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Sahar Mhanna

Professor Barnes

English 2

16 March 2019

Annotated Bibliography

My essay is to find out if breast-fed babies have a stronger immune system compared to

bottle-fed babies. I want to know if there is an actual long term benefit as to breast-feeding

compared to bottle-feeding. Why is breast-feeding expected, and why do mothers look bad if

they don’t breastfeed?

“Breastfeeding Benefits Your Baby's Immune System.”, 2016,

This article by Healthy is written by the American Academy of Pediatrics and

is about breastfeeding benefits and the baby's immune system. This article states that how

formula cannot provide benefits that human milk provides. It also states if the mother gets a

cold its usually passed onto the baby through the milk but that is a benefit because, antibodies are

also passed to the baby not just the cold. It also provides information about allergies and other

illnesses. For example, breast fed babies get immune components that provide protection.

I believe the author is writing this article to prove how Brest feeding is better than

formula feeding. I believe this article are for mothers looking for reasons as to why you should

breastfeed and not formula feed.

I believe this source is credible because the article is current compared to the other

articles I found. It was updated in 2016. The information is all related to my topic and is intended
for the audience I was looking for. Also, the information is at an appropriate level. The URL end

with .Org so that is also a sign that its credible, and the purpose of the information is to educate.

I would use this source to explain what breast feeding benefits compared to formula. This

source explains more of the benefits for breast feeding.

“Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding (for Parents).” Edited by Elana Pearl Ben-

Joseph, KidsHealth, The Nemours Foundation, June 2018,

The author of this article is Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph. And the name of this source is

KidsHealth. The main point of this article is to give facts on the differences between breast feeding

and formula feeding. This article explains how health experts believe that breast milk is the best

choice for mothers but other options for mothers who cannot breast feed.

I think the writers purpose of this article is to explain the differences between breast

feeding and bottle feeding. I also think the purpose is to show the reader the pros and cons of doing

either or. I believe the audience for this topic is for any mother wanting to know what the

difference in breast feeding and bottle feeding and how either or will affect their children.

Elana is a Medical director that reviews for Kidshealth. I believe this information is

credible because the reviewer/author is a medical director so you would assume that she knows

what she is talking about. Also, the URL is a .org URL so that also has me to believe that it is a

reliable article.

I would use this information to show the difference between breast feeding and bottle

feeding. This article would help me explain the benefits in both and the down sides in both ways

of feeding. It would answer question like, what are the benefits in breast feeding? And what are
the benefits in formula feeding?

Hope, Jenny. “Breastfed Babies ‘Are Just as Likely to Have Allergies.’” Daily Mail, 12 Sept.

2007, p. 8. EBSCOhost,




The authors name for this source is Jenny Hope, and the name if the source is Daily Mali.

9/12/2007, p8 1/2p. I found this article in the Sinclair’s online library. The main point of this

source is that breastfeeding does not protect children against allergies. This article explains how

breast feeding has no effect on allergies with children and how a test was done to prove it. There

were trials done and a study done and proved that it did not reduce the risk of allergies and


I believe the writers purpose in writing this article is to prove that breastfeeding has no

advantage in your children’s allergies. And that it does not prevent your child from getting

asthma or allergies. I think the audience for this piece and anyone looking for effects on breast

feeding and if breast feeding really helps children’s immune system or prevent allergies.

I believe the author had adequate information because it references from a study done and

that was published about the effects on breast feeding in 1996 and 1997. I believe I found the

article from a reliable source which is the Sinclair’s library.

This article can answer if breast feeding has any benefits for allergies in children. It can

provide information as to why breast milk has no effect on allergies and how children are just
born with allergies. It’s a source to help with people that believe that breastmilk has no effect on

the baby’s immune system.

Howcast, director. Formula Feeding vs. Breastfeeding | Baby Development. YouTube, YouTube,

15 Nov. 2012,

This source is a video from YouTube. The YouTube account is Howcast and its it about

formula feeding vs. breast feeding. The main point of this article is to explain the difference in

the two ways of feeding and which one would work for you and your family.

