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DESIGN AND FABRICARTION OF AUTOMATIC

ACCIDENT PROTECTION AND SMS ALERT


SYSTEM IN AUTOMOBILE
ABSTRACT

Accident control is in the need of the hour due to the increased rate of accidents
reported in our day-to-day life. During 2017, in India a whole of 4, 97,686 road
accidents were reported which is a result of lack of speed control and violating
the road rules. Road accidents can be prevented by adopting measures such as
Traffic management, improving quality of road infrastructure and safer
vehicles. The existing techniques still doesn’t able to reduce the number of
accidents. Hence there is a need to AUTOMATIC ACCIDENT
PROTECTION AND SMS ALERT SYSTEM IN AUTOMOBILEin which
vehicles speed can be automatically controlled by various limit techniques
which are based on zones, highway, traffic density etc. In this research work, it
proposes automatic speed control system based on color strips for highway road
and the roads where the speed control within limit is required.

The methodology explains that a various on road side or the roads where the
automatic sms alert system working by any object will detects within limit is
required and vehicle will have a sensor attached which will recognize on the
accidented automobile and accordingly maintain the vehicles in that particular .
In this developed system, the detecting accident by sensor of specific intensity
is used to activate/Sms send to the emergency number by the system of gms
control within the on the automobile .

In actual practice, the system works that when vehicle enter in speed limiting
roads like express–high way, high way and any other roads where the speed
reduced is required etc., This reduces the road accidents and gets driving
comfort for the driver, after implementation of this automatic speed control
system.This reduces the road accidents and gets driving comfort for the driver,
after implementation of this automatic speed control system.
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Research on fully and partially automated roadway systems is being


conducted in most developed countries. The major technologies are
unlikely to be introduced before the end of the century and some are
unlikely to be implemented within two decades. These systems offer
excellent opportunities to control vehicle speeds and movements in order
to avoid accidents but they rely, of course, on sophisticated features built
into the roadway and vehicle.

Progress with these systems should be monitored but they are unlikely to
offer any significant short term solutions. But various types of accident
are occurred on express highway road, highway road, off road just
because of small uncertain activities. Rash driving, system failure,
collision due to obstacles, exiting speed control limit etc. are just some
causes of accidents. For prevention of this accident, government made
some rules. Such as helmet, seat belt compulsion etc.

Speed control at particular type of road is also necessary to avoid


accidents. For this, there is no any system to control the speed of vehicle.
That’s why, there is need to invent such system which control the speed
of vehicle automatically at given limit at particular limiting distance. If
this concept methodology system is possible, the problems related to
traffic as well as accidents due to collision will be controlled. Now it is
possible to control or set the speed of vehicle at a given limit on the roads
like highways, express high ways and any area where the speed limit is
desired by the technique suggested in methodology described in this
paper.
In India mostly 65 km/hr. limit for high ways and below 80km/hr. limit
for express highways. This developed system is applicable for any speed
limit which can be set or controlled as per the roads. In this paper, the
proposed methodology is suggested that one such kind of speed control
system based on color strips for highway. The various design components
of this system are the color strips which are painted on highway roads and
a color sensor located below the bumper on chassis which will recognize
the color on roads, the programmable MCU which process signals from
various components and send the signal to control the throttle valve/fuel
pump, speedometer and vehicle.

CONCEPT METHODOLOGY

Many accidents are at least partially caused because of rash driving.


This can happen due to many reasons: poor judgment on the part of the
driver, poor driving by the driver. Once the driver has lost control it is
very difficult to drive the vehicle. So to avoid the road accidents and kept
the speed control of vehicles is under government, and also to prevent
losing of valuable property, it is necessary to have some safety system
which will be the permanent solution for the above problems. Therefore,
an innovative concept is suggested by which it can control the speed of
vehicle automatically at given limit at particular limiting distance and
practically by the developed concept system, the problems related to
traffic as well as accidents due to collision will be controlled.
In this paper, the proposed developed system is a kind of speed control
system based on color strips for highway and where the speed control limit is
desired. In this developed system, the various color strips are marked on
highway and vehicles will have a color detecting sensor located below the
bumper on chassis of vehicle which will recognize the color of color strips
marked on roads and accordingly maintain the vehicles speed in that
particular limit. In this way, thissystem reduces the road accidents and gets
driving comfort for the driver because of limited speed. The different sources
where the automatic speed control system recommended by the agencies are

• Mostly useful to avoid an accidents on turning area/sharp corners


in government area (offices), defense / camp area or Residential
area, school zones and villages that are located at the highways and
beside the highways.

