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Project Report

1. INTRODUCTION
Rice husk is an agricultural residue widely available in major rice producing countries. The
husk surrounds the paddy grain. During milling process of paddy grains about 78 % of weight is
obtained as rice, broken rice and bran. Remaining 22 % of the weight of paddy is obtained as husk.
This husk is used as fuel in the various mills to generate steam for the parboiling process. This
husk contains about 75 % organic volatile matter and the rest 25 % of the weight of this husk is
converted into ash during the firing process, this Ash is known as rice husk ash. This RHA contains
around 85 % - 90% amorphous silica.

Rice husk is generated from the rice processing industries as a major agricultural by
product in many parts of the world especially in developing countries. About 500 million tons of
paddies are produced in the world annually after incineration only about 20% of rice husk is
transformed to RHA. Still now there is no useful application of RHA and is usually dumped into
water streams or as landfills causing environmental pollution of air, water and soil. RHA consists
of non-crystalline silicon dioxide with high specific Surface area and high pozzolanic reactivity,
thus due to growing environmental concern and the need to conserve energy and resources,
utilization of industrial and biogenic waste as supplementary cementing material has become an
integral part of concrete construction. Pozzolonas improve strength because they are smaller than
the cement particles, and can pack in between the cement particles and provide a finer pore
structure. RHA has two roles in concrete manufacture, as a substitute for Portland cement, reducing
the cost of concrete in the production of low cost building blocks, and as an admixture in the
production of high strength concrete

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2. LITERATURE REVIEWS
 Ravi Bhushan.et. al (2017) :- They prepare M20 grade concrete with replacement of
cement with RHA (varying percentage of RHA content 0%,5%,10%,15%,20%) and he
found that replacement of cement with 5% RHA gives higher strength than standard M20
grade concrete
 Sudhish Mishra.et.al(2015) :- They found that compressive strength of RHA mixed
concrete samples increased upto 12.5% of RHA and decreased fpr higher % RHA
 N.Karthik Krishna.et.al(2016):-They found that 10% of replacement of RHA gives better
compressive strength than standard mix of concrete
 Arvind Kumaret.al(2016):- They prepare M20 grade concrete with 20% replacement of
cement with RHA He found that 20% of replacement of RHA gives better compressive
strength than standard mix of concrete
 Karthik MP.et.al(2017):- :- They found that compressive strength of RHA mixed concrete
samples increased upto 12.5% of RHA and decreased fpr higher % RHA
 S.K.Saheraet.al(2014):- They found that 10% of replacement of RHA gives better
compressive strength than standard mix of concrete
 Gupta priyankaet.al(2014):- They found that 10% of replacement of RHA gives better
compressive strength than standard mix of concrete

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3. SCOPE OF PROJECT
The primary objectives of this project work are to conduct experimental studies to establish
the replacement of cement with rice husk ash is gives better compressive strength and other good
quality properties of concrete than nominal mix of concrete. other objectives are mentioned below

1. To find the workability and compressive strength


2. To use RICE HUSK ASH replacement in the place of cement to improve quality and reduce
cost of concrete
3. To develop waste management environment
4. Recycling of waste generated from industrial and agricultural activities as building
materials appears to effective solution not only to pollution problem but also to the problem
of economic design of building

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4. MATERIALS
4.1. RICE HUSK ASH :-

Rice husk ash is one of the main agricultural residues obtained from the outer covering of
rice grains during the milling process. Rice husk ash is obtained from burning of rice husk, which
is the by-product of rice milling. It is estimated that 1000 kg of rice grain produce 200 kg of rice
husk after burn. The rice husk ash had no useful application and had usefully been dumped into
water streams and caused pollution until it was known to be a useful mineral admixture for
concrete.

