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Laplace Transform for Public-key Cryptography

in Current trend Network Security

G. Naga Lakshmi, A. Chandra Sekhar, N. Ravi Sankar,


GIT, GITAM GIT, GITAM GIS, GITAM

Abstract — In this paper, proposed a method of cryptography in A. Standard results on Laplace Transforms: In this section we
which apply Laplace Transform of suitable function for encrypting are discuss definition of Laplace Transform and Inverse
with public key and apply corresponding inverse Laplace
Transform for decrypting with private key. A cryptographic system Laplace Transform, linear properties and some standard
uses two dissimilar keys. A public key know only to the receiver of formulas.
the information. Public key cryptography, a user has a pair of
cryptographic keys – a public key and private key. The private key B. Definition: If f (t) is a function defined for all positive
is kept secret while the public key may be widely distributed. The values of t, then the Laplace transform of f (t) is defined as
two main branches of public key cryptography are 1. Public key 
encryption 2. Digital signature.
e
 st
L{ f (t )}  f (t ) dt  F ( s )
0
Index Terms — Cryptography, Laplace Transform, Inverse provided that the integral exists. Here the parameter ‘s‘ is a
Laplace Transform, encryption, decryption, public key, private real or complex number.
key, McLaren expansion, Modular arithmetic. The corresponding inverse Laplace transform is
I. INTRODUCTION
L1{F ( s )}  f (t )
Before Modern era, cryptography focused on message
confidentiality. Today Cryptograph is used to provide secrecy C. Linear properties: Laplace transform is a linear transform.
and integrity to our data and both authentication and
if L{ f 1 (t )}  F1 ( s ), L{ f 2 (t )}  F2 ( s ), …,
anonymity to our communications. Laplace transform has
many applications in various fields. L{ f n (t )}  Fn ( s ), then
This paper analyses a new iterative method for cryptography, L{c1 f 1(t )  c 2 f 2 (t )  ...  c n f n (t )}  c1 F1 ( s )  c 2 F2 ( s )  ...  c
in which successive Laplace transform of suitable function for
algorithm of cryptography and also developed the Where c1 , c 2 ..., c n are constants
corresponding encryption algorithm and inverse Laplace
transform for decryption. Several encryption algorithms were
D. Some standard formulas:
designed by using the dynamics which were presented by
* If L(tn) = n!/sn+1 then L-1 (n!/sn+1) = tn
Laplace transform system for cryptographic applications. at
* If L (e ) = 1/s-a then L-1 (1/s-a) = eat
Naga lakshmi, G [3] 2011 introduced a Laplace transform by
*If L (sinh at) = a/ s – a then L-1 (a/ s2 – a2) = sinh at
2 2
using modular arithmetic the secret key between sender and
* L (tn eat) = n! / (s-a)n+1 then L-1(n! / (s-a)n+1) = tn eat
receiver. Information protection has been an important for
Where a = 1, 2, 3, · · · , the positive integers. [1]
human life. In computer society, information security
becomes more and emerging technologies and developing
II. Laplace Transform Algorithm
new technique. A. P Hiwaraker [4] 2013 he proposed
mathematical technique using algebraic coding.
The following algorithm provides the public key cryptosystem
with Laplace transforms. The sender converts the original
Many sectors such as banking and other financial institutions
message or plain text into cipher text using the following
required secure internet communication, internet transaction
steps.
security of ATM cards, and Computer passwords. Internet
banking fraud is one of the most serious electronic crimes and
A. Encryption Algorithm:
mostly committed by unauthorized users. This paper
introduces new method of key generation scheme developed
Step 1: Select the plain text P0,P1,…,Pm be send and convert
for fraud prevention mechanism or reduced crypt-analysis. into ASCII code integer values M0, M1,…, Mm .
Step2: Randomly select two large integer values p, q and
calculate n = p*q,  (n) = (p-1*q-1)
Step 3: Generate the function f (t) using combination of p and
q. Key generation:
m
qt i p i m
qei t ( p i ) Public key = {f (t),  (n)}
f (t) =    p  i   1! or    p  i   1! or
i 0 i 0
Private key = {p, q, n}

m i
q sinh pt m
q i tet ( pi ) III. Example

i 0   p  i   1!
or 
i 1   p  i   1!
and many more A. Method of encryption:
Select the message M to be sent and convert into ASCII code.
functions. Let length of message be “ i “.
m i p i The plain text message is organized as a finite sequence of
qt
Step 4: Let consider the function f (t) = 
i 1   p  i   1!
number based on the above conversion.
For example the plain text is “Success#89”.
m
M i q i t p 1 m
N i t p 1 Here i = 0, 1, 2, ……, 9.
and calculate 
i  0 (( p  i )  1)!
 
i  0 (( p  i )  1)!
Based on the above step ASCII code of plain text S = 83,
u = 117, c = 99, c = 99, e = 101, s = 115, s = 115, # = 35,
Where Ni, 8 = 56, 9 = 57.
m
qt i p i m
qe i t ( p i ) m i
q sinh pt The plain m texti finite
q tet ( pisequence
) is Mm 0 = 83,i M
q t p1 i= 117, M2 = 99,
1 f (t )  
i 0   p  i   1!
or 
i 0   p  i   1!
or  M3 or
i 0   p  i  M