• Some times on zigzag roads speed limit takes place. In such case,
also this system plays an important role to avoid accidents.

• On highway roads mostly this system is useful for safe driving and
control the traffic problem. It’s mostly 65km/hr in India, 80km/hr
in the countries like U.S.A., Canada, and U.K.
LITERATURE SURVEY
INVESTIGATIONS ON CONCEPT RESEARCH

Several road safety literature databases were searched for articles on


speed limiting for cars. Very few article s on this specific subject were
found. The most advanced research is that being undertaken by the
University of Lund in Sweden. The author has sought a status report on
this project from Christer Hyden but no response had been received at the
time of preparation of this report. Numerous article s were found on other
issues related to speeds of vehicles. These are referred to in appropriate
sections of this report. The author attended the recent ESV Conference in
Melbourne and took the opportunity to seek information about the status
of speed control research overseas:

Europe-Claes Tingvall from the Swedish National Road


Administration confirmed that the University of Lund is still conducting
research on this issue. The Swedes consider that substantial road safety
benefits can be obtained by reducing urban traffic speeds. Jean Breen
from the Europe an Transport Safety Council is monitoring the work in
Sweden. ETSC has identified the role of vehicle factors in speed mode
ration as an important road safety issue.

USA-Ken Digges from NHTSA was not aware of any current research in the
USA. He called that the issue of speed limiters in cars had been considered
more than a decade ago and it got no further than preliminary investigations.
Japan-The paper by the Japanese Ministry of Transport indicate s that
“maximum speed and power output" are included in the list of items
currently being considered in Japan. For many years vehicles in Japan
have been required to be fitted with an alarm which activates if the
vehicle exceeds 100km/h.

Australia-Several investigations by Monash University Accident


Research Unit have identified speed limiters as a possible countermeasure
to excessive speeds. The Australian Road Research Board conducted an
early investigation of the effects of speed limiters on heavy vehicles .The
related research concerns moves to reduce residential speed limits to
50km. In general Australia has much higher residential speed limits than
other developed nations. As discussed later, the local speed limit is only
one of many factors considered by motorists in judging an appropriate
travel speed. Vehicle-based speed control devices might form part of the
strategy if lower residential speed limits are introduced. During the
conference, several overseas visitors commented that typical urban traffic
speeds in Australia appeared to be too high. The literature review tended
to confirm this observation.
CHAPTER 2

AUTOMOBILE

A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.


Most definitions of car say they run primarily on roads, seat one to eight people,
have four tires, and mainly transport people rather than goods. Cars came into
global use during the 20th century, and developed economies depend on them. The
year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car, when German
inventor Karl Benz built his Benz Patent-Motorwagen.

Cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of
the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American
car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the
US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer
to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world.

Cars have controls for driving, parking, passenger comfort and safety, and
controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls
have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex. Examples
include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car
entertainment. Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal
combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. This causes air
pollution and is also blamed for contributing to climate change and global
warming.

Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel


vehicles and natural gas vehicles are also gaining popularity in some
countries. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began
to become commercially available in 2008.

There are costs and benefits to car use. The costs include acquiring the vehicle,
interest payments (if the car is financed), repairs and maintenance,
fuel, depreciation, driving time, parking fees, taxes, and insurance.] The costs to
society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public
health, health care, and disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic
accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide.

The benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility, independence, and


convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and
wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal
well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, and revenue generation from
the taxes. The ability for people to move flexibly from place to place has far-
reaching implications for the nature of societies. It was estimated in 2014 that the
number of cars was over 1.25 billion vehicles, up from the 500 million of 1986.
The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, India and other newly
industrialized countries.

For avoiding rash driving of the drivers we provide safety systems within the
vehicles mainly for 4-wheelers.
In this system there is one power source (battery) as input, one controlling element
(toroidal coil with controlling rod arrangement), micro controller and small
modifications in the already existing conventional design of S.I & C.I engines. By
using this simple system we can control automatically the speed of the vehicle.

