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AUGUST 27, 2018

BSEE 5B. AUGUST 27, 2018



"High definition" is a fluid term, taking the shape of a lot of different containers. The only
commonly accepted meaning is that it's something with excellent picture quality and clarity.

In terms of a PC monitor, high definition is a synonym for high resolution. High resolution, in
turn, means more pixels per inch on your screen — and the more pixels per inch, the better
the display. A high-definition PC monitor, then, delivers a remarkably clearer picture than
possible with lower-definition, lower-resolution screens.

The Ever-Evolving Video Standards

As high-definition PC monitors have proliferated on the market, standards have evolved to

allow a more concrete definition of HD than in the past.

The following are the standard definitions for HD video, which can be displayed on monitors
of slightly varying native resolutions — some being standard for computer screens, other
for TV screens — but they are, to a large degree, interchangeable because they all work to
display these resolutions of video:

1280x720 (aka, 720p)

1920x1080 (aka, 1080i)

1920x1080 progressive (aka, 1080p)

Progressive vs. Interlaced Scanning

The "i" and "p" denote interlaced and progressive scanning, respectively. Interlaced scanning
is the older technology of the two. A PC monitor that uses interlaced scanning refreshes half
of the horizontal pixel rows in one cycle and takes another cycle to refresh the other half,
while alternating rows. The upshot is that two scans are necessary to display each line,
resulting in a slower, blurrier display with flickering. Progressive scanning, on the other
hand, scans one complete row at a time, in sequence from top to bottom.

The resulting display is smoother and more detailed — especially for text, a common
element on screens used with PCs.

HD: The Next Level in PC Monitors

For your PC, high definition makes a significant difference when it comes to playing video
games, watching movies and watching HD online video, as well. HD means that you'll be
watching in "widescreen" — as it was originally intended to be seen, uncropped, in the
theater. Since HDTV caught on, video game studios and online entertainment companies
have been focusing more and more on HD programming for a high-resolution screen.

The bottom line: If you don't have a high-definition PC monitor, you're missing out on a big
part of the picture.


A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out
the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control
and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has
used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s. Traditionally, the term
"CPU" refers to a processor, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU),
distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main
memory and I/O circuitry.

The central processing unit (CPU) of a computer is a piece of hardware that carries out the
instructions of a computer program.
It performs the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of a computer

It is the brains of the computer.


Type - Embedded, Analog, Digital, Hybrid.

Size - Mainframe, Supercomputer, Micro or Mini range


The microprocessor is nothing but the CPU and it is an essential component of the
computer. It is a silicon chip that comprises millions of transistors and other electronic
components that process millions of instructions per second. A Microprocessor is a versatile
\chip, that is combined with memory and special purpose chips and preprogrammed by a
software. It accepts digital data as i/p and processes it according to the instructions stored
in the memory. The microprocessor has many functions like functions of data storage,
interact with various other devices and other time related functions. But, the main function
is to send and receive the data to make the function of the computer well.

Types of Microprocessor
Microprocessors are classified into five types, namely: CISC-Complex Instruction Set
Microprocessors, RISC-Reduced Instruction Set Microprocessor, ASIC- Application Specific
Integrated Circuit, Superscalar Processors, DSP’s-Digital Signal Microprocessors.


Hyper-threading was Intel’s first attempt to bring parallel computation to consumer PCs. It
debuted on desktop CPUs with the Pentium 4 HT back in 2002. The Pentium 4’s of the day
featured just a single CPU core, so it could really only perform one task at a time—even if it
was able to switch between tasks quickly enough that it seemed like multitasking. Hyper-
threading attempted to make up for that.
A single physical CPU core with hyper-threading appears as two logical CPUs to an operating
system. The CPU is still a single CPU, so it’s a little bit of a cheat. While the operating system
sees two CPUs for each core, the actual CPU hardware only has a single set of execution
resources for each core. The CPU pretends it has more cores than it does, and it uses its own
logic to speed up program execution. In other words, the operating system is tricked into
seeing two CPUs for each actual CPU core.

Hyper-threading allows the two logical CPU cores to share physical execution resources.
This can speed things up somewhat—if one virtual CPU is stalled and waiting, the other
virtual CPU can borrow its execution resources. Hyper-threading can help speed your
system up, but it’s nowhere near as good as having actual additional cores.

Dual Core

The dual core processor differs from a single core in that the single core processor must
take the incoming data bits one at a time, process that bit of data and move on the next one.
A dual core process detects incoming data streams and determines whether they could be
calculated more quickly if both cores were working. If that's the case, the dual-core
processor will split the data and crunch the numbers at the same time, effectively doubling
the processor's speed. While of limited use for applications that aren't "processor intensive"
they really shine when working with high level calculations or even computer games. When
new data is loaded into the cache, it is pulled from the hard drive.

