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h^ f'* FsJ

Raina's Field Manual


for Highway and Bridge Engineers
Third Edition

...... a 'briefcase companion'for


the gtobally Practising Professional.

Dr. V. K. Raino
Ph.D (London), D.t.C. (London), M.I.C.E. (London), C. Eng' (London), P' Eng'(Ontario)

Technical Director ITNL ( IL& FS )


Formerly Technical Advisoi Bahrain - Qatar Sealink Proiect & US
PWA, MoWH, Govt. of Bahrain
Senior Expert / Consultant to The united Nations,The World Bank'
The African DeveloPment Bank

6 SHROFF PUBLISHERS & DISTRIBUTORS PVT. LTD.


Mumbai Bangalore Chennai Kolkata, New Delhi
PI.EASE RTAD THIS !!!

Talking alone neuer pulled out a stump! Many try to tbrout around tbe weigltt
of their pure[t academic degrees, non-productiae publications, cla.ssroom or
stai.d office experiences, a.nd. eaen tbe tbund.er of tbeir committee
memberships. In the end., on$t tbose tbat ltaae actualllt been mould.ed on tbe
professional anail are of rea.l aalue; tbose that bante bad. prolonged successlful
exposure to furiously result-oriented and prolfit-bearing, cornpetitioe,
practical and. commercia.I ercperience utbere the next montlt's suruiaal depends
on tbe preuious montlc's turnoaen
My alm in utriting tlris MANUAL is two-fold.. One is to beneJfit those utho may
r.oislt to receiue exposure to actual professional practice lfrom the 'scene of
action' standpoint as distinct front a tbeorettcal' classroom byperbole thdt
belongs to an ahnost imaginary woild far from tbe sleeaes-up, uorkman-like
Iife-size actuality! Second is to try and "talk" to thc cngineer in sbor-t straigbt
steps, explaining tbe subtleties en route, in the uein of ., story narcated.
This Manual is informal\t, tuithout "mystifying" bim uitlt exotica. Descriptions have been written
, with clarity and breviry so that the engineel is neither overawed nor bored with jargon
that is either too theoretical or oozing with impressive-looking useless detail.
a Practising Professional's
This book takes the reader by the finger through the labyrinths of the subject in a
'BRIEFCASE . COMPAII-ION" workman-like manner, and thus caters to the contractor, the client and the practice-
eriented engineer alike!
In thls MANUAL, tbe steps of tbe field engineer Are guided in patbs ojten
trodclen by and, therelfore, familiar to the a.uthor, usho, thereby, is able to
recotnmend. a straight course so tbat the englneer d.oes not baue to utaste time
in searcltlng tbe route.
If I have succeeded in some measure, it is not only by being encyclopaedic, but
because the p,pesentation is fresh in treatment, and, above all, easy to study and follow.
!
It concisely fiovides what the field engineer wants, without making demands on his
I
energy. However, the subject being what it is, and the work invoived being awesome,
!
i. I have had to presume that he abeady has some experience in the field, with
I
reasonable exposure to competitive professional practice.
I
I
Engineerlng ls not just d.ol.ng theoretlcal sums nor is it a matter of blind adberence
to graphs and formulae. One can run tbe danger of becoming too concerned witb
tpractical realities'.
I
I
'learning'and not being concerned enougb witb
I

I
I
vil
I

:
_3-

to an exact problem
It is t loretnecrningful to baue an approximate solution
probren , A usefur book does not
trtan an exact sorution to an crpproximated. CONTENTS
banse to be tbe gra'ueyard of dea'cl
Ph'D's!

Asaprolificpractitionerwholrasoperatedinsomanycountriesandhasworkedwith purports to be r.o


a large number of contractors and consultants, I am disturbed if a book
,pr.actical, when it is packed with pages of itefative empifics and impressive-looking
2.O
wofse still, if it is written by someone
,*or" in", are only of u".y restricted use and, of private-sectot' 2.1
innl f.r", never stayed, survived and surfaced in the merciless world THE RES|DINT TNGTNETR (R.r.) ..

construction.......where all the fun is and where one grapples with survival situations 2.2 ASS|STANI RESTDTI'IT ft{GrtlrtRs tA.R.r.) . ......
that can cause ulcers !
2.3 SUPERVTSOR (JUr'il0R rNGtNEtRl . . .. .

