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Carter 1

Caela Carter

Russell Thomas

Eng. 1201-525

14 March 2019

Annotated Bibliography

Preeclampsia is a dangerous condition that can occur in pregnant women in the middle,

end, and even after their pregnancy. This disorder is characterized with dangerously high blood

pressure and can be accompanied by seizures and organ damage to the mother’s liver, kidneys,

and even brain. There is currently no cure for preeclampsia and the only treatment is to deliver

the baby even if it is premature.

“Helping Save Mothers and Babies from Illness and Death Due to Preeclampsia.”

Preeclampsia Foundation Official Site, Preeclampsia Foundation, Accessed 1 March 2019.

This source discusses numerous patient stories as well as research being conducted for

preeclampsia. The Preeclampsia Foundation has created and distributed brochures to healthcare

facilities, they have been awarded $550,000 for research funding, and has recruited 5,000

patients for clinical studies.

The Preeclampsia Foundation is a community of both researchers and healthcare

providers and patients who have suffered from preeclampsia. The goal of this foundation is to

help provide support for pregnant women with preeclampsia as well as raise public awareness
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and help find a cure for preeclampsia. This foundation is the only not-for-profit patient advocacy

organization in the United States for pregnant women who suffer from hypertensive disorders.

This foundation seems to have reliable medical information and there are numerous

health care professionals that have contributed to the making of this site. The Preeclampsia

Foundation also has a medical advisory board and lists numerous statistics and references.

The information on this site will be helpful in my research because it helps see the

different perspectives of preeclampsia from thousands of patient stories and research from

various medical professionals.

Lavoipierre, Ange. “Pre-Eclampsia Breakthrough Could See Reflux Drug Nexium Help Treat

Deadly Pregnancy Complication.” Pre-Eclampsia Breakthrough Could See Reflux Drug

Nexium Help Treat Deadly Pregnancy Complication - ABC News (Australian

Broadcasting Corporation), ABC News, 24 Jan. 2017,

24/preeclampsia-breakthrough-potentially-life-saving/8207566. Accessed 17 Mar. 2019.

It is estimated that approximately 70,000 women around the world pass away each year

due to preeclampsia. Melbourne’s Mercy Hospital in Australia has recently discovered that

Nexium, a medication used for acid reflux, is able to help prevent the production of the

dangerous toxins that are released from the placenta in women with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia

is usually not discovered until after 20 weeks gestation. However, hopefully with the help of this

drug, women at risk of preeclampsia can deliver their babies closer to term.

The purpose of this article is to inform the community that medical professionals are

taking steps to help prevent the dangerous preeclampsia disorder in pregnant women. The
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researchers “stumbled” upon this discovery of Nexium being able to help prevent the dangerous

preeclampsia toxins. There are now studies being conducted in South Africa, where there are

high rates of preeclampsia.

The author of this article has no medical background and has been a news journalist since

2008. ABC News is presumed to be a credible news source and this particular site is based out of


The research demonstrated in this article will be used in my paper along with the other

medications and blood tests that have recently been discovered to possibly reduce the risk and

treat preeclampsia.

Michie, Freya. “New Blood Test Brings Hope to Women with Life-Threatening Pregnancy

Condition Pre-Eclampsia.” New Blood Test Brings Hope to Women with Life-Threatening

Pregnancy Condition Pre-Eclampsia - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting

Corporation), ABC News, 3 May 2018,



M4YejRyClwA1eyECbPFYok3S_7Y. Accessed 17 Mar. 2019.

Melbourne’s Royal Women’s Hospital in Australia is the first hospital to introduce a

blood test that can determine if a woman is at risk of developing preeclampsia. Currently 1 in 20

pregnant women develop preeclampsia and can be fatal to the mother and/or baby. With this new

test it can help doctors monitor and control the symptoms of preeclampsia. The placenta in

mothers who have preeclampsia functions abnormally and this test measures the two proteins
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that are found to be at abnormal levels. Currently this blood test is only found at the one hospital

in Australia, but healthcare professionals and researchers are pushing for the test to be worldwide

to help save more lives.

The purpose of this article is to notify the community about the new medical

breakthrough on predicting the chances of a woman developing preeclampsia. If healthcare

professionals can determine if a woman is going to develop preeclampsia, they can monitor her

better and help control her blood pressure.

The author, Freya Michie, is a journalist for ABC News in Melbourne and she is not

affiliated with any medical background. However, the information she wrote in her article is

available from other news sources as well.

This information will be used in my research to help discuss the new tests and medical

breakthroughs for treating preeclampsia. With this blood test, both mothers and their babies will

have a better chance of surviving if the doctors know ahead of time that the mother is at risk for

developing preeclampsia.

Munz, Michele. “First Drug to Treat Early Onset Preeclampsia Tested in St. Louis Area.”

St. Louis Post-Dispatch (MO), 25 Nov. 2015.


399b-5691-b541-08717fd9f1a4.html. Accessed 1 March 2019.

Researchers in St. Louis are participating in a study to try and create a drug to manage

early onset preeclampsia in pregnant women. Currently there are no cures for preeclampsia other

than to deliver the fetus. This study focuses on women between 23 and 30 weeks of gestation.
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Preeclampsia is said to be caused by abnormal blood clotting that leads to decreased blood flow

to the placenta which causes the lining of the blood vessels to become damaged and inflamed.

The patients in the study will randomly receive a placebo or Recombinant Human Antithrombin

which is a drug that is used to prevent inflammation and abnormal blood clotting.

The purpose of this article is to show that medical researchers are still actively searching

for a cure for preeclampsia. Studies show that preeclampsia in pregnant women is rising and

there are no cures or medications to prevent or treat this condition other than delivering the baby.

This article was written in 2015 as the study was first being conducted so there are currently no

results from the study to prove if the drug was successful.

Michele Munz, the author, is a health reporter for the St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Since she

is a journalist for a newspaper she is not necessarily credible to give information on medical

issues. However, the information provided in her article is accurate and there is a study being

conducted in St. Louis on pregnant women with preeclampsia.

This information is important in my research because there are currently no cures or

treatments for preeclampsia. This article gives hope that medical researchers will soon discover a

way to manage and treat preeclampsia to help the fetus be carried to full term.

“Preeclampsia.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 16

Nov. 2018,

causes/syc-20355745. Accessed 1 March 2019.

This article helps describe the preeclampsia diagnosis and the main points of the disorder.

It lists the different symptoms, tests, and treatments to help answer any questions about the

disorder. There are also lists of doctors and departments that specialize in preeclampsia.
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The purpose of this source is to provide as much information about preeclampsia as

possible to help those who have/may have the disorder. This site helps people try to determine if

their symptoms are related to preeclampsia. However, just because someone may have the same

symptoms it does not mean they have the diagnosis unless confirmed by a healthcare


This site is deemed extremely credible. “The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit organization

committed to clinical practice, education and research, providing expert, whole-person care to

everyone who needs healing.” There are numerous Mayo Clinic locations and hospitals

throughout the US that provide treatment and medical research.

This information will be used in my research to help discuss the various treatments and

doctors/departments that specialize in preeclampsia.

“Preeclampsia Research at the NICHD.” Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of

Child Health and Human Development, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,

18 Oct. 2012,

Accessed 1 Mar. 2019.

This source is all about medical research and different studies that were conducted to

better understand preeclampsia during pregnancy. Preeclampsia is a condition that can develop

in pregnant women which can cause extremely high blood pressure, protein in urine, and fluid

retention. Preeclampsia can affect the mother’s liver, kidneys, and brain and it may also be fatal.

This condition can lead to HELLP Syndrome and Eclampsia which is characterized by seizures.

There is no cure for preeclampsia and the only current treatment is to deliver the fetus.
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The purpose of this source is to inform others about preeclampsia and the dangers that of

the condition. The research discussed is to show the different risk factors of preeclampsia and

how there are no cures currently based on the different health studies.

The writers of this source are part of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of

Child Health and Human Development. Based on all of the information found on this site, the

authors seem to be credible since they are part of different research teams.

My research paper is focused on how preeclampsia affects the health of the mother and

fetus before and after delivery. I will use this research in my paper to discuss the different risk

factors and studies that have been conducted on preeclampsia.

“Women's Health Care Physicians.” Group B Strep and Pregnancy - ACOG, The

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists , May 2018,

Pregnancy. Accessed 1 Mar. 2019.

This source discusses the most frequently asked questions about preeclampsia. It answers

questions such as, “what preeclampsia?”, “when does preeclampsia occur?”, “how is

preeclampsia with severe features managed?”, etc. This source also mentions how the fetus may

have to be delivered prematurely for the mother’s safety since there is no cure for preeclampsia.

The purpose of the information on this website is to answer any questions a pregnant

mother that is diagnosed with hypertension or preeclampsia may have. Therefore, the audience is

mainly going to be pregnant women who are at risk of developing preeclampsia or have already

been given a diagnosis.

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This information was written by the American College of Obstetricians and

Gynecologists. Therefore, the source is deemed credible and the authors are actual doctors with

experience in the field.

I will use the information from this research in my paper to help answer any excess

questions about preeclampsia. This source helps answer more general issues and symptoms that

are related to preeclampsia so it will be useful to help define different medical terms that will be

used in my paper.