The vehicle will move with designed speed (low speed) of the control system even
though the driver wants to move the vehicle with high velocities.

There is a increase in the number of vehicles in these days which also cause
a steep rise in the number of accidents with a lot of people losing their lives.
According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 1.2 million people lose
their lives every year due to car accidents.

Many times proper medical facilities are not provided due to lack of
communication and so lead to severe injuries. Our system help common people as
a safety measure in harsh condition scope. This project is mainly used to provide
help to the owner or victim of the accident of the Vehicle. In case of any accident,
the system be avoid the accident.

As per the design is avoid accident takes place. This design has many scopes
in future because as the population is increasing the numbers of vehicles are also
increasing as well the number of accident and death due to it.

In order to control the number of accident victims’ deaths the system is


useful, as the accident .

ETYMOLOGY

The word car is believed to originate from Latinword carrus or carrum ("wheeled
vehicle"), or the Middle English word carre (meaning "two-wheel cart", from Old
North French). In turn, these originatedthe Gaulish word karros (a Gallic chariot. It
originally referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or
wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, and is the usual formal name for cars
in British English. "Autocar" is a variant that is also attested from 1895, but that is
now considered archaic. It literally means "self-propelled car

HISTORY

Main article: History of the automobile


The first working steam-powered vehicle was designed—and most likely
built—by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in
China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor
that was unable to carry a driver or a passenger.

It is not known if Verbiest's model was ever built.

The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of


the history of the car, but often treated separately from the development of true
cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of
the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses, phaetons, and steam rollers.
Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865.

In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was
probably the world's first internal combustion engine (which they called
a Pyréolophore), but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in
France.[26] Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de
Rivaz designed his own 'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to
develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
MASS PRODUCTION

Henry Ford founded Ford Motor Company in 1903

1927 Ford Model T

Kiichiro Toyoda, president of the Toyota Motor Corporation 1941–1950

Mass production at a Toyota plant in the 1950s

Large-scale, production-line manufacturing of affordable cars was started


by Ransom Olds in 1901 at his Oldsmobile factory in Lansing, Michigan and based
upon stationary assembly line techniques pioneered by Marc Isambard Brunel at
the Portsmouth Block Mills, England, in 1802. The assembly line style of mass
production and interchangeable parts had been pioneered in the U.S. by Thomas
Blanchard in 1821, at the Springfield Armory in Springfield, Massachusetts. This
concept was greatly expanded by Henry Ford, beginning in 1913 with the world's
first moving assembly line for cars at the Highland Park Ford Plant.

As a result, Ford's cars came off the line in fifteen-minute intervals, much
faster than previous methods, increasing productivity eightfold, while using less
manpower (from 12.5-man-hours to 1 hour 33 minutes). It was so
successful, paint became a bottleneck. Only Japan Black would dry fast enough,
forcing the company to drop the variety of colors available before 1913, until fast-
drying Duco lacquer was developed in 1926.

This is the source of Ford's apocryphal remark, "any color as long as it's
black".In 1914, an assembly line worker could buy a Model T with four months'
pay. Ford's complex safety procedures—especially assigning each worker to a
specific location instead of allowing them to roam about—dramatically reduced
the rate of injury. The combination of high wages and high efficiency is called
"Fordism," and was copied by most major industries. The efficiency gains from the
assembly line also coincided with the economic rise of the United States. The
assembly line forced workers to work at a certain pace with very repetitive motions
which led to more output per worker while other countries were using less
productive methods.

In the automotive industry, its success was dominating, and quickly spread
worldwide seeing the founding of Ford France and Ford Britain in 1911, Ford
Denmark 1923, Ford Germany 1925; in 1921, Citroen was the first native
European manufacturer to adopt the production method. Soon, companies had to
have assembly lines, or risk going broke; by 1930, 250 companies which did not,
had disappeared.

