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ISSN : 2230-7109 (Online) | ISSN : 2230-9543 (Print) IJECT Vol.

4, Issue Spl - 3, April - June 2013

A Study of Various Fractal Antenna Design Techniques for

Wireless Applications
Amanpreet Kaur, 2Naveen Kumar, 3Dr. Basudeo Prasad
Dept. of ECE, Indo Global College of Engineering, Abhipur, Mohali, Punjab, India

Abstract II. Review

Recently there has been a great deal of interest in the design of A large number of Fractal Antenna design approaches have been
antennas for wireless communication because of Continuously proposed for wireless applications. The overgrowing body of
expanding range of wireless telecommunication services and the literature suggests the design of multiband antennas. The
related applications for voice and data transmission. Wideband logical and obvious reason for prevalence of this trend is due
and low profile antennas are in great demand for both commercial to integration of various technologies in hand held and portable
and military applications. Multi-band and wideband antennas wireless communication devices. The purpose of the survey is
are desirable in personal communication systems, small satellite donated to a remarkable growth of antenna design techniques in
communication terminals, and other wireless applications. The wireless communications
purpose of this paper is to review a number of innovative design
concepts of Fractal antenna for wireless applications. A. Multiband Hybrid Meander-Koch Fractal Antenna
A novel compact size antenna has been designed for the
Keywords application of WLAN USB dongle. The antenna is capable of
Antenna Design techniques, Wireless Applications, Fractal covering the entire band of WLAN IEEE 802.11 a/b/g standard.
Antenna The antenna has a bandwidth of 262 MHz at the lower band of
WLAN. This antenna has a wide bandwidth of 733 MHz at the
I. Introduction upper frequency band of operation. This antenna has also shown
I n The last decades, there has been a huge evolution of the mobile some good performance characteristics [5], such as; symmetric
communication systems (GSM, DCS, UMTS, BLUETOOTH, radiation patterns and considerable gain. Despite the small size,
WLAN, ). In most of these systems, terminals and base stations the multiband antenna depicts an overall fair performance and it
have to deal simultaneously with more than one frequency band, could be a promising candidate for deployment into USB dongle
for that reason, multiband behavior with a single radiating element for WLAN applications.
is desirable. The use of fractal geometries in antennas has shown The parametric study of the antenna reveals the multiband
to be a good strategy in order to obtain log periodical multiband behaviour. The return loss bandwidth calculated at -10 dB extends
behavior. This is mainly due to the self-similarity property of from 2.2909 GHz to 2.553 GHz. This is the lower band of operation.
fractals [1], which means that some of their parts have the same The return loss bandwidth [5], at the upper band of operation
shape as the whole object but at a different scale. There has ranges from 5.1406 to 5.8737 GHz at -10 dB. The antenna has
been an ever-growing demand, in telecommunication sectors, a directivity gain of 2.281 dBi at 2.41 GHz, and a directivity
for antenna designs that possess multiband properties such as gain of 2.30 dBi at 5.36 GHz. Therefore Multiband hybrid-Koch
verities of application [2], in aeronautical, maritime field. Many Fractal Antenna easily meets the bandwidth requirements of the
of the communication devices have a multifunction capacity such WLAN IEEE 802.11a/b/g (2.41 to 2.49 GHz, 5.15 to 5.35 GHz
as radio navigations, satellite information data capture. There and 5.725 to 5.825 GHz).
are a variety of approaches that have been developed to achieve The geometry of antenna is described in fig. 1.
desirable features of antenna and fractal is one of that.
Fractals were first defined by Benoit Mandelbort in 1975. These
geometries have been used to characterize unique occurrences in
pattern of nature [3], that were difficult to define with Euclidean
geometries like length of coastlines, the clouds density, and the
tree’s branches. It describes the class of complex geometries that
are created through successive iteration of applying a geometric
generator to a simple self similar basis. Traditionally, a wideband
antenna in the low frequency wireless bands can only be achieved
with heavily loaded wire antennas, which usually means different
antennas are needed for different frequency bands. Recent progress
in the study of fractal antennas suggests some attractive solutions
for using a single small antenna operating in Several frequency
The fractal concept can be used to reduce antenna size, such as the
Koch dipole, Koch monopole, Koch loop, and Minkowski loop.
Or, it can be used to achieve multiple bandwidths and increase
bandwidth of each single band due to the self-similarity in the
geometries, such as the Sierpinski dipole, Cantor slot patch, and
fractal tree dipole. In other designs, fractal structures are used to
achieve a single very wideband response, e.g., the printed circuit Fig. 1: Dimensions of the Hybrid Meander-Koch Fractal
fractal loop antenna. Antenna

w w w. i j e c t. o r g International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology   47