A dual core processor is one of the newest advancements in computing technology. They
were heavily implemented in desktop computers beginning in 2005, allowing computers to
process significantly more data than a single core processor can. Dual core processors split
the incoming data stream into two pieces, which are calculated simultaneously, leading to a
speed increase in processing heavy applications. Each dual core processor has two separate
computing modules linked together into a single unit.

The dual core processor differs from a single core in that the single core processor must
take the incoming data bits one at a time, process that bit of data and move on the next one.
A dual core process detects incoming data streams and determines whether they could be
calculated more quickly if both cores were working. If that's the case, the dual-core
processor will split the data and crunch the numbers at the same time, effectively doubling
the processor's speed. While of limited use for applications that aren't "processor intensive"
they really shine when working with high level calculations or even computer games. When
new data is loaded into the cache, it is pulled from the hard drive. Because the CPU can
typically process data faster than the storage media it's pulling from, performance suffers. In
a dual-core processor, the data is pulled by each processor when needed. A dual-core
processor The data streams are processed at the same time, and once the data is calculated,
the processors mesh the data back into a single usable stream. This isn't to be confused with
a multi-processor system, in which all processors reside on the same chip. The multi-
processor system, because of the way the data is split and reintegrated, can be significantly
faster than a dual-core setup.

Multiple Core

Originally, CPUs had a single core. That meant the physical CPU had a single central
processing unit on it. To increase performance, manufacturers add additional “cores,” or
central processing units. A dual-core CPU has two central processing units, so it appears to
the operating system as two CPUs. A CPU with two cores, for example, could run two
different processes at the same time. This speeds up your system, because your computer
can do multiple things at once.

A multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent

processing units called cores, which read and execute program instructions.[1] The
instructions are ordinary CPU instructions (such as add, move data, and branch) but the
single processor can run multiple instructions on separate cores at the same time,
increasing overall speed for programs amenable to parallel computing.[2] Manufacturers
typically integrate the cores onto a single integrated circuit die (known as a chip
multiprocessor or CMP) or onto multiple dies in a single chip package. The microprocessors
currently used in almost all personal computers are multi-core.

A motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board,
baseboard, planar board or logic board, or colloquially, a mobo) is the main printed circuit
board (PCB) found in general purpose microcomputers and other expandable systems. It
holds and allows communication between many of the crucial electronic components of a
system, such as the central processing unit (CPU) and memory, and provides connectors for
other peripherals. Unlike a backplane, a motherboard usually contains significant sub-
systems such as the central processor, the chipset's input/output and memory controllers,
interface connectors, and other components integrated for general purpose use and

Motherboard specifically refers to a PCB with expansion capability and as the name
suggests, this board is often referred to as the "mother" of all components attached to it,
which often include peripherals, interface cards, and daughtercards: sound cards, video
cards, network cards, hard drives, or other forms of persistent storage; TV tuner cards, cards
providing extra USB or FireWire slots and a variety of other custom components.

Here are some of the typical parts:

A CPU socket - the actual CPU is directly soldered onto the socket. Since high speed CPUs
generate a lot of heat, there are heat sinks and mounting points for fans right next to the
CPU socket.

A power connector to distribute power to the CPU and other components.

Slots for the system's main memory, typically inthe form of DRAM chips.

A chip forms an interface between the CPU, the main memory and other components. On
many types of motherboards, this is referred to as the Northbridge. This chip also contains a
large heat sink.

A second chip controls the input and output (I/O) functions. It is not connected directly to
the CPU but to the Northbridge. This I/O controller is referred to as the Southbridge. The
Northbridge and Southbridge combined are referred to as the chipset.
Several connectors, which provide the physical interface between input and output devices
and the motherboard. The Southbridge handles these connections.

Slots for one or more hard drives to store files. The most common types of connections are
Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) and Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA).

A read-only memory (ROM) chip, which contains the firmware, or startup instructions for
the computer system. This is also called the BIOS.

A slot for a video or graphics card. There are a number of different types of slots, including
the Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP).

Motherboard Basics

A computer has many components, each with their own roles and functions. The role of the
motherboard is to allow all these components to communicate with each other. Considering
the fact that all the other components are installed on the motherboard or connected to it, it
is safe to say that the motherboard is the central piece of a PC, the component that brings it
all together.

Processor Socket
The processor socket is the central piece of a motherboard, usually being located near the
center of the motherboard. It’s also the central piece because it holds the processor – the
brain of your computer.

Power Connectors
No computer component can operate without power, and a motherboard is no exception.
The power connector, commonly a 20 or 24-pin connector, can be situated either near the
right edge of the motherboard, or somewhere close to the processor socket on older
motherboards. This is where the power supply’s main connector gets attached, providing
power to the motherboard and all the other components.