Development of automotive technology was rapid, due in part to the hundreds of


small manufacturers competing to gain the world's attention. Key developments
included electric ignition and the electric self-starter (both by Charles Kettering,
for the Cadillac Motor Company in 1910–1911), independent suspension, and
four-wheel brakes.
CHAPTER 3

`CAR TECHNOLOGIES

AUTONOMOUS CAR

Main article: Autonomous car

A robotic Volkswagen Passatshown at Stanford University is a driverless car


Fully autonomous vehicles, also known as driverless cars, already exist in
prototype (such as the Google driverless car), and are expected to be commercially
available around 2020. According to urban designer and futurist Michael E. Arth,
driverless electric vehicles—in conjunction with the increased use of virtual
reality for work, travel, and pleasure—could reduce the world's 800 million
vehicles to a fraction of that number within a few decades. This would be possible
if almost all private cars requiring drivers, which are not in use and parked 90% of
the time, would be traded for public self-driving taxis that would be in near
constant use.
Main article: Open source car

There have been several projects aiming to develop a car on the principles of open
design, an approach to designing in which the plans for the machinery and systems
are publicly shared, often without monetary compensation. The projects
include OScar, Riversimple (through 40fires.org) and c,mm,n. None of the projects
have reached significant success in terms of developing a car as a whole both from
hardware and software perspective and no mass production ready open-source
based design have been introduced as of late 2009. Some car hacking through on-
board diagnostics (OBD) has been done so far.

Car sharing

Car-share arrangements and carpooling are also increasingly popular, in the


US and Europe. For example, in the US, some car-sharing services have
experienced double-digit growth in revenue and membership growth between 2006
and 2007. Services like car sharing offering a residents to "share" a vehicle rather
than own a car in already congested neighborhoods.
INDUSTRY

Main article: Automotive industry

A car being assembled in a factory

The automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets, and sells


the world's motor vehicles. In 2008, more than 70 million motor vehicles,
including cars and commercial vehicles were produced worldwide. In 2007, a total
of 71.9 million new cars were sold worldwide: 22.9 million in Europe, 21.4 million
in the Asia-Pacific Region, 19.4 million in the USA and Canada, 4.4 million in
Latin America, 2.4 million in the Middle East and 1.4 million in Africa.

The markets in North America and Japan were stagnant, while those in
South America and other parts of Asia grew strongly. Of the major markets, China,
Russia, Brazil and India saw the most rapid growth.About 250 million vehicles are
in use in the United States. Around the world, there were about 806 million cars
and light trucks on the road in 2007; they burn over 260 billion US gallons
(980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly.
The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China and India. [11] In the
opinion of some, urban transport systems based around the car have proved
unsustainable, consuming excessive energy, affecting the health of populations,
and delivering a declining level of service despite increasing investments. Many of
these negative impacts fall disproportionately on those social groups who are also
least likely to own and drive cars. The sustainable transport movement focuses on
solutions to these problems.

In 2008, with rapidly rising oil prices, industries such as the automotive
industry, are experiencing a combination of pricing pressures from raw material
costs and changes in consumer buying habits. The industry is also facing
increasing external competition from the public transport sector, as consumers re-
evaluate their private vehicle usage. Roughly half of the US's fifty-one light
vehicle plants are projected to permanently close in the coming years, with the loss
of another 200,000 jobs in the sector, on top of the 560,000 jobs lost this decade.
Combined with robust growth in China, in 2009, this resulted in China becoming
the largest car producer and market in the world. China 2009 sales had increased to
13.6 million, a significant increase from one million of domestic car sales in
2000. Since then however, even in China and other BRIC countries, the automotive
production is again falling.
OTHER MEANINGS

The term motorcar has formerly also been used in the context of electrified
rail systems to denote a car which functions as a small locomotive but also
provides space for passengers and baggage. These locomotive cars were often used
on suburban routes by both interurban and intercity railroad systems.

Motor vehicle theft or grand theft auto is the criminal act of stealing or
attempting to take any motor vehicle. Nationwide in the US in 2012, there were an
estimated 721,053 motor vehicle thefts, or approximately 229.7 motor vehicles
stolen for every 100,000 inhabitants. Property losses due to motor vehicle theft in
2012 were estimated at $4.3 billion.

Methods

Shattered glass marks the spot where a parked vehicle was stolen.