Rice husk can be burnt into ash that fulfills the physical characteristics and chemical
composition of mineral admixtures. Pozzolanic activity of rice husk ash (RHA) depends on (i)
silica content, (ii) silica crystallization phase, and (iii) size and surface area of ash particles. In
addition, ash must contain only a small amount of carbon. The optimized RHA, by controlled burn
and/or grinding, has been used as a pozzolanic material in cement and concrete. Using it provides
several advantages, such as improved strength and durability properties, and environmental
benefits related to the disposal of waste materials and to reduced carbon dioxide emissions. RHA
produced after burning of Rice husks (RH) has high reactivity and pozzolanic property. Chemical
compositions of RHA are affected due to burning process and temperature. Silica content in the
ash increases with higher the burning temperature. The effect of partial replacement of cement
with different percentages of ground RHA on the compressive strength and durability of concrete
is examined.

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4.1.1. Properties of RHA

Rice Husk Ash is a Pozzolanic material. It is having different physical & chemical properties. The
product obtained from R.H.A. is identified by trade name Silpoz which is much finer than cement.

Fig.4.1.1. RHA

4.1.2. Physical Properties of R.H.A

table 4.1.2. Physical Properties of R.H.A

4.1.3.Chemical properties of R.H.A

table.4.1.3.chemical properties of r.h.a

4.2. CEMENT
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Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) of 43 grade was used in which the composition and
properties is in compliance with the Indian standard organization. Cement can be defined as the
bonding material having cohesive & adhesive properties which makes it capable to unite the
different construction materials and form the compacted assembly. Ordinary/Normal Portland
cement is one of the most widely used type of Portland Cement. The name Portland cement was
given by Joseph Aspdin in 1824 due to its similarity in color and its quality when it hardens like
Portland stone. Portland stone is white grey limestone in island of Portland, Dorset.

4.2.1. The chief chemical components of ordinary Portland cement are:

1. Calcium
2. Silica
3. Alumina
4. Iron

Calcium is usually derived from limestone, marl or chalk while silica, alumina and iron come from
the sands, clays & iron ores. Other raw materials may include shale, shells and industrial by
products.

4.2.2. Basic composition

 CaO 60-67%
 SiO2 17-25%
 Al2O 3 3-8%
 Fe2O 3 0.5-6.0%
 MgO 0.5-4.0%
 Alkalis 0.3-1.2%
 SO3 2.0-3.5%

The chief compound which usually form in process of mixing:

1. Triclcium silicate (3CaO.SiO2)


2. Dicalcium silicate (2CaO.SiO2)
3. Tricalcium aluminates (3CaO.Al2O3)
4. Tetracalcium aluminoferrite (4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3)
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4.2.3. Characteristics of opc 43 grade

 Durable
 Corrosion resistance
 Low heat of hydration
 Volume stability
 Gigantic compressive strength

4.2.4. Setting and hardening

Cement sets when mixed with water by way of a complex series of chemical reactions still
only partly understood. The different constituents slowly crystallize and the interlocking of their
crystals gives cements its strength. Carbon dioxide is slowly absorbed to convert the portlandite
(Ca(OH)2) into insoluble calcium carbonate. After the initial setting, immersion in warm water
will speed up setting. Gypsum is added as an inhibitor to prevent flash setting.

4.2.5. Use of opc 43 grades

The most common use for Portland cement is in the production of concrete. Concrete is a
composite material consisting of aggregate (gravel and sand), cement, and water. As a construction
material, concrete can be cast in almost any shape desired, and once hardened, can become a
structural (load bearing) element. Concrete can be used in the construction of structural elements
like panels, beams, road furniture, or may make cast-in situ concrete for building superstructures
like roads and dams. These may be supplied with concrete mixed on site, or may be provided with
"ready-mixed" concrete made at permanent mixing sites. Portland cement is also used in
mortars(with sand and water only) for plasters and screeds, and in grouts (cement/water mixes
squeezed into gaps to consolidate foundations, road-beds, etc.). When water is mixed with Portland
cement, the product sets in a few hours and hardens over a period of weeks. These processes can
vary widely depending upon the mix used and the conditions of curing of the product, but a typical
concrete sets in about 6 hours and develops a compressive strength of 8 MPa in 24 hours. The
strength rises to 15 MPa at 3 days, 23 MPa at 1 week, 35 MPa at 4 weeks and 41 MPa at 3 months.
In principle, the strength continues to rise slowly as long as water is available for continued

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hydration, but concrete is usually allowed to dry out after a few weeks and this causes strength
growth to stop.