,.... A good' ntusician is far supertor to a' music critic! 2.4 0Ffl(t t_OilTtot'tAt{D R0uTtNt

Practical engineers must be conceptual more than


perceptual' creative more than 2,5 PTRSONAI SITT DIARIES OT A.R.K. AND SUPIRVISORS

analytical, ancl visr:al more than -"i"ly mathematical. They


have to have a decp and 2.6 SUPTRI/ISOR'S DAITY REPORI

narrow specialisation alone' They


wide breaclth of experience rather than an isolated,
and endless meetings'
shoulcl not fall prey to inch-deep and mile-wide arSuments
Tatking alone neaer pulted ottt a stu'np' Tbey baoe to pedorm in a 3.t SETTING OUT

utorkmanlike rrauner .-,... ancl ACTTIALLY DELMR ! 3.2 OUAIITY OI MATERIAI-S AND I[5IING
3.3 PTAIIT AI{D I-ABOUR .
originalitystemsoutofunderstanding,andrealunderstandingcomesoutofcold,
commercial, compctitive, prof'essional practice' 3.4 IIIF()RMATIOl\ TROM IHE (OI{IRAOOR

3.5 INSPEfiION AllD APPROVAI.


Lastbutnotleast,goodiudgementcomesoutofexperience'a'ndexperience
oiften comes out of bad jictgiment ! FIELD woRr<
is a. bard. Ta.skmaster u)ith no 3.6 toftTt0tl 0F txtsTtNc stRvtffs .
a'nd tbe lesson later !!
ifs and buts, . . . .. it proaides tlte experience first 3.7 EXISTING ROAOS AI{D TIMPORARY DIl/TRSIONS

material reJerenced
In tbis Manual, at places, re-ference bas been made to and some 3.8 MTASURTIIINIRE(ORDS ...
(AAsFrTo, ASTM and. ACI) and. Ind.ian (lsc and
Jiom uarious Britisi @g;, Ainerican 3.9 (OMMUNIftTION WITH THT CONTRAfiOR AND SUB-(OI'|TRAfiORS .

IS)stanclarcls,toshousou.ndengineeringpractices.Iwishtoacknowleclgethese 3.10 usE0fIHEsPE0flftIl()t,l ......:.


renowned institutions witb grateful thanks' 3.ll PR()GRISS
Ram (ICT, New
I take opportunity to tba.n.k Mabnaz Namdar (Molx/H' Baltrain),
this 3.t2 ,-, SAFITY AT SITT
others wlto prouided the typing and ot''ber
Delhi), Cbamak (ICT, Dbaka) a'ntl many 3.13 PRI{()IISTRUfiIOI{ STAGE . .
assistance ouer tbe years in producing tbis Manual'
3.14 flNAil0At ASPtfiS . . . . . .
I am indebted. to the Minist?y of \vorks and HousinS oJ'the
Kingdom oJ' Bahrain fot
3.15 MTASURf MTI{T AND PAYMEIIT
to this Manual and also use it .lbr traiTlinS
encr.bling me to giue Jinishiig-touches
3.16 SOME IMPORTAIIT (OIIDITIONS
engineers.
3.t7 STOUTIIG Of ROAD (ONSTRUfiION, TYPI$I TQUIPMTtlT
USTD AilD THEIR RATED ilPA(ITIES

vlll
ffi R"inrs ri" b Manuat for Highway and Bridge Engineers ---ffii
CONIENIS
CONIENTS

.... '. .... 6.2 suB-s0tt DRAII{AGE . ......... .64


3.ls BRDGr (0ilsTRuolo|: GEI{EIAL PRtPARAIl0ll, [0Bll"lsATl0l{ AND sToRts .33
6.3 R()AD DRAINAGT .66
3.I9 H.IGHI{AY (()}ISTRU$IOI{: GT]{ERAL PREPARATIOII, MOBIIISATION AND STORES
.........35
6.4 fttATtRlALs .66
4.O slTE CIEARANCE "'-"' --"----37 6.5 SEITING OUT ...... r. .66
........ ...........38 6.6 EXfil/ATIOI'I .57

