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CHAPTER III

ANALYSIS OF CRIMES BY CHILD AS JUVENILE-BETWEEN 7 TO 12

YEARS AND 12 TO 14 YEARS

3.1 INTRODUCTION

A Child is always a Child. A Child cannot be equated with an adult. Any

mistake or wrong committed by a Child has to be thought of first in the Child's

point of view. He might have done it for need, fun or excitement. If such need, fun

or excitement is against law it becomes a' wrongful act'. From the moment

Children are expected to have acquired knowledge of the distinction between right

and wrong, adults become less and less forgiving of their actions. Cases of

Children like Venables and Thompson1 in the UK, or Ram Deo Chauhan 2 in India

are examples of such intolerance. Irrespective of their tender age, the state and its

people respond to such Children with vengeance. The public outrage generated by

the media was so strong that England responded by abolishing the presumption of

Doli incapax for Children above the age of 10 years3. It is interesting to consider

whether the media, state and individuals would have responded in the same way if

the offence had been committed by Children below the minimum age of criminal

responsibility. Parents of Children found to have committed an offence rarely

accept that their Child was capable of having the intention of causing harm. Even

those parents who initially abandon their Children in the wake of their commission

of a serious offence come to believe that their Children are inherently good, but

were misled. The belief in the inherent goodness of Children is common across the

world and the CRC can be seen as the most eloquent recognition of this. Children,

1
Venebales and Thompson v. News group Newspapers (2001) 2 WLR 1038, available at
www.1cor.com/1315/?form_1155.replyids=577 (visited on 10.4.15)
2
Ramdeo Chauhan @ Rajnath Chauhan v. Bani Kant Das & Ors (2010) 15, S.C.R pg 957.
3
See S. 34, UK Crime and Disorder Act 1998.

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with their inherent innocence, and crime, the epitome of harm, therefore constitute

two opposite poles. While some countries respond to crimes committed by

Children by focusing on Children, others respond to it by looking at the

seriousness of the crime committed by them. While in India no punishment may be

given for any offence committed by a person below the age of eighteen, the death

penalty continues to be imposed on Children committing offences in some

countries. The Supreme Court of the United States of America abolished the

imposition of the death penalty on Children in 2005, but there are reports that now

US courts are giving sentences of life imprisonment without parole to Children.

Even in India, where the law prohibits punishment to a Child found to have

committed any offence, scepticism bordering on contempt towards such laws is

reflected in cases like Ram Deo Chauhan, mentioned above.4 This chapter deals

with the analysis of crime that is committed by the age group between 7 to 14

years of age. Here the analysis is done based on the nature of the offence, age

group in which the offences are committed, environmental factors and the living

conditions of the Juveniles. Before analyzing the Juvenile crimes in Chennai, it

would be essential to view the statistics of Juvenile Crimes across India and Tamil

Nadu.

Juvenile crimes are committed due to various social and economic back

ground. The sociological profiles of the Juveniles where gathered to analyze the

cause with regard to their age, education, economic status, literacy level and the

reasons thereof. This Chapter presents an empirical study of the data pertaining to

the Juveniles in Chennai City involved in crimes between the age group of 7-14

years. The primary data was collected from the Juvenile Justice Board, Chennai

4
Vedkumari,“Construction of Criminality and Children”(2010),available at
http://projects.essex.ac.uk/ehrr/V7N1/Kumari.pd (visited on 12.2.15)

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and the Observation Home, Kellys. The number of cases filed and disposed during

the period 2012-2014 by the Juvenile Justice Board, Chennai and the nature of

offences involved by the Juveniles between the age group 7-14 years, the

economic, social background of the Juveniles, the relationship of the Juvenile with

their parents have been analyzed to cull out the cause for such crimes.

At this juncture it would be essential to understand and analyze the

statistics published by the National Crime Records Bureau. This section of the

report includes the nature and magnitude of Juvenile delinquency, incidence of

delinquency over a period, types of offences committed by a Juvenile; forms of

disposal of Juveniles arrested, the profile of the Juvenile, and so on.

Before discussing the types of crime committed by Juveniles under


different age group, in Chennai city falling under the jurisdiction of the Juvenile
Justice Board, Chennai, it is necessary to extract data pertaining to the year 2013
from the NCRB where a detailed statistics has been prepared based on the number
of crimes reported in India under the India Penal Code. The data5concerning the
incidence and rate of Juveniles in conflict with law under Indian Penal Code and
other Special and Local Laws in India and referred hereunder for a short
comparison.

3.2. Share of Juvenile Crimes in India

3.2.1 Incidence and Rate of Juvenile Crimes in India (2012-2013)6

The share of Juvenile crimes committed by Juveniles to total cognizable

crimes reported in the country during 2012-2013 are shown in the below Table.

While incidence reported in 2013 has increased to 31725, it remained 27936 in


5
Crime in India Statistic 2013, National Crime Record Bureau, Ministry of Home affairs,
available at http://ncrb.gov.in (visited on 12.2.15)
6
ibid.

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2012. The percentage of Juvenile crimes in total crimes is 1.2 % in both the year

2012 and 2013. The estimated population in 2012 is 12134 and in 2013 is 12288.