Some methods used by criminals to steal motor vehicles are:

Theft of an unattended vehicle without a key(s): The removal of a parked


vehicle either by breaking and entry, followed by hotwiring or
other tampering methods to start the vehicle, or else towing. In London, the police
say that 50% of the annual 20,000 car thefts are now from high tech OBD
(Onboard Diagnostic Port) key cloning kits (available online) and bypass
immobilizer simulators.
THEFT WITH ACCESS TO KEYS:

Known in some places as "Taken Without Owner's Consent (TWOC)". The


unauthorized use of a vehicle in which the owner has allowed the driver to have
possession of or easy access to the keys. Often, this is the adolescent or grown
child or employee of the vehicle's owner who, at other times, may be authorized to
use the vehicle. This may be treated differently, depending on the jurisdiction's
laws, and the owner may choose not to press charges. However, this method also
applies to criminals who break into a car and find that the owner has left a spare set
of keys in the glovebox, and use these to drive the car away

OPPORTUNISTIC THEFT:

The removal of a vehicle that the owner or operator has left unattended with the
keys visibly present, sometimes idling. Alternatively, some cars offered for sale are
stolen during a 'test drive'. A 'test drive' may also provide a potential thief with
insight into where the vehicle keys are stored, so that the thief may return later to
steal the vehicle.

CAR JACKING:

Refers to the taking of a vehicle by force or threat of force from its owner or
operator. In most places, this is the most serious form of vehicle theft,
since assault also occurs and the method of taking over the vehicle is essentially
a robbery, a more serious form of theft. In some carjackings, the operators and
passengers are forced from the vehicle while the thief drives it away him/herself,
while in other incidents, the operator and/or passenger(s) are forced to remain in
the vehicle as hostages. Some less common carjackings result in the operator being
forced to drive the assailant in accordance with the assailant's demands.
CHAPTER 4
MAIN COMPONENTS

GSM

GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a standard developed by


the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the
protocols for second-generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by mobile
devices such as mobile phones and tablets. It was first deployed in Finland in
December 1991.[2] As of 2014, it has become the global standard for mobile
communications – with over 90% market share, operating in over 193 countries
and territories.
2G networks developed as a replacement for first generation (1G) analog cellular
networks, and the GSM standard originally described a digital, circuit-switched
network optimized for full duplex voice telephony. This expanded over time to
include data communications, first by circuit-switched transport, then
by packet data transport via GPRS (General Packet Radio Services)
and EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution, or EGPRS).
Subsequently, the 3GPP developed third-generation (3G) UMTS standards,
followed by fourth-generation (4G) LTE Advanced standards, which do not form
part of the ETSI GSM standard.
"GSM" is a trademark owned by the GSM Association. It may also refer to the
(initially) most common voice codec used, Full Rate.
WHEEL

wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing.


The wheel is one of the key components of the wheel and axle which is one of
the six simple machines. Wheels, in conjunction with axles, allow heavy objects to
be moved easily facilitating movement or transportation while supporting a load,
or performing labor in machines. Wheels are also used for other purposes, such as
a ship's wheel, steering wheel, potter's wheel and flywheel.

Common examples are found in transport applications. A wheel greatly


reduces friction by facilitating motion by rolling together with the use of axles. In
order for wheels to rotate, a moment needs to be applied to the wheel about its
axis, either by way of gravity or by the application of another external force
or torque. Using the wheel, Sumerians invented a contraption that spins clay as a
potter shapes it into the desired object.

STEEL
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements. Because of its
high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used
in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances,
and weapons.Iron is the base metal of steel. Iron is able to take on two crystalline
forms (allotropic forms), body centered cubic (BCC) and face centered cubic
(FCC), depending on its temperature. In the body-centred cubic arrangement, there
is an iron atom in the centre of each cube, and in the face-centred cubic, there is
one at the center of each of the six faces of the cube. It is the interaction of
the allotropesof iron with the alloying elements, primarily carbon, that gives steel
and cast iron their range of unique properties.

In pure iron, the crystal structure has relatively little resistance to the iron atoms
slipping past one another, and so pure iron is quite ductile, or soft and easily
formed. In steel, small amounts of carbon, other elements, and inclusions within
the iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that are
common in the crystal lattices of iron atoms.
The carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.14% of its weight.
Varying the amount of carbon and many other alloying elements, as well as
controlling their chemical and physical makeup in the final steel (either as solute
elements, or as precipitated phases), slows the movement of those dislocations that
make pure iron ductile, and thus controls and enhances its qualities. These qualities
include such things as the hardness, quenching behavior, need
for annealing, tempering behavior, yield strength, and tensile strength of the
resulting steel. The increase in steel's strength compared to pure iron is possible
only by reducing iron's ductility.

