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Indian English Written

Domain Conventions
You will listen to some audio les and transcribe them according to the rules of your locale.


Typo Fragments versus sentences Number

Context error Commas Currency and unit
Added or missing words Intonation marks Date and time
Substitution Colon and quotation Address
Spacing Other symbols Web
Spoken punctuation Abbreviation


Spelling out Skipping a prompt

Interjections Hesitations and truncations
Proper names Background and foreground speech
Brand and product Foreign language
Media title Accents
Multiple spellings
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Transcription quality
Comply with the standard rules of the writing system.


A typo results in the unintentional creation of a non-word.

Avoid making any typographical errors. Carefully check your work before marking
items as "complete".

Check me on Facebook.
NOT: Check me on Facebok.

Use the proper capitalization for standard words that require it.

She is Indian.
NOT: She is indian.

That is a small cat.

NOT: That is a Small cat.

Navigate home.
NOT: Navigate Home.

Context error

A context error occurs when a real word is used incorrectly or when the incorrect
form of a word is used. This includes homophones and punctuation, among other

I ate apples.
NOT: I eight apples.

your favourite movie

NOT: you're favourite movie

You're my best friend.

NOT: You re my best friend.

Don't judge a book by its cover.

NOT: Don't judge a book by it's cover.

Transcribe what is actually spoken. Use context to help with spelling and homophone
disambiguation. Look up words if you are unsure.

He went over there.

NOT: He went over their.

Have you seen the polar bear exhibit?

NOT: the polar bare exhibit

I have four tablets.

NOT: I have four tablet.
Do not correct speaker's grammar if they intentionally say something, even if what
they say does not follow the standard grammatical rules of the transcription

She loves pizza.

"she loves pizza"
NOT: She love pizza.

She love pizza.

"she love pizza"
NOT: She loves pizza.

Added or missing words

Do not transcribe words that are not spoken, even if they are obviously intended by
the speaker. Avoid putting words in the speaker's mouth. However, do transcribe
implied times and units of currency.

I want to go see X-Men movie. Do not add the omitted article "the".

$3.49 is way too much for a candy "three forty nine is way too much for a candy
bar. bar"

Set alarm for 6:50. "set alarm for six ve zero"

Transcribe all words spoken, even if they are not intended by the speaker. For
interjections and non-speech vocalizations, refer to Agreed Spelling > Interjections
and Dif cult Utterances > Hesitations and Truncations.

YouTube YouTube YouTube

How much wood would a woodchuck

chuck chuck?

How many strawberries blueberries Speaker clearly corrected themselves after

are there? "strawberries".


A substitution error occurs when another standard word is transcribed instead of

what was meant by the speaker. If what the speaker said falls into another category
(Context Error, Proper Name, Media Title, etc.), see the relevant section.

Take me to Pizza Hut.

"take me to pizza hut"
NOT: Take me to Domino's.


Use only one space between words and sentences.

What is the highest point in Rajasthan?

NOT: What is the highest _point in Rajasthan?

I think so. Let's just try.

NOT: I think so. _Let's just try.
For most types of punctuation, do not put a space between the preceding word and
the punctuation.

Are you coming?

NOT: Are you coming ?

Shut up!
NOT: Shut up !

Hello, this is Dr. Sharma.

NOT: Hello , this is Dr . Sharma .

For quotation marks and similar punctuation, put a space before the opening
punctuation, but not necessarily after the closing punctuation.

Rohit said, "I love you."

NOT: Rohit said, " I love you. "

Translate " ower" into Hindi.

NOT: Translate " ower"into Hindi.
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Follow the punctuation regulations of your locale. Additional conventions are outlined in this

Fragments versus sentences

Add punctuation where needed, but err on the side of keeping it minimal.

Full sentences should start with an uppercase letter and end with a punctuation

In general, a complete sentence contains a subject and a verb.

He works from
Includes subject and verb.
home today.

And I don't even Includes subject and verb. Sounds like a whole utterance rather
like him. than just a conjunction to a larger sentence.

Sometimes a phrase which is not obviously grammatically a sentence should

nevertheless be treated as a sentence because of its context, e.g. if it's an answer to a
speci c question, or if it's an example where dropping the subject sounds completely
natural as a complete sentence.

Who are you talking

two speakers
about? The guy next door.

No context to suggest this is a sentence; treat it as a

the guy next door

images of owers Google search for images

Coming to the party


This is asking for information, but the most likely

weather in Delhi
interpretation is as a sentence fragment on its own.

The words "yes", "yeah", "no", and similar items expressing af rmative or negative,
should generally be considered as complete sentences when on their own.

NOT: yes

Are you going to the store? Yeah.

Interjections, greetings, and farewells said in isolation should be considered

complete sentences and punctuated as such.

Yeah. interjection

Hi. greeting

Sure. Bye. This includes both a yes/no word and a farewell, with a long pause

Cheers to my Here, "cheers" is not being used as an interjection on its own, but
best friend. rather the entire sentence is being used as an interjection.

Below are some examples of common interjections.

cheers congratulations drats haha

hey sorry oh oh my gosh

Note the distinction between complete sentences with omitted subjects and phrases
that simply start with gerunds (the -ing form of a verb). The latter are typically simple
search phrases and therefore should not be transcribed as complete sentences. In
identifying the difference between a sentence and a gerundive phrase, ask yourself if
the user is describing an event or state (sentence) or is simply searching for
something on the web (gerundive).

Going to see the Sounds like a whole utterance; the subject was left out by
neighbors. the speaker.

washing puppies in a
Sounds like a web search.

Having fun? interrogative intonation

Sounds like a web search; doesn't sound like a statement or

planting spinach
a question.

Do not capitalize or punctuate phrases that are intended to be used by the speaker as
a web search, not as full sentences.

how to bake potatoes

NOT: How to bake potatoes

pictures of India
NOT: Pictures of India.

highest grossing movies from Indian directors set in beautiful Switzerland

NOT: Highest grossing movies from Indian directors set in beautiful Switzerland.

Amitabh Bachchan lmography

NOT: Amitabh Bachchan lmography.

Capitalize sentence fragments that sound like the beginning of a sentence. Add end
punctuation to sentence fragments that sound like the end of a sentence. For
fragments that do not clearly sound like the beginning or end of a sentence, leave out
capitalization and punctuation. Note that sentence fragments may be a result of cut-
off audio samples.

What do you think? It's not

Begins as complete sentence and ends mid-stream.
as if

a lot harder. It doesn't make

Fragment is the end of a sentence.
any sense.
more emotional, so Begins mid-stream but ends completely; part of
remember that's just part of complete sentence.

really di cult, so don't get

Audio was cut o at the beginning.

I'm going to the co ee shop.

Do not put a full stop, hyphen, or ellipsis, even if
I'll order a How much is a
another sentence follows.
cold co ee?

How much is the Where in

Both sound like beginnings of sentences.

Where is the Where is the

Repeated beginning of the sentence.

were leaving but then Sounds like the middle of a sentence; beginning and
decided to end were cut o .

Unclear whether "bought them" is the end of a

I borrowed the shoes.
sentence or a stand-alone fragment, so default to
bought them
formatting it as a fragment.

I borrowed the shoes. Loved "Loved them." is clearly a complete sentence with an
them. omitted subject.

