5625" (8" )3 √ OK
Ist   96in 4
3
Design Example, p. 35
 Intermediate Transverse Stiffeners, cont’d.

 Vu  Vc1  (G3-4)
Ist  Ist1  ( Ist 2  Ist1)  
 Vc 2  Vc1 
h 4 st1.3  Fyw 1.5 7241.01.3  36 1.5
Ist 2        29.4in 4

40  E  40  29000  (G3-5)

 346  138 
Ist  12.9  (29.4  12.9)  
 356  138 
96.0in 4  28.6in 4 √ OK Check other stiffeners
Design Example, p. 36
 Size welds for stiffeners
3
Fyw 36ksi3
f nv  0.045h  0.045(72" )  4.1kips / in
E 29000ksi

 Try minimum weld size for 5/16” plate

(thinner plate) AISC Table J2.4
 w=3/16”
 Assume SMAW
 Use matching electrode, 70 ksi
Design Example, p. 37
 Stiffener welds, cont’d.
Weld Metal (AISC J2)
fRn  f (0.6FEXX ) Aw  0.75(2)(0.6)(70ksi)(0.707)(0.1875" )  8.35kips / in
CONTROLS
Base Metal – Shear Yield (AISC J4.2)

fRn  f (0.6Fu ) Anv  0.75(0.6)(58ksi)(0.5625" )  14.7kips / in

or fRn  f (0.6Fu ) Anv  0.75(0.6)(58)(2)(0.1875" )  9.79kips / in
>4.1 kips/in
√ OK
Design Example, p. 38
 Stiffener welds, cont’d.

Use nominal weld size (Table

3/16” J2.4) to connect to compression
flange (to prevent uplift of
flange – single stiffener)
3/16”

5
 4tw  4( " )  1.25"
16
USE 1.5”
5
 6tw  6( " )  1.88"
16
Design Example, p. 39
Typically make full
 Bearing Stiffeners depth; check
capacity of
intermediate
transverse
stiffeners for
BEARING

Check LWY, LWC, etc.

(given bearing length of
support)
Design bearing stiffener
as needed
Design Example, p. 40
 Bearing Stiffeners
 Will design / check for
homework
 Use pairs of stiffeners (as
shown to left)
 Use full depth