The rate of crime by Juveniles is 2.3 in 2012 and 2.6 in 2013. Therefore, it could

be seen that there is slight increase of crimes committed by Juveniles in the

country when compared to the year 2012. The details may be seen in the Table

below:

Table 3.2.1 Incidence and Rate of Juvenile Crimes in India (2012-2013)

Incidence of Juvenile
Estimated
Crimes Percentage of
mi-year Rate of crime
S.No Year Total Juvenile crimes
Juvenile population* by Juveniles
Cognizable to total crimes
Crimes (in Lakhs)
Crimes
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

1 2012 27936 238718 1.2 12134 2.3

2 2013 31725 264772 1.2 12288 2.6

3.2.2 Comparison of Juvenile Crimes in India and Tamil Nadu (IPC


Offences) (2012-2013)

Crime committed by Juveniles in India and Tamil Nadu are compared


below for the purpose of study.

Table 3.2.2 Comparison of Juvenile Crimes in India and Tamil Nadu


(IPC Offences)

S.No Crimes under IPC India Tamil Nadu


1 Murder Sec 302 IPC) 990 55
2 Attempt Murder (Sec 307 IPC) 876 51
3 Culpable Homicide Not amounting to 48 1
Murder(Sec 305,308 IPC)
4 Rape Sec 376 IPC (Sec 376 IPC) 1175 32
5 Kidnapping and abduction 1121 17
6 Dacoity 174 8

86
7 Preparation for assembling to commit 92 2
dacoity
8 Robbery 767 48
9 Burglary 2625 162
10 Theft 5528 453
11 Riots 1690 63
12 Criminal Breach of Trust 22 0
13 Cheating 148 5
14 Counterfeiting 33 0
15 Arson ( 435,436,438 IPC) 80 2
16 Hurt 4681 136
17 Dowry Deaths 66 136
18 Outraging modesty of women/Insult to 796 9
women Sec (354,509 IPC)
18 Cruelty by Husband or relatives 261 3
19 Causing death by negligence 260 35
Sec 304A IPC
20 Other IPC Crimes 7455 354
21 Total Cognizable Crimes 31725 1436

The above statistics shows various many crimes reported on Juveniles few

of which is discussed. 990 cases were reported for murder under section 302 IPC in

India out of which only 55 cases were reported in Tamil Nadu. Similarly, for

attempt murder under sec 307 IPC, 876 were reported in India out of which 55

were in Tamil Nadu. 48 cases in culpable homicide not amounting to murder under

section 305,308 IPC is reported in India, out of which only one case is reported in

Tamil Nadu.

Therefore, total number of Juvenile crimes committed by the Juveniles in

conflict with law across India for (IPC crimes) in 2013 was 31725 IPC and the

total cognizable Crimes committed by Juveniles in Tamil Nadu were 1436.

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1175 cases in India is reported for rape under section 376 IPC, out of

which 32 were in Tamil Nadu. In kidnapping and abduction 1121 cases were

reported in India and 17 in Tamil Nadu. Out of 174 cases for dacoity in India, only

8 were reported in Tamil Nadu. 92 cases were recorded for the Preparation for

assembling to commit dacoity in India, out of which 2 were in Tamil Nadu.

767 Juveniles were accused for robbery, out of which 48 were in Tamil Nadu.

2625 cases were reported for burglary, in which 162 Juveniles were in Tamil Nadu.

5528 cases were reported for theft, nearly 453 Juveniles were accused for this

crime in Tamil Nadu and this is the major crime committed as per the above

statistics. Juveniles who involved in riots were 1690 out of 63 in Tamil Nadu, no

cases were reported in Tamil Nadu for criminal breach of trust and counterfeiting

out of 22 and 33 cases respectively in India. Only 5 cases were reported out of 148

cases in cheating, 2 cases were reported for Arson (435,436,438 IPC) in Tamil

Nadu out of 80 cases in India. 136 out of 4681 cases were reported in Tamil Nadu

for dowry deaths, 9 out of 796 were accused for Outraging modesty of women

under section (354,509 IPC). 3 cases were reported for cruelty by people in home

out of 261 cases, 35 were reported for causing death by negligence under section

304A IPC out of 260 cases in India. Also other IPC crimes reported in Tamil Nadu

were 354 cases out of 7455 cases in India, thus accounting for 31725 cases in India

of which only 1436 cases were reported in Tamil Nadu.

Out of the other cases under different crime heads cases of theft were

relatively high in India and Tamil Nadu. 5528 cases were reported in India for theft

and 453 cases were reported for theft in Tamil Nadu. When compared to other

offences theft cases were higher. Therefore, a need arises to find out the cause for

more Children involving in theft offences and the different kinds of theft.

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In this regard it is essential to find out what are the causative factors which

make Children to get involved in theft offences. Hurt cases recorded 131 when

compared to 4681 in India. Other IPC Crimes are 354 when compared to total

crimes in India at 7455. Therefore, most of the Juveniles in Tamil Nadu seem to be

involved in theft and hurt cases.

It may be difficult to collect data from all the 32 Juvenile Justice Boards of

Tamil Nadu. Therefore the researches restricted the collection of Data to the

Juvenile Justice Board, Chennai alone. The data with regard crimes in special and

local laws committed by Juveniles in India and Tamil Nadu is required for

comparison.

