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Application 1 π

1
→ a0 =
2π ∫
−π
f ( x)dx
Find the Fourier series of the function
1  
−π / 2 π /2 π
f ( x) with period 2π .
=  ∫ 0 dx + ∫ 1dx + ∫ 0dx 
2π  −π −π / 2 π /2 
f ( x) = { 1 if − π / 2 < x < π / 2
1 π /2 1 π π 
= { 0 if − π < x < −π / 2 and π / 2 < x < π = . x −π / 2 = . + 
2π 2π  2 2 
Solution 1
=
2
π
Info : 1
an = ∫ f ( x) cos nxdx
π −π
A periodic function with period p = 2π
1 
−π / 2 π /2 π
can be represented by a trigonometric =  ∫ 0 cos nxdx + ∫ 1cos nxdx + ∫ 0 cos nxdx 
series. π  −π −π / 2 π /2 
1 1 π / 2 1  π π 
∞ = . .sin nx = .  sin n − sin(− )n 
f ( x ) = a0 + ∑ (an cos nx +bn sin nx) π n −π / 2 πn  2 2 
n =1
1  π π 
= .  sin n + sin n 
* Euler formulas, πn  2 2 
1
π 2 π
2π −∫π
a0 = f ( x)dx = .sin n
πn 2
π
1
1
π
bn = ∫ f ( x) sin nxdx
an =
π ∫
−π
f ( x) cos nxdx π −π

1 
−π / 2 π /2 π

 ∫ ∫ ∫
π
1 = 0sin nxdx + 1sin nxdx + 0sin nxdx 
bn =
π ∫
−π
f ( x) sin nxdx π  −π −π / 2 π /2 
a0 , an and bn are Fourier coefficients. 1 1 π / 2 1  π π 
= . − .cos nx =− .  cos n − cos(− )n 
π n − π / 2 πn  2 2 
* p = 2 L (Function of any period) 1  π π 
=− .  cos n − cos n 

 nπ x nπ x  πn  2 2 
f ( x ) = a0 + ∑  an cos + bn sin 
n =1  L L  =0
L
1
2 L −∫L
a0 = f ( x)dx ∞
f ( x ) = a0 + ∑ (an cos nx +bn sin nx)
L n =1
1 nπ x
an = ∫ f ( x) cos dx = a0 + (a1 cos x + b1 sin x + a2 cos 2 x + b2 sin 2 x + ...)
L −L L
2 π 2
1
L
nπ x → a1 = sin → a1 =
bn = ∫ f ( x) sin dx π 2 π
L −L L 1
a2 = sin π → a2 = 0
π
2 3π 2
a3 = sin → a3 = −
3π 2 3π
1
a4 = sin 2π → a4 = 0

1
1 2 2  Application 2
f ( x) = +  cos x − cos 3 x + ... 
2 π 3π 
Represent the following function f ( x) by a
1 2 1 
= +  cos x − cos 3 x + ...  Fourier sine series.
2 π 3 
f ( x ) = kx (0 < x < L)
Result : f ( x) is an even function.
Solution
Info :
Info :
y = g ( x ) → g (− x) = g ( x) → Even function
(Ex:cosine series) The cosine half – range expansion,
→ g (− x) = − g ( x) → Odd function ∞
nπ x
(Ex:sine series) f ( x ) = a0 + ∑ an cos
n =1 L
L
The Fourier series of an even function with 1
L ∫0
a0 = f ( x)dx
period 2π is a Fourier cosine series,
L
2 nπ x

an = ∫ f ( x) cos dx
f ( x) = a0 + ∑ an cos nx L0 L
n =1
π bn = 0
1
a0 =
π ∫ f ( x)dx
0 The sine half – range expansion,
π
2
an =
π ∫ f ( x) cos nxdx
0

f ( x ) = ∑ bn sin
nπ x
n =1 L
bn = 0
L
2 nπ x
The Fourier series of an odd function with
bn =
L0∫ f ( x) sin
L
dx

period 2π is a Fourier sine series, an = 0

∞ a0 = 0
f ( x ) = ∑ bn sin nx
n =1
π
2
bn =
π ∫ f ( x) sin ndx
0

an = 0
a0 = 0

2
→ a0 = 0 , an = 0 for this function. 2kL π x kL 2π x
f ( x) = sin − sin
π L π L
2
L
nπ x 2kL 3π x kL 4π x
bn =
L0∫ f ( x) sin
L
dx +

sin −
L 2π
sin
L
+ ...

L L
2 nπ x 2k nπ x
= ∫ kx sin dx = ∫ x sin dx  πx 1 2π x 
L0 L L 0 L sin − sin
2kL  L 2 L 
→ u = x, du = dx f ( x) =  
π  1 3π x 1 4π x 
nπ x L nπ x  + sin − sin + ... 
dv = sin dx, v = − cos  3 L 4 L 
L nπ L

→ udv = uv − vdu ∫ (*) integral expansion is identical with
function of any period. ( p = 2 L)
→ ∫ x sin
nπ x
L
dx = x − ( L

cos
nπ x
L
) +
L

∫ cos
nπ x
L
dx
In Fourier Series questions first you should
nπ x xL nπ x L L nπ x

→ x sin
L
dx = −

.c os
L
+ .
nπ nπ
.sin
L
determine the Fourier coefficients with
zero values. (Fourier sine series or Fourier
2
nπ x xL nπ x L nπ x cosine series) Then only calculate the

→ x sin
L
dx = −

.c os
L
+ 2

2
.sin
L
(*) necessary coefficient(s).
2k  xL nπ x L2 nπ x  L Some functions might be neither even nor
bn =  − .c os + . sin 
L  nπ L n2π 2 L  0 odd that having to be calculated for all the
coefficients.
2k  L2 L2 
=  − .c os nπ + 2 2
.sin nπ − 0 
L  nπ nπ 
2kL 2kL
=− c os nπ + 2 2 sin nπ
nπ nπ

nπ x
→ f ( x) = ∑ bn sin
n =1 L
πx 2π x
= b1 sin + b2 sin + ...
L L
2kL 2kL
→ b1 = − cos π + 0 → b1 =
π π
kL kL
→ b2 = − cos 2π + 0 → b2 = −
π π
2kL 2kL
→ b3 = − cos 3π + 0 → b3 =
3π 3π
kL kL
→ b4 = − cos 4π + 0 → b4 = −
2π 2π