4.3. AGGREGATES
The inert mineral materials such as sand, gravel, etc used for manufacture of concretes are
known as aggregates. Requirements Of Good Aggregates
1. It should be sufficiently strong.
2. It should be hard
3. It should be durable.
4. It should have rough surface.
5. It should be in spherical or cubical in shape.
4.3.1. Classification of Aggregate
1. Coarse Aggregates
2. Fine Aggregates
Coarse aggregates –
The aggregates which pass through 75mm IS sieve and retain on 4.75mm IS sieve are
known as coarse aggregates.
Fine aggregates –
The aggregates which pass through 4.75 mm IS sieve and retain on 75 micron IS sieve are
known as fine aggregates.
The research work is restricted to sand collected from the river. The sand was collected to
ensure that there was no allowance for deleterious materials contained in the sand and the size of
5mm. In this research, granite of 20mm maximum size was used.

4.4. WATER
Water plays an important role in concrete production (mix) in that it starts the reaction
between the cement, pozzolan and the aggregates. It helps in the hydration of the mix. In this
research, the water used was distilled water.

5. CONCRETE
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Concrete is a composite material composed mainly of water, aggregate, and cement. Often,
additives and reinforcements (such as rebar) are included in the mixture to achieve the desired
physical properties of the finished material. When these ingredients are mixed together, they form
a fluid mass that is easily molded into shape. Over time, the cement forms a hard matrix which
binds the rest of the ingredients together into a durable stone-like material with many uses.

5.1. HISTORY
Famous concrete structures include the Hoover Dam, the Panama Canal and the Roman
Pantheon. The earliest large-scale users of concrete technology were the ancient Romans, and
concrete was widely used in the Roman Empire. The Colosseum in Rome was built largely of
concrete, and the concrete dome of the Pantheon is the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome.

5.2. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD CONCRETE


1. Workability
2. Freedom from segregation
3. Freedom from bleeding
4. Strength
5. Durability
6. Appearance

6. METHODOLOGY
6.1. GENERAL

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It is also expected that the final outcome of the project will have an overall beneficial effect
on the utility of rice husk ash concrete in the field of civil engineering construction work.
Following parameters influences behavior of the rice husk ash concrete, so these parameters are
kept constant for the experimental work.
 Percentage replacement of cement by rice husk ash
 Fineness of rice husk ash
 Chemical composition of rice husk ash
 Water to cement material ratio (w/c ratio)
 Type of Curing
Also from the literature survey, it is observed that the parameters suggested by different
researchers and their results are not matching with each other. It was due to variation in properties
of different materials considered in the work. Therefore the percentage replacement of cement by
rice husk ash and method of mix design is fixed after preliminary investigation.
6.2. STEPS
 Collection of materials
 Primary test
 Cleaning of materials
 Batching of materials
 Mixing
 Placing
 Compaction by tamping rod
 Curing of cubes for 28 days

7. PRELIMINARY TEST
7.1. SIEVE ANALYSIS

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Purpose:
This test is performed to determine the percentage of different grain sizes obtained within
a materials. The mechanical or sieve analysis is performed to determine the distribution of the
coarser, larger-sized particles, and the hydrometer method is used to determine the distribution of
the finer particles.

Significance:
The distribution of different grain sizes affects the engineering properties of materials.
Grain size analysis provides the grain size distribution, and it is required in classifying the
characteristics of material

Equipment:
Balance, Set of sieves, Cleaning brush, Sieve shaker, Timing device.