A voice action is a query where the user requests a speci c action that a smartphone
can complete. The action requested is generally expressed by a trigger (most often a
verb describing the action to be performed, but it can also be any other part of
speech denoting a change of state of the device or of an app). If a voice action sounds
complete, it should be capitalized and punctuated as a full sentence. In contrast to a
voice action, a web search is a query where the user does not request a speci c
action that a smartphone can complete. Web searches are more often, but not
always, spoken as true fragments.

Send email to The voice action is a complete sentence. It should thus be
saying: Hey, how was capitlized and punctuated as such.
your day?

Translate into French: This sentence requests an action for the device to complete,
How are you? therefore it is a voice action.

This sentence requests a change of state of the device,

Activate ight mode.
therefore it is a voice action.

Show me a map of
The verb functions as a trigger for the action.

Call Jack o ce.

Set a reminder
tomorrow 3:00 p.m.:
Pick up shopping.

The particle functions as a trigger and indicates that this is a

Flashlight on, please. voice action, as opposed to a web search. The discourse
word "please" also indicates that this is a voice action.

directions to No trigger here, this is a web search.


map of New Delhi web search

showtimes for The

Return of the King, web search

restaurants in Kochi web search

Raise volume by one.

Set volume to ve.

If an utterance is not clearly a sentence according to the above rules and examples,
do not capitalize or punctuate it as a sentence.


Only use commas where required. Err on the side of minimal punctuation. Do not
rely on intonation.

Where is the
nearest gas
Even if the speaker uses long pauses in these places, do not use a
comma. There are places where commas are allowed or required,
NOT: Where is,
but this example contains neither.
the nearest,
gas station?

For complete sentences that follow a single word or phrase that focuses the meaning
of a sentence, put a comma after the single word or phrase.

Corbett National Park, is it closed? topic-comment

Tomato, fruit or vegetable? topic-comment

Now dosa, I like. topicalization

Put a comma after common sentence openers such as prepositional phrases,

adverbials, and introductory clauses.

Now that you mention it, we should buy some supplies. introductory clause

While we're at it, where were they when we needed them? introductory clause

Interestingly, both parties took place on the same day. adverbial

On Wednesday, it was sunny. prepositional phrase

In the India, we have sweet shops around every corner. prepositional phrase

On the other hand, parrots make pretty awesome pets. prepositional phrase

Use a comma when a sentence starts with a discourse word, interjection, or yes/no
word. However: If there is a long pause between a discourse word, interjection, or
yes/no word and a full sentence that follows it, treat that initial word as a separate
Well, I thought you Discourse word. Other examples of discourse words in English
had company. include "but", "well", "so", "actually", and "also".

Interjection. Other examples of interjections include "wow", "hi",

Sorry, darling.
"hey", "haha", and others.

Wow, that's great. Interjection

Okay, I'll follow your Yes/no word. Other examples of these types items include "yes",
lead. "no", "sure", and others.

Yes, I do. Yes/no word.

Sure, I can do that. No pause after "sure".

Sure. I can do that. Substantial pause after "sure".

Well, that's really Use a comma when there is no pause, or when there is a pause
nice. that isn't long.

Well. That's really

Use a full stop when there is a substantial pause after "well".

Use commas before tag questions and sentence- nal "too", "also", "please", "however",
"sorry", etc.

That was interesting,

wasn't it?

I might wash my
shirt again, too.

I love you too, dude. no comma before "too" when not sentence- nal.

Pass me the salt,


Even though the utterance is short, the "too" in nal position

Me, too.
requires a comma before it.

See you tonight, "Then" falls into this category when it means "in that case", but
then. not when it means "at that time".

Use a comma in conditionals of the form "If X, Y" but not of the form "Y if X". (This rule
also applies to similar phrases containing "because", "after", "when", etc.)

If that's what you want, I can do that.

I can do that if that's what you want.

When Samir comes back, we can go.

After Anita went home, she ate dinner.

Because Sunil played cricket yesterday, he

couldn't go to the the college meet.

I am busy because I have work.

"So" is treated this way when it's

I am working so I can go home later.
synonymous with "so that".
Use a comma when two independent clauses are connected by the discourse
connectives "and", "but", "so", "or".

He put on some music, and

Two independent clauses, so use a comma.
I washed the dishes.

He put on some music and

Not independent clauses, so don't use a comma.
washed the dishes.

I got myself into this, so

now I feel committed.

She took the job so she If the word "so" can be replaced with "so that" and still
could get discount movie have the same meaning, then you should not use a
tickets. comma.

"and yours" is a sentence with most of the content

Pretty good, and yours?
elided, so you should use a comma.

Use commas in lists.

The smart, funny, cute baby took her rst steps.

In a series of three or more items, use a comma after each item, even if it comes
before the word "and" or "or" (known as the Oxford comma or serial comma).

I like golf, baseball, and basketball.

NOT: I like golf, baseball and basketball.
NOT: I like golf baseball and basketball.

Use commas for non-restrictive modi ers, but do not use commas for restrictive
modi ers. The basic test for this is whether the modi er can be dropped from the
sentence and still keep basically the same meaning.

The Indian prime

Non-restrictive modi er. "Narendra Modi" does not change
minister, Narendra
the core meaning of "the Indien prime minister", it just adds
Modi, was at the
additional information about the Indian prime minister.

The people who made Restrictive modi er. The relative clause "who made
reservations will get reservations" restricts which people we are talking about, it
service before doesn't just add additional information about an already
everyone else. delineated group of people.

President Obama, Non-restrictive modi er. As a rule of thumb, if you ask

who was elected in yourself: "which president of the United States" or "which
2008, was inaugurated classmate" and the answer is not absolutely clear, don't use
in 2009. commas.

The president who

was elected in 2008 Unless there are signi cant pauses after "president" and
was inaugurated in "2008", you should assume this is a restrictive modi er.

Use commas in sign-offs, such as those at the end of a message. Do not use end

From, Neha
Sincerely, Rahul

Do not use commas in sentences that consist only of a greeting and an addressee. If a
greeting occurs at the beginning of a sentence or fragment, place a comma after the
greeting. If the greeting includes an addressee, place the comma after the addressee.


Hi Suresh.

Hi, it's Karan.

Hi Suresh, it's

Hi Suresh. It's Long pause between "Hi Suresh." and "It's Karan." Treat as
Karan. separate sentences.

Except in greetings, sentence-initial and sentence- nal addressees should be

separated by a comma.

Mohit, call me back.

How are you, Jatin?

Anjali, Suman. I need to Note that this is a di cult edge case: "Anjali, Suman."
talk to you about that appears to be a shortened version of "Anjali, it's Suman.",
insurance claim. so we treat it as a full sentence.

Mohit, hi, this is Ramesh.

The phrase "Ok Google" in isolation is transcribed without a comma or end

punctuation. When the phrase appears before longer utterances, place a comma
after "Google".

Ok Google

Ok Google, pictures of apple trees

Ok Google, show me Rajat's contact info.

Ok Google, when is Diwali this year?

Intonation marks

Capitalize and punctuate the following as questions: 1) All queries syntactically built
as questions, regardless of intonation. 2) All queries which sound like they are being
used as questions, regardless of sentence structure.

Are you serious? Intonation sounds more like a statement than a question.

At 3:00 am? Utterance uses rising intonation.

And Kavita is
Utterance uses rising intonation.
coming, too?

weather in Query uses rising intonation, but is most likely a web search
Mumbai rather than a true question.
If a speaker uses clearly exclamatory intonation, use an exclamation point. If there is
any doubt, err on the side of using a full stop.

