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CDI 2: TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT AND - the action taken by the police, such as

ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION arresting, issuing traffic citation ticket


and providing warning to the erring
driver for the purpose of deterring and
TRANSPORTATION discouraging and or preventing such
- is an act or process of conveying from one violation
place to another 2. EDUCATION
- from the Latin word “Terans” meaning - the process of giving training and
across or and move and “Portare” means to practice in the actual application of
carry traffic safety knowledge

VARIOUS ANCIENT MODES OF 3. ENGINEERING


TRANSPORATATION - the science of measuring traffic and
A. MANPOWER travel, the study of basic laws relative to
B. ANIMAL POWER the traffic law and generation; the
C. WIND POWER application of these knowledge to the
professional practice of planning,
ROADS AND VEHICLES HISTORY deciding, and operating traffic system to
achieve safe and efficient transportation
WHEEL of persons and goods
- was invented probably in Western Asia
- one of man’s great inventions 4. TRAFFIC ECOLOGY/ ENVIRONMENT
- the study of potentially disastrous
THE ROMANS population explosion, changes in urban
- were the major road builders in the environment due to the scale and
density of new urban concentration and
ancient world
new activities carried out, air pollution,
- Roman road networks reached a total of
water pollution and crowding, transport
about 50,000 miles (80, 000 km)
congestion which result therein
CANALS
5. TRAFFIC ECONOMY
- a body of water used to be channel of
- deals with the benefits and adverse
sea transportation
effects of traffic to our economy
- the first canal was constructed by Engr.
James Brindley
MANAGEMENT
- it is an executive function such as
RAILWAYS
planning, organizing, Directing and
- channel of transportation wherein a
supervising, coordinating operating
parallel line of irons were used as roads
recording and budgeting traffic affairs
- the first railroad is the Stockton and
Darlington line (1925)
AGENCIES INVOLVED IN THE
ENFORCEMENT OF TRAFFIC
TRAFFIC
- it refers to the movement of persons,
Land Transportation Office
goods, or vehicles, either powered by
- tasked to enforce laws, rules and
combustion system or animal drawn
regulation governing the registration of
vehicle, from one place to another for
motor vehicles, operation of motor
the purpose of safe travel
vehicle and traffic rules and regulation
- originated from Greco-Roman word
as provided by RA 4136 as amended
Trafico and Greek word Traffiga, origin
of which is not known
Land Transportation Franchising and
Regulatory Board
THE 5’Es OF TRAFFIC
- tasked to regulate transport route
- regulate franchising
1. ENFORCEMENT
- prescribe fare rates
- investigate traffic cases

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- perform judicial function - local government units and
- promulgate rules instrumentalities that have the same
- impose and collect fees function as the DPWH
- formulate and enforce rules and - perform such powers within their
regulation for transport operation for territorial boundary
promotion of safety and convenience
of public AGENCIES INVOLVED IN TRAFFIC
- coordinate with concerned agencies EDUCATION
and enforce E.O. NO 125,124-A and
E.O. 202 dated June 19,1987 Schools

Department of Transportation and Elementary


Communications - tasked to educate children to obey traffic
- in charge of planning programs rules through their programmed
coordinating implementing and perform curricula
administrative function and promotion
development and regulation of Secondary
dependable and coordinated network of - tasked to educate students in obeying
transportation and communication in tha traffic rules by imposing school
order to have fast, safe, efficient and policies intended for the welfare of the
reliable postal transportation and students
communication services (EO No. 125.)
Higher Education
Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA) - they offer subjects on driving and traffic
- created under RA. 7924 and sets safety course or any allied subjects
policies concerning traffic in Metro
Manila, coordinates and regulates TRAFFIC EDUCATION
implementation of program related to - is priceless gem in the entire scale of
traffic social order of the road
- is the process of inculcating to an
Congress and Local Council individual the knowledge, skill,
- the branch of government primarily responsibilities and values to become
tasked to create laws for the welfare of a fully developed person
the public - the key to smooth traffic flow is
discipline and to acquire discipline
Judiciary people must be educated
- the branch of government that interprets
the law through adjudication of cases PURPOSE OF DRIVER EDUCATION
1) To Instill awareness of one's legal and
Traffic Management Group (TMG) moral responsibilities in traffic; and
- the basis service of the PNP tasked to 2) To teach abilities required for one to be
direct and control traffic, perform eligible for a driver’s license.
accident investigation, enforce the laws
and issue citations. SAFETY CAMPAIGN
- the aim of this campaign is to make
AGENCIES RESPONSIBLE FOR TRAFFIC road users behave properly
ENGINEERING - focuses on public information
attitudes; this is characterized as
Department of Public Works and Highways road propaganda
- has responsibility of determining traffic
flow planning approval of program and BIORHYTHM
budget finding of construction and - the theory asserting that man exhibit
maintenance of road and instrument constant variation of energy and mood
states
Local Public Works and Engineering Offices