Steel was produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years, but its large-
scale, industrial use began only after more efficient production methods were
devised in the 17th century, with the production of blister steel and then crucible
steel. With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, a new
era of mass-produced steel began. This was followed by the Siemens-Martin
process and then the Gilchrist-Thomas process that refined the quality of steel.
With their introductions, mild steel replaced wrought iron.

Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS),


largely replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and
increasing the quality of the final product. Today, steel is one of the most common
man-made materials in the world, with more than 1.6 billion tons produced
annually. Modern steel is generally identified by various grades defined by
assorted standards organizations.
MICROCONTROLLER

A microcontroller (or MCU for microcontroller unit) is a


small computer on a single integrated circuit. In modern terminology, it is
similar to, but less sophisticated than, a system on a chip or SoC; an SoC
may include a microcontroller as one of its components. A microcontroller
contains one or more CPUs (processor cores) along with memory and
programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form
of ferroelectric RAM, NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on
chip, as well as a small amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed
for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used
in personal computers or other general purpose applications consisting of
various discrete chips.

Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as


automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls,
office machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems. By
reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses separate microprocessor,
memory, and input/output devices, microcontrollers make it economical to
digitally control even more devices and processes. Mixed signal microcontrollers
are common, integrating analog components needed to control non-digital
electronic systems.

Some microcontrollers may use four-bit words and operate at frequencies as


low as 4 kHz, for low power consumption (single-digit milliwatts or microwatts).
They will generally have the ability to retain functionality while waiting for an
event such as a button press or other interrupt; power consumption while sleeping
(CPU clock and most peripherals off) may be just nanowatts, making many of
them well suited for long lasting battery applications. Other microcontrollers may
serve performance-critical roles, where they may need to act more like a digital
signal processor (DSP), with higher clock speeds and power consumption.

SENSOR

An Ultrasonic sensor is a device that can measure the distance to an object


by using sound waves. It measures distance by sending out a sound wave at a
specific frequency and listening for that sound wave to bounce back. By recording
the elapsed time between the sound wave being generated and the sound wave
bouncing back, it is possible to calculate the distance between the sonar sensor and
the object.
Diagram of the basic ultrasonic sensor operation

Since it is known that


sound travels through air
at about 344 m/s (1129
ft/s), you can take the time for the sound wave to return and multiply it by 344
meters (or 1129 feet) to find the total round-trip distance of the sound wave.
Round-trip means that the sound wave traveled 2 times the distance to the object
before it was detected by the sensor; it includes the 'trip' from the sonar sensor to
the object AND the 'trip' from the object to the Ultrasonic sensor (after the sound
wave bounced off the object). To find the distance to the object, simply divide the
round-trip distance in half.
Vibration sensor

vibration sensor---whose internal structure is like a metal ball that is fixed in a


special spring as pole, around it is the other pole. When the vibration gets to an
extent, the two poles are connected so as to judge the shock occurs. Vibration
sensor outputs digital signal

A piezoelectric sensor is a device that uses the piezoelectric effect, to measure


changes in pressure, acceleration, temperature, strain, or force by converting them
to an electrical charge. The prefix piezo- is Greek for 'press' or 'squeeze'.

Piezoelectric sensors are versatile tools for the measurement of various processes.
They are used for quality assurance, process control, and for research and
development in many industries. Pierre Curie discovered the piezoelectric effect in
1880, but only in the 1950s did manufacturers begin to use the piezoelectric effect
in industrial sensing applications. Since then, this measuring principle has been
increasingly used, and has become a mature technology with excellent inherent
reliability.

They have been successfully used in various applications, such as


in medical, aerospace, nuclear instrumentation, and as a tilt sensor in consumer
electronicsor a pressure sensor in the touch pads of mobile phones. In
the automotive industry, piezoelectric elements are used to monitor combustion
when developing internal combustion engines. The sensors are either directly
mounted into additional holes into the cylinder head or the spark/glow plug is
equipped with a built-in miniature piezoelectric sensor.