Shut up!

Yay! Speaker sounds enthusiastic.

Yay. Speaker sounds unenthused.

You are such a loser. Spoken dispassionately.

Happy birthday! Spoken with enthusiasm.

Have a nice day. pleasant neutral tone

I won the match! Spoken with enthusiasm.

Colon and quotation

Use a comma between reported speech verbs and direct quotations. Do not put
punctuation within quotation marks unless the punctuation belongs to the reported

My friend said,
"cobra snake".
NOT: My friend
said, "cobra
snake." The word "say" is the most common reported speech verb in
NOT: My friend English, but other words ("ask", "respond", "reply") can be used for
said "cobra reported speech.
NOT: My friend
said "cobra

If the text in quotation marks quali es as a sentence, punctuate as if it were its own
utterance. Do not alter its end punctuation even if the quote is within a sentence. Do
not add excess punctuation after end quotation marks.

Anita said, "Let's meet at

The word "say" is the most common reported speech
verb in English, but other words ("ask", "respond",
NOT: Anita said, "Let's meet
"reply") can be used for reported speech.
at 3:00.".

Manisha asked, "Are we

meeting at 3:00?"
NOT: Manisha asked, "Are we
meeting at 3:00?".

Did Anita say, "Meet me

NOT: Did Anita say, "Meet me

Varun was like, "I'll be there.

The "be like" construction introduces a direct
I promise." without even
quotation, so a comma is needed.
checking his calendar.

Say "psychiatrist". Omit the comma if the verb is in the imperative.

Do not use quotation marks for indirect quotes. Use context and intonation to
determine whether a quote is direct or indirect.

The children told me that they're hungry.

John said he can't be there Saturday. Intonation implies indirect quote.

June said, "We should just get going." Intonation implies direct quote.

Use a colon but no quotation marks in quotative voice actions when the quote
follows the command. Use quotation marks when the quote is in the middle of the

The quote follows the command, so use a

Translate into Tamil: How are you?

The quote is in the middle of a sentence,

Translate "What's your name?" into Tamil.
so use quotation marks.

Omit commas after "say" verbs in

How do you say "I love you." in Tamil?
translation requests.

How do you say in Punjabi: I want co ee.

To Hi, how was

your day?

Send email to

saying: Hi, how was your day?

Leave text after colons lowercase unless capitalization is required (can stand alone as
complete sentence).

Set appointment for tomorrow at 3:30 pm: doctor's appointment.

Text Arjun: The decorators won't be there until Wednesday.

Text Sumeet that I'll be there in ve minutes.

When speakers make a request for single words to be translated into another
language, don't punctuate or capitalize the words, even if you'd consider the words as
sentences in other situations.

Translate "hello" into Tamil.


Translate into Tamil: leave.


Do not use quotation marks for metalinguistic uses of words or phrases. These uses
include de ning the word, talking about the spelling of the word, or any other type of
reference to the word itself as a thing.

De ne democracy.
NOT: De ne "democracy".
He just said the word carrot.
NOT: He just said the word "carrot".

Race car is spelled the same backwards and forwards.

NOT: "Race car" is spelled the same backwards and forwards.

Other symbols

Apart from the English letters a through z, you should not use any other symbol than:

Transcribe apostrophes as they are normally used.

This is Ajay's house.

We haven't visited all of our neighbors' houses yet.

She can't stand pickled herring.

the greatest hits of the '80s, '90s, and today

Transcribe all possessives with "'s" at the end unless the noun already has an "s" added
to the end that marks the plural, in which case only an apostrophe should be added.

the children's play


When is Selena
Clearly possessive, but pronounced simply as "Gomez".
Gomez's birthday?

Suhaas's project

Your neighbors'
houses are all so

the Dodgers' victory in Only an apostrophe is added because the noun is plural in
the nal inning this example, e.g. "The Dodgers ARE a sports team."

Cisco Systems's nal Unlike the example above, here "Cisco Systems" is singular,
earnings report so it gets "'s", e.g. "Cisco Systems IS a company."

When two opposing teams are mentioned, include a hyphen between their names.

Are you going to the India-Pakistan game?

Include a hyphen between locations in ight itineraries.

Mumbai-Delhi ight
NOT: Mumbai Delhi ight

Use hyphen in phrases and compounds typically written with hyphen. If in doubt, use
hyphen. Check Merriam-Webster for hyphenation.

Show me play-by-play coverage of the match.

Can you get me a to-go box?

The information is available on a need-to-know basis.

I've been playing catch-up all day.

NOT: catch up

the long-haired man

He's an accident-prone little guy, isn't he?

NOT: Buh-bye.
NOT: Bye bye.
NOT: Buh bye

Spoken punctuation

For sentence-level spoken punctuation, write out the full word or words between
curly brackets. Do not add punctuation symbols after spoken punctuation. Be careful
with homonyms. (See exceptions in the next rule.)

Ok {dot} {dot} {dot}

"ok dot dot dot"
NOT: Ok...

Hi {comma} how are you {question mark} I

"hi comma how are you question mark i
am ne {period}
am ne period"
NOT: Hi, how are you? I am ne.

He told me, {quote} Don't bring the cat.

"he told me quote don't bring the cat end
{end quote}
NOT: He told me, "Don't bring the cat."

{smiley face}
NOT: :-) "smiley face"
NOT: smiley face

Don't spell out internal punctuation like hyphens in web pages, email addresses,
addresses, phone numbers, or other word-level punctuation.

I live in apartment 4-A.

NOT: I live in apartment 4 {dash} A. "i live in apartment four dash a"
NOT: I live in apartment four {dash} A.
NOT: www {dot} fake {hyphen} domain "w w w dot fake hyphen domain dot com"
{dot} com

"she is an actress slash model"

She is an actress/model.
We consider slash to be word-level
NOT: She is an actress {slash} model.

If a word that can refer to a punctuation mark is spoken in isolation, it should be

written out between curly brackets.

{full stop}

Treat spoken punctuation as you would regular symbols, and capitalize the following
sentence as normal.

I'm leaving now {full stop} How long is the "i'm leaving now full stop how long is the
drive? drive"
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Transcribe numbers, abbreviations etc. following the formatting conventions in this section.


Cardinals and ordinals from 0 to 9 are written with letters (except for measures and
currency - see Currency and Unit). Use digits for cardinals and ordinals 10 and above,
even if they are coordinated with numbers under 10. Transcribe all decimal numbers
as digits.

There are nine students in

numbers less than 10
the class.

There are 13 students in

numbers greater than 9
the class

I have six dogs and 12 Follow this rule even if the noun phrases with numbers
parakeets. are coordinated.

101 cats "one hundred and one cats"

second grade

20th anniversary

3.14 "three point one four"

When two or more numbers refer to the same noun, and one number is 10 or
greater, transcribe both as numerals.

They got 9 or 10 gold sh from the pet store.

We're going to need four wheelbarrows and 14 shovels.

They speak three or four languages each.

There were 7 to 14 orange trees in the orchard.

If a large number consists of only a number followed by "million", "lakh", "crore", or

higher, then transcribe as a numeral plus word. Otherwise, transcribe as numerals.