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The Environmental Factors in Man’s 2. Non-professional
Theorized Cycles and Interpretation of 3. Professional
Biorhythm 4. Military
1. The exchange of Light and darkness 5. International
2. The four seasons
3. Wet and dry seasons RESTRICTION CODE
4. The waxing and waning of the moon 1. Restriction Code No 1 - limited to drive
motor motorcycles
The Biorhythm Cycle 2. Restriction Code No 2 - limited to drive
1. 23 days of physical cycle vehicle weighing not more than 4500 kg
2. 28 days of emotional cycle 3. Restriction Code No 3 - limited to drive
3. 33 days of intellectual cycle vehicles weighing more than 4500 kg
4. Restriction Code No 4 - limited to drive
The High State weighing 4500 kg and with automatic
transmission only
Physically high 5. Restriction Code No 5 - limited to drive
-people are energetic, strong and agile vehicle with automatic clutch and
Emotionally high weighing more than 4500 kg
-people are creative, artistic and happy
Intellectually high DRIVER
-people think quickly and logically - Licensed operator of a vehicle

The Low State DUITES OF DRIVER IN CASE OF ACCIDENTS


1. Stop immediately.
Physically low 2. Show the license to the victim and give
-people tend to be tired and succumb to the true name, address and contact
sickness number.
Emotionally low 3. Driver is not allowed to leave the scene
-people are moody, irritable and without aiding the victim.
depressed
Intellectually low EXCEPTIONS TO THE PRECEEDING TOPIC
-people find it difficult to think logically 1. If he is in imminent danger of being
and lacks coordination seriously harmed by reason of accident;
2. If he reports the accident to the nearest
LEGAL SYSTEM FOR TRAFFIC SAFETY police station; and
3. If he has summoned the physician or
LICENSING SYSTEM nurse to aid the victim.
- it is the system of issuing license to any
person who is qualified to fulfill the CONDUCTOR
responsibilities required by the license - licensed person allowing limited number
- administered by the LTO of passengers, freight or cargo in public
utility truck or buses
DRIVER’S LICENSE
- issued to the drivers as privilege granted TEN COMMANDEMENTS OF TRAFFIC
by the government providing statutory 1. KEEP RIGHT
qualification - (two lanes, two ways) in case of one
way the left lane shall be the fast lane
LICENSING PROCEDURE and the slow lane is the right
2. OBSERVE ROAD COURTESY
REQUISITES FOR ISSUANCE OF LICENSE - yield to emergency vehicle, pedestrians,
- At least 16 years old for student’s permit trains, vehicle with right of way, vehicles
- 17 years old for sub-professional ahead, large vehicles, uphill traffic,
- 18 years old for professional vehicles with momentum, straight traffic,
and traffic signs
KINDS OF DRIVER’S LICENSE
1. Student permit Emergency Vehicles:

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a. Vehicle with physician c. Maneuver at own risk, the vehicle being
b. Ambulance on emergency call overtaken is the privileged vehicle.
c. Vehicle with wounded or sick person Drivers keep his lane, maintain speed
d. AFP/ PNP vehicle on official call and yield to overtaking vehicle.
e. Vehicle in pursuit of criminals d. He shall increase his speed until the
f. A police or fire on call overtaken vehicle has cleared the way
e. In a two lanes, on a divided roadway,
RIGHT OF WAY RULE they may use either of the lanes.
- the right to proceed ahead of another f. In an expressway with fast and slow
vehicle or pedestrian lanes, on a divided roadway, they may
use either of the lanes.
a. Intersection- when two or more vehicle g. Overtaking is prohibited at crest of a
is entering an intersection the one on grade curve, railway crossing, at the
the left will give way to the right vehicle. intersection and between construction
b. Pedestrian- drivers should yield to and caution.
pedestrian crossing except at
intersection whereas the movement of 5. THE BUS STOP RULE
vehicles is regulated by a police officer. a. The buses queue up in a single file in
c. Through highway/ railroad crossing- the their order arrival.
driver shall bring to a full stop before b. Lead bus moving toward the center of
traversing to an intersection. If there is column of busses lining on the bus stop
no hazard the driver may slowdown to zone, and remain until zone is filled with
5mph. busses, but longer than three minutes.
d. Police /emergency vehicle- all drivers
should yield to emergency to emergency 6. RULE TO PREVENT OR UNTANGLE
vehicle except as directed by traffic TRAFFIC JAMS
enforcer. Fire trucks are accepted to - Keep lanes and intersection open in
speed limit but they are prohibited to heavy and slow traffic to avoid
have unnecessary speed. overtaking. In a construction, vehicles
e. From private road to highway- vehicle should merge alternately.
from private road must yield to that on a
highway. 7. OBSERVE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
MEASURES
3. PROHIBITED PARKING - Observe and obey traffic notices sign
Places where parking is prohibited: like notices and pavement markings.
a. Near an intersection
b. Crosswalk/ pedestrian lane 8. THE PHILOSOPHY OF PINOY DRIVER
c. Within 6 meters from drive way of any - Motorist should observe equity of the
response installation, fire hydrant and lead vehicle, doctrine of the last clear
private roads chance on rotunda drive.
d. Double parking
e. Sidewalks, alleys, foot of the bridge 9. ON PEDESTRIAN
f. Places wherein official signs are posted - Keep off the roadway except when
crossing on crosswalk. Wait embark and
4. WHEN IN DOUBT, DO NOT OVERTAKE. alight at bus or jeepney stop.
-overtaking lane is the lane to the left of
overtaken vehicle going in the same 10. REMEMBER THE INTERNATIONAL
direction, overtaken vehicle is the SAFETY REMINDER- “SAFETY FIRST”
privileged vehicle

CONSIDER THESE IF YOU OVERTAKE:


a. Signal the intention. TRAFFIC LAW ENFORCEMENT
b. Make sure that the overtaking lane is - the action taken by the police to compel
clear and free of oncoming vehicle for obedience to traffic laws and ordinance
sufficient distance to facilitate proper regulating the use and movement of
overtake. motor vehicle for the purpose of creating

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a deterrent to unlawful behavior by all ACTIVITIES OF TRAFFIC LAW
potential violators ENFORCEMENT
1. Preventive activities
2. Persuasive activities
TRAFFIC LAW ENFORCER 3. Punitive activities
- a person duly deputized by an agency of
government authorized by law to MAJOR ELEMENTS OF TRAFFIC
enforce traffic laws, rules and ENFORCEMENT SYSTEM
regulations 1. Enforcement system
2. Road user system
POLICE TRAFFIC LAW ENFORCEMENT 3. Traffic system
- the part performed by the police and
other agencies with police power TRAFFIC LAWS AND THE ROLE OF
including deterrent to law violations ENFORCEMENT
created by the presence of uniformed
police officer and their special CHARACTERISTIC OF TRAFFIC LAWS
equipment, special assistance to court 1. Laws are developed from experiences
and prosecutor and incidental service to of the public over the years.
highway users 2. Laws reflect beliefs, behavior and
standards agreed upon by society.
COURT TRAFFIC LAW ENFORCEMENT
- the performed by the court through VIOLATIONS
adjudication and penalization - those act and omissions against traffic
laws
POLICE COURT ENFORCEMENT PROCESS
CLASSIFICATION OF VIOLATION
FIVE ESSENTIAL STEPS 1. Hazardous traffic violations that cause
1. DETECTION - wholly police activities and danger to road users. Unsafe behavior
entails looking for defects in the behavior and unsafe conditions are the causes of
motorist, pedestrian, vehicle, equipment and these violations.
roadway condition. 2. Non-hazardous violations that do not
2. APPREHENSION - a police responsibility affect safety of the public but affect the
wherein the police are required action to use of roads.
prevent continued and future violation.
3. PROSECUTION - it is a court function, the REASONS WHY PEOPLE ARE VIOLATING
police also provides corresponding influence TRAFFIC LAWS
through preparation and introduction of 1. Physical infirmities
evidence or close contact with the 2. Ignorance
prosecution office. 3. Mental disorder
4. ADJUDICATION - it is court function, the 4. Lack of training
police provides influence on this step by as 5. Wrong attitude
a witness to the prosecution by supplying 6. Habitual violators
additional evidence. It determines the guilt 7. PUV drivers are aiming for more
or innocence of the accused. compensation
5. PENALIZATION - the imposition of penalty
upon the accused. Penalty can be POLICE TRAFFIC ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS
influenced by previous records of conviction - these include arrest and citation of any
as provided by the police. person

