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# ECE 4705

COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

## CONTINUOUS WAVE MODULATION

PHASE & FREQUENCY MODULATION

Z. Aliyazicioglu

## Electrical and Computer Engineering Department

Cal Poly Pomona
OUTLINE
 Angle Modulation
 Phase Modulation
 Frequency Modulation
 NarrowBand Frequency Modulation
 WideBand Frequency Modulation
 Transmission Bandwidth FM Signal

ECE 4705 2
ANGLE MODULATION
To generate angle modulation, the angle of carrier signal is varied
according to the message signal.

## 1. Angle modulation provides better discrimination against noise and

interference than AM.
2. Increasing transmission bandwidth improve noise performance

## The general angle-modulation signal is given by

s(t ) = Ac cos [θ i (t )]

ECE 4705 3
ANGLE MODULATION
The average frequency in Hz

θ i (t + ∆t ) − θ i (t )
f∆t (t ) =
2π ∆t

## The instantaneous frequency of the angle-modulated signal s(t) is

1 dθ i (t )
=fi (t ) lim f∆t (t )
=
∆t →0 2π dt
A case of an unmodulated carrier, the angle θi(t) is
θ=
i (t ) 2π fct + φc

## The constant φc is the value of θi(t) at t=0

ECE 4705 4
PHASE MODULATION
In angle modulation, the angle θi(t) is varied linearly with the message
signal m(t), as shown by
θ=
i (t ) 2π fct + k pm(t )
2πfct represent the angle of unmodulated carrier, the constant kp represents
the phase sensitivity of modulation [rad/V].

## sPM (t ) Ac cos  2π fct + k pm(t )

PM signal=

m(t) PM signal
Differentiator Frequency
modulator sPM(t)

Accos(ωct)
ECE 4705 5
FREQUENCY MODULATION
In angle modulation, the instantaneous frequency fi(t) is varied linearly with
the message signal m(t), as shown by
fi (t =
) fc + k f m(t )
fc represent the frequency of unmodulated carrier, the constant kf represents
the frequency sensitivity of modulation [Hz/V].

## The angle in FM modulation is obtained as

t
θ=
i (t ) 2π fct + 2π k f ∫ m(τ ) dτ
0

 t

FM signal
= sFM (t ) Ac cos  2π fct + 2π k f ∫ m(τ ) dτ 
 0 
ECE 4705 6
FREQUENCY MODULATION

m(t) FM signal
Integrator Phase
modulator sFM(t)

Accos(ωct)

## The spectral analysis of an FM signal

• The simples case that a single-tone modulation that produces
a narrowband FM signal
• More general case with single-tone and FM signal has wideband

ECE 4705 7
FREQUENCY MODULATION

ECE 4705 8
FREQUENCY MODULATION
Property 1 : Constancy of transmitted power
The amplitude of PM and FM waves is maintained at a constant value equal to
the carrier amplitude for all time.
The average transmitted power of angle-modulated waves is a constant
1 2
Pav = Ac
2
Property 2 : Nonlinearity of the modulation process
Its nonlinear character

m(t ) = m1 (t ) + m2 (t )
s (t ) = Ac cos[2πf c t + k p (m1 (t ) + m2 (t ))]
s1 (t ) = Ac cos[2πf c t + k p m1 (t )]
s2 (t ) = Ac cos[2πf c t + k p m2 (t )]
s (t ) ≠ s1 (t ) + s2 (t )
ECE 4705 9
FREQUENCY MODULATION

ECE 4705 10
FREQUENCY MODULATION
Property 3 : Irregularity of zero-crossings
Zero-crossings are defined as the instants of time at which a waveform
changes its amplitude from a positive to negative value or the other way
around.
The irregularity of zero-crossings in angle-modulation waves is also
attributed to the nonlinear character of the modulation process.

## • The message signal m(t) increases or decreases linearly with time t, in

which case the instantaneous frequency fi(t) of the PM wave changes
form the unmodulated carrier frequency fc to a new constant value
dependent on the slope of m(t)
• The message signal m(t) is maintained at some constant value, positive or
negative, in which case the instantaneous frequency fi(t) of the FM wave
changes from the unmodulated carrier frequency fc to a new constant
value dependent on the constant value of m(t)

ECE 4705 11
FREQUENCY MODULATION
Property 4 : Visualization difficulty of message waveform
The difficulty in visualizing the message waveform in angle-modulated waves is
also attributed to the nonlinear character of angle-modulated waves.