7 crore "seven crore"

a million geese "a million geese"

1 lakh geese "one lakh geese"

"one thousand geese"

1,000 geese
"a thousand geese"

7.18 crore "seven point one eight crore"

"seven million two hundred thirty-four thousand four hundred

and thirty- ve"

"seven billion two"

7 billion two
Speaker gets cut o .
Rs 1.5 crore "one point ve crore rupees"

Rs 1.5 lakh
NOT: one and a half lakh
"one point ve lakh rupees"
"one and a half lakh rupees"
NOT: 1 and 1/2 lakh
For mixed numbers before "lakh", "crore", etc., use
NOT: 1 and a half lakh

"twelve point two ve crore rupees"

Rs 12.25 crore
"twelve and a quarter crore rupees"

Write lists of numbers with digits and without commas.

0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 zero one one two three ve eight thirteen

5 4 3 2 1 blast o list of numbers, no comma if just counting

For long numbers (4+ digits) indicating quantity, insert the relevant separator (comma,
full stop, or space, depending on language).

10,000 "ten thousand"

Where a number is said in isolation and is ambiguous (e.g. between a time, currency,
or year) transcribe without formatting.

NOT: Rs 6.30
"six thirty"
NOT: 6:30
NOT: 6.30

I'll meet you at 6:30. "i'll meet you at six thirty"

699 "six ninety nine"

This costs Rs 6.99. "this costs six ninety nine"

1350 "thirteen fty"

Wake me up at 13:50. "wake me up at thirteen fty"

1999 "nineteen ninety nine"

You will need to pay Rs 19.99 per "you will need to pay nineteen ninety nine per
month. month"

In math expressions or units & measures, transcribe fraction words using numerals
and slashes.

They need 1/4 kg of sugar. "they need a quarter kilogram of sugar"

NOT: They need a quarter Here, the "a" before "quarter" is part of the fraction, so
kilogram of sugar. don't include it in the transcription. Also, be careful not
NOT: They need a 1/4 kg of to include spaces or pre-combined fraction characters.
NOT: They need 1 / 4 kg of
NOT: They need ¼ kg of
sugar. (bad because it
includes the pre-combined
fraction ¼)
NOT: They need 0.25 kg of

In 3/4 of a mi, turn right.

NOT: In three quarters of a
mile, turn right. "in three quarters of a mile turn right"
NOT: In 3/4 of a mile, turn If spoken, include "of a" or "a" after the fraction.
NOT: In 3/4 mi, turn right.

In 2/3 km, turn left.

NOT: In two thirds
kilometres, turn left. "in two thirds kilometres turn left"
NOT: In 2/3 kilometres, turn If the speaker does not use "of a" or "a" after the
left. fraction, leave it out of the transcription.
NOT: In two thirds km, turn

2/3 * 5/16
NOT: two thirds * ve
"two thirds times ve sixteenths"
NOT: two thirds times ve
NOT: 2/3 times 5/16

"we need a ve sixteenth inch screw"

We need a 5/16-in screw. This is a prenominal use, so you include the "a" and a
hyphen after the fraction.

For mixed numbers in math and units & measures, use numerals with "and".

3 and 1/2 km three and a half kilometres

The dog weighed 12 and 1/3 lb The dog weighed twelve and a third pounds
yesterday. yesterday.

5 and 1/2-month-old
NOT: 5 1/2-month-old
NOT: 5 and a 1/2-month-old " ve and a half month old"
NOT: 5.5-month-old
NOT: 5 1/2 month old

1/3 + 3 and 1/2

NOT: 1/3 + 3 1/2
NOT: 1/3 + 3 and a 1/2 "one third plus three and a half"
NOT: 1/3 + 3 and a half
NOT: 1 / 3 + 3 and 1 / 2

When referring to items (not units or measures), write fractions out in words. With
mixed numbers, write the whole number part out in words if it is under ten,
otherwise write it with numerals.

Give me half of the cake.

NOT: Give me 1/2 of the cake. "give me half of the cake"
NOT: Give me 0.5 of the cake.

ve sixteenths of an apple " ve sixteenths of an apple"

NOT: 5/16 of an apple
NOT: 0.3125 of an apple

I'm half sure.

NOT: I'm 1/2 sure.
NOT: I'm 0.5 sure.

He half waved from across the Here "half" is used more guratively, and it is
room. written out as a word.

three and a half oranges

NOT: 3.5 oranges
three and a half oranges
NOT: 3 and 1/2 oranges
NOT: 3 and a half oranges

12 and a half chocolate cakes were

NOT: 12.5 chocolate cakes were
"twelve and a half chocolate cakes were made"
NOT: twelve and a half chocolate
cakes were made.

For mixed numbers that represent currency amounts, always use decimals.

"could you loan me two and a half

Could you loan me $2.50?

"she bought the beach house for seven

She bought the beach house for $7.5 crore.
and a half crore dollars"

More than 10 lakh people were a ected by

the drought. "more than ten lakh people were a ected
NOT: More than 10,00,000 people were by the drought"
a ected by the drought.

Every winter 15 crore birds migrate from

this part of the world. "every winter fteen crore birds migrate
NOT: Every winter 150,000,000 birds migrate from this part of the world"
from this part of the world.

Transcribe percentages using numerals and the % sign. (In the unlikely case that you
encounter a number of a million or greater used as a percentage, spell it out.)

2% milk

1 million percent

50% of the cookies disappeared.

When numbers appear in prenominals (units preceding nouns), use hyphen.

Transcribe as digits if paired with units; otherwise, write them out in words if they are
under 10.

8-ft wave eight foot wave

four door Toyota

"it was a ten thousand rupee purse"

It was a Rs
Because the rupee symbol precedes and is attached to the quantity,
10,000 purse.
there is no opportunity to add a hyphen here.
If a number appears in a context which calls for a certain formatting in your language,
use that formatting. Otherwise, default to the general rule for transcribing numbers.

Use Roman numerals only when part of an of cial name or title.

Super Bowl XLVII "super bowl forty seven"

Rajendra Chola II "rajendra chola the second"

Transcribe seasons and episodes of television shows with numerals.

season 3 episode 2 "season three episode two"

If it is a product type or statistic, use the common written form.

"four by four"
as in a truck type

.22 caliber "twenty two caliber"

3.17 ERA "three seventeen e r a"

Transcribe phone numbers using the most common format in the transcription

Transcribe alpha-digit sequences (product codes etc.) in their most natural way
(possibly several ways accepted). Do not transcribe credit card numbers, etc.

XT 660 or XT660

If it really sounds like a math expression, then transcribe it with numbers and
symbols, with spaces in between.

" ve divided by six to the third or ve divided by

six cubed"

What is 5 * 6?
NOT: What is ve times six?
NOT: What is ve into six? "what is ve times six or what is ve into six"
NOT: What is 5 times 6?
NOT: What is 5 x 6?

√3 "square root of three"

How much is 8 hours * $12? "how much is eight hours times twelve dollars"

How much is three apples divided by Does not sound like a true math expression
two oranges? with useful units.

Currency and unit

Transcribe currencies as commonly written in the transcription language.

Use symbols for currency amounts in rupee, dollar, and pounds (sterling). Use the
symbol "$" if they say dollar(s), "€" if they say "euro(s)", and "£" if they say "pound(s)" or
"pound(s) sterling".

Rs 10.50 "ten rupees and fty paisa"

$12.50 "twelve dollars and fty cents"

It only cost £5. "it only cost ve pounds"

How much is Rs 20 in US dollars? "how much is twenty rupees in us dollars"

If it is obvious from context that a number re ects an amount of currency, transcribe

with the rupee sign.

