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1. What is the understanding and composition of clove oil?

Write down the structure and


properties of clove oil!
Clove oil is one type of essential oil extracted from clove plants (Eugenia Caryophyllata). In
general, the composition of clove oil consists of eugenol, eugenol acetate, and caryophyllena.
The content of the three compounds varies depending on which part of the oil is extracted. Oil
can be obtained from the flowers, stems, and leaves of the clove plant. Eugenol belongs to the
phenol group (the alkyl benzene group) because it has an -OH group which is bound directly
to the benzene ring. Structure of eugenol, eugenol acetate and caryophyllena:

Eugenol Eugenol acetate Caryophyllena

2. What is the concept of steam distillation and thin layer chromatography?


Steam distillation
Distillation is a method of separating components from a mixture based on differences in the
boiling point of the solution. Steam distillation is a method of separating components from the
mixture with the help of water vapor from other substances / components that do not dissolve
with each other. By using water, distillation takes place at temperatures below the liquid
boiling point and runs well below the boiling point of organic substances. The main purpose
of steam distillation is to do evaporation through boiling below the boiling point it should be.
The principle is to add steam from substances that do not dissolve with the components to be
isolated so that the system's vapor pressure will increase and the solution can boil below the
boiling point of the organic matter. The use of steam distillation is to isolate liquids and solids
from natural materials, avoiding the decomposition of substances at high temperatures if using
simple distillation. In the experiment using a direct method where the source of the steam
comes from the direct heating of water (at its boiling point) in the pumpkin that contains the
components to be distilled.
Thin layer chromatography
Thin layer chromatography is a mixture separation technique by flowing the mixture through
an absorbent where different components are separated based on propagation in a particular
medium in the form of dots. The principle is based on the difference in polarity between the
sample and the solvent which causes the difference in migration of each separate component
in the stationary phase and the mobile phase. The stationary phase in TLC is usually in the
form of a silica plate and the mobile phase is (solvent) adapted to the type of sample to be
separated. The mobile phase is a liquid which will propagate in a certain direction along the
thin layer of the stationary phase based on the principle of capillarity of each moving
component having a different speed due to the influence of the TLC process. The closer the
polarity is between the sample and the solvent, the more easily the sample will be carried
away by the mobile phase. Chromatography is done by passing the mobile phase in its
stationary phase. Then the mobile phase will separate the compounds that have different
polarity. Components that prefer the stationary phase will be bound to the stationary phase. In
the experiment, the mobile phase used was hexane and CH2Cl2 (2: 1) and the stationary
phase was silica gel.