IJECT Vol. 4, Issue Spl - 3, April - June 2013 ISSN : 2230-7109 (Online) | ISSN : 2230-9543 (Print)

B. Square Patch Fractal Antenna C. Fractal Tree Antenna

Square Patch Fractal Antenna is a good example of the properties of A novel tree shaped fractal antenna using rectangular, triangular
fractal boundary patch antennas. As the fractal iteration increases, and wired structure based on fractal tree geometry. This antenna
perimeter of patch increases and effective area of antenna decreases. is compact in size and simple to design. This behavior is obtained
The radiator is now resonant at more frequencies. It gives with using coaxial probe fed method [8]. The antenna has
multiband properties to fractal geometry antenna with directive more variables to tune to desired response, like length of stem,
patterns. The examples presented here have resonant frequency in separation between ground and feed, iterations, scale factor, angle.
L band, C band and X band [6] with wideband characteristics. The The antenna is designed for 2.8 GHz frequency, which finds its
design antenna for Aeronautical radio navigation at 2.7-2.9 GHz application for WLAN (Wireless video operation). A promising
and Aeronautical/Maritime radio navigation 9.0-9.3 GHz with fractal geometry that ensures a successful design of multiband
captured downlink data of fixed or mobile satellite in S band and C antenna is known as the deterministic fractal tree. The Fractal
band. This behavior is obtained with a simple feeding scheme. So, tree structure design has following specification [8] Length of
fractal boundary patch antennas are an interesting replacement in main stem L=30mm, width of the stem W=10mm, Substrate
the multiband antenna with broadside radiation patterns and with height h=2.3mm, permittivity of the substrate r=4.8 and resonant
efficient directivity. This geometry offers numerous variations Frequency is 2.8 GHz.
in dimension and design, hence gives wide scope for various The geometry of the Fractal Tree antenna is shown in fig. 3.
commercial applications.
The geometry of antenna is described in fig. 2.

Fig. 3: Novel Design for Fractal Tree Antenna

D. Sierpinski Fractal Microstrip Patch Antenna

The triangle of modified Sierpinski fractal microstrip patch
antenna designed for double-and/or multi-frequency operation.
The calculated as well as measured results show that the multi-
band operation of the antenna obtained due to proper scaling
factor and the geometry of fractal antenna satisfies WLAN and/
or Bluetooth ISM-band requirements. The modified Sierpinski
gasket is an efficient radiator with the ability to handle both the
Fig. 2: Square Patch Fractal Antenna front-Top views 2.4 and 5.2 GHz ISM bands [11] without a matching network. The
modification achieved a significant size reduction in view of the
Table 1: Resonant Frequency and Return Loss traditional Sierpinski gasket [9]. Furthermore, the modification
Iteration Resonant frequencies (GHz) Return loss(dB) proved to respect the multiband and relative broadband behavior
of the gasket.
06.15 -19.39
1ST The MFSG antenna is based on standard Siepinski fractal of scale
11.40 -15.33 number s determined from ratio of central frequencies (2.4-2.5
03.86 -26.72 GHz -IEEE 802.11 b/g, and 5.725-5.825 GHz –IEEE 802.11a),
07.96 -19.69 of two WLAN standards [11],
03.00 -22.20
07.49 -18.70
Table 2: VSWR and Gain at Particular Band
Center frequency (FC) GHz VSWR GAIN (dB) It covers also the Bluetooth standard bandwidth, 2.400-2.4835
GHz. The geometry of antenna is described in fig. 4.
3.005 1.16 6.44
7.4925 1.26 11.80
9.6884 1.05 8.53
11.2161 1.38 12.02

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ISSN : 2230-7109 (Online) | ISSN : 2230-9543 (Print) IJECT Vol. 4, Issue Spl - 3, April - June 2013

Fig. 4: Modified Sierpinski Fractal Gasket MSFG Monopole Antenna Geometry

The high h=63.5 mm of triangle, was modified after numerical experimentations to 66 mm as the best one for optimal position of
lover resonant frequency of WLAN system band.

III. Conclusion
From this we conclude that there are many Fractal techniques that used to design an antenna for wireless applications, each one has
its own pros and cons.
These approaches considered the different attributes related to performance parameters of an antenna such as; wide bandwidth, low
VSWR, high gain, high radiation efficiency and small size etc. This paper also exposed a performance comparison table of different
technique that was proposed earlier for wireless applications such as; Wireless video operation, WLAN USB dongle, Aeronautical
radio navigation, Aeronautical/Maritime radio navigation, Bluetooth systems application.