Gas has gotten up to Rs 89 a litre in "gas has gotten up to eighty nine a litre in
some places. some places"

The lunch special is only Rs 99. "the lunch special is only ninety nine"

When a speaker uses words like "dollar" without specifying a quantity, spell them out.

I owe you Rs 100. Here's the hundred "i owe you a hundred rupees here's the
rupee note. hundred rupee note"

just a couple rupees

currency conversion between Indian

rupee and US dollar

For ranges or non-speci c currency quantities, write everything out as spoken.

I need four or ve hundred rupees.

one to ve hundred rupees

100 to 500 dollars "one hundred to ve hundred dollars"

9 to 12 euros "nine to twelve euros"

a rupee or two

For degrees, use the ° symbol.

It's 20° "it's twenty degrees"

It's 20° C. "it's twenty degrees celsius"

It's 20° C. "it's twenty degrees centigrade"

It's 72° F today "it's seventy-two degrees fahrenheit today"

It's 20 C. "it's twenty celsius"

Abbreviate all units that follow numeric values.

My family bought 10 l of orange juice. "my family bought ten litres of orange juice"

Transcribe all numeric values preceding units in numeral form, even if under 10.

The charity received Rs 1 lakh in donations. "the charity received one lakh rupees in
NOT: The charity received Rs 1,00,000 in donations"
NOT: The charity received ₹1 lakh in
NOT: The charity received 1,00,000 rupees in

The puppy weighed 4 lb.

I lived there for 6 months.

For lengths, widths, and heights: use "x" instead of any preposition.

Luggage size is 20x20x40. "luggage size is twenty by twenty by forty"

a 9x12-in cake pan "a nine by twelve inch cake pan"

I need a 2x4. "i need a two by four"

Search for 1024x768 computer "search for ten twenty four by seven sixty eight
wallpapers. computer wallpapers"

If it is clear from context that a number or number sequence refers to currency or

time, format it as such.

Petrol is Rs 71.44 a litre. "petrol is seventy one forty four a litre"

Milk is $2.99. "milk is two ninety nine"

Set alarm for 5:45. "set alarm for ve four ve"

Similarly, transcribe foot/inch heights (with non-directional quotes/apostrophes)

even if not spoken.

I'm 6'1", weigh 180, and I like to take "i'm six one weigh one eighty and i like to take
long walks on the beach. long walks on the beach"

Common technical abbreviations

megabyte - MB kilobyte - kB gigabyte - GB terabyte - TB

Slang terms (spell them out)

kilo gigs bucks grand (thousands of

[units in currency])

Common measurements of distance and rate

inch - in foot - ft yard - yd mile - mi

millimetre - mm centimetre - cm metre - m kilometre - km
miles per hour - miles an hour - mph kilometres per hour
mph - km/h

Common measurements of area

square inch - in² square foot - ft² square mile - mi² square centimetre -
square metre - m² meter squared - m² square kilometre - acre - acre

Common scienti c terms

decibel - dB Newton - N Joule - J parsec - parsec

ampere - amp Hertz - Hz Watt - W Kilowatt - kW
mole - mol Candela - cd lumen - lm degree(s) - °
Fahrenheit - F Celsius - C Centigrade - C Kelvin - K

Common measurements of weight and volume

pound - lb ounce - oz quart - q liter - l

teaspoon - tsp tablespoon - Tbsp gram - g milligram - mg
kilogram - kg cubic unit - ³ cubic metre - m³ cubic inch - in³

Date and time

Use the natural form for transcribing dates.

July 12th 1964 "july twelfth nineteen sixty four"

in the fall of '78 "in the fall of seventy eight"

memories of the '90s "memories of the nineties"

Wednesday, March 6th "wednesday march sixth"

Exception: When the date is spoken as a sequence of numbers, transcribe as such.

7/12/2010 "seven slash twelve slash twenty ten"

The expiration date is "the expiration date is zero ve ten two thousand
05/10/2012. twelve"

Use the natural form for transcribing times whenever possible.

Write times in hh:mm format whenever possible, unless it would look unnatural to
do so.

three o'clock "three o'clock"

at 4:00 "at four"

3:15 "three fteen"

6:05 "six oh ve"

3:15 "quarter past three"

1:50 "ten to two"

18:00 "eighteen hundred hours"

a few minutes after 3:00 "a few minutes after three"

7:00 a.m. "seven a m"

8:30 p.m. "eight thirty p m"

"around eightish"
around 8ish
Looks unnatural with 8:00ish.

Use p.m. and a.m. if spoken.

12:00 p.m. "twelve o'clock p m"

7:00 a.m. "seven a m"

Set alarm for 6:28 a.m. "set alarm for six twenty eight a m"

For "noon" and "midnight", use the written form.

at noon "at noon"

We went to the midnight showing.

Transcribe the construction "N-TIME UNIT-old" with digits and hyphen.

He got sick from eating a 2-week-old steak.

At the senior pet adoption fair, they got a 9-year-

old dog.

"they have a three and a half year

They have a 3 and 1/2-year-old.

Some of these are written out because it would be unnatural to abbreviate them but
must still be agged as units because we want to have numeric values written in
numerals before them. For these, singular and plural forms are required.

second(s) minute(s) hour(s) week(s)

day(s) month(s) year(s)

Favor full spellings over abbreviations where natural, but use abbreviations when
explicitly spoken.

Spell out fully spoken state names unless they are part of a full mailing address. If the
speaker uses an abbreviated form, transcribe the abbreviated form without an
accompanying full stop. (The same holds for street suf xes like "Ave".)

He lives on M G Road.

C 23, Prem Nagar, Agra, Uttar Pradesh

They spent last summer in Assam.

Hyderabad, AP "hyderabad a p"

9 Boylston Street, Chestnut Hill, Mass "mass"

Use commas for ENTITY, LOCATION.

Indira Gandhi

co ee shops,

Rajiv Patel,

Dr. Deepak
Kumar, Jaipur


showtimes for
Yaariyan, New

If the order is Location-Entity, don't add a comma after the location.
NOT: Nagpur,

"hyderabad shoppers stop"
Shoppers Stop
Always stick to what the speaker said. If the speaker said Location-
NOT: Shoppers
Entity, stick to this order and don't add a comma between the
location and the entity.

Do not capitalize cardinal directions unless part of a speci c place name.

I'm driving up NH 19 East.

On Monday, he's going to be on

the Upper West Side.
I'll meet you on the south side of No need to capitalize "south" because it's not
the building. part of a proper place name.


Write URLs, email addresses, and Twitter hashtags as they are spoken and don't
capitalize them. "w w w dot google dot c o dot i n" "amazon dot com" "h t t p colon slash slash one two three dot com"

"sachin at example dot org"
"sachin at the rate example dot org"

I love pizza. #hungry "i love pizza hashtag hungry"

#hungry Where's my
"hashtag hungry where's my pizza"

I'm so #hungry I
could eat a whole "i'm so hashtag hungry i could eat a whole pizza"

"w w w dot com videos"

www .com videos When a speaker mentions a webdomain, format it as a such,
even if the speaker is not referring to a URL.

"game dot com"
If it is a plausible URL, format it as such.

"chomu palace jaipur dot com"

Chomu Palace,
If the speaker says "dot com" but it is not a plausible URL,
Jaipur .com
format it as a web search. Transcribe ".com" as if it was a word.