= 99, M4 = 101, M5 =f115,
16!= 115,
i 1 M p7 =35,
(t ) 
i  M18!= 56, M9 =i 157,  ......,
p  iM
 i  m
 i =10! for i  10
Step 5: Calculate the Laplace Transform of L{ . Here the key values are p and q.
p1 Now selecting two integer values randomly p = 13, q = 17 and
m
Nt m
R
 ( p  i) 1)!}   s
n = p *q = 13 * 17 = 221,  (n) = (13-1*17-1) = 12*16 =
i i 192.
( pi)1 Generate the function f (t) using combination of two integer
values p and q.
i 0 i 0 i.e.,
where Ri , 0  i  m . Let Ri is constructed by resulted q 0t p0 q 1t p 1 q 2t p2 q
f  t      .......... . 
string Ri mod n then we get cipher text Mi' with the number of   p  0  1!   p  1  1!   p  2  1!  p
multipliers of mod n is the key Ki where i = 0,1,2, …,m.
Let us consider
m
M i
So we get s ( p  i ) 1 M f (t) = 

M i q i t p i
.
i  0   p  i   1!
i 0
Step 6: Each integer of Mi' is converted to its constructed by
ASCII character are stored as the cipher text C0,C1,…,Ci.
M 0 q 0t p  0 M 1q1t p 1 M 2 q 2t p  2 M 3q 3t p  3 M
    
B. Decryption Algorithm:
Step 1: The cipher text C0,C1,…,Ci is converted to its
  p  0  1!   p  1  1!   p  2  1!   p  3  1!   p
corresponding ASCII values M0', M1',…, Mm' and construct M 5q 5t p  5 M 6 q 6t p  6 M 7 q 7t p  7 M 8 q 8t p  8 M
M i     
s
m
.
  p  5  1!   p  6  1!   p  7  1!   p  8  1!   p
( p  i ) 1
i 1 83(17 0 )t 13 0 117 (171 )t 131 99(17 2 )t 13 2 99(17 3 )t 133
   
Step 2: Now calculate Ri = Mi' + n Ki with the values of Mi'
and the number of multipliers of mod n where i=0,1,…,m then
 13  0  1!  13  1  1!  13  2  1!  13  3  1
m
Ri 115 (17 5 )t 135 115 (17 6 )t 136 35(17 7 )t 13 7 56(17 8 )t 13
construct s
i 0
( p  i ) 1
.    
 13  5  1!  13  6  1!  13  7   1!  13  8  1
Step 3: Apply inverse Laplace transform t 13 t 14 t 15 t 16
Mf (t )  83  1989  28611  486387  84356
p 1 12! 13! 14! 15!
m
R m
Nt
L {
1 i
( p  i ) 1
i
}  producing the }  2775820435
t 19
 14361853555
t 20
 390642416696
t 21
i 0 s i 0 (( p  i)  1)! 18! 19! 20!
coefficients which are considered as the integer Mi .i.e., Take Laplace transform of a polynomial on both sides
m
Nit mp 1
Miq t i p 1
t 13 t 14 t 15 t 16

i  0 (( p  i )  1)!

i  0 (( p  i )  1)!
L{Mf (t )}  83
12!
 1989
13!
 28611
14!
 486387
15!
 84
Step 4: Each integer Mi are converted to their corresponding t 19 t 20 t 21
ASCII code values are M0,M1,…,Mm and hence producing the  2775820435  14361853555  390642416696
original plain text is P0,P1,…,Pm. 18! 19! 20!
1079 27846 429165 7782192 143405557 2939103990 1079 27846 429165
 14
 15  16
 17
 18
 Mf19 (t )  L1{ 14
 15

s s s s s s s s s16
52740588265 287237071100 8203490780616 1487091971 27238
2939103990 5274058826 5 287
 20
 21
 22
  23  
s s s s s 19
s 20

A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A8203490780 616 1487091971 272


