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# Introduction

The density of concrete is a measurement of concrete’s solidity. The process of mixing concrete
can be modified to form a higher or lower density of concrete end product. This test is done to
check the strength of the concrete.

## Check the strength of the concrete

Theory

Density of Concrete (W1) is the weight per cubic meter of concrete shall be calculated by
dividing the weight of fully compacted concrete in the cylindrical measure by the capacity of
measure in kg/cu.m
W1= W/0.01

Where,

## Wc= Weight of cement in kg

Wf= Weight of fine aggregate in kg
Wca= Weight of coarse aggregate in kg
Ww= Weight of water in kg
Objective

The objective of this test is to determine the concrete cube after curing, its density to analyze the
strength needed in the mix design concrete.
Apparatus

 L shape rule

 Microdata autodriver

 Weighing scale

 Vernier caliper

Procedure

## 2. All sides of cube is measured by length, width and height.

3. The cube is then put into the compressive strength tester machine name microdata
autodriver.

## 4. The result is recorded and tabulated to be calculated.

Data Collection
Sample Length Width Height Weight Volume(Y1) Density Data Area Load Compressiv Type of
Reference (mm) (mm) (mm) (m1) LxWxH P1=(m1)/Y1 (A) (P) e strength failure
(kg) (m^3) (kg/m^3) (L x W) (kN) (N/mm^2) (S/US)
(mm^2) (P/A)x1000
150.2 147.6 150.7 Data
Cast
149.6 148.0 149.7 18/12
150.7 149.0 150.0 Data
1 7.48 Test 392. S
151.1 150.1 151.1 15/1 6
Average Average Average Age of
testing
28 days
150.8 147.6 151.5 Data
Cast
149.1 148.6 152.7 18/12
151.3 148.2 152.5 Data
2 7.62 Test 431. S
148.7 142.2 151.9 15/1 3
Average Average Average Age of
testing
28 days
150.6 148.8 152.0 Data
Cast
151.9 151.2 152.2 18/12
152.5 150.9 153.0 Data
Test
3 151.4 150.5 152.0
7.80 15/1
418. S
Average Average Average Age of 6
testing
28 days
Data Collection and Calculation
Sample Length Width Height Weight Volume(Y1) Density Data Area Load Compressiv Type of
Reference (mm) (mm) (mm) (m1) LxWxH P1=(m1)/Y1 (A) (P) e strength failure
(kg) (m^3) (kg/m^3) (L x W) (kN) (N/mm^2) (S/US)
(mm^2) (P/A)x1000
150.2 147.6 150.7 Data
Cast
149.6 148.0 149.7 18/12
150.7 149.0 150.0 Data
1 7.48 3.36x10^-3 2226.19 Test 22364. 392. 17.55 S
151.1 150.1 151.1 15/1 48 6
Average Average Average Age of
testing
150.4 148.7 150.4 28 days
150.8 147.6 151.5 Data
Cast
149.1 148.6 152.7 18/12
151.3 148.2 152.5 Data
2 7.62 3.35x10^-3 2274.63 Test 22027. 431. 19.53 S
148.7 142.2 151.9 15/1 34 3
Average Average Average Age of
testing
150.05 146.8 152.2 28 days
150.6 148.8 152.0 Data
Cast
151.9 151.2 152.2 18/12
152.5 150.9 153.0 Data
3 7.80 3.47x10^-3 2247.84 Test 22793. 418. 18.37 S
151.4 150.5 152.0 15/1 06 6
Average Average Average Age of
testing
151.6 150.35 152.3 28 days

Calculation for 1
Average (L) = (150.2+149.6+150.7+151.1)/4 = 150.4mm
Average (W) = (147.6+148.0+149.0+150.1)/4 = 148.7mm
Average (H) = (150.7+150.0+151.1+152.0)/4 = 150.4mm
Volume (Y1) = (150.4x148.7x150.4) = 3363617.792mm^3
= 3.36 x 10 ^-3 m^3
Density (P1) = 7.48/3.36x10^-3 =2226.19 kg/m^3
Area (A) = 150.4x148.7 = 22364.48 mm^3
Compressive Strength = (392.6/22364.48) x1000 = 17.55
Calculation for 2
Average (L) = (150.8+149.1+151.3+148.7)/4 = 150.05mm
Average (W) = (147.6+148.6+148.2+142.8)/4 = 146.8mm
Average (H) = (151.5+152.7+152.5+151.9)/4 = 152.2mm
Volume (Y1) = (150.05x146.8x152.2) = 3351890.859mm^3
= 3.35 x 10 ^-3 m^3
Density (P1) = 7.62/3.35x10^-3 =2274.63 kg/m^3
Area (A) = 150.05x146.8 = 22027.34 mm^3
Compressive Strength = (431.3/22027.34) x1000 = 19.58

Calculation for 3
Average (L) = (150.6+151.9+152.5+151.4)/4 = 151.6mm
Average (W) = (148.8+151.2+150.9+150.5)/4 = 150.35mm
Average (H) = (152.0+152.2+153.0+152.0)/4 = 152.3mm
Volume (Y1) = (151.6x150.35x152.3) = 3471383.038mm^3
= 3.47 x 10 ^-3 m^3
Density (P1) = 7.80/3.47x10^-3 =2247.84 kg/m^3
Area (A) = 151.6x150.35 = 22793.06 mm^3
Compressive Strength = (418.6/22793.06) x1000 = 18.37
Discussion

The purpose of this test done is to determine the concrete cube after curing, its density to analyze
the strength needed in the mix design concrete. This test teaches us the purpose of using the
correct material in concrete and the amount of strength it can sustain base on the grade.

Conclusion

In conclusion, we have calculated the data according to the volume, density, area and determine
the type of failure.

There is many reason for the cube to not achieve the targeted load. Such as mixture of leaf in the
cube, improper balance of material, such as water, sand, cement. The using of wrong grade
cement in the mixture. Error also happen due to surrounding temperature and weather.
Reference

 https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/concrete-density

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concrete

 http://www.newsteelconstruction.com/wp/theyve-changed-the-density-of-
concrete-or-have-they/

Appendix

## APPENDIX I: Measure the concrete cube using vernier caliper.

APPENDIX II: Put into the compressive strength tester machine name microdata autodriver.