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DIRECT SPEECH is use to repeat, or quotes with the exact words spoken by others.

can use quotations marks “” to introduce what had been said.
S + Mental verb +, + “quote”
INDIRECT SPEECH or REPORTED SPEECH focuses more on the content of what
someone said rather than their exact words. In indirect speech, the structure of the reported
clause depends on whether the speaker is reporting a statement, a question or a command.
S+ Mental Verb + THAT + Regular sentence
“that” can be omitted

Mental verbs: refers to anything related to mind or intellectual process and Verbs are
words which show actions.

Feel Understand Taste Promise

Like Impress Hear Prefer
Love Astonish Smell Own
Hate Remember See Mind
Realize Forget Look Doubt
Mind Surprise Feel Want
Know Concern Please Dislike
Hope Recognize Learn Decide
Wish Know Notice Perceive
We can change direct speeches to indirect speeches, but we follows several kind of
grammar time changes some changes can be:
From Direct Speech To Indirect Speech
Present I study English Past He said that He
studied English
Present Continuous I’m studying Past Continuous He said that he was
English everyday studying English
Present Perfect I have studied Past Perfect He said that He had
English for 10 years studied English for
10 years
Past I studied English in Past Perfect He said that he had
my childhood studied English
since his childhood
WILL I will study English future-in-the-past He said that he
WOULD would study English

GOING TO I’m going to study I was going to study

English English

Other forms of the reported speech can be with the use of modal verbs, as it comes in page
36 of your workbook, but we need to consider some modals are used for the direct speech
as some others are for indirect speech.
Direct speech Indirect Speech
CAN Birds can fly for 1 COULD He said that birds
hour could fly for 1 hour
MUST I must finish my HAD TO He said that He had
TMM exercises to finish his TMM
SHALL We shall eat some SHOULD He said that we
oranges in the should eat some
morning oranges in the
MAY I may ask vacation MIGHT He said that he
next week might ask for
vacation next week.

NOTE: for the reported speech the modals WOULD, COULD, MIGHT, OUGHT TO,
and SHOULD are the ones we use.
The changes of time from direct speech to indirect speech

Demonstrative, adverbs and adverbial changes

I. Complete the following indirect speech with the direct speech as reference.

1. He said, "I like this song."

 → He said __________________________________________________________

2. "Where is your sister?" she asked me.

 → She asked me _____________________________________________________

3. "I don't speak Italian," she said.

 → She said _________________________________________________________

4. "Say hello to Jim," they said.

 → They asked me ____________________________________________________

5. "The film began at seven o'clock," he said.

 → He said __________________________________________________________

6. "Don't play on the grass, boys," she said.

 → She told the boys __________________________________________________

7. "Where have you spent your money?" she asked him.

 → She asked him ____________________________________________________

8. "I never make mistakes," he said.

 → He said __________________________________________________________

9. "Does she know Robert?" he wanted to know.

 → He wanted to know _________________________________________________

10. "Don't try this at home," the fireman told the audience.

 → The fireman advised the audience _____________________________________

II. Negative: Peter: "Don't clean the black shoes!" Peter told me not to clean the black


1. Karen: "Don't play football in the garden!"

 Karen told me _____________________________________

2. Teacher: "Don't forget your homework!"

 The teacher reminded me _____________________________________

3. Mike: "Don't shout at Peter!"

 Mike told me _____________________________________

4. Yvonne: "Don't talk to your neighbor!"

 Yvonne told me _____________________________________

5. Denise: "Don't open the door!"

 Denise told me _____________________________________

6. Marcel: "Don't sing that song!"

 Marcel reminded me _____________________________________

7. Jane: "Don't watch the new film!"

 Jane advised me _____________________________________

8. Walter: "Don't ring Romy on Sunday!"

 Walter told me _____________________________________

9. Lisa: "Don't fly via Paris!"

 Lisa advised me _____________________________________

10. Jamie: "Don't eat so much junk food!"

 Jamie reminded me_____________________________________

Additional work