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Disusun untuk memenuhi tugas

mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris untuk Biologi yang
dibimbing oleh bapak Drs. I Wayan Sumberartha, M.Sc

Kelompok 1, Offering B 2017:

Dinda Ratu Ragil Ayu 170341615049
Karlina Syabania 170341615099
Nida Layli Asfia 170341615020
Syerly Afifatul Khorinah 170341615053


Desember 2017
Pranotomongso as Traditional Science in Java

Abstract: understanding of Javanese farmers to exploit natural phenomena as

guidance in farming with pranotomongso system is one form of human ability in
understanding environment which gave birth to environmental management
practice based on ecological wisdom. This article is the result of a literature study
that aims to determine the utilization of traditional science of pranotomongso
systems as a teaching material in Biology learning. The use of pranotomongso as
a teaching material of Biology can be a form of traditional science-based
pendagogic innovation that teaches learners about biological phenomena
contextually related to ecosystem, conservation, and soil management.

Keywords: original science, pranotomongso, biology learning

The Origin of Pranotomongso

The word pranotomongso, derived from the Javanese language,
consists of two words namely pronoto meaning provision and mongso which
means season. Pranotomongso is a matter of years based on the course of the
sun that shifted from the equator to the north and south for six
months. Ecologically, the circulation of the sun in one year affects the state
of the season on earth.
According to Daldjoeni (1983) in Hakim (2002), pranotomongo has
been known by agrarian societies on the island of Java in the past. They
recognize the time of planting and rest time of agricultural land, so as to
enable agricultural land and surrounding ecosystems have time to restore the
condition. The basic idea that the soil takes time to rest after performing its
function in producing food has been well understood by the traditional
community at the time, so that this pranotomongso system is considered more
able to ensure land sustainability.
Pranotomongso divides a year into 12 mangsa is kasa or kaji (I), karo
(II), katelu (III), kapat (IV), kalima (V), kanem (VI), kapitu (VII), kawolu
(VIII), kasanga (IX), kasapuluh (X), dhesta (XI), and saddha (XII)
(Shindhunata, 2011). Pranotomongso is also divided into four major seasons
namely katigo (dry season), labuh (rainy season often), rendheng (rainy
season many), and mareng (season transition to the dry season). Each season
is divided into several different months. Katigo season is divided into three
months is kaso (kasa), karo and katigo (katiga). The labuh season is divided
into three months is kapat, kalimo (kalima), kanem. The rendheng season is
divided into three months namely kapitu, kawolu (kawalu), kesongo
(kasanga). Season mareng divided into three months that is kasepuluh
(kadasa), apit lemah (hapitlemah), apit kayu (hapitkayu). Each month has
different natural clues as a basis for determining activities in their land
management (Hilmanto, 2010).
Prantamongso is also divided into 3 groups of seasons. The first
season group is called the main season consisting of 4 major seasons of bright
seasons (82 days), semplah (99 days), udan (82 days) and pengarep-arep (98
days). The second season group consists of katiga (88 days), labuh (95 days)
rendheng (94 days) and mareng (88 days). The third season group called the
mangsa consisting of 12 seasons in a year. In the third season division is done
by dividing a year consisting of 365 days into two. Then each half year is
broken down into six long-day prey as follows 41 days, 23 days, 24 days, 25
days, 27 days, and 43 days. The mangsa kasa starts at a time when the sun is
in the zenith for the North Line of June 22 and the mangsa of capiti begins on
the 22nd of December when the sun is in the Southern Limitian zenith. Both
the mid-year periods are hand-in-hand with the longest mangsa of bright or
saddha and kasa for 82 days and the udan or kanem and kapitu periods for 86
days. The bright mangsa is squeezed by two contrasting prey namely harvest
(destha) and famine (karo). While the udan mangsa is flanked by two mangsa
is kalima and kawolu. Pengarep-arep (kawolu, kasanga, and kasapuluh)
which is the breeding season of animals and staple food crops, dealing with
prey semplah (katelu, kapat and kalima) (Shindhunata, 2011).
Pranotomongso as the local wisdom
Pranotomongso is one of the local wisdom of Javanese people related
to agricultural land management. The application of pranotomongso shows
that Javanese people will never get out of the environment. Pranata prey has
been used as a method of determining the seasons for farmers on the island
of Java since the Hindu era. The calendar is called the Saka calendar because
it is believed to be composed by Aji Saka a king of Medhang Kamulan. Along
with the entry of Islam around the 16th century, Sultan Agung changed the
calendar Saka into Hijri calendar. This has an impact on the computation of
unfavorable prey (Sarwanto et al., 2010).

Pranotomongso is an inherited knowledge that is hereditary and local

and temporal. This means that pranotomongso is a certain knowledge at a
certain time and place. The standardization of pranotomongso was done
during the reign of Sri Susuhunan Paku Buwana VII in Surakarta on June 22,
1856 (Sindhunata, 2011). Actually the term pranotomongso has been
published in Centini fiber compiled in 1820-1833 by Paku Buwono V which
is published in the book The History of Java and Hien. The purpose of
pranotomongso treatment is to strengthen the dating system that regulates the
farmers' working procedures in following the seasonal cycle from year to

Pranotomongso has a cosmographic and bioclimatological aspect both

of which underlie the life of Indonesian society in economic and socio-
cultural aspects. Pranotomongso uses natural signs as a hint of time to grow
crops. Natural signs used are plant conditions, bediding phenomena or
striking temperature changes early in the dry season, animal behavior,
movement of objects such as constellations of stars. The use of signs made
by the farmers can be used as a determinant of when the right time to start
and carry out agricultural activities.
Pranotomongso in Bioclimatological

Beside that pranoto mongso can be explained bioclimatologically.

Bioclimatology is the branch of climatology that study to the relation between
climate and living creature especially in plant. According Sindhunata (2011)
there are twelve relation and here’s the following relation

1. Mangsa Kasa, sotya murca ing embanan (Ratna jatuh dari tatahan)
describes the foliage began to fall. Natural phenomena with foliage,
dry land, and shrinking springs \.
2. Mangsa Karo, bantala rengka (tanah retak) this season Palawija
began to grow, Randu tree, and Mango leaf began to bloom.
3. Manga Katigo, suta manut ing bapa means that in this season lungan
starts creeping, lungan means child (suta), lanjaran means father.
4. Mangsa Kapat, wasspo kunembang jroning kalbu means the sources
begin to dry, the tears are likened, kalbu is the heart which means the
source of the spring. These natural phenomena signify the harvest of
Palawija, Bamboo and others.
5. Mangsa Kalima, pancuran emas sumawur ing jagad means that
pancuran is like rain, sumawur spread on earth. The condition began
to cold, Tamarind and Palawija trees began to sprout, snakes and flies
sprang up.
6. Mangasa Kanem, rasa mulyo kasucen means the season of fruits. The
nature condition of rambutan, durian, and mangosteen began to ripe.
The time to cultivate rice field and disperse paddy in rice field.
7. Mangsa Kapitu, wisa kentar ing maruto means the season of
deceases, for example rain, flood, and slide.
8. Mangsa Kawolu, ajrah jronging kayun ( tersiar dalam kehendak)
means paddy in the rice field starts to grow and caterpillar starts to
sprang up.
9. Mangsa Kasongo, wedare wacana mulya (keluarnya sabda mulya)
means crickets and gangsir start to ring, the gareng start to sound
10. Mangsa Kasepuluh, gedong minep jroning kalbu ( gedong tertutup
kalbu) means paddy starts yellowing and harvesting, small birds start
making nests, incubating, and hatching.
11. Mangsa Dhesto, sotya sinarawedi (intan diasah) means sotya means
little birds, sinar wedi is fed. The paddy starts to harvest also pala
pendhem and tubers.
12. Mangsa Soddha, tirta sah saking sasana (air lenyap dari tempatnya)
means water is sweat and sasana is body because in this season
people rarely dry as the weather is cold.

According to Thomas Berry from Sindhunata (2011) pranotomongso

showed the spirituality of earth that is a tribute and an appreciation of the
earth where people live. Nature is the origin place of humans who provide
what we need like eating, supporting, guiding, and showing the way in
humans. In addition, pranotomongso shows that Javanese farmers dare to live
from the spirituality of the earth by capturing the signs of the earth. It is based
on an interconnected relationship between man and nature.

Pranotomongso system is one of the systems Indigenous Science or

pure science which comes from Javanese. Pranototmongso system becomes
reflection system for human to learn and see the changing in nature.
Furthermore pranotomongso helps farmer in designing economic life of
season-to-season crops. In the other words, pranotomongso is ethnoscience
which is develop in people. Ethnoscience examine the classification to find
out the structures used to regulate the environment and what is considered
important by an ethnic, resident of a culture. Ethnoscience in society is still
in the form of concrete experience as a result of human interaction and
environment. Therefore, it is necessary to translate ethnoscience into a high
science language (Sarwanto et al, 2010).

Along with the marked changes in time the advancement of

knowledge of many farmers leave the pranotomongso system as a guide. This
is due to global climate change that makes the season is erratic and make it
difficult for traditional farmers. However, farmers in Yogyakarta are still
trying to preserve the use of pranotomongso as a planting guide.

Application of pranata mangsa in the field of agriculture

Implementation of prey in the field of agriculture is necessary to keep

in mind that pranotomongso is a local wisdom that is able to overcome the
problems of agriculture such as the effectiveness of the use of agricultural
land and the high demand for food. Pranotomongso must be seated back in
the right place so that this local wisdom can still be utilized according to the
portion. Some efforts that can be done is to integrate the indigenous science
of pranotomongso system in Biology learning in school and provide guidance
to farmers to plant rice by following the planting season calendar.

Indigenous science or original science in the form of pranotomongso

system in one of the student teaching materials on ecosystem and
environmental material that includes conservation and environmental
management. By teaching students the pranotomongso system provides
students with conservation education as early as possible. Inside the
pranotomongso system there is a concept of environmental management with
the aim of maintaining environmental functions in order to remain
sustainable. In the application of the pranotomongso system makes the
farmers automatically plant the plants according to the nature with the
characteristics of planting in each season. In addition, by applying a system
of pranotomongso farmers also do intercropping that can inhibit the fragility
of the soil. Land management conducted with agricultural timings can also
improve sustainable yields on crops, improve ecological conditions on land,
and harmonize with nature so that sustainable natural functions are

Pranotomongso system in Biology learning in school

Biology learning by using indigenous science is very possible applied

in Biology learning, so that Biology learning will run contextually according
to the condition faced. In addition, by raising the indigenous science will open
opportunities for regions and organizer education to adapt, modify and
contextualize the curriculum in accordance with the reality of conditions in
the field, both demographic, geographic, sociological, psychological and
cultural students. It also opens up the opportunity to innovate pedagogic based
on local wisdom, so students can learn according to their own traditions by
learning based on local wisdom owned area, so that it can not be separated
from the prevailing culture in the social system of students (Sarwanto et al.,

Pranotomongso can be one of Biology teaching materials in schools

with the goal of continuing to preserve local wisdom and as an effort to
conserve natural resources in the agricultural sector, pranotomongso can also
be used as a reference for various natural phenomena that are thought to
emerge in response or weather conditions or climate change. By studying
pranotomongso expected people able to read natural phenomena well,
because society must be able to adapt in case of change of weather condition
or climate. In relation to this, the prey order remains reliable in relation to the
observation of various natural phenomena of the present age, especially in
Pranotomongso is one of the culture of the sciences of traditional
science originating from central Java can be used and applied in the field of
environmental management or land that aims to maintain or maintain the
function of the environment or living land in order to maintain its
sustainability (an ecological wisdom). In addition, pranotomongso can be
used as a means of learning biology in the form of an introduction to how to
manage the appropriate environment and well to be applied in life. This may
open opportunities for regions and educational managers to adapt, modify and
contextualize the curriculum in accordance with the reality of existing
conditions in lapanagan, both demographic, geographic, sociological,
psychological and cultural students.

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