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Positivism Babaylan: effinate men/women

>posita (latin; fact)

>empirical Cognivitv Deviance
>positive-addition, increase in knowledge, >point of view, a worldview that are
in value unorthodox or unpopular
>we move to a better version of knowledge >religions, political, and scientificbeliefs
>DSM 4 : Homosexuality is a disorder (( regarded as unacceptable
(Thomas Kuhn! >negative reactions toward the people
holding such beliefs are very similar to those
engaging in behaviour regarded as
Historical Periods and Sources of unacceptable
Hegemonic Authority
Middle Ages >atheism,cults
>Church Scientfic
>Imperical Power >galileo helicentrism
>Community/Family >anti-vaccination movement
>Feudal economy Political
>Monarchy or aristocracy >communism,e.g.US McCarthyism
>DOJ petition todeclare CPP-NPA as
Renaissance/Englightenment terrorist group
>Church and State >Neo-nazism
>Beginnings of science and secular
Philosophy Deviances: Physical characteristics
>Feudal and Colonial economy >certain physical traits that are often treated
>Patriachy in a condescending,pitying,scornful,and
rejcting fashion
>Pre-colonial period Examples
-indigenous customs and traditions >exteremely
-the barangay ugly,short,lbese,thin,disabled,disfigured,ord
17th-19th century >speaking patterns,mannerisms,behavioural
Spanish Colonial Period disorders
-Spanish Codigo Penal-shift from trad to

Modern Period
: Secular/popular state-secular education
: Science
:Revitalized colonialism
: Industrialism and capitalism
:patriarchy rise offeminism
Criiminal Anthropology in the Philippines >Coloinal regime of the US in the
.Ideas of theborn criminal by Italian Philippines
anthropologist Cesare Lombroso came to the -Campaign for secular education
Philippines in the early 20th century -Scientists from the US working in the
;Work of Filipino physician Philippines
-Dr. Sixto De Los Angeles Philippines as a scientific lab
:Estudios sobre Anthropologia Criminal en >Participation oflocal Filipino intellectual
las Islas Filipinas scholars
:Study of convicts at the Bilipid Prison
:individuals are born criminal Filipino Scholars
Ilustrado Class
Cesare Lombroso (Enlightenedclass;intellectual status group0
>Theorized that criminiality can be traced to -from rising middle and emancipated
the human biological makeup peasant and merchant classes, and from
:small crainiums, abnormal lcranial sutures, progressive families of native,Chinese
:the degeneary of criminls are also orSpanish mestizo upperclasses
manifested in cultural practices,a regression -educated in European univ founded by
to primitive ciivlization Spanish clergy
: The Criminal Man >could speak and write Spanish
; pseudoscience -pursuedprofesions typically in law or med
-nationalists criticalofthe clergy and trad
Positivism in the late 19th century politics, reformists,revolutionaries,
Competition between the biological sympathetic to the ideals ofrevolution
perspective (Italian school;Lambroso) vs the against spain
Social environment Perspective (French Dilemma; resist or join American
school; Adolphe Quetelet; south more
crimes than north) Attending Scientific developments
-positivism took different forms; challenged -physical anthro, enthno,
rational choice theory andanthropometricsin the late 19thcnetury
(Joseph Montano,French anthropologistin
Lombroso in the Philippines thephilippines)
>The Criminal Man published in 1988 -works of American siceintists in
Spanish edition anatomy,physical anthro,and tropical med
>Read and cited by Filipinoschholars De -bilipid prison in sta cruz manila as
Los Angeles and Villamor (1st filipino up representative specimen of filipinio
president) -establishment of up
>Consequentworks published in English -research of fil scientists in UP and the Phil
>The works of other European and Bureau of Science
American authors were noted
Filipino Criminologists in the early 20th
Historical Markers of Lombrosos’s work century
coming to the Philippines 1.Ignacio Villamo
>End of the Spanish colonial period in the -Criminal stat
Phlippines; Philippines Revolution against -Publications
Spaoin -la criminalidad en las islas Filipinas
-crime andmoraleducation
2 Sixto de los angeles >noted tattoos and blood pressures