3.2.3 Distribution of Juveniles in Conflict with Law involved in and Special

and Local Laws (SLL) compared to India and Tamil Nadu

The Table below shows the different crimes committed by the Juveniles in

conflict with law under special and local laws. The total number of cognizable

crimes under special and local laws in India is 4136 and the Total number of

cognizable crimes under special and local laws is 1229 respectively. When

compared to IPC crimes, the number of crimes under Special and Local Laws are

low.

Table 3.2.3 Distribution of Juveniles in conflict with law involved in and


Special and Local Laws (SLL) compared to India and Tamil Nadu
S.No Special Acts India Tamil Nadu
1 Arms Act 23 3
2 NDPS Act 142 4
3 Gambling Act 152 21
4 Excise Act 652 0
5 Prohibition Act 323 13

89
6 Explosive Substance Act 360 3
7 Immoral Traffic Act 14 0
8 India Railway Act 21 2
9 Foreigners Act 13 0
10 Passport Act 62 0
11 Essential Commodities Act 17 0
12 Copy right Act 22 9
13 SC/St Act 70 24
14 Forest Act 5 0
15 Other SLL 2168 1220
16 Total Cog Crimes Under SLL 4136 1229

3.3 Gender Wise Distribution in India

3.3.1 Juveniles Apprehended Gender Wise in India (2012-2013)

A total of 43,506 Juveniles were apprehended during 2013 out of which

41,639 were boys and 1,867 were girls. The percentage of girls to total Juveniles

was 4.3% i.e. 0.9 percentage point less than such share in 2012 (5.2%).

Table 3.3.1 : Juveniles Apprehended Gender Wise in India (2012-2013)

S.No Year Boys Girls Total % of Girls


1 2012 37764 2058 39822 5.2
2 2013 41639 1867 43506 4.3

The percentage of girls apprehended during 2012 is 5.2 % and the same has

shown a fall of 4.3 % in 2013. In 2012 the number of Juvenile boys involved in

crimes across the country was 37764 where as the number of Juvenile girls

involved were 2058 thereby showing a decrease in the number of female Juveniles

in 2013.

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3.4 Age Wise Distribution in India

3.4.1 Juveniles Apprehended Age Wise ( 2012-2013) in India

The details on age wise Juveniles apprehended under IPC and SLL crimes
in India are presented in Fig 3.2.3.

Table 3.4.1 : Juveniles Apprehended Age Wise( 2012-2013) in India

S. No Year 7-12 12-14


1 2012 1286 12063
2 2013 1330 13346
Total 2616 25409

Details of Juveniles apprehended under IPC and SLL crimes by age-group

are presented in the above Table. 1,330 Juveniles were apprehended in the age-

group of 7-12 years, 13,346 Juveniles were apprehended in the age-group of 12-14

years during 2013. The percentage shares of Juveniles apprehended under these

age-groups were 3.1%, 30.7% and 66.3% respectively. The increase in the number

of Juveniles apprehended was 3.4% in 7-12 years age group (from 1,286 in 2012 to

1,330 in 2013), 10.6% in 12-14 years age group (from 12,063 in 2012 to 13,346 in

2013) during 2013 over 2012. The overall increase in Juveniles apprehended at the

national level was 9.3% during 2013 as compared to 2012.7 The same has been

shown in crime in India 2013 published in the NCRB statistics and is available in

the web site.

Juvenile Justice Boards are being challenged by an increase in the number

of Child delinquents. In 1999 alone, Juvenile courts came across incidence

reported around 8888 cases in which Children were involved in crimes. The

7
Crime in India 2013, http://ncrb.gov.in/CD-CII2013/Statistics-2013.pdf( visited on 7.3.15)

91
number of Juveniles apprehended under IPC crimes by age group and sex between

2012 to 2013 is shown in the above fig.3.5.

Out of the 43506 Juveniles apprehended under various IPC crimes, nearly

1330 Children were between 7 and 12 years of age. This is an unfortunate

situation. Though, 3346 Children fall under the age group of 12-14. With regard to

the sex of the Juveniles apprehended, it is noted that out of the 43506 Juveniles

apprehended all over India during 2013, only 4.3 percent were girls. These Child

delinquents account for their involvement in various crimes. These Children

between the age group of 7-12 years as growing Children have a tendency to grasp

each and every situation they come across during their livelihood. When these

Children are exposed to criminal behavior, they do not have the mental capacity to

differentiate what is right or wrong, but this tender age is very important part of

human life where Children would develop liking both for good and bad things

easily. These Children are far more likely to become chronic Juvenile offenders

than youth whose initial contact occurs at a later age, there is reason for concern

about the growing number of Child delinquent.