Do not correct speaker errors such as transcribing a slash when the user actually says
"backslash". "h t t p colon slash slash indian express dot com"

http:\ "h t t p colon backslash backslash mail dot yahoo dot com" "w w w forbes india dot com"

If the speaker drops a "w" or dots and it's an obvious URL, you should correct these
errors. If the speaker doesn't say the "w"s at all, do not add them.

"w w dot amazon dot com"
If the user mistakenly says "ww", transcribe "www".

"google dot co i n" Also transcribe the dot in an obvious URL, even if the speaker
did not include it. "w w w forbes india dot com" "w w facebook dot com"

If a URL is spelled out in individual letters, transcribe without spaces between
individual letters. "w w w dot e b a y dot c o m"


Do not abbreviate unless the speaker says an abbreviated form.

Chennai Super Kings versus Delhi

"chennai super kings versus delhi
NOT: Warriors vs. Delhi Daredevils

Chennai Super Kings verse Delhi

Daredevils "chennai super kings verse delhi daredevils"
NOT: Warriors vs. Delhi Daredevils

Chennai Super Kings v s Delhi Daredevils "chennai super kings v s delhi daredevils"

"kom v duta"
Kom v. Duta
boxing match

An exception to this rule is "et cetera", which should be written as "etc" followed by a
full stop.

cats, dogs, etc. "cats dogs et cetera"

Navigate me to Mail Boxes Etc. by car.

NOT: Navigate me to Mail Boxes Etc by car. "navigate me to mail boxes et cetera by
NOT: Navigate me to Mail Boxes Et Cetera by car"

Capitalize and abbreviate titles for people only when they precede proper names.

I know Dr. Subhash.

My doctor says to exercise more.

Mrs.Sharma isn't available.

Hey mister, she's my sister.

Ramesh Jr. was there.

She's a junior this year.

St. Paul died in the year 67 AD.

I saw President Pranab on TV today.

Barack Obama is the president of the United States.

I have to meet with Professor Ashish today.

I really like my professor.

For other proper names involving titles, use the of cial spelling of the proper name. If
in doubt, do not abbreviate the title.
Saint Paul, Minnesota The city's name is always spelled "Saint Paul" on o cial

The city's name is always spelled "St. Louis" on o cial

St. Louis, Missouri

Navigate to Saint Francis Both "Saint Francis" and "St. Francis" are attested, so
High School. default to "Saint Francis".

When is the season nale of

Doctor Who?

Both "Mt." and "Mount" are attested, so default to

Mount Everest

In acronyms, do not use full stops between letters.

RCOM, MP3 brands and products

UP, USA, Washington DC geographic

NASA, NASCAR, IIFA, ZIP code pronounced as words

"el oh el"
jk, wtf, lol, ro
interjection acronyms

lol "lol"

scuba, radar extremely lexicalized acronyms

If a brand name uses full stops, include the full stops.

J. P. Morgan O cial brand name as seen in the privacy policy includes full stops.
**This document is con dential, do not redistribute**

Agreed spelling
Spelling conventions for words where several options are thinkable, as well as proper names.

Spelling out

If a word is spelled or obvious pauses are made between letters, spell it into letters as
it is said (often done for foreign names or businesses, for example). Use lowercase
letters for the spelled-out portion. This rule does not apply to acronyms or
initialisms, or to spelled-out web or email addresses.

Big Bazar b i g b a z a a r Person said "Big Bazaar" and then spelled it.

How do you get to Big Bazaar? "how do you get to b i g b a z a a r"

words ending in i n g "words ending in i n g"

spelled out alphabet
wxyz "amazon dot c o dot i n"

CEO "c e o"

All VIPs will sit in front. spelled out "v i p" with plural "s"

Pronounced the word "FIFA", or spelled out "f i

f a".

Pronounced the word "ASAP", or spelled out "a

s a p".

NCAA Speaker says "n c double a", or "n c a a".

AAA Speaker says "triple a", or "a a a".

T-shirt "t-shirt"

email "email"

LDAP "el-dap"

A-Rod, iPhone, USA, IBM, xkcd, MP3

For uses of single letters, either referring to the letter itself or some other meaning
associated with it, use capital letters (with apostrophes for plurals).

words that start with J

Roll your R's.

She got straight A's and B's.

How many A's are in the word banana?

Transcribe words representing laughter or other non-speech vocalizations with up to
three syllables, but no more.

heh, ha, haha, hahaha, hehe, hehehe, boo hoo, boo hoo hoo, lalala

hahaha "ha ha ha ha ha"

Ignore actual laughter that is included within speech. If the entire audio contains only
laughter, use the [skip] tag in PeraPera or select the appropriate reason from the
'Cannot transcribe' menu in Crowd Compute.

I know! actual laughter followed by "I know" with clear exclamatory intonation

[skip] Entire audio contains only actual laughter, sighs, etc.

Proper names

Use of cial spelling, capitalization, and punctuation for proper names. Google them
and pay attention to the correct format. Of cial format and spelling of a proper name
may supercede the usual written transcription conventions detailed in this

Defer to of cial spellings of celebrity names.

The's Spelled this way in privacy policy.

Hrithik The celebrity spells her name di erently than the more common
Roshan "Ritik".

If proper names include diacritics uncommon in your language (ć, š, á, etc.), do not
include them in your spelling.

If a personal name could have multiple spellings and context does not help choose a
spelling, use the spelling that yields the most Google search hits when you search for
the name followed by the word "name" (without quotation marks) (e.g. "Anna name").

Call So a. Searching "So a name" (without quotation marks) yields more results
NOT: Call than "Sophia name", even though searching "So a" yields more results
Sophia. than "Sophia" because So a is the capital of Bulgaria.

MacDonald Searching "MacDonald name" yields more search results than

NOT: "McDonald name". Note that this example refers to the surname, not
McDonald the restaurant chain.

Search full names to see if they refer to a celebrity. If the full name does
not belong to a celebrity, use the most common spelling for each part of
the name (e.g. search "Sophia name" and "MacDonald name").

Spell and capitalize holidays as they are formatted within the answer box above the
list of Google Search results. If no box appears, defer to Wikipedia's formatting, and if
there is no Wikipedia article, use the most common format according to Google
Search results.

On Christmas Eve, she's going to be at her friend's party.

When is Eid al-Fitr this year?

Happy Holi!

Merry Christmas and Happy New Year.

Capitalize words used as titles and names when they are used that way.

I'm going with Mom,

Father, Grandpa, and
Aunt Rita.

I'm going with my mom,

Note that family words like "sister", "brother", and "cousin"
my father, my
are generally not used as names or titles. Neither are
grandparents, and my
common terms of endearment (dude, babe).
Aunt Rita.

I had lunch today with

See Format > Abbreviations for more on titles preceding
President Mukherjee and
personal names.
Professor Kalaam.

singer-songwriter Himesh
"singer-songwriter" is not a title.

Common spellings of names

Aditya Abhijeet Abhay Aman

Bittu Balraj Bimal Bhagwati
Deepa Deepak Divya Dinesh
Damandeep Ekta Esha Gita
Garima Gautam Ina Indira
Imran Jagjit Jeevan Jitendra
Khushboo Kamal Kavita Lalita
Laxman Lakshmi Leela Lavanya
Meenal Mehak Malika Meena
Naina Neha Nitin Neetu
Neeru Pinky Puja Prem
Pranit Payal Rita Raj
Rahul Sheela Simran Shraddha
Vineet Virendra Yuvraj

Brand and product

Format proper names as they are most commonly formatted on the entity's website
(especially of cial documents), if available, or the Wikipedia or IMDb page. In cases of
ambiguity, defer to their privacy policy. If no other sources, use top Google hits.