Developments in physical antro Findings

-Daniel Folkmar Cultural practices and the social
:gathered anthropometric measurements of environment
Filpinos drawn from Bilipid prison inmates -cultural, moral, and economic conditions
in 1904 in search for the Philippines type contributed to criminality. Cited cases and
-World Exposition observations in the philipines
-traditional malyan pratice of amok
Robert Bean;studies racial anatomy of fil
students, indivudlas and inmates of the Summary
bilipid prison -De los Angeles studies the link of
criminality to biologica makeup by studying
Medical studies using bilibid prison inmates the physicalbodies of convicts in bilibpid
-Richard Pearson Strong and Ernest prison and sound some data that verified
Tyzzer’s researches in tropical medicine- some of lombross ideas
conducted testing inoculation of inmates
totest serum against the plague, varicella, Conclusion
smallpox, and other diseases -lombroso had significant academic impact
to criminology
Sixto De los Angeles -somecultural impact (popular magazines
.born to a landed family in san mateo, rizal and lit)
>regularly consulsted in criminal cases by -minimal or little policy impact
the court as expert on forensics -policy based on analysis of cultural
practices and social-environmental facts
included in the study were more feasibly
Bilibid prison studies by dr sixto de turned into legislation
losangeles -criminality as impediment to national
-documented the characterists and development
conditions of some 2400 inmates in -lombroso’sinfluence waned inthephlippines
confinement justasitdidintheusandlaterineuorpe
>adds to the notion that a small but distinct
Comparison of Anthroometic measurements subgroup of criminals
>criminal population measurements by havebiologicaldegneracy
DeLos Angeles vs. non-criminal population -criminal anthrogrippedthein
-measurements by Robert Bennett bean,
Daniel Folkmar, ad Joseph Montano

Findings of de los angeles

>anthropometric measurements such as
height, weight, nasal index suggest some
lower figures but data are not conclusive
>inmate population had smaller cephalic
>cranial abnormalities were found in skulls
of deceased inmate
Riot of Feb 1968 levels of eprvation and access to outside
>Sigue Sigue vs OXO war: world
>impact prison populations more intensely
Lowering of Walls I thatn groups and communities in free society
>PANGKAT bargained relaxed visiting
rights Legitimacy of inmate gangs
>Visiting families allowed to enter the >Pangkat enjoys legitimacy from the inmate
compound >Form a dynamic security arragenment with
>Support from religious organizations the Bureau
>Organizing skills of anti-dictatorship >Built a symbiotic relationship with dalaw
political prisoners and bisita (visiting families and civil society
>NGOs private organiaitons, schools, and groups)
other civil society groups allowed into the >Susceptibl to the interface of illegal and
walls antisocial network systems
>Widening of pangka social and political
Lowering of Walls II capital, when unchecked, open conduits for
>CSG and inmate organization partnerships a clandestine illegal network
increased religious, economic, educational
activities Dynamic Security: Organizational function
>Created local economy >Head count and security
>Availablity of satus beyond inmate roles >Space and environmental management
>Increased visitng privleges: conjugal visits >Peace and order maintenance
and family stay-ins >Dispute arbitaration
>inmate can be a pastor, coach, organizer >Management of vists
>Heterosexual and masculine status >Linkage to Bureau of Correction