3.5 CASES PERTAINING TO JUVENILE JUSTICE BOARD,

CHENNAI (2012-2014)

In respect of Juveniles in Chennai data collection was made from the

Juvenile Justice Board Chennai. In a total number 875 cases which had been

pending and before the Juvenile Justice Board, Chennai the cases were

divided based on the police zones such as North, South Central and

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West zones8. These samples data consisted their age, gender, type and nature of

crime committed. Based on the collected data the most crimes prone zone was

identified. The nature of offences in the cases so far filed, disposed and pending

before the Juvenile Justice Board during the period 2012-2014 and the various

orders passed by the Board were collected. The area in which maximum rate of

crime committed was identified. However, in order to analyze the causative factors

of the Juvenile crimes, reports of the probation officers of around 294 social

investigation reports of the Juveniles were collected from the records available in

the observation home and in the Board. With the available data the reason for

committing crime, the surroundings in which the Juvenile lives, the family

situation, their literacy level and several other factors were analyzed to find out the

reason for delinquency. However in view of the protection to Children available in

the Act under Sec 21, no names of Children or any other details which would lead

to the identity of the Juveniles are revealed in the data.

3.5.1 PROCESS AND DISPOSAL OF CASES IN JUVENILE JUSTICE

BOARD, CHENNAI

In order to analyze the number of cases instituted, disposed and pending

before the Juvenile Justice Board, Chennai and also to know the forms of disposal

of such cases total number of 875 cases were perused and the zone in which the

cases are reported along with the nature of offence and the nature of disposal were

noted. Here the analysis is carried out in terms of zones, gender and the age group

committing the crime. The zones were divided into north, South central and west

8
Zone list based on Police stations in Chennai District. Available at
http://www.tnpolice.gov.in/pdfs/PS_LIST.pdf (visited on 12.4.15)

93
as per Police limits. The cases instituted from 2012 to 2014 in the Chennai Juvenile

Justice Board assume significance. However in Tamil Nadu prior to 2013, Juvenile

Justice Boards were functioning only in 8 places including Chennai city.

3.5.2. Cases Instituted and Disposed in Juvenile Justice Board, Chennai


during 2012 to 2014

Table: 3.5.2 Cases Instituted and Disposed in JJB Chennai (2012-2014)

Year Institution- FIR Institution -Final Report Disposed


2012 404 238 162
2013 197 177 306
2014 274 156 201

Out of total number of 404 cases instituted in 2012, apart from direct filing

of final reports for petty offences like 337,338,323 and so on , final report filed for

the pending FIR's were for 238 cases. Total number of cases disposed in the year

2012 added to 162 cases. Out of 197 FIR's were filed in 2013, 177 final reports

were filed and 306 cases were disposed. 274 cases were instituted in 2014 and 201

cases disposed in the year 2014. After the formation of separate Juvenile Justice

Boards in Kancheepuram, Vellore and Thiruvallur, many cases were transferred to

the said Boards on the point of jurisdiction. Therefore, Chennai Juvenile Justice

Board had a less pendency than before. However due to the daily institution and

regular involvement of Juveniles in various crimes large number of cases

accumulated in the Juvenile Justice Board Chennai.

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Fig 3.5.2 Cases Instituted and Disposed in JJB Chennai (2012-2014)

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3.6 Juvenile crimes - Zone wise in Chennai based on sex (2012-2014)
3.6.1 Crime Rate of Juveniles in Chennai (Zone wise) pertaining to 2012
to 2014 Based on Sex.
This section includes the Crime rates of Juvenile based on the zones and

sex during 2012-2013. In North Chennai alone out of 279 Juveniles involved in

various crimes, 275 of them were boys whereas four Juveniles were girls. In

Central Chennai out of a total number of 150 Juveniles, except for one girl the rest

of 149 Juveniles were boys. West Chennai showed no girls. Out of a total number

of 152 Juveniles, no girls were involved.

Table : 3.6.1 Crime Rate of Juveniles in Chennai (Zone wise) pertaining to

2012 to 2014 Based on Sex.

SEX
ZONES JUVENILES
Boys Girls
North 275 4 279
South 114 2 116
Central 149 1 150
West 152 0 152

Therefore, from the above data it is clear that in total the rate of boys

involved in Juveniles crimes are more when compared to girls. Girls normally keep

themselves secluded from the society either out of fear or out restrictions from the

parents.

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Fig: 3.6.1 Crime Rate of Juveniles in Chennai (Zone wise) pertaining to

2012 to 2014 Based on Sex.

North Chennai shows a rate of crimes committed by boys when compared

to girls. Secondly the Juveniles residing in the West zone are involved in more

crimes. While the South Zone shows the lesser number of cases committed by

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Juvenile offenders the Central zone shows 114 Juvenile involved in criminal

activities. Therefore it is well clear that girls involved in Juvenile crimes are very

less when compared to boys. Only four girls were involved in crimes in North

zone, two in Central zone, one in South zone. However there were no girls

involved in crimes in west zone.

As per law a wrongful act becomes a criminal wrong only from the moment

the Child is able to distinguish good from bad and right from wrong. Therefore

once a Child is able to distinguish his act as wrong and has committed the same,

the burden of proving the same rests on the prosecution. Whether a Child is

capable of understanding the difference between a civil and a criminal wrong is

neither asked nor determined. The presumption of 'doli in capax'9 adopts the same

process of constructing the concepts of ‘Children’ and ‘crime’ as opposites.

Children are normally incapable of developing a criminal intent before a certain

age, and their actions are not construed as offences despite any resultant harm or

injury. Before that age, it is not the harm but the Child that remains the focus of

attention and legal response. However, the age of doli- incapax varies from state to

state. In India it is fixed as low as seven10 and in the UK it is fixed at ten years.