Test Procedure
1. Record the weight of the given dry sample.
2. Make sure that all the sieves are clean, and assemble them in the ascending order of sieve
numbers. Carefully pour the sample into the top sieve and place the cap over it.
3. Place the sieve stack in the mechanical shaker and shake for 10 minutes.
4.Remove the stack from the shaker and carefully weigh and record the weight of retained sample
on each sieves and pan

7.1.1. Sieve Analysis of fine

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Table.7.1.1 Sieve Analysis of fine

Size of Weight retained %weight Cumulative % % of passing


sieve (gm) retained (gm) weight retained(x) (100-x)
(mm)

4.75 0 0 0 100

2.36 120 6 6 94

1.18 280 14 20 80

0.60 170 8.5 28.5 71.5


0.30 250 12.5 41 59
0.15 950 47.5 88.5 11.5
0.90 230 11.5 100 0
pan 0 0 0 0
Fineness modulus = Sum of % weight retained / 100
=284/100
=2.84%

Sieve arrangements of Coarse and Fine Aggregates

7.1.2. Sieve Analysis of Gravel


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Size of sieve Weight retained % weight Cumulative % % of passing(100-


(mm) (gm) retained retained(x) x)

40 0 0 0 0

20 1400 46 46 54

12.5 1060 35 81 19

10 180 6 87 13

6.5 360 12 100 0

4.75 0 0 0 0
pan 0 0 0 0

Table.7.1.2 Sieve Analysis of Gravel


Fineness of coarse aggregates =Sum of cumulative % retained/100
=314/100
=3.14

7.1.3. Fineness test of cement

 Weight of cement taken =100g


 Weight of cement retained on 90 micron sieve =4.2g
 Fineness of cement =(4.2/100)*100
=4.2%
Note:-
For good ordinary Portland cement fineness is < 10%

7.2. INITIAL SETTING TIME OF CEMENT


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 The setting time of cement is determined by vicats needle on cement paste of normal
consistency.

 For this test, 1mm dia needle is used,


 The time to penetrate 5mm is taken as initial setting time.

7.2.1. Result

Sl.no Time(min) penetration

1 5 0
2 10 0
3 15 1
4 20 2
5 25 3
6 30 4
7 35 5
Table.7.2.1 result of initial setting time of cement .
Initial setting time of cement =35min, for a good cement initial setting time not less than 30
min.

Fig.2.2.1.vicats apparatus for initial setting time of cement

7.3.. CONSISTENCY TEST ON CEMENT


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 For first trial take about 400g of cement and water of 25% by weight of cement.
 Fill it in vicat’s mould with in 3-5min
 After filling , shake the mould to expel air.
 A standard plunger, 10mm diameter, 50mm long is attached and brought down to touch
the surface of the paste and quickly released.
Note:
The reading according to depth of penetration of the plunger

Sl.no Weight of cement Volume of water added Water added as % of by Penetration


taken(g) (ml) weight of dry cement(%) index
reading

1 400 100 25 41

2 400 104 26 38

3 400 108 27 35

4 400 112 28 26

5 400 116 29 21

6 400 120 30 13

7 400 124 31 5
table.7.3. consistency test on cement

Fig.7.3.vicats apparatus for consistency test on cement

7.3.1. Result
Consistency of cement=31%

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7.4. SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF CEMENT


 Clean, dry and weigh specific gravity of bottle(w1)
 Take certain quantity of cement in the bottle and weigh(w2)
 Pour kerosene over the cement to fill the bottle and find the total weigh(w3)
 Clean the bottle thoroughly with kerosene and fill the bottle with kerosene andweigh(w4)
 Finally clean the bottle and weigh(W5)
Result:
W1 = W3 =
W2 = W4=
W5 =

specific gravity of cement is 2.254g


Specific gravity of rice husk ash and quarry dust as done by same procedure of specific
gravity of cement
 Specific gravity of quarry dust= 2.61g
 Specific gravity of rice husk ash = 2.15g

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Fig.7.4 specific gravity bottle