Newer motherboards have an additional 4-pin or 8-pin connector near the processor, used
to supply additional power directly to the processor.
Memory Slots
Located in the upper-right part of the motherboard, the memory slots are used to house the
computer’s memory modules. The number of slots can vary, depending on motherboard,
from 2, in low-end motherboards, all the way up to 8 memory slots, on high-end and gaming

It is important to pay close attention to the type of memory a motherboard supports, in

order to buy the appropriate memory modules. Newer motherboards support DDR3
memory, the current industry standard memory architecture, but motherboards with DDR2
memory slots and even DDR1 memory slots are still present on the market. An interesting
aspect is that there are some older motherboard models that supported different types of
memory, and usually come with two DDR1 memory slots and 2 DDR2 memory slots, or two
DDR2 slots and two DDR3 slots. These motherboards were great options for people that
wanted to upgrade a motherboard without having to upgrade all the other components as

The number of memory slots should be an important criterion to take into account when
choosing a motherboard, as it will determine the maximum amount of memory you can
install. You may plan to take an online course to learn video editing or learn 3d modeling
and rendering from this online course – do you really want to be limited by your
motherboard in the process?

Video Card Slot

This is the type of slot that doesn’t need an explanation, as its name doesn’t leave much
room for interpretation as to what its role is. Coming in the form of a PCI-Express slot on
newer motherboards or AGP on older ones, the video card slot is situated right below the

It is not uncommon for older motherboards, especially those that target the office segment,
to lack this slot, meaning that you won’t be able to install a discrete video card, thus having
to rely on the integrated one. At the opposite pole, high-end gaming motherboards come
with multiple video card slots, allowing the installation of multiple video cards in a SLI or
CrossFire configuration.
Expansion Slots

Expansions have the role of letting you install additional components to enhance or expand
the functionality of your PC. You can install a TV tuner, a video capture card, a better
soundcard, etc. – you get the idea. These ports are located under the video card slot, and
come in the form of PCI slots (on older motherboards) or a scaled-down version of PCI-
Express slots (on newer motherboards). Some motherboards come with both types of
expansion slots. The number of slots is usually dependent on the format of the motherboard
– larger motherboards (full ATX) have more, while smaller formats (micro-ATX) have fewer,
if any.

IDE and SATA Ports

IDE and SATA ports are used to provide connectivity for the storage devices and optical
drives. The IDE interface is somewhat outdated, so you shouldn’t be surprised if you see a
lot of new motherboards coming without this type of port. It was replaced by the smaller
and much faster SATA interface, which currently reached its 3rd revision, being able to
achieve maximum speeds of up to 600 MB/s, as opposed to the IDE interface, which can
reach a maximum of 133 MB/s.

It is not uncommon for manufacturers to include SATA ports of different revisions, such as
two SATA2 ports and two SATA3 ports. Considering the fact that most optical drives on the
market come with a SATA connector, and these devices are not bandwidth-hungry, using a
SATA2 port for an optical drive is perfectly acceptable. In fact, most mechanical hard drives
cannot achieve SATA3 speeds due to mechanical limitations, so unless you plan to use
multiple high-performance solid state drives in your PC, which can benefit of the higher
speeds of SATA3, a combination of SATA2 and SATA3 shouldn’t make much of a difference. If
you’re not familiar with the differences between classical hard drives and solid state drives,
check out this computer essentials online course – you might find out some more interesting
information about computers along the way.
BIOS Chip and Battery

The BIOS chip contains the basic code needed to take your computer through the boot
process, up to the point where the operating system takes over. Since the BIOS code is stored
on a memory chip that needs constant power to function, a battery is also present to keep
the chip powered when the computer is unplugged.

Northbridge and Southbridge

If you have a look at your motherboard, chances are you’ll see a square metal component
somewhere in the lower-right part of the board. This metal component is actually a
heatsink, and its role is to provide thermal protection for the Northbridge – one of the most
important components of a motherboard. The north bridge is responsible for coordinating
the data flow between the memory, the video card and the processor. A secondary chip,
known as Southbridge, has a similar function, coordinating the data flow between the
processor and peripherals such as sound cards or network cards.

Front Panel Connectors, USB Headers and Audio Header

The front panel connector is where all the elements present on the front of your case are
connected. Power button, reset button, power led, audio connectors and USB connectors –
they are all connected to the front panel or the corresponding headers.

Rear Connectors
These connectors are the bridge between the outside of your computer and the inside. The
name is a bit misleading, as the connectors are actually located on the left edge of the
motherboard; however, since these connectors are accessible from the outside, the name
simply implies where they are accessible from – the rear of the PC case. External peripherals
such as keyboard, mouse, monitor, speakers and so on are all connected via these