L{Mf (t )}  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  239 . 
s s s s s s s s s s s 22
s 23
Now take mod n on A0, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, A8, A9. t 13 t14 t15 t 16
C0 = A0 mod n = 195 Mf (t )  83  1989  28611  486387  84356
C1 = A1 mod n = 221 12! 13! 14! 15!
C2 = A2 mod n = 204 t 18 t19 t 20
C3 = A3 mod n = 119  163283555  2775820435  1436185355 5
17! 18! 19!
C4 = A4 mod n = 204 21 22
C5 = A5 mod n = 17 t t
 390642416696  6759508960329 .
C6 = A6 mod n = 170 20! 21!
C7 = A7 mod n = 187
C8 = A8 mod n = 187 Consider the co-efficient of a polynomial as finite sequence is
C9 = A9 mod n = 85 M0 = 83, M1 = 117, M2 = 99, M3 = 99, M4 = 101, M5 = 115, M6
The encrypted values are C0 = 195, C1= 221, C2 = 204, = 115, M7 = 35, M8 = 56, M9 = 57, ......Mi = 0 for i  10 .
C3 = 119, C4 = 204, C5 = 17, C6 = 170, C7 = 187, C8 = 187, Now translating the numbers of above finite sequence to
C9 = 85. alphabets (ACSII values) then we get original plain text is
The ASCII values of above will be the encrypted message is obtained as “Success#89”.
“Ã Ý Ì w ╠ DC1 ¬ ╗ ╗ U ”.
IV. TESTING AND ANALYSIS
B. Method of Decryption:
A. Frequency Test:
Consider the cipher text received from sender. In the above Frequency distribution graph of encrypted and decrypted file
example cipher text is “Ã Ý Ì w ╠ DC1 ¬ ╗ ╗ U ” and its by proposed algorithm will be displayed. If the characters in
ASCII values are 195, 221,204, 119, 204, 119, 204, 17, 170, the encrypted and decrypted file are evenly distributed, it will
187, 187, 85. make the cryptanalysis more difficult. Fig I shows the
Here C0 = 195, C1= 221, C2 = 204, C3 = 119, C4 = 204, C5 = 17, frequency distribution of characters in pain text and cipher text
C6 = 170, C7 = 187, C8 = 187, C9 = 85. for proposed LT from the following Observations. it may be
Let Ai = Ci + Ri n concluded that the proposed LT provides well enough security.
(i) A0 = C0 + R0 n = 195 + 4 (221) = 1079 [2][5]
(ii) A1 = C1 + R1 n = 221 + 125 (221) = 27846 and soon.
Then the Laplace transform of
A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9
L{Mf (t )}  14
 15
 16
 17
 18
 19
 20
 21
 22

s s s s s s s s s s 23
Now apply inverse Laplace transform of
A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9
Mf (t )  L1 { 14
 15
 16
 17
 18
 19
 20
 21
 22
 }
s s s s s s s s s s 23
.

Fig I : Frequency Distribution of characters in plain text


file and cipher text file with proposed algorithm

B. Encryption and Decryption Time:


Encryption and Decryption time with respect to different file
sizes have been presented in table II accompanied by
corresponding graph as presented in Fig II. It is revealed that
proposed LT provides similar encryption and decryption time.
Encryption and Decryption time has been calculated in
millisecond which is defined as 1000 s of a second.

Table I: File size with Time


Filename File Size Encry & Decry Time text from input data or plaintext and decryption time. In Fig
(in Bytes) (in millisec) III, the author used randomly integer numbers p and q are key
values to generate the cipher text and corresponding execution
Encryption Decryption time is calculated. In our analysis, we computed that
encryption and decryption time by our proposed algorithm. All
Test – I 50 50 41 the simulation has been conducted using Dot Net and
Test – II 100 100 59 32 bit operating system windows 7 to implement the proposed
Test – III 150 140 89 algorithm.
Test – IV 200 180 119
Test – V 250 220 228 Fig III: Screen shot output algorithm

Fig II: Encryption & Decryption Time (millisec)

C. Statistical Analysis:
Correlation Coefficient Analysis uses correlation coefficient
factor to measure the relationship between two variables. This
factor examines the proposed encryption and decryption V. CONCLUSION
algorithm which strongly resists statistical attacks. Therefore,
cipher text must be completely different from the plaintext. In the proposed algorithm using modular arithmetic the secret
The correlation shows associations between the pairs of key between sender and receiver. Proposed encryption
values. If the correlation Coefficient equals one, that means algorithm is used to broken the cipher text. There four it is
the plaintext and its encryption is identical. If the correlation very difficult for an eye dropper trace the key. In this paper
coefficient equals zero, that means the cipher text is we develop a new cryptography scheme using Laplace
completely different from the plaintext (i.e. good encryption). Transform with public key and private key. It is suggested
If the correlation coefficient equals minus one that means the that extension of this work is possible as scope for further
cipher text is the negative of the plaintext. This means smaller study.
values of the correlation coefficient is an indication of the
success of encryption process. The experimental results, the REFERENCES
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algorithm shows in the table II. Pub., Delhi, (2005).
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Current Research, Vol. 10, Issue, 07, pp.71759-71763, July,
2018

G. Naga Lakshmi, M.Sc, M.phil,


Asst. prof in Dept of Mathemstics,
GITAM Universiy. My research
area is Number Theory and
Cryptography. In this field I have a
six publications in reputed journals.

Prof. A. Chandra Sekhar, Head of the


Department of Mathematics, GITAM
University. His research area is Number
Theory and Cryptography. In this area
he has 60 publications in reputed
journals and 5 Phd’s awarded in his
guidance.

Prof. N. Ravi Sankar, Head of the


Department of Applied Mathematics,
GITAM University. His research area is
OR and Cryptography. In this area he
has 72 publications in reputed journals
and 7 Phd’s awarded in his guidance.