7.5. Compaction factor test

Fig.7.5.compaction factor apparatus

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7.5.1. Result

Sl.no materials Weight of Weight of fully Compaction factor=


partially compacted (w1/w2)
compacted concrete,w2(kg)
concrete,wl(kg)

1 Normal concrete 16.95 19.20 0.88

2 Rha 5% 16.89 19.68 0.85

3 Rha 10% 16.76 19.54 0.857

4 Rha 12% 16.96 19.98 0.848

5 Rha 15% 17.00 19.64 0.865

Table .7.5.1. Result of Compaction factor test

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8. Experimental work
8.1. PREPARATION OF MATERIALS
Mixing:
Mix the concrete either by hand or in a laboratory batch mixer
Hand mixing:
i. Mix the cement and fine aggregate on a water tight none-absorbent platform until the mixture
is thoroughly blended and is of uniform color
ii. Add the coarse aggregate and mix with cement and fine aggregate until the coarse aggregate
is uniformly distributed throughout the batch
iii. Add water and mix it until the concrete appears to be homogeneous and of the desired
consistency

fig.8.1. hand mixing

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8.2. SLUMP TEST


8.2.1. Procedure to determine workability of fresh concrete by slump test:
(i) The internal surface of the mould is thoroughly cleaned and applied with a light coat
of oil.
(ii) The mould is placed on a smooth, horizontal, rigid and nonabsorbent surface.
(iii) The mould is then filled in four layers with freshly mixed concrete each approximately
to one-fourth of the height of the mould.
(iv) Each layer is tamped 25 times by the rounded end of the tamping rod (strokes are
distributed evenly over the cross section).
(v) After the top layer is rodded, the concrete is struck off the level with a trowel.
(vi) The mould is removed from the concrete immediately by raising it slowly in the vertical
direction.
(vii) The difference in level between the height of the mould and that of the highest point of
the 30 subsided concrete is measured.
(viii) This difference in height in mm is the slump of the concrete.

Fig.8.2.1. slump test

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8.2.2. Result:

Table.8.2.2. Result of slum test

8.3. CASTING:
(i) Clean the mounds and apply oil
(ii) Fill the concrete in the molds in layers approximately 5cm thick
(iii) Compact each layer with not less than 35strokes per layer using a tamping rod (steel
bar 16mm diameter and 60cm long, bullet pointed at lower end)
(iv) Level the top surface and smoothen it with a trowel.

Fig.8.3. casting

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8.4. CURING:

 The first batch of 12 test specimens are stored in moist air for 24hours and after this period
the specimens are marked and removed from the molds and kept submerged in clear fresh
water until taken out prior to test.
 The next batch of 12 test specimen are casted and stored in moulds for 24hrs after
demoulding the first batch. After this the specimen are removed from the moulds and kept
submerged in clear water until taken out prior to test.
Precautions:
The water for curing should be tested every 7days and the temperature of water must be at
27+-2oc. We should make sure that the water should be free from any deleterious material.

fig. 8.4. Curing

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8.5. COMPRESSION TEST

Aim:
To find out the compressive strength of 24 test specimens.
Apparatus:
Compression testing machine
Specimen:
12 cubes of 15 cm size mix. M20
Procedure:
(i) Remove the specimen from water after specified curing time and wipe out excess
water from the surface.
(ii) Take the dimension of the specimen.
(iii) Clean the bearing surface of the testing machine
(iv) Place the specimen in the machine in such a manner that the load shall be applied to
the opposite sides of the cube cast.
(v) Align the specimen centrally on the base plate of the machine.
(vi) Rotate the movable portion gently by hand so that it touches the top surface of the
specimen.
(vii) Apply the load gradually without shock and continuously at the rate of
140KG/cm2/minute till the specimen fails
(viii) Record the maximum load and note any unusual features in the type of failure.
Note
Minimum three specimens should be tested at each selected age. If strength of any
specimen varies by more than 15 per cent of average strength, results of such specimen should be
rejected. Average of there specimens gives the crushing strength of concrete. The strength
requirements of concrete.

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fig. 8.5. Compression testing machine

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