He works at Amazon.

I heard Yahoo and

Airtel just agreed.
I eat out a lot at
McDonald's and


The Oakland A's have

won their last three

Turn left at the





ampm O cially "ampm".


The team is sponsored

Camel case
by United Health Care.

Do not spell "Burger King" all in upper case as in the stylized

Burger King
form of the logo, stick to the o cial form as per the privacy

NOT: Lego

The phrase "Ok Google", as well as possible derivatives such as "Ok Google Now" and
"Ok Glass", require their own particular spelling of "okay". This spelling is unique to
these cases.

Ok Google

Ok Google Now

Ok Google, where is Baskin-Robbins?

Ok Google, pumpkins


Okay, Ram.

Okay Sunny, let's get going.

In addition to the exibility detailed in Agreed Spelling > Proper Names, slight
differences in word order are also acceptable. This applies only to order—if words not
found in the correct name are added to the attempted name, do not capitalize these
extra words.

Bharti Airtel o cial name

Airtel omitted non-essential part of title

Spellings of common Brand and Product names

1D 3DS 4 Pics 1 Word 4chan
Abba Adidas Aldo Amazon
Android Market Angry Birds Babies "R" Us Barclays
Bharti Airtel Black & Decker Black Ops 2 BlackBerry
Blink-182 Burger King Casio Chanel
Chrome Citroën Claire's Coca-Cola
CrossFit DirecTV Domino's Dragon Quest IX
Droid Razr e-cigarette Earthlink easyJet
eBay eHarmony EVA Siri for Android Evernote
Facebook FIFA Flickr Formula 1
Gmail Google Google Apps Google Calendar
Google Earth Google Images Google mail Google Search
Google Street View Google Toolbar GSMArena GSX-R/4
GTA V Häagen-Dazs Haribo Hawk-Eye
HobbyKing HomeShop18 Hotmail IKEA
iMac IMDb internet iOS
iPad iPhone iPlayer iThemes
ITV Player Je t Kellogg's Kit Kat
Land Rover LazyTown LEGO LEGOLAND
LinkedIn LOVEFILM Maroon 5 McDonald's
Megabus Mickey D's Minecraft Mini
Mk4 NAPA Auto Parts Nesquick Net ix
NeXT Nice 'n Easy Nike Odeon
Oral-B Picasa PizzaExpress Plants vs. Zombies
PlayStation 4 PlayStation 1 Politico PornHub
Porsche post o ce (unless PowerPoint PS4
referring to a
speci c place, i.e.
Ann Arbor Post
O ce)
Ray-Ban RealPlayer Reliance Samsung Galaxy
Samsung Galaxy S II Samsung Galaxy S III Samsung Galaxy S4 Samsung Galaxy S5
SimCity Siri Smart car Snow+Rock
SpongeBob Starbucks T-Mobile T.J. Maxx
Texas hold 'em TobyGames PewDiePie TomTom
Tour de France Toys "R" Us Travelodge Tumblr
Twitter Vodafone Visa WhatsApp
Wi-Fi WrestleMania XXX WWE '13 Xbox
Xbox 360 Xbox One Yahoo YouPorn
YouTube Zagat ZBox

Media title
Refer to the Google Play Store for of cial spellings of media titles. For lm/television,
IMDb is also available. If an utterance is ambiguous between a media title and a
sentence or web search, use your judgment for which is more likely; if truly unclear,
default to media title.

Capitalize media titles the way they are typically capitalized.

Do not use quotation marks for media titles.


screenshots of Call of Duty: Black Ops 2

Play Diamonds by Sonam.

Hindustan Times

Transcribe all media titles with original punctuation. In cases where original
punctuation falls at the end of a sentence, do not transcribe sentence-level
punctuation. That is, media title punctuation trumps sentence level punctuation
when in con ict. If a popular media title consists of an entire sentence but the of cial
spelling is without punctuation, then don't punctuate the title. If an utterance is
ambiguous between a media title and a sentence or web search, use your judgment
for which is more likely and treat it accordingly.

Check which year Kuch Kuch Hota Hai came out.

Who starred in Baadshah, Where's my Car?

The family favorite is What About Bob?

Very common alternate or shortened versions of titles should also be capitalized.

Transformers 2 for "Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen"

Star Wars Episode III for "Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith"

What Does the Fox Say? for "The Fox (What Does the Fox Say?)"

The Next Generation for "Star Trek: The Next Generation"

Play Teen Spirit by Nirvana. Correct title is "Smells Like Teen Spirit".

I want to listen to Taylor Swift Trouble. Correct title is "I Knew You Were Trouble".

Do not capitalize a media title that happens to occur within quoted lyrics. Format
lyrics that form a sentence as you would a normal sentence.

YouTube We are the champions my

friends, and we'll keep on ghting till the
NOT: YouTube We Are the Champions my They are quoting lyrics that just happen
friends, and we'll keep on ghting till the to contain the title; format as full
end. sentence.
NOT: YouTube We Are the Champions My
Friends And We'll Keep on Fighting till the

ground control to Major Tom

Treat foreign titles the same way as titles in the transcription language if you
understand them.

La Vie en Rose

Multiple spellings

When multiple spellings are attested, use the rst spelling used in the reference
dictionary for your language. If there is no entry, Google the word and use the form
with the most hits.

"gray" is preferred by Merriam-Webster.
NOT: grey

Guess the most likely spelling given the context. When context is insuf cient, rely on
Google hits.

The cupboard was bare.


Transcribe onomatopoeia when clearly spoken. Otherwise, use the [skip] tag in
PeraPera or select the appropriate reason from the 'Cannot transcribe' menu in
Crowd Compute.

meow Person says "meow".

[skip] Person mimics a cat.

Use of cial spelling and capitalization for technical terms. Google them and pay
attention to the correct format.

Pseudotsuga menziesii

E. coli


Transcribe slang and colloquialisms as spoken according to the appendix on this

page. Do not alter non-standard speech that the speaker probably wouldn't want

I ain't joking.

He love co ee.

Write commonly accepted contractions as usual. Transcribe contractions when you

hear them spoken.

I'm running late.

I am running late. Speaker clearly said two distinct words.

What's going on?

What is going on? Speaker clearly said two distinct words.



The rabbit's behind the fence.

I'mma go home now.

Contractions that are not commonly accepted should be transcribed as full words.

"the soup'll be too hot at that

The soup will be too hot at that temperature.

The trumpet would play better if you took "the trumpet'd play better if you took
care of it. care of it"

Use standard spelling for reductions that commonly occur in normal running speech,
like "want to", "going to" for "wanna", "gonna".

I want to go. "i wanna go"

He's going to go. "he's gonna go"

What you up to? "whatcha up to"

If you hear a word that does not sound like a standard word of your language because
there is a small sound change (i.e. accent, speech error, speech impairment, etc),
transcribe the intended word.

Gangnam Style "gangdam style"

"they" pronounced in a way that sounds like


Where is the nearest library? "liberry"

Sushmita Sen "susmita sen"

Thank you Person said "sank you" in French accent.

That freaking tab cost me so

"that freakin' tab cost me so much"

If you hear a word that does not sound like a standard word of your language, but it is
obviously based on real words, suf xes, or pre xes, transcribe as is.

interpretate even if they meant "interpret".