9
The CRC directs that the State Parties should prescribe the ‘the minimum age below which
Children shall be presumed not to have the capacity to infringe the penal law’ (Art. 40 (3)(a)) and
that ‘no Child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or
punishment. Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be
imposed for offences committed by Children below the age of 18 years of age’ (Art. 37 (1).
10
In India, the minimum age of criminal responsibility is seven years, and Children above seven but
below the age of twelve are presumed to be doli capax, unless proved to be otherwise, as per Sec. 82
and 83 of the Indian Penal Code.

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3.7 Age Wise Distribution in Chennai

3.7.1 Nature of Offence Based on Age Groups (7-12 and 12-14 ) years

Table 3.7 .1 Nature of Offence Committed (7-12 and 12-14) years

Nature of Offence 7-12 years 12-14 years


Attempt Murder 0 1
Theft 0 20
Hurt 3 3
Culpable Homicide not amounting to murder 0 2
Murder 0 0
Extortion 0 1
Prohibition Act 0 1
POCSO 0 2
Causing threat 1 0
Causing simple/grievous hurt by negligent 3 3
driving
Total 7 33

The number of Juvenile involved in various crimes between the age group

7-12 years and 12-14 years were analyzed. It appears that total number of Juveniles

involved between the age group 7-12 years during the period 2012-2014 were 7

and number of Juveniles involved between the age group 12-14 during the said

period were 33. The offences in which the Juveniles involved in this crime varied.

Around 3 Juveniles were involved in hurt cases between the age group of 7-12 and

3 were involved in hurt cases between the age group of 12-14 years. One case of

causing threat by making a bomb hoax call by a boy of 12 years was reported.

There were no cases of attempt murder, theft, culpable homicide not amounting to

murder, extortion and prohibition Act by Juveniles belonging to the age group of 7-

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12 years. Whereas there were three Juveniles each belonging to the age group of 7-

12 years and 12-14 for causing simple or grievous hurt by negligent driving. While

analyzing the reason for such deviant behavior of the three Juveniles belonging to

the age group of 7-12 in hurt cases, on perusal of the case records, it was found all

three boys were involved in a single case wherein that there was an attack between

boys in a park while playing games. However, the said boys were acquitted after

due inquiry. The other three cases in which the Juveniles between the age group 7-

12 years were involved were for negligent driving without driving license. In both

cases the Juveniles took the two wheelers of their parents without their knowledge

and drove it out of curiosity and interest towards driving.

One case of attempt murder by a Juvenile of age group 12-14 involved

along with adults and three other cases in which Juveniles belonging to the age

group of 12-14 years in hurt cases were reported. 20 Juveniles were found to have

been involved in theft cases between the age group of 12-14 years. Two Juveniles

were involved in cases of culpable homicide not amounting to murder. There were

no murder cases reported by Juveniles in the said age group. One case each was

recorded in Prohibition and extortion along with adult. Two cases were reported by

Juvenile in the age group of 12-14 under the POCS0 Act. Therefore, based on the

available data it is revealed that theft cases were high in the age group of 12-14

years. However, there were no Juveniles were involved in theft cases between the

age group 7-12 years.

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Fig. 3.7.1 Nature of offence based on age group (7-12 and 12-14) years

3.8. MAJOR CAUSATIVE FACTORS BEHIND THE CRIMES

3.8.1 Factors of Delinquency Based on Age group (7 -12, 12-14) years

This section deals with samples of around 294 profiles of the Juvenile

collected from the reports of the probation officer available in the Juvenile Justice

Board, Chennai. With the available data the suggested causes for committing

crime, the surroundings in which the Juvenile lives, the family situation, their

literacy level and several other factors are analyzed to find out the reason for

delinquency. However, in view of the protection to Children available in the Act,

no names of Children or any other details which would lead to the identity of the

Juveniles are revealed in the data. The Data was collected from the Juvenile Justice

Board Chennai from 2012 to 2014 and the various offences committed by the

Juveniles in Conflict with law. Juveniles were categorized based on nature of crime

in various zones and also based on their age category. The crimes vary from simple

to heinous offences. Juveniles are prone to commit crimes based on several

101
concerns which are listed in next section. The type of crimes committed by these

Juveniles were robbery, theft, dacoity, forming a gang of thieves, preparation to

commit dacoity, hurt, extortion, nuisance, women harassment, sexual offence, rape,

Prevention of Children from Sexual Abuse (POCSO), murder or attempt murder,

accidental death, culpable homicide not amounting to murder, damage to public

property, causing simple/grievous hurt or death by negligent driving without

license etc.

The factor which affects the Juveniles in the age groups 7-12,12-14,14-16

and 16-18 and discussed in common since the causes of Juvenile crimes for all the

four categories are similar.