The rise of piezoelectric technology is directly related to a set of inherent


advantages. The high modulus of elasticity of many piezoelectric materials is
comparable to that of many metals and goes up to 106 N/m².[citation needed] Even
though piezoelectric sensors are electromechanical systems that react
to compression, the sensing elements show almost zero deflection. This gives
piezoelectric sensors ruggedness, an extremely high natural frequency and an
excellent linearity over a wide amplitude range. Additionally, piezoelectric
technology is insensitive to electromagnetic fields and radiation, enabling
measurements under harsh conditions. Some materials used (especially gallium
phosphate or tourmaline) are extremely stable at high temperatures, enabling
sensors to have a working range of up to 1000 °C. Tourmaline
shows pyroelectricity in addition to the piezoelectric effect; this is the ability to
generate an electrical signal when the temperature of the crystal changes. This
effect is also common to piezoceramic materials. Gautschi in Piezoelectric
Sensorics(2002) offers this comparison table of characteristics of piezo sensor
materials vs other types
CHAPTER 5

BLOCK DIAGRAM,

AUTOMOBILE POWER Micro controller


SUPPLY

GSM MODULE
VIBRATION SENSOR
SMS SEND

GSM PRCOSSING ACCIDENT PERVENT


CHAPTER 6
WORKING PRINCIPLE

It is the system which mainly uses the vibration sensor, for SMS ALERT
the send the sms to emergenecy number , on the road prevent accident. In
this system, detecting sensor of specific intensity is used to
activate/deactivate the system of sms alert protection. sensor is located
below the bumper on chassis. sensors are located in the vehicle’s wheels for
the high accuracy measurement of accident prevent vibration level of the car.
Sensor fusion is applied to the information received by these subsystems,
and used to adjust the longitudinal speed of the vehicle with a controller In
practice, when vehicle enter in speed limiting road like express– high way,
high way etc., whose speed limit is approximately 80km/hr /60km/ hr/75km/
hr etc. respectively, the detecting sensor detect the object on the road to
activate the system and send the signals to MCU. MCU control the position
of valve which result in controlling the gsm module of vechicle at given
limit. When the system activated then our vehicle is send the sms to
emergeney. In this way, this system reduces the road accidents dead and gets
driving comfort . Now in this system. Is very use ful for taxi drivers and long
drve peoples
CHAPTER 7
ADVANTAGE

 LOW COST
 EASY TO IMPLEMENT
 WE CAN CONTROL THE road accident dead
 RELIABLE

APPLICATION

 THE SYSTEM CAN BE USED TO AVOID heavy loss


 TRANSPORATION APPLICATION
CHAPTER 8

CONCLUSIONS

Vehicle tracking system makes better fleet management and which in turn brings
large profits. Better scheduling or route planning can enable you handle larger jobs
loads within a particular time. Vehicle tracking both in case of personal as well as
business purpose improves safety and security, communication medium,
performance monitoring and increases productivity. So in the coming year, it is
going to play a major role in our day-to-day living.

Main motto of the accident alert system project is to decrease the chances of losing
life in such accident which we can’t stop from occurring. Whenever accident is
alerted the paramedics are reached to the particular location to increase the chances
of life. This device invention is much more useful for the accidents occurred in
deserted places and midnights. This vehicle tracking and accident alert feature
plays much more important role in day to day life in future
CHAPTER 9

REFERENCES

[1] W.H. Hucho, Aerodynamics of Road Vehicles, ISBN 0-7680-0029-7,


Warrendale PA, Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998, 142-145
[2] T.D. Gillespia, Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics, ISBN 1-556091-
199-9, Warrendale PA, Society of Automotive Engineers, 1992
[3] D. Cole, Elementary Vehicle Dynamics, course notes in Mechanical
Engineering, The Univ. of Michigan, Michigan, 1972
[4] The Traffic Institute, Traffic Accident Reconstruction, Northwestern
University, 62-140, 1990
[5] World Health Organization 1984. Road traffic accidents in developing
countries. Technical Report Series No. 73. Geneva, WHO.
[6] Accident Control and Safety Measures in Mass Transit Operations in
Nigeria. Ibadan University Press, Ibadan, pp. 257-262.
[7] Court,R. and King,E.,'An Overview of the Anti-speeding
Communications Strategy for 1995/1996',Proceedings of the National
Road Safety Research & Enforcement Conference', Traffic Board of
Western Australia, Western Australia,1995.