4.2 EURI{|NGIHERIS|I)UI. ...'.'.... ."'"''38 5.7 BEDDING . .57

4.3 0UEOIoNS TNTRY T0 IAND .. .....:..... '.38 6.8 I-AYING PIPTS .67

4.4 E!|IIIR0NI'1II{IALSATEGUARI)S '""'38 6.9 BLoCl( DRAtt{S ............... .68

5.O EARTHWORKS -------ri-----------F '--'-"39 6.10 DtTftrs/$ilArs ;68

5.1 BR0AI} OAsslfl(ATlotl 0t s()l$ Act0RDlt{G T0 0Rlclt{ Al{D DISCRIPIIoN . . .40 6.il TMP0RTAI{T t{0Tt5 .. .68

5.2 crAsslflffTroil 0r ilRTtlsl0RKs MATERIAIS . .43 7.O PAVEMENT TYPES AND MATERIAIS
5.3 S0Mt TERMS USID ll{ R0Cl( DESRIPTI0NS: (SASEI)'0l{.8,5. 5930, I98l ) ... ' .43
7.1 PAVTM$|TTYPIS ........
5.4 rxPr_0sr\/ts Ar{0 Bt AsTlllG .46
7.2 AGCRIGATIS toR BITU[iIN0U_5 R0ADW0RK

5.5 txcAvATt0l{ 0F ct,Tll ilGs .46


1.3 STRUfiURT OT THE R()AD

5.6 IX(AVATI0N BEL0W tl,lBAt'll(l'tEtlTs AllD Btt0l{ 7.4 GtlltRA[;.


Wn N (UiifuCs . .'. .. .. .. .47
SuBGRADE r0RhlATt0il
7.5 r0RltATtoll
5.7 tx$vATt0ll0t PlTs'AllD lR$l$ts .. . .41
1.6 BIIUMEII .
5.8 8A(Kfil.ililG PITS AND TRtt{(HtS ..... ; .48
7.7 BIIUMIN0US PA\IEMTII SY$tilS (lprqled or Premixed-ondJoid] . .
5.9 t0RilltlGtMBAllKl,tttlTSAll00THRfll.tAREAS ..'........... .48
7.8 Mlx DESIGiI 0F DEilsq:G[ADtD BruilllQus lill[Iuflts ... . .... ..
5.t0 t0AD-ErARlllG Htt .... .49

5.ll STABTUS|I'GTHES0FIS0ItBYPLASTICFABR|CS ............... .50


8.O PAVEMENT'CONSTRUCTION I tt
5.r2 IIIIHODS OT DRYII{G OUT WATTRI.OGGED GROUIID . .52 8.1.A SPRAYED 0R PtNqRATtot{ tAYtR EtTU[ilt{0US PAt'tilEilTW0RKS .ll3

5.r3 ust 0t sAill{E WAIIR'F0R c0il'ltA0li{G{llr30lt FiLL .....;.i ., i....... .53 8.r.8 pRr.Mr)(ED EtTUl,illtous.PAl/EMEtlI l{lin$ .il3

5.14 S0lL (0llPA$l0ll, fR0C{0R {und M0DlFltD FR0C[OR), rindtfhli, .:. .'...... .53 8.2 pRt C0ilSnUOloN A$ltltTtES .... ,'.....,'i ;..,.....i:.... .lr4

5.15 (0l'tPAfll0l{ TtSTlllG .. ..... .56 8.3 PREPARATORYW()RKBTT()RTIAYIIIG .174

5.16 s0tL ilolsTljRE .57


176
5.17 cot{$slEilfl 0f A s0lt .. .. . .59
8.5 THEftUSTWHEI{ tintte noaD mamnL 179
5.18 TIOUID LIMITAIID PLASTIT TIMIT .59
8.5 DtilvrRY ffKKS irio ColrTRor.s l8t
5.19 prAsIKlTy rltD[x - uoulD Llilr - nmli nfih .::i. i'. .60
p0s5r8rE cAusrs 0F ilrx-DdFrcr'H{ctts t}t
:,i :i-rr':'' 8.7 lloT.til [sp}lAr.T
'''
5.20 PLASItoil ll{Dtx lls. (BR .61