GOALS OF ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES


1. Increase safety level PURPOSES:
2. Increase traffic efficiency 1. Prevent such violation from endangering
3. Ensure harmony and comfortable the public and inconvenience
environment 2. Prevent continued violation
4. Maximize safety 3. Discourage future violation

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KINDS OF ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS THINGS TO CONSIDER IN PURSUIT AS
1. Traffic arrest - the taking of a person into TRAFFIC ENFORCEMENT
custody of the law. It is made when: 1. Decision - nature of violation
a) the offense is serious; 2. Pursuit technique
b) detection is needed to avoid 3. Safety driving technique
continued violation; and
c) there is reasonable doubt that STOPPING AND APPROACHING TRAFFIC
violators may not appear in VIOLATORS
court. 1. It must be done with consideration to
safety of both parties engaging
2. Traffic citation - made to compel 2. Upon approaching officer must be from
violators to appear in court in absence the left side from the rear, be alert
of arrest.
3. Traffic warning - an act reminding the TRAFFIC ROAD CHECK
driver of his violation in order for him to - It is done to inspect the following:
not do it again. No arrest or citation is 1. Faulty vehicle equipment
made. 2. Registration and licensing procedure
3. Intoxication or cargo check
TYPES OF WARNING
1. Visual warning - using gestures and TYPES OF TRAFFIC CHECK
signals. 1. Faulty vehicle
2. Verbal warning - oral warning made 2. Officer directing road check
when there is newly enacted law
3. Written warning - combination of two CONSIDERATION IN ROAD CHECK
preceding types with written note of 1. Minimum delay to motorist
citation 2. Thorough checking procedure
3. Protection and safety of parties involved
TRAFFIC PATROL 4. Timing and location and frequency
- part of traffic supervision by patrolling to
ensure public obedience OBJECTIVE IN DEALING WITH VIOLATORS
1. Immediate objective- to act against the
OBJECTIVES: person
1. Deterrence of violators 2. Ultimate objective- to change the future
2. Detection and apprehension of a person
3. Observation and reporting of traffic
condition and road condition POINTS TO REMEMBER
4. Providing certain services to public 1. Violators are diversified
2. Conflicts arises in violators
TYPES OF PATROL 3. You are professional officer, there is no
1. Line patrol- it is assigned to a particular professional violator
place 4. Be alert for an unexpected
2. Area patrol- type of patrol assigned to
an area of vicinity TRAFFIC SUPERVISION, DIRECTION AND
CONTROL
TRAFFIC OBSERVATION - an act of overseeing the traffic to keep
1. Stationary traffic observation - officer is order on street and highways within
assigned at specific place existing laws
2. Conspicuous traffic observation - officer
attracts attention POLICE WORKS
3. Visible traffic observation - stationary 1. Accident investigation
observation that the observer is in full 2. Less serious offense
view 3. Serious traffic offense
4. concealed traffic observation - observer
is not visible to the public OFFICERS ARE REQUIRED TO BE SKILLED
IN THE FOLLOWING INSTANCES:
1. Accident scene