Table 3: Summary of Various Antenna Designs with Their Pros and Cons
Gain & Radiation
S.No. Antenna Design Frequency Band Applications
IEEE 802.11 standard Capable of
Meander-Koch Fractal (2.41 to 2.49 GHz, 5.15 2.281 dBi - 3.85 dBi covering the entire band of
1. Antenna to 5.35 GHz and 5.725 Omnidirectional WLAN IEEE 802.11 a/b/g
to 5.825 GHz) pattern Standard. Designed for WLAN
USB dongle.
Square Patch Fractal Aeronautical radio navigation
2.7-2.9 GHz 6.44- 12.02 (dB)
2. Antenna Aeronautical/Maritime radio
9.0-9.3 GHz Broadside pattern
Fractal Tree Antenna WLAN (Wireless video
3. 2.8 GHz Omnidirectional
3.0 – 5.9 (db)
Sierpinski fractal 2.4 and Omnidirectional WLAN / Bluetooth systems
microstrip patch antenna 5.2 GHz ISM bands application

w w w. i j e c t. o r g International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology   49

IJECT Vol. 4, Issue Spl - 3, April - June 2013 ISSN : 2230-7109 (Online) | ISSN : 2230-9543 (Print)

[1] Nemanja POPRŽEN1, Mićo GAĆANOVIĆ2,"FRACTAL Amanpreet Kaur was born in 1990.
APPLICATION". Indo Global College of Engg., Mohali,
[2] N. Cohen,“Fractal antenna applications in wireless Punjab, India. She is studying Fractal
telecommunications”, Proceedings of Electronics Industries antennas, their design, characteristics
Forum of New England, 1997, pp. 43 – 49 and application.
[3] Cohen, (Unsigned),“Fractal Antenna White Paper”, Fractal
Antenna Systems, Inc., 1999.
[4] Qi Luo, Pereira, J.R., Salgado, H.M.,“Fractal monopole
antenna for WLAN USB dongle”, Antennas & Propagation
Conference, 2009. LAPC 2009. Loughborough , pp. 245-247,
16-17 Nov. 2009. Naveen Kumar is Assitant Professor at
[5] Atif Jamil, Mohd Zuki Yusoff, Noorhana Yahya, Indo Global College of Engg., Mohali,
M.A.Zakariya,"A Compact Multiband Hybrid Meander- Punjab, India. He is pursuing M.E. from
Koch Fractal Antenna for WLAN USB Dongle", 2011 IEEE National Institute of Technical Teachers’
Conference on Open Systems (ICOS2011), September 25 Training & Research (NITTTR),
- 28, 2011, Langkawi, Malaysia. Chandigarh. India. He has completed
[6] Brijesh Shah, Ved Vyas Dwivedi, Piyush Dalsania, "Analysis B.Tech from SVIET, Mohali (Punjab),
of Multiband Behaviour on Square Patch Fractal Antenna”, India in the year 2009. He has 2 years of
2012 International Conference on Communication Systems academic experience. His areas of interest
and Network Technologies. are Wireless & Mobile communication,
[7] Petko, J. S., Werner D.,“ Miniature reconfigurable three Antenna Design.
dimensional fractal tree antennas”, IEEE Trans. Antennas
and Propagation. August 2004.
[8] Dr. Anitha V. R. Janakiraje Bhosale, Sanjay V. Khobragade, Prof. Basudeo Prasad is currently Prof.
"Fractal Tree Antenna WLAN Application”, 2011 IEEE. and Head of ECE Deptt. at Indo Global
[9] C. Puente-Baliarda, J. Romey R. Pous, A. Cardama, "The College Of Engg. , Abhipur, Mohali (Pb.)
behavior of the Sierpinski multiband fractal antenna", IEEE He was on the the post of Scientist- G
Trans. on Antennas andprop., Vol. AP-46, 1998, pp. 517- (Additional Director) and scientist
524. in-charge environmental monitoring
[10] C. Puente, J. Romeu, R. Pous, A. Cardama,“On the behavior instruments division, Central Scientific
of the Sierpinski multiband fractal antenna”, IEEE Trans. Instruments Organisation (CSIO) ,
Antennas Propag., Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 517–524, Apr. 1998. Chandigarh. He completed his PhD in
[11] Ojciech J. Krzysztofik,"Fractal Antenna for WLAN/ the year 2012 and M.E. from Panjab
Bluetooth Multiple- Bands Applications”, Wroclaw university ,Chandigarh in the year 1985. He is a recipient of several
University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Institute of prestigious awards which includes CSIR and Ministry of home
Telecommunications, Teleinformatics & Acoustics, Wybrzeze affairs. He is a fellow and senior member of various prestigious
Wyspianskiego 27, pp. 50-370 Wroclaw, POLAND socities like IETE , computer society of India, Instruments Society
of India. He chaired many national and international seminars and
conferences in India.

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