3.8.2 Family Conditions Based on Zones

Table : 3.8.2 Family Conditions Based on Zones

Zones North South Central West


Normal 74 6 28 43
Broken Family 27 3 4 2
Father Alcoholic 52 9 6 7
Either or Both 25 1 3 4
Parents not alive

Out of 294 samples collected randomly out of 178 Juveniles belonging to

North Chennai, the family conditions of 74 Juveniles belonging to North Chennai

were normal. Either or Parents were not alive in 25 families of Juveniles residing

in North Chennai. Father's of 52 Juveniles were reported to be alcoholic. 27

families were found to be broken families. Out of a total 19 samples pertaining to

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South Chennai, families of six Juveniles were belonging to normal family

circumstances, whereas fathers of 9 Juveniles were reported to be alcoholic and for

1 Juveniles either or both parents were not alive. 3 families were found to be

broken families. Out of a total 41 samples pertaining to Central Chennai, families

of 28 Juveniles were of normal condition families, families of 4 Juveniles were of

normal condition. Fathers of 6 Juveniles were found to be alcoholic and either or

both parents were not alive for 3 Juveniles. As far as West Chennai is concerned,

out of 56 Juveniles, 43 Juvenile's families were with normal family circumstances,

whereas Fathers of 7 Juveniles were reported to be alcoholic and for 4 Juveniles

either or both parents were not alive. 2 families were found to be broken families.

Therefore, from the available data it is clear that Juveniles whose family conditions

are normal were committing most crimes. Alcoholic fathers constitute the next

category of families were Juveniles are involved in criminal activities. Juveniles

who live in broken family circumstances and families of Juveniles in which either

or both parents are not alive constitute a lesser number. The study shows that

Juveniles living in normal family circumstances between the age group 7-14 years,

were committing crimes. There was no association between criminal behavior and

single-parent families, regardless of whether the sons had alcoholic or criminal

fathers. It is true that single parents often find it hard to get assistance. If they must

work to support themselves and their families, they are likely to have difficulty

providing supervision for their Children. Careful study of the impact of differences

in household composition shows that Juveniles who live in normal family

circumstances have committed higher crimes. Therefore from the above study it is

clear that apart from broken homes, lack of care and control and single parent

103
homes, Juveniles living in normal family circumstances of the said age group in

North Chennai were involved in more number of crimes.

Fig :3.8.2 Family Conditions based on Zones

80

70

60
Normal
50
Broken Family
40
Father Alcoholic
30
Either or Both
20 Parents not alive

10

0
North South Central West

Therefore, with regard to Children involved in criminal activities in

Chennai City in the age group of 7-14 years it is well found that Children who

belong to normal family circumstances and who lives in normal family conditions

were the one involved in more crimes.

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3.8.3 Economic Status Zone Wise
Table 3.8.3 Economic Status of Juveniles Zone Wise

Status North South Central West


Below Poverty line 109 0 8 10
Lower Middle class 8 3 7 14
Middle class 59 9 20 29
Upper Middle Class 1 0 1 6
Rich 4 1 4 1

On analysis of 294 samples with variables as to the economic status of the

Juveniles, the collected data shows that the families of 109 Juveniles belonging to

North Chennai are living below poverty line. Families of 8 Juveniles belonging to

the said zone belonged to lower middle class. Families of 59 Juveniles were from

middle class and only one Juvenile was from upper middle class whereas families

of 4 Juveniles had a sound economic back ground. As far as Central Chennai is

concerned families of 8 Juveniles family were living below poverty line. Families

of 7 Juveniles belonging to the said zone were belonging to lower middle class.

Families of 20 Juveniles were from middle class and only one Juvenile was from

upper middle class whereas 4 families of Juveniles were living in a sound

economic back ground. As far as South Chennai is concerned no families Juveniles

were living below poverty line. Families of 3 Juveniles belonging to the said zone

were of lower middle class. Families of 9 Juveniles were from middle class and

there were no Juveniles involved in crimes from upper middle class, whereas one

of the Juveniles family was from a rich background. Lastly in the West zone,

families of 10 Juveniles were living below poverty line. 14 Juvenile family were of

lower middle class group. 29 families of Juveniles were from middle class and 6

Juveniles in conflict with law were from upper middle class and only one

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Juvenile's family was from a rich back ground. Therefore, from the above Table it

is well clear that Juveniles residing in North Chennai and living below poverty line

are mostly involved in crimes. There is no income barrier that a family can cross to

eliminate the risk of their Child turning into a Juvenile delinquent. Even some very

rich families have teens that get involved in crimes like murder and rape. But it is

evident from research that the more income a family has, the less risk there is for

kids to turn to crime. There is an undeniable link between Juvenile delinquency

and poverty. Every law enforcement authority are very well aware out of their vast

experience that Children living below poverty line are more likely to get

themselves involved in crimes. It could also lead a Child to high levels of stress

that in turn may lead him to commit theft, robbery, or other violent acts. Therefore,

it is felt that poverty is one of main reasons for Juvenile committing crimes and the

Children residing in North Chennai suffering from Poverty are prone to commit

offences.

Fig: 3.8.3 Economic Status of Juveniles Zone Wise

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The most affected poverty zone in Chennai city is North Chennai. Poverty

stricken families dwelling in this area without any improvement is absolutely

because of the improper implementation of governmental schemes meant for the

people who live below poverty live. If at all the Government has concentrated on

the people living below poverty line, the conditions of the people resisting in the

said zone would have improved. Most of the north Chennai dwelling people are

fishermen. The Government may consult the fishing community and their issues

have to be entertained by the Government to promote their dignity and self-esteem.