## Property 5 : Tradeoff of increased transmission bandwidth for improved noise

performance
• The transmission of a message signal by modulating the angle of a sinusoidal
carrier wave is less sensitive to the presence of additive noise

ECE 4705 12
FREQUENCY MODULATION
Example: Zero Crossing
Consider a modulating wave m(t) that increase linearly with time t, starting at t=0

at , t ≥ 0
m(t ) = 
 0 t<0
Where a is the slope parameter
In what follows, we study the zero-crossing of the PM and FM waves produced by
m(t) for the following set of parameter.

1
fc = Hz
4
a = 1 volt/s

ECE 4705 13
FREQUENCY MODULATION

ECE 4705 14
FREQUENCY MODULATION
Phase modulation
PM wave
 Ac cos(2π f c t + k p at ), t ≥ 0
s (t ) = 
 Ac cos(2π f c t ) t<0
Lets tn denote the instant of time at which the PM wave experiences a zero-
crossing; this occurs whenever the angle of the PM wave is on odd multiple of π/2.
Then e set up
π
2π f c tn + k p atn =+ nπ , n =
0,1, 2,...
2
1
Solving this equation for tn +n
tn = 2
k
2 fc + p a
π
Substituting the given values if fc, a and kp. 1
tn =+ n, n =
0,1, 2,...
2 ECE 4705 15
FREQUENCY MODULATION
Frequency modulation
Frequency sensitivity factor kf=1Hz/volt.
FM wave
 Ac cos(2π f c t + π k f at 2 ), t ≥ 0
s (t ) = 
 Ac cos(2π f c t ) t<0
Lets tn denote the instant of time at which the FM wave experiences a zero-
crossing; Definition of a zero-crossing, we may set up
π
2π f c tn + π k f atn2 = + nπ , n =
0,1, 2,...
2
As the quadratic equation. Solving this equation for positive tn
1  1 
t=  − f c + f c2 − ak f  + n   , =
n 0,1, 2,...
n
ak f  2 

Substituting the given values if fc,a, and kf.
1
tn =
4
( )
−1 + 9 + 16n , n= 0,1, 2,...
ECE 4705 16
FREQUENCY MODULATION
Comparing the sero-crossing results.

## 1. For PM, regularity of the zero-crossing is maintained; the instantaneous

frequency changes from the unmodulated value of fc=1/4Hz. To the new
constant value of

## 2. For FM, the zero-crossing assume an irregular form. As expected, the

instantaneous frequency increases linearly with time t.

ECE 4705 17
FREQUENCY MODULATION

ECE 4705 18
FREQUENCY MODULATION
Consider a sinusoidal modulating signal is
m(t ) = Am cos(ωmt )

## The instantaneous frequency of FM signal is

) fc + k f Am cos(2π fmt )
fi (t = ∆f =k f Am
= fc + ∆f cos(2π fmt )

## ∆f is called the frequency deviation and proportional to the amplitude

of modulating signal
The angle θi(t) of the FM signal is
t
∆f
2π fct + 2π k f ∫ m(τ ) dτ
θ i (t ) = 2π fct +
= sin(2π fmt )
0
fm
ECE 4705 19
FREQUENCY MODULATION
We can rewrite the angle as

## θ= 2π fct + β sin(2π fmt ) ∆f

i (t ) β=
fm
β is called modulation index of a FM signal
FM signal for a single-tone modulating signal is given by

=

## • Narrowband FM, which β is small compared to one radian

• Wideband FM which β is large compared to one radian

ECE 4705 20
NARROWBAND FREQUENCY MODULATION
FM signal for single-tone modulating signal is given by

## sFM (t ) Ac cos [ 2π fct + β sin(2π fmt )]

=

sFM (t ) Ac cos(2π fct )cos [ β sin(2π fmt )] − Ac sin(2π fct )sin [ β sin(2π fmt )]

## Assume that β is small compared to one radian, we may use the

following approximations

## cos [ β sin(2π fmt )]  1

sin [ β sin(2π fmt )]  β sin(2π fmt )

FM signal simplifies as
sFM (t )  Ac cos(2π fc t ) − β Ac sin(2π fc t )sin(2π fm t )

ECE 4705 21
NARROWBAND FREQUENCY MODULATION
We can rewrite an FM signal.
1
sFM (t )  Ac cos(2π fct ) − β Ac {cos [ 2π (fc − fm )t ] − cos [ 2π (fc + fm )t ]}
2

ECE 4705 22
NARROWBAND FREQUENCY MODULATION
Carrier phasor is used as reference.
FM signal has approximately of the same amplitude as the carrier
Phasor will change with modulating signal