I think the purpose in this video is for informative reasons. It’s a nice video that tells you

the difference in-between the two different ways of feeding and how either or would work for

you and your family. The audience for this topic is a mother wanted to know which route to take

when feeding their child and which one worked best for them.

The person speaking in the video is Dyan Hes and she is a medical director. She is board

certified in pediatrics and obesity medicine. This would answer questions like; what feeding

would work best for you? And how to know which on to choose.

Jackson, Kelly M., and Andrea M. Nazar. “Breastfeeding, the Immune Response, and Long-

Term Health.” The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, American

Osteopathic Association, 1 Apr. 2006,

The authors are Kelly M. Jackson and Andrea M. Nazar and the name of the source is

THE JAOA. The main point of this article is to inform. This article informs readers about the
immune response and the long-term health with breast feeding. It explains how breast milk

contains factors that helps against infectious diseases and how it influences the immune system

and its development.

I believe the writers purpose for writing this article is to inform the readers on the

immune systems response. And tell us more about the immune system and how it develops. I

believe the audience for this article are parents looking more into detail as to what happens to the

immune system and how it works with breast feeding.

I believe both authors are credible because they are both in the medical field. Kelly has a

PHD and is a Professor in medical microbiology and immunology. I believe the author had

adequate information because there is a list of a bunch of sources and references. I know that the

source is reliable because it is written by doctors and has a bunch of references so you can tell if

the information is reliable or not.

I believe this article is relevant because its more about the immune system and the

response of the immune system so I can use more of the information in this article to explain

about how the immune system works and how breast milk effects it. This article would answer

questions like: How will the immune system be effected? Also, would there be a change in

development of the immune system while breast feeding?

Newman, Jack. “How Breast Milk Protects Newborns •”, 2 Jan. 2018,

This article is written by Jack Newman and the source is Kellymom. This article is about

How breast milk protects newborns. It protects newborns by some of the molecules in the human
milk that helps fight off infection. It explains how the antibodies in the milk are given to the

babies but bottle fed babies take several weeks to begin making their own antibodies.

I think the purpose of this article is for parents that want to know the benefits in breast

feeding and how breast feeding protects their babies. I think the audiences are parents that I

looking for information on benefits to breastfeeding.

The writer of this article is Jack Newman and he is a medical director. I know the author

is credible because he is a medical director. I know he has the adequate information to write the

article because he has listed some further reading with links to get more information on what

you’re reading. I know this source is reliable because it had a recent update which was on

January 2, 2018. It is written by a medical director. And the Website has no advertisements.

I believe this article would answer more questions on the facts behind how breastfeeding

has the benefits on their immune systems. It would answer questions like: What compounds, and

molecules help with the baby’s immune system? What protects the newborns in the

breast milk, and how does it protect them?

Plaza-Díaz, Julio, et al. “Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Immune System

Development.” Nutrients, vol. 10, no. 8, Aug. 2018, p. 1038. EBSCOhost,




The author’s name are Julio Plaza-Diaz, Luis Fontana, and Angel Gil. The name of the

source is Nutroents. Aug2018, Vol. 10 Issue 8, p1038. 1p. and appeared in the Sinclair library.
The main point of the source is how HMOs in breast milk protects breastfed infants against

infections. HMOs are a key component in mother’s breastmilk. There is more HMOs than

proteins in the breastmilk and there were studies on how it helps with the infant’s infection and

have been tested on animals.

I believe the writers purpose in writing this article is to inform the readers about the

HMO compound that’s in the breast milk and how babies benefit from it. I believe the audience

for this article is anyone considering benefits for breast feeding or anyone researching

information about HMOs in breast milk.

I believe this source is credible because the author had credible information when

writing. I know the source is reliable because I found it in the Sinclair library database. Also, the

article has references.

I think this article would give the evidence on what compounds that are in the breastmilk

that would help with the babies’ immune system. It’s like a backup for answering the question as

to why the breast milk is beneficial.