3.8.4 Relationship Between Juvenile and Family

Table 3.8.4 Relationship Between Juvenile and Family

Relationship between
South
North South Central West
Juvenile and Family
Good 25 27 23 43
Normal 53 28 25 50
Unmanageable 13 3 3 1

This section deals with Data collected from 294 samples wherein 25

Juveniles had a good relationship with their families in North Chennai. In South

Chennai 27 Juveniles had a normal relationship with their families. In central

Chennai only 23 Juveniles showed good relationship with families whereas in West

Chennai 43 Juveniles had good relationship with their families. Further around 53

Juveniles had a smooth relationship with their families and 13 of them reflected an

unmanageable behavior. In South Chennai 28 Juveniles reflected normal and

smooth relationship with their families and three of them were unmanageable. In

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Central Chennai 23 Juveniles had a good relationship with families when

compared 25 Juveniles with smooth relationship. 3 of them were unmanageable. In

West Chennai 43 Juveniles reflected good relationship with their families, whereas

56 of them had smooth relationship. Only one Juvenile was found unmanageable.

Family conditions of Juveniles indicate that major family conditions were reported

to be normal and few with minor problems due to the factors mentioned above.

Therefore, from the above Table it is revealed that most of the Juveniles whose

relationship with family is good and normal have committed more offences. In

these circumstances one can easily rehabilitate a Juvenile. At this juncture it is felt

to analyze whether the education level could be a cause for the delinquent act.

Therefore, the literacy levels of the Juveniles were to be studied in order to

conclude the cause.

Fig: 3.8.4 Relationship Between Juvenile and Family

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3.8.5 Literacy Level of Juvenile –Zone Wise

Education is one of the major factor which would decide the delinquent

activities of the Juveniles. Today, there are a large number of Juveniles dropping

out of school for various reasons. Essentially, once a Juvenile drop out of middle

and high school, the likelihood of the Juvenile dropout becoming deviant is very

high. When students choose to drop schools unknowingly they put themselves at a

serious disadvantage. Society in general places a high premium on education.

Therefore, now it is essential to study as to how many Juveniles in Chennai are

school drop outs and in which area of Chennai do they belong to.

Table 3.8.5 Literacy Level of Juvenile –Zone Wise

Education North South Central West


Primary 4 0 0 0
Elementary 4 1 0 4
Higher secondary 40 15 15 12
College / polytechnic 11 9 4 17
High School Drop Out 107 19 12 25
Illiterate 3 0 1 1

The education level of the Juveniles in conflict with law based on the

available 294 samples, it was viewed that 107 Juveniles were school drop out and

were from North Chennai. 40 Juveniles are in the Higher secondary level. The

primary and elementary level Juveniles were 4 each. 11 Juveniles were college

going and in the 1st year of college. 3 were reported not to have been to schools. In

South Chennai 15 Juveniles were of higher secondary level whereas school drop

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outs were 19 in number. College or polytechnic going Children were 9 in number.

In Central Chennai school drop outs were 12 and 4 Juveniles were college going.

15 of them were higher secondary level Children. In West Chennai 4 Juveniles

were of elementary level and 12 were higher secondary level. 25 Juveniles were

school drop outs. 17 Juveniles were college going. There were one Juvenile each in

Central and West Chennai who have not been to school.

It is clear that major number of students are school drop outs and

particularly belong to North Chennai. North Chennai shows a high level of

illiteracy rate. The South and Central Chennai are almost equal in Juvenile literacy

level. The illiteracy level in North Chennai is higher than any other part of

Chennai. Further there seems to be a lot of school drop outs particularly in

Northern Chennai where people living below poverty line are higher in rate.

Further while testing the second hypothesis it is well found that it is only due to the

increasing rate of school drop outs most of the Juvenile crimes are committed.

Most of the Juveniles who have dropped out of school are not even able to write

their names with correct spelling. The Juveniles dropping out of school is purely

due to the faulty policies in the present Governmental education System which

shows a high rate of Juvenile crimes.

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Fig : 3.8.5 Literacy Level of Juveniles.

3.9 Other Causative Factors

3.9.1 Different causes for Juvenile Crimes in Chennai (2012-2014)

The causes for Juvenile crime are usually found at each level of the social

structure, including society as a whole, social institutions, social groups and

organizations, and interpersonal relations. Wide ranges of factors contribute the

Juvenile crimes as below. As the joint family System is coming to an end a, new

trend has evolved where in both the parents are working and as a result Children

are left neglected and such isolation leads the Child’s involvement in wrongful

acts. Several Causes had been identified in this section for analyzing the reason

why a Juvenile commits crime, out of which certain factors were reported to be the

major reasons for committing the crime in the city Chennai by Juveniles, which

have been classified below.