Sum of side
frequency phases

Resultant
fm fm
Lower side Upper side
frequency frequency
carrier

ECE 4705 23
WIDEBAND FREQUENCY MODULATION
FM signal for single-tone modulating signal is given by
sFM (t ) Ac cos [ 2π fct + β sin(2π fmt )]
=

Can be expressed as
sFM (t ) = Ac Re(e j 2π fct e j β sin2π fmt )

The function e j β sin2π fmt is periodic with frequency fm, the can be
expressed in a Fourier series. The Fourier coefficients are
π / ωm π
ωm 1
∫ ∫
j β sinω t − j nω t − j ( nx − β sin x )
cn = e m
e m
dt e dx
2π −π / ω m
2π −π

## The integral cannot be evaluated in close form. It is recognized as nth

order Bessel function of the first kind and denoted by the symbol Jn(β)
ECE 4705 24
WIDEBAND FREQUENCY MODULATION
π
Bessel function

− j ( nx − β sin x )
Jn ( β ) = e dx
−π

## Substitute it into FM signal

 j 2π fct ∞ jnωmt 
sFM (t ) = Ac Re e ∑ J n ( β )e 
 n = −∞ 
Evaluate the real part

=sFM (t ) Ac ∑ J ( β )cos[2π (f
n = −∞
n c + nfm )t ]

## Fourier Transform of FM signal

Ac ∞
SFM (f )
=
2
∑ J ( β ) [δ (f − f
n = −∞
n c − nfm ) + δ (f + fc + nfm )]

ECE 4705 25
WIDEBAND FREQUENCY MODULATION

## Bessel Functions of the first kind for varying order

ECE 4705 26
TABLE OF BESSEL FUNCTION

ECE 4705 27
SOME PROPERTIES OF BESSEL FUNCTIONS
Jn(β) =(-1)nJ-n(β) for all n, both positive and negative
Jn ( β ) = J− n ( β ) n even
Jn ( β ) = −J− n ( β ) n odd

## For small value of modulation index β, we have

β
J0 ( β )  1, J1( β )  , Jn ( β )  0 for n > 2
2

∑ J (β ) = 1
n = −∞
n

## The spectrum of an FM signal contains a carrier component and an

infinite set of side frequencies located symmetrically both side of
carrier at the frequencies fm, 2fm,3fm…
ECE 4705 28
WIDEBAND FREQUENCY MODULATION
For special case of small β compared with unity, the only J0(β) and
J1(β) have significant value. A single pair side frequencies fc ±fm effect
the band width, which is special case of narrow FM

## The average power of an FM signal can determined by

1 2 ∞ 2
P = Ac ∑ Jn ( β )
2 n = −∞

ECE 4705 29
WIDEBAND FREQUENCY MODULATION
In the figure Discrete amplitude spectra of
an FM signal, normalized with respect to
the carrier amplitude, for the case of
sinusoidal modulation of fixed frequency
and varying amplitude. Only the spectra
for positive frequencies are shown

## The frequency of modulating signal is

fixed, but its amplitude is varied

ECE 4705 30
WIDEBAND FREQUENCY MODULATION
Discrete amplitude spectra of
an FM signal, normalized with
respect to the carrier
amplitude, for the case of
sinusoidal modulation of
varying frequency and fixed
amplitude. Only the spectra for
positive frequencies are shown.

## The amplitude of modulating

signal is fixed, but its
frequency is varied

ECE 4705 31
TRANSMISSION BANDWIDTH FM SIGNAL
It theory, an FM signal contains an infinite number of side frequencies.
Bandwidth is close to infinite.
In practice, FM signal is effectively limited to finite number of side
frequencies. Effective bandwidth requires for transmission of an FM

## Approximate rule for transmission bandwidth of an FM signal generated by

single-tone modulating signal is

 1 ∆f =k f Am
BT = 2∆f + 2fm = 2∆f  1 + 
 β
This relation is knows as Carson’s Rule

ECE 4705 32
TRANSMISSION BANDWIDTH FM SIGNAL
Alternative bandwidth calculation of an FM signal,
We may use maximum number of significant side frequency whose
amplitudes are all greater than some selected values. A convenient choice
for this values is 1 percent of unmodulated carrier amplitude

## nmax is max number of significant side frequency, fm is modulation

frequency
β 2nmax
β 2nmax
0.1 2
5.0 16
0.3 4
10.0 28
0.5 4
20.0 50
1.0 6
30.0 70
2.0 8
ECE 4705 33
TRANSMISSION BANDWIDTH FM SIGNAL

## Universal curve for evaluating the 1 percent bandwidth of FM

ECE 4705 34
EXAMPLE
In USA, the max value of frequency deviation ∆f is fixed at 75KHz for
W=15KHz, what is the transmission bandwidth?