Inmate gangs as self-governance Bastonero: inmate guard,

>facilitate social life bonded by common Mayor: leader of dorm
identity and collective experience Commander/basyo: lead of gang
>extra-legal or informal governance VIP:Very important preso
>address needs for security, basic Buyunero: assigns when to use bathroom
sustenance, psychological relif, and rehab Kulturero:
> Political body to bargain for connection to Pangkat as Self-Governance: Amplified
the outside world Functions
>thriving local informal ecnomy >Co-management of compound with other
>reaffirm masculinity through new roles gans over religious, sports, educ
>regain lost moral status >Linkages with Civlil Society groups
>Construction and infrastructure, repair and
Self-organization within a total institution maintenance
>organized in a total institution or a higly > Lobbying for resources for collective nd
regulated place special needs
>subject to a a confluence of factors > Taxation (inmate fund)
-population size, physical space features, >Charity-pooling resources for sick, elderly,
population charcteristics, custodial policies, walang dalw inmates
>Donation of facilities for common use
Social capital and Social network Constructivist Perspective of Deviance
>Pangkat as a system in increased the (Interpretivism and Symbolic
inmate’s human cpital bridged gaps between Interactinoism)
groups and coordinated actions to achieve
community objectives Interpretive/Interactionist
-Also referred to as
De facto govt phenomenological/hermeneutic perspective
 Not officially recognized but -influence by Max Weber
sanctioned in practice -Sociology as science of interpretations
>Magna Carta ng Batang City jail
Max Weber
Batas ng Bilangguan -proponent of interpretive sociology
>Unwritten/unpublished codes of conduct -Sociology’s subject matter is not social
and behavior to maintain order and arbitrate facts but social action or action directed at
disputes significant others and to which actors attach
>Corresponds to system of disciplinary subjective maning
action and punishment -Action can be 1) Traditional 2) affectual 3)
>Takal (paddling in public), bartolina(nota value-rational and 4) end –rational or
llowed to go out of room or bunk) pagbura instrumental action
ng tatak -modern societies increase rationalalization;
>Physical punihmnet, large- scale odern bureaucracy that hastents
>Physical punishment: legitimated violence the disenchantmet of life
by custom -Author of Protestant Ethic and the Sprit of
-own justice system Capitalism, Economy and Society and other
works on relgion
Inmate gangs=illegal network? -Verstehen-emphatic understanding
Do inmate gangs correspond to the actual -subjective manigns and
illegal network? interpretationsactors have profound
-no there is an overlap, where a subterranean consequence on their actions and their lives
network that can exploit Pangkat order,
social and political capital Symbolic Interactinosim
-trans-pangkat illegal networking is possible -meanings emerge through social interaction
-social actors manipulate sybols and thereby
e.g. illegal operation can deal sumulaneously create culture and history
with gangs in the OXO side can deal with
sigue-sigue side of the compound Labeling Theory
-Howard Becker: Deviant behavior is what
Prisons as Colonies people so label
>Prison population as colonies e.g. -John Kitsuse: the responses of conventional
Australia, mairans, (guam) , mindanao to and conforming mebers of society that
populate territories interpret behaviora s deviant..sociologically
>prisons in the phil archipelago have been transform persons into deviants
set up as colonies: davao penal colony,
iwahig pnal farm, etc Labeling Process
>inmate courts, 1920s Frank Tannenbaum
-First act vs final act
-Incarceration reinforces and entrenches >the deviance o women is an ignored area in
delinquency sociological lit
-punishment has ironic effect of escalating >millman: men are engaged in deviant
deviant behavior behaviour, while women are depicted as
passive when it comes to deviance
Edwin Lemert >earlier theories of deviance have limited
-Primary vs secondary deviance applicability to the context of women
-disagreetn between actor and scoeity’s Shoplifiting, mental illness and prostitiution
percention : acts of deviance associated with women
-Primary: experimental, tentative, committed >previous thoeries fail to recognize that
once preliminary women suffer certain types of crime due to
-Secondary: when person comes to agree their position in society relative to men
society’s definition as deviant and considers >discussion on crime and its prevention
himself or herself as such leaves women out or paints them in a
passive position
Moral Entreprenuers and Moral Pnic >generalization theories of deviance has
-Moral entrepereneurs spawned an accident that cuases deviance
>individuals or groups that seek to influence and experience of it thought of in light of the
others to maintain a norm, and take lead in male experience
labelling behaviors as deviant, spreading or
popularizing the label throughout society Contrology
-make their norm, the norm of others (the >Marshall, douglas, and mcdonnell, 2007:
church) the field of devience is about a struggle over
-sows moral panic whose rules prevail
>Michel Foucault as one of the most
-Moral Panic: the process of arousing social influential contributions to contrology
concern over an issue—usually the work of -trad social control as a spectacle: public
moral entreprenuers and the mass media confessions, torture and executions
-shifted into a panaopticon mode of social
control, which is paradigmatic of society in
Conflict Theroy >velvet glove; illusion; violent parts of it are
>argues that social stratification benefits the hidden
ich and powerful at the expense of the poor
and the weak Central points of contrology
>under capitalism, wealth and property >social control must not be taken for granted
translate into political and legislative power >social control is coercive, repressive and
>the causes of crime are rooted from the far from benign
legal construction of crime >operates with state or state-like control
>questions the law; which groups have >social control apparatus is unified and
interests translated into law, who stands to coherent
benefit from certain laws, and, which laws
are actually enforced? Social control (definite)
>social control is the study of mechanisms
Feminism patterns of pressure thorugh which society
maintains social order and cohesion
>these mechanisms and enforce a standard
of behaviour and include a components,
such as shame, coercion, force, resetraint,
and persuasion
>it is exercised through individuals and
instiutions, ranging from the family, to
peers, and to orgs such as the state, religious
organizations, schools, and the workplace
>reglardless of sourec, the goal of social
control is to maintain confomiryt to norms
and rules, and typically employed by group
emers in responde to anyone it considers
deviant, problematic threatineg or
What establishes these norms?
>punishment of the soul (Foucault)