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Table 3.9.1 Different causes for Juvenile Crimes in Chennai (2012-2014)

CAUSES North South Central West


Peer Influence 43 14 20 15
Interest towards driving 20 3 18 37
lack of parental care 3 4 3 0
love affair 1 0 2 0
Revengeful thoughts 2 1 3 0
Want of luxurious life 1 1 0 0
Sudden anger 5 4 4 0
Solution sniffing/Alcohol/Drug 31 25 22 10
abuse

In North Chennai alone 43 Juveniles were under the influence of peer

group. Whereas in South Chennai 14 Juveniles were under the influence of peer

group. 20 Juvenile of Central Chennai and 15 of West Chennai were under the

influence of peer group pressure. These Juveniles were in theft and hurt cases. In

north Chennai 20 Juveniles and in South Chennai 3 of them who were involved in

cases of causing either simple, grevious hurt or death due to rash and negligent

driving without license. In Central Chennai 18 Juveniles and in West Chennai 37

Juveniles were involved in the above category of cases. These Juveniles revealed

an interest towards riding vehicle. Parental care is also a question for these

Juveniles. Juveniles who were involved in murder and POCSO Act cases had

developed enmity with the counter part due to love affair. Therefore revengeful

thoughts due to love affair were seen to be the reason behind it. Abuse of alcohol,

solution sniffing and drug abuse were reported high in North Chennai. Around 31

Juveniles were addicted to some sort of solution abuse. South and Central also

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recorded a number of 25 and 22 Juveniles each for solution abuse. In West Chennai

10 cases were reported. One of the major reasons as to why Children are entering

into the worlds of crime is because of their bad company. Children who are in bad

company knowingly or unknowingly indulge in criminal activities. It is this bad

company which motivates them to commit crime. Therefore on the whole peer

influence and solution abuse are found to be the highest factor involved in Juvenile

crime in the City of Chennai, where North Chennai recorded a high rate of Juvenile

Crimes due to the above said factors. While testing the first hypothesis, whether

existing social environmental conditions are the causative factors for Juvenile

delinquency, it is clearly proved that the same is an aggravating factor for Juvenile

crimes. Presence of Peer group in the society is again a socio-environmental

condition.

Fig: 3.9.1 Different Causes for Juvenile Crimes in Chennai (2012-2014)

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From the above it is revealed that Juveniles who suffer from peer influence

were the most involved in criminal activities. Juveniles involved in addiction

habits were the next higher rate of Juveniles involved in more criminal activities. It

is also proved that impoverished conditions coupled with addictive habits of

Juveniles are the root cause for Juvenile theft. Peer influence is once again a socio-

environmental condition which is a causative factor for increase in the Juvenile

crimes. It is absolutely due to the peer group, Children tend to get involved in

addiction habits. Both are interlinked. Therefore, here again the hypothesis is

proved.

3.9.2 Peer Influence and Addiction Habits

As submitted earlier, abuse of alcohol, solution sniffing and drug abuse

were reported high in North Chennai. Around 31 Juveniles were addicted to some

sort of solution abuse. South and Central also recorded a number of 25 and 22

Juveniles each for solution abuse. In West Chennai 10 cases were reported.

Therefore, across Chennai there are around 88 Juveniles in conflict with law who

are abused to alcohol or other solution abuse. Most of the Juveniles who are

influenced by bad company are tend of have addiction habits. These Juveniles get

into addiction habits either in single or gangs. Alcohol usage by Children in

Chennai City, have been on the rise. Children who fall under peer pressure

experience the usage alcohol initially for fun and later get addicted to it. Usage of

alcohol and drugs are a cause for committing other types of Juvenile crimes

including violent offenses, property offenses and other offenses such as assaults,

vandalism and disorderly conduct. Juveniles who are substance abusers and addicts

are likelier to be repeat offenders. Since most of these Children are dropouts in the

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early stage and under the influence of bad friendship they get into contact with

Children using drugs or alcohol. Thus after a span of time, they are addicted to it

and in order to get the drug or alcohol they involve in crimes. These Children

mostly have a habit of self-inflicting them. The reason for the same is stated to be

that they were under the influence of alcohol and they did not know what they

were doing. Initially these self-inflicting habits usually develop in Juveniles to

threaten family members to get their needs. Later on the repeated usage of drugs,

this becomes a habit and most of the Juvenile offenders who were addicted some

sort of solution abuse have the self-inflicting marks in their hands. When Children

are interacted with they reveal their intention of getting rid of it but are unaware of

the way. Therefore, the facts that Children brought up in impoverished condition

with addictive habits are prone to commit more crimes, particularly involved in

theft cases.

3.10 Conclusions

The study made by the researcher, by analyzing the causative factors of

Juvenile delinquency it was found that the total rate of boys involved in Juveniles

crimes are more when compared to girls. Most of the Juveniles who are influenced

by bad company are tend of have addiction habits. These Juveniles get into

addiction habits either in single or gangs. Alcohol usage by Children in Chennai

City, have been on the rise. Children who fall under peer pressure experience the

usage alcohol initially for fun and later get addicted to it. Usage of alcohol and

drugs are a cause for committing other types of Juvenile crimes including violent

offenses, property offenses and other offenses such as assaults, vandalism and

disorderly conduct.

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The Juveniles belonging to age group 12-14 where higher when compared

to Juveniles in age group 7-12. It is found that the Northern part Chennai is a major

zone where the crimes are committed the most by Juveniles. Most of the Juveniles

living in normal family circumstances and having good relationship with their

parents are involved in more criminal activities. Factors like bad friendship,

dropping out of school in high school level, Juveniles living below poverty line

and Juveniles who get addicted to substances and alcohol contribute a major part of

the crime. Most of the Juveniles were involved in theft cases. This could be

avoided in future based on the intervention of the Government and other stake

holders.

*****

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