## using Carson’s Rule

∆f 75
β
= = = 5
BT = 2∆f + 2fm = 2(75) + 2(15) = 180 KHz. fm 15

## Using universal curve BT

= 3.2 BT = 3.2∆f = 3.2(75)= 240 KHz.
∆f

## In practice, a bandwidth of 200 Khz is allocated to each FM

channel
ECE 4705 35
EXAMPLE
Consider the following FM signal
=SFM (t ) 100 cos [ 2π 10000t + φ (t )].

The frequency sensitivity with kf=5 has the following message signal is

## Find the average power of an FM signal

= =
f kf A 5(10)
= 50 ∆f 50
m β
= = = 0.5
fm 100
From the table 2nmax=4 for β=0.5

=BT 2n
=max fm 4(100)
= 400 Hz

ECE 4705 36
EXAMPLE

sFM (t ) Ac ∑ J ( β )cos[2π (f
n = −∞
n c + nfm )t ]

sFM (t ) 100 {J0 ( β )cos(2π fct ) + J1( β )cos[2π (fc + fm )t ] + J−1( β )cos[2π (fc − fm )t ]
+ J2 ( β )cos[2π (fc + 2fm )t ] + J−2 ( β )cos[2π (fc + 2fm )t ] }
sFM (t )= 100 {0.9385 cos(2π 10t ) + 0.2423 cos[2π (10.1)t ] − 0.2423 cos[2π (9.9)t ]
+ 0.0306 cos[2π (10.2)t ] + 0.0306 cos[2π (9.8)t ] } KHz
46.92

46.92
SFM(f)
12.12

12.12
1.53

1.53
1.53

1.53
KHz
-9.9

9.9
-10.1
10

10
10.1
-9.8

9.8

10.2
-10.2

12.12

12.12
ECE 4705 37
EXAMPLE
The average power of an FM signal

1 2 ∞ 2
P = Ac ∑ Jn ( β )
2 n = −∞
1 2 2
=
P
2
(
Ac J0 ( β ) + J12 ( β ) + J−21( β ) + J22 ( β ) + J−22 ( β ) )
1
=P
2
(
1002 0.93852 + 0.24232 + 0.24232 + 0.03062 + 0.0306 2 )
= 4419W

ECE 4705 38
GENERATING OF FM SIGNAL
Indirect FM.
• To minimize the distortion, the maximum phase deviation or
modulation index β is kept small.
• A frequency multiplier consists of a nonlinear device followed by
band-pass filter.

v (=

## Baseband Narrowband Frequency FM signal

signal Integrator Phase Mod. Multiplier s(t)
m(t)

Crystal  t

=
Controlled OSC ∫
s(t ) Ac cos  2π fct + 2π k f m(τ )dτ 
 0 
ECE 4705 39
GENERATING OF FM SIGNAL
Direct Method

## Modulating signal directly controls the carrier frequency.

Common method is to vary the inductance or capacitance of a tuned
electrical oscillator. Oscillator frequency is controlled by the modulating
signal voltage is called a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO)

## The main advantage is large frequency deviations are possible, less

frequency multiplication is required.
is required for frequency stabilization

ECE 4705 40
GENERATING OF FM SIGNAL
Direct Method

## Nonlinear processing circuits (a) Amplitude limiter; (b) frequency

multiplier

ECE 4705 41
DEMODULATION OF FM
The demodulation of an FM signal requires a circuit that yields an output
proportional to frequency deviation of the input. Such a circuit are known
as discriminators.

## The output of ideal discriminator is

1 dφ (t )
y D (t ) = kd kd:discriminator constant
2π dt
t
For FM, φ(t) is given φ (t ) = 2π kf ∫ m(τ )dτ
0 Then y D (t ) = kd k f m(t )

ECE 4705 42
DEMODULATION OF FM
Output
voltage e(t)
kd s(t) Envelope yD(t)
Differentiator Detector
1 f
fc

 dφ (t ) 
The output of differentiator − Ac  ωc +
e(t ) =
dt  sin [ωct + φ (t )]
 
Using envelope detector to recover the message signal

 dφ (t )  dφ (t ) Acωc term is
y D (t ) Ac  ωc +
= ωc > − , all t
 dt  dt removed

dφ (t )
y D (t ) A=
= c 2π A=
c k f m(t ) k D k f m(t ) where k D = 2π Ac
dt
ECE 4705 43
Antenna FM signal
RF IF Envelope Audio
section Mixer
Section detector Amp.

Common Local
tuning Osc. Accos(ωct)

## The spectral analysis of an FM signal

•The simples case that a single-tone modulation that produces
a narrowband FM signal
•More general case with single-tone and FM signal has wideband

ECE 4705 44
FM STEREO MULTIPLEXING

## Specification of Standard FM transmission has two important specification

1. The transmission has to operate within the allocated FM broadcasting
channel

ECE 4705 45
STEREO FM TRANSMITTER
+ ml (t ) + mr (t )

ml (t ) − mr (t )
+ x +

## m(t ) = [ ml (t ) + mr (t )] + [ ml (t ) − mr (t )] cos 4π fct + K cos 2π fct

ECE 4705 46
ml (t ) + mr (t )
+

x +
ml (t ) − mr (t )

## m(t ) = [ ml (t ) + mr (t )] + [ ml (t ) − mr (t )] cos 4π fct + K cos 2π fct

ECE 4705 47
PHASE-LOCKED LOOP
Phase-Locked Loop
A feedback system whose operation is closely linked to frequency modulation
Three major components
Voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO)
Multiplier
Loop filter of a low-pass kind

ECE 4705 48
PHASE-LOCKED LOOP
• VCO has bee adjusted so that when the control signal is zero, two
conditions are satisfied
– The frequency of the VCO is set precisely at the unmodulated carrier
frequency fc of the incoming FM wave s(t)
– The VCO output has a 90◦-degree phase-shift with respect to the
unmodulated carrier wave.

## • Suppose the incoming FM wave is

s (t ) = Ac sin[ 2πf c t + φ1 (t )] (4.57)
t
φ1 (t ) = 2πk f ∫ m(τ )dτ (4.58)
0

## The FM wave produced by the VCO as

r (t ) = Av cos[2πf c t + φ2 (t )] (4.59)
t
φ2 (t ) = 2πkv ∫ v(τ )dτ (4.60)
0 ECE 4705 49
PHASE-LOCKED LOOP
• The multiplication of the incoming FM wave by the locally generated
FM wave produces two components
• A high-frequency component
k m Ac Av sin[ 4πf c t + φ1 (t ) + φ2 (t )]
• A low-frequency component
k m Ac Av sin[φ1 (t ) − φ2 (t )]
• Discard the double-frequency term, we may reduce the signal applied
to the loop filter to
e(t ) = k m Ac Av sin[φe (t )] (4.61)

## • The phase error is

φe (t ) = φ1 (t ) − φ2 (t )
t
= φ1 (t ) − 2πkv ∫ v(τ )dτ (4.62)
0

## sin[φe (t )] ≈ φe (t ) ECE 4705 50

PHASE-LOCKED LOOP
e(t ) ≈ k m Ac Avφe (t ) K 0 = k m kv Ac Av (4.64)
K0 Loop-gain parameter of the phase lock loop
= φe (t ) (4.63)
kv

## • Eq. (4.62), (4.63), (4.65), and (4.60)constitute a linearized feedback

model of the phase-locked loop

v(t ) = ∫ e(τ )h(t − τ )dτ (4.65)
−∞

When the open-loop transfer function of a linear feedback system has a large
magnitude compared with unity for all frequencies, the closed-loop transfer
function of the system is effectively determined by the inverse of the transfer
function of the feedback path.

ECE 4705 51
PHASE-LOCKED LOOP
• The inverse of this feedback path is described in the time domain by
the scaled differentiator
1  dφ2 (t ) 
v(t ) =   (4.66)
2πkv  dt 
• The closed-loop time-domain behavior of the phase-locked loop is
described by the overall output v(t) produced in response to the angle
Φ1(t) in the incoming FM wave s(t)

## • The magnitude of the open-loop transfer function of the phase-locked

loop is controlled by the loop-gain parameter K0

ECE 4705 52
PHASE-LOCKED LOOP
– We may relate the overall output v(t) to the input angle Φ1(t) by

1  dφ1 (t ) 
v(t ) ≈   (4.67)
2πkv  dt 
1 d
⋅  2πk f ∫ m(τ )dτ 
t
v(t ) ≈
2πkv dt  0 
kf
= m(t ) (4.68)
kv

ECE 4705 53
PHASE-LOCKED LOOP

ECE 4705 54