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2. Emergencies 13. Hand signal should be with arm and palm
3. Planned and special events facing the person
4. Regular points and integration control
5. Directing pedestrian movement WHISTLE SIGNAL
1. One long blast for STOP
OFFICERS ARE REQUIRED TO KNOW HOW 2. Two short snappy blast for GO
TO DIRECT IN THE FOLLOWING PLACES: 3. Three blast to be used TO ASK FOR
1. Not signalized intersection ASSISTANCE
2. Signalized intersection
3. Between intersection A. COMMAND OF TRAFFIC
- Stand where you can be seen with firm
SUPERVISED ROUTE and posture
- A street or highway on which traffic is
supervised to some considerable B. GESTURE IN STOPPING
degree - Point the arm and index finger toward
the vehicle to be stopped then show
POLICE TRAFFIC DIRECTION your palm
- It involves telling the public how and - Repeat the process at the opposite side
when they should not stand and move - Not lower your arm until traffic is ceased
C. GESTURE TO START TRAFFIC
POINT/ AREA CONTROL - Stand sideways
- It is the part of the traffic direction - point your index finger toward the
concerning the control of vehicular/ vehicle to start, hold it till he verified,
pedestrian movement swing your hand up to your chin
- drop and repeat the process at the
POLICE TRAFFIC ESCORT opposite side
- It involves mobile supervision of traffic - Use it when they are slow or hesitant to
movement, directing orally and visually move
are done to allow free and safe
movement of escorted vehicles. D. RIGHT TURN GESTURES
- Not required at intersection
TRAFFIC DIRECTION AND CONTROL - Point to the vehicle you want to turn and
- It is the control direction of traffic units point to the direction of turning
according to proportionate time to - Vehicles to your left for right turn bend
prevent traffic accident to maintain your left arm and allow a thumb sign
smooth flow of traffic.
E. LEFT TURN GESTURES
MEANS OF DIRECTING - Vehicles turn left from right, stop vehicle
1. Signaling from right and direct vehicle to the left
2. Whistling - Left turn vehicle from your right, turn
3. Gestures around and repeat the procedure above
- Street with one lane only
HAND SIGNAL a. allow space for ongoing straight
1. Use hand signals and turning left vehicles
2. Use uniform signals b. direct finger left turning car with
3. It must be clear proper finger left
4. Don’t make verbal c. semaphore signals may be used
5. Be alert, stand erect
6. Look to the person when signaling F. TWO-OFFICER TRAFFIC
7. Arm signal should be shoulder high - The team leader shall initiate command
8. Supplement it with whistle followed by the members.
9. Hang your hand when not in use
10. Constant waving of hands causes confusion TECNIQUES IN TRAFFIC DIRECTION AND
11. Maintain 90 degrees turn of the body CONTROL
12. When stopping point to a man you want to 1. Keep intersection open
stop 2. Don’t allow motorist to cross without exit

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3. Stop motorist at their lane
4. Prefer to stop the last moving vehicle FIELD SOBRIETY TEST
1. Walk on straight line
2. One foot balance
3. Reading
TRAFFIC JAM 4. Spelling
- It is caused by such factors as vehicular 5. Counting from 1 to 10
accident, stalled vehicle, absence of 6. Video tape the movement
traffic enforcer and road construction 7. Photograph the unguarded movement
PROCEDURES IN TRAFFIC JAM CHEMICAL TEST
1. Determine the cause 1. Blood test
2. In case of accident conduct fast 2. Urine test
investigation 3. Perspiration test
3. In case of engine trouble assist the 4. Breath test
motorist in pushing car to place 5. Skin test
4. Establish oneself and conduct
systematic flow of traffic EVIDENCE AGAINST DRUNKEN DRIVERS
5. Observe the traffic flow if it smooth, if 1. Drivers admission
not repeat procedure no. 1 2. Co-occupants testimony
6. Implement traffic regulation to prevent 3. Material witnesses testimony
jam 4. Photograph of drunken driver
5. Video/ voice tape of driver
RESPONSIBILITIES OF TRAFFIC ENFORCER 6. Officers testimony
1. Enforce the law without fear or favor and
assist public when neede LEGAL ACTION AGAINST DRIVER
2. In an intersection, remember the following: 1. Submit him to the nearest laboratory for
a. personal safety of enforcer testing
b. policeman’s visibility 2. Impound the vehicle
c. visibility of officers to traffic 3. Confiscate the license
d. non obstruction to traffic 4. Recommend the suspension of privilege
e. ability to effect necessary control 5. Sue him for violation
3. Officer shall not leave his post during tour of 6. If acquitted recommend suspension of
duty without permission from higher license
authority. In case personal necessity he
should notify the station. TRAFFIC ENGINEERING
4. Respond immediately to emergency calls - defined as calculating manipulation or
and notify the station direction. It includes forecasting of future
5. Be calm and control the temper even under traffic demands
provoking situation
6. He should be in proper uniform FUNCTIONS
7. In apprehending issue citation, and do it in 1. Fact finding survey and
one minute recommendation of traffic laws
2. Supervision and maintenance of the
PEDESTRIAN CONTROL application of traffic devices
3. Planning of traffic regulation
PROGRAM OF PEDESTRIAN
ENFORCEMENT BASICALLY DEPENDS ON OBJECTIVES
THE FOLLOWING: 1. Achieve free and efficient and rapid flow
1. Campaign of traffic
2. Guiding on the post 2. Prevent traffic accident
3. Warning ticket 3. Promotion of traffic engineering
4. Show that good police action and
DRUNKEN DRIVERS performance makes engineering plans
- it is a driver who drives under the effective
influence of alcohol with 10% of
intoxicating level