Buy us some
Unsure whether speaker intended to say "walnuts" or
walmonds for the
"almonds", but clearly articulated and easy to spell.

the furtherest one

If you hear a word that does not sound like a standard word of your language because
it appears to be nonsense, rst perform a Google search for the word. If there is a
clear candidate, transcribe that word.
Kaloli User says "Kaloli". This might sound like nonsense at rst, but the transcriber
guesses the spelling "kalolli" and is by corrected Google Search to "Kaloli", a
gasoline tanker and place in Hawaii. Transcribe Kaloli.

Souk User says "Souk Abdali". Transcriber searches "sukabdali", nds correct
Abdali results. Transcribe Souk Abdali.

If a word appears to be nonsense and a Google search returns no clear results but it is
easy to spell and articulated clearly, transcribe it anyway.


If a word appears to be nonsense, a Google search returns no clear results, and the
word is unintelligible or there is no single obvious spelling, mark as [skip] in PeraPera
or select the appropriate reason from the 'Cannot transcribe' menu in Crowd

"chicken chipapalenkis"
or similarly unintelligible word

How to transcribe common slang terms

50/50 (" fty fty") all right (NOT alright) alls ("alls I know is cuz (short for
that he won") "because")
good night (NOT mama nah (NOT naw) okay
papa sup till (short for "until") wassup
yep (NOT yup)
**This document is con dential, do not redistribute**

Di cult utterances
Everything relating to problematic utterances (background noise, false starts, etc.) or di erent
language varieties.

Skipping a prompt

The instructions in this section are for PeraPera. In Crowd Compute, instead of
tagging as [skip] the utterances that cannot be transcribed, click in the 'Cannot
transcribe' button and select the appropriate reason.

If the prompt cannot be understood, skip it (tag it as [skip]). It is preferable to skip

rather than mistranscribe.

Skip the utterance if it: contains at least some word(s) that cannot be understood; is in
a different language typically not understood; contains no speech; contains only
laughter; contains singing; contains only synthesized speech (e.g. the voices of Google
Now or Siri) and/or pre-recorded speech (e.g. TV or radio).

For utterances that contain both user-generated speech and pre-recorded or

synthesized speech, transcribe user-generated speech and ignore the pre-
recorded/synthesized speech.

What's the
User asks, "What's the weather in Oakland?" Machine responds,
weather in
"The weather in Oakland is 70 degrees Fahrenheit and sunny."

If a prompt contains nonsense words, search them on the internet. If no clear results
are found and the word is unintelligible (there is no single obvious spelling), [skip] it.

[skip] Speaker says, "Where is the nearest" and then says something unintelligible.

Click to copy

If the speaker sings, [skip]. Use the tag [music] if an entire utterance is music from an
instrument, radio, TV, etc.

[skip] if audio contains only laughter. Ignore laughter that is interspersed with speech
(transcribe only the speech).

Profanity should be fully transcribed. However, feel free to skip a sentence that you
feel uncomfortable transcribing.

If the context of an alpha-digit sequence suggests it may be a password, credit card

number, social security number, etc., then use [skip].

Hesitations and truncations

Do not transcribe false starts unless they are complete words.

unpopular "unpop- unpopular"

bigger than "bi- bigger than"

big bigger than "big- [pause] bigger than"

If a user repeats a sentence for the sake of the phone, format the repetition as a
sentence if it's restating (as a sentence) what the person has said.

Search for baby

foxes. Search for
baby foxes.

Show me the
weather in
Show me

If the repeated phrase is part of the sentence that just happens to

What tools can
form a sentence on its own (possibly under a di erent
you use to weed
interpretation), format it as a fragment. While "weed a garden" can
a garden? weed
be a command, it is ambiguous and is most likely a fragment in this
a garden

Complete words that have been truncated only if a very small portion of the word is
missing (one syllable or less in a multisyllable word) and it is obvious what the word
should be. In cases of ambiguity, do not transcribe the cut-off word. Do not put
punctuation at the end of truncated words.

"i live in jaipu"

I live in Jaipur
Final sound "r" was truncated.

"chicken pot pi-"

chicken pot
Unclear whether they would have said "pie" or "pies".

Temple Run video game "temple run video game"

If a truncation occurs mid-quote, use an end quotation mark even if there is possibly
more intended content.

Smita said, "We should totally"

Transcribe repeated words as many times as uttered, but [skip] if a phrase is repeated
more than ve times.

I want to buy buy a raincoat. "i want to buy ummm buy a raincoat"

[skip] "hello hello hello hello hello hello"

For numbers, stick to what is uttered, even if you know this is not all the speaker is
going to say.

Xbox three six "xbox three six-"

Do not transcribe ller words unless intended by the speaker to be transcribed.

Never lengthen them.

Is that your smartphone? "is that your uh smartphone"

"[sigh or loud breath] if you say so"
If you say so.
Sounds like a full sentence.

He was like, "uh" "he was like uhhhh"

He was like totally interested.

Background and foreground speech

Only transcribe foreground speech. A user's speech may go from the foreground to
the background or vice versa (determined by change in volume) and can be
accompanied by change in speaker audience.

Speaker says loudly, "himalayas" and then quietly,

"You just say the word, and it searches himalayas."

Find Co ee Society in Bangalore. The speaker changes audience but not volume, so
That's where we're going, right? transcribe both sentences.

If one person clearly speaks in the foreground and someone speaks in the
background, transcribe the main speaker and ignore the rest.

directions to Foreground speaker said, "directions to Mumbai"; background

Mumbai speaker said, "No, it's in Delhi."

If two people take turns, without overlap, and are both in the foreground at roughly
the same volume, transcribe the speech of both speakers. Separate the dialogue of
different speakers with end punctuation.

Are you coming? First speaker asked "Are you coming?", other person answered
Yes. "Yes."

ice cream. But I "ice cream" is a fragment, but use a full stop to separate the
wanted pizza. speech of di erent speakers.

If two or more people are speaking at once with no one clearly in the foreground, tag
as [overlapping]. Do this for overlaps longer than one second. Use this tag even when
one person is a bit louder than the other(s) and you can tell what they're saying.

Foreign language

If an utterance is in a foreign language, tag with [skip], unless it is an easily identi able
media title or a foreign language phrase commonly understood in the transcription
language. Stick to the capitalization and punctuation conventions of your target

This is a very common phrase that most Indian English speakers know,
kya haal
spelled as in Hindi but only using the English single question mark.

The Hobbit Follow US English conventions for capitalization of media titles.

Let's have
dim sum.
If words in a foreign language are included in a sentence of your target language,
transcribe only if commonly understood by speakers of your language. Otherwise,
[skip]. Foreign words that are commonly used (and therefore should be transcribed)
can include names of foreign foods or places, pop culture phrases like "capisce", and
greetings or thank yous in prominent world languages.

What does mehndi


In Indian English, common Hindi words and phrases like

Hey Yaar, when are we
"Yaar" should be transcribed if they are included in English

The bride was wearing In Indian English, common Hindi words like "Lehenga" and
red lehenga and green "chunri" should be transcribed if they are included in
chunri? English sentences.

Do you have any jugaad

in railway department?


Correct non-standard pronunciations to their standard ones. Non-standard

pronunciations could be from speakers of regional dialects, language learners, or
speakers from different countries.

Where is that?
Person said "that" with a "d" sound, but it should still be spelled as
NOT: Where is

Thank you. Person said "thank you" in French accent, using an "s" instead of a
NOT: Sank you. "th" sound.