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APPLICATION OF THE OBJECTIVES OF
TRAFFIC ENGINEERING 3. TYPES OF TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE
1. Habitually congested commercial areas - traffic or road sign
2. Heavily traveled thoroughfares - pavement markings
3. Congested local areas and intersection - traffic light
4. Special occasion of event - traffic island
5. Disaster or emergency
6. School crossing FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF TRAFFIC
CONTROL DEVICES
METHODS IN ACHIEVING OBJECTIVES OF 1. Regulatory devices
TRAFFIC ENGINEERING 2. Warning devices
3. Guiding devices
I. PLANNING AND GEOMETRIC
DESIGN AIMS OF SIGNAL CONTROL
- composition of traffic stream 1. Reduce traffic conflict and delay
- traffic volume and capacity 2. Reduce accident
- origin and destination 3. Economize police time

II. FACTORS INFLUENCING DESIGN ADVANTAGES OF SIGNAL INSTALLATION


- traffic composition 1. Made for well ordered movement
- traffic volume 2. Reduce accident frequency
- vehicle speed 3. Provide means of interpreting heavy
- movement of traffic traffic
- performance value 4. Economical over manual control at
intersection
III. REGULATION AND CONTROL 5. Coordinating in providing continuous
a. Limited to public safety and flow of traffic
convenience 6. Increase traffic capacity
b. Limitation imposed on road users
c. General rule of road use and conduct CLASSES OF TRAFFIC SIGNS
- speed
- overtaking a. DANGER WARNING SIGNS
- right of way b. REGULATING SIGNS
- lateral placement - priority signs
- pedestrian right and duty - prohibitory signs
- general rules on parking - mandatory signs
d. Prohibited and restriction c. INFORMATIVE SIGNS
- one way regulation - advance sign
- speed control - place identification sign
- curb parking control - confirmatory sign
- turning regulation
- stop rule PRINCIPLES OF SIGNS
1. Red triangle connotes hazard
TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICE 2. Red ring with diagonal line connotes
prohibition
1. ELEMENTARY REQUISITES 3. Blue/ green provides information
- Compel attention 4. Signs on blue disc give positive
- convey simple meaning at a glance instruction
- allowing time for response
- command respect INTERNATIONAL SIGN
1. Round and red; regulatory movement
2. FUNDAMENTAL TRAITS 2. Round black yellow sign, warning sign
- design and outward aspect 3. Equilateral triangle red sign, directing to
- position and placement yield the right of way
- maintenance and condition, appearance 4. Octagon red and white, STOP
and visibility

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5. Red triangle and black sign, - that occurrence in a sequence of events
approaching danger zone which usually produces unintended
injury, death or property damage
TRAFFIC LIGHTS
1. Red- stop TRAFFIC ACCIDENT
2. Amber- slowdown - an accident involving travel
3. Green- go transportation on a traffic way

MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENT


PAVEMENT MARKINGS - event resulting in unintended injury or
1. Arrows point to direction property damage attributable directly or
2. Straight lines means no overtaking indirectly to the action of a motor vehicle
3. Broken lines means overtaking is or its load
allowed
KINDS OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS
ROAD CLASSIFICATION In the investigation of traffic accidents, it
is imperative for the traffic investigator to know
ACCORDING TO POLITICAL SUBDIVISION the kinds of accidents occurred in order to map
1. National road- right of way 20 to 120 out the necessary activities to be done when
meters responding and investigating.
2. Provincial road- link between to
municipalities, 15 to 60 meters 1. NON-MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC
3. City road- interlink in the city, 15 meters ACCIDENT
4. Municipal road- within town proper 10 - refers to any accident occurring on a
meters traffic way involving persons using the
5. Barangay road- from market to town 2 traffic way or travel or transportation, but
meters not involving a motor vehicle in motion
(ex. Pedestrian and a cyclist in a traffic
ACCORDING TO TOPOGRAPHICAL TERRAIN way)
1. Flat road
2. Zigzag 2. MOTOR VEHICLE NON-TRAFFIC
3. Steep hill ACCIDENT
4. Down hill - any motor vehicle accident which occurs
5. Winding road entirely in any place other than a traffic
6. Mountainous road way (ex. Accident on a private driveway)
7. Roller coaster road
3. MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC ACCIDENT
FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF - any motor vehicle accident occurring on
ROADWAY a traffic way (ex. Collision between
1. VEHICLES PASSES SAFELY ON automobiles on a highway)
- climb lane
- overtaking lane CHAIN OF EVENTS IN A VEHICULAR
- acceleration lane ACCIDENT
- turning lane 1. PERCEPTION OF HAZARD – it is
2. PART OF THE ROAD USED FOR: seeing, feeling or hearing and
a. standing lane understanding the usual or unexpected
b. stopping lane movement or condition that could be
c. Bus stop taken as a sign of an accident about to
happen
SIDEWALK 2. START OF EVASIVE ACTION – it is the
- it is the portion of the road that answers first action taken by a traffic unit to
the safety of pedestrians escape from a collision course or
otherwise avoid a hazard
ACCIDENT 3. INITIAL CONTACT – the first accidental
touching of an object collision course or
otherwise avoids a hazard

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4. MAXIMUM ENGAGEMENT – it is the STEP 3. AFTER GETTING SHORT-LIVED
greatest collapse or overlap in a EVIDENCE
collision; the force between the traffic 1. Make a test skid
unit and the object collided with are 2. Ascertain if the violation is tantamount to
greatest at maximum engagement arrest
5. DISENGAGEMENT – it is the 3. Complete examination of vehicle
separation of a traffic unit in motion from 4. Locate key event or point of impact
an object with which it has collided; the 5. Additional photographs
force between the object ceases at this - vehicle damages
time - view obstruction
6. STOPPING – this is when the traffic - present condition
units involved come to rest; it usually - control devices
stabilizes the accident situation 6. Measure scale or diagram
7. INJURY – it is receiving bodily harm; 7. Get additional facts at the scene
this event does not necessarily occur 8. Report to station by radio
after the accident but within any of the
chain of events; it may also happen right STEP 4. AFTER LEAVING THE SCENE
after the evasive action taken by the 1. Get the medical report
drivers involved or during the initial 2. Notify the relatives
contact 3. Develop the photographs
4. Analyze the specimen
STEPS TO BE TAKEN DURING TRAFFIC 5. Complete accident report, made copies and
ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION file.
6. Complete data on the investigators’ report
STEP 1. UPON LEARNING THE INCIDENT 7. Reconstruct the accident
CHECK THE FOLLOWING 8. Complete the investigation and file it
1. What happened
2. Who are involved STEP 5. IF THE CASE GOES TO COURT
3. Where and when it happened 1. Seek the desire of the prosecutor to
4. How it happened strengthen the case.
5. Why it happened 2. Return to the scene of the incident to
gather additional data
STEP 2. WHEN EMERGENCY UNDER 3. Make a pre-trial conference
CONTROL 4. Testify in court
1. Preliminary question to driver 5. Arrange the file for future purposes
- who is driving
- ascertain sign of nervousness IN CASE OF INJURIES:
2. Gather clues for identification 1. Stop arterial bleeding
3. Ask other witnesses 2. Ask for help
4. Examine driver’s condition 3. Protect the wound for exposure
- check the license and other record 4. Cordon the place
- check registration CLASSIFICATION OF VEHICLE ACCIDENT
- verify ownership ACCORDING TO SEVERITY
- account step by step events 1. Fatal
5. Position and location of vehicles 2. non fatal
- lights 3. Property damage
- gear position
- mark the position of vehicle CLASSIFICATION OF VEHICLE ACCIDENT
- look for the unusual things inside the car ACCORDING TO KEY EVENT
6. Form preliminary opinion 1. Running off road
7. Photograph skid mark and location for later 2. Non-collision on road
measuring - overturning
8. Record place in which person/ damaged 3. Collision on road of vehicles with the
vehicle is placed ff:
- pedestrian
- moving vehicle

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- parked vehicle
- bicycle FAST TRACKED INVESTIGATION
- railroad train 1. Send the corpse to laboratory after
- fixed objects investigating
2. Obtain fingerprint and other specimen
and send it to laboratory
3. Splintered glass can be a lead
4. Broken headlamp manifest a run over
CAUSES OF MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC 5. Paints might stick at victim belonging
ACCIDENT 6. Don’t forget to bring paper and pencil for
A. SIMULTANEOUS FACTORS initial note taking
- Road condition
- Driver’s attitude EXAMINATION OF RECOVERED VEHICLE
- Weather condition 1. Recover physical evidence immediately
B. SEQUENTIAL FACTORS 2. Measure the vehicle
- Unsafe greater speed 3. Photograph the vehicle, debris and
- Defective vehicle chipped off part
C. OPERATIONAL FACTOR 4. Check the interior of the car for driver’s
- Road hazard identity
- driver’s non compliance
D. PERCEPTION FACTOR INVESTIGATION AID FOR TRAFFIC
- driver’s inability to react ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION
- driver’s faulty action to escape 1. Motor vehicle certified registration
2. Repair shop
HIT AND RUN INVESTIGATION 3. Department records
- This applies to drivers who failed to stop at a
road accident DOCUMENTS TO BE FILED IN CASE OF
DEATH
LEGAL CASES TO BE FILED: 1. Referral slip
1. Abandonment of one’s victim 2. Arrest report
2. Failure to lend assistance 3. Traffic accident report (TAIC)
3. Reckless imprudence resulting to 4. Affidavit of parties involved
homicide 5. Witness’ statement
4. Reckless imprudence resulting to 6. Photograph
damage to property
5. Failure to render assistance to victim DOCUMENTS TO BE FILED IN CASE OF
6. Violation of section 55 of RA 4136 INJURY
7. Civil liability 1. Memorandum of preliminary
investigation
COMMON NATURE OF HIT-AND-RUN 2. TAIC
1. Ran over pedestrian 3. Estimated amount of damage, it is made
2. Sideswiped pedestrian by authorized repair shop
3. Collided with moving vehicle while 4. Affidavit of parties involve
overtaking 5. Witness statement
4. Collided with moving vehicle while 6. photograph
overtaking on opposite direction
5. Damaged parked vehicle COMMON WORDS AND PHRASES USED IN
6. Crushed police road block TRAFFIC ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION
7. Bumped by stray animal 1. MOTOR VEHICLE – any device which
is self-propelled and every vehicle which
INVESTIGATING FOR UNKNOWN FACTS is propelled by electric power obtained
1. Victims identity from overhead trolley wires, but not
2. Kind of vehicle operated upon rails
3. The make of vehicle 2. KEY EVENT – an event on the road
4. The driver which characterizes the manner of
5. The eyewitnesses

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occurrence of a motor vehicle traffic 14. CAUSE – the combination of
accident simultaneous and sequential factors
3. DEBRIS – the scattered broken parts of without any one of which result could
vehicles, rubbish, dust and other not have occurred.
materials left at the scene of the 15. ATTRIBUTE – any inherent
accident caused by a collision characteristics of a road, a vehicle, or a
4. SKID MARKS – these are marks left on person that affects the probability of a
the roadway by tires which are not free traffic accident.
to rotate, usually because brakes are 16. MODIFIER – a circumstance that alters
applied strongly and the wheels locked an attribute permanently or temporarily.
5. TRAFFIC UNIT – any person using a
traffic way for travel, parking or other
purposes as a pedestrian or driver,
including any vehicle, or animal.
6. HAZARD - a hazard is generated when
a critical space-motion relationships
between a traffic unit and another object
develops due to the movement of either
or both (ex. A curve in the path is a
hazard; another traffic unit in the path is
a hazard.)
7. SAFE SPEED – the speed adjusted to
the potential or possible hazards or the
road and traffic situation ahead; safe
speed on the road is determined by the
road rather than the particular driver of a
vehicle (ex. A curve ahead is a hazard
and a safe speed for it is a speed at
which it can be taken comfortably
8. STRATEGY – the adjusting of speed,
position on the road, and direction of
motion, giving signals of intent to turn or
slow down, or any other action in
situations involving potential hazards
9. TACTIC – any action taken by the traffic
unit to avoid hazardous situations like
steering, braking or accelerating to
avoid collision or other accident.
10. IMPACT – the striking of one body
against another or a collision of a motor
vehicle with another motor vehicle.
11. CONTACT DAMAGE – damage to a
vehicle resulting from direct pressure of
some foreign object in a collision or roll
over; it is usually indicated by striations,
rub-off of material or puncture.
12. FACTOR – any circumstance
contributing to a result without which the
result could not have occurred or it is an
element necessary to produce the
result, but not by itself sufficient.
13. PRIMARY CAUSE – a misnomer
loosely applied to the most obvious or
easily explained factor in the cause of
an accident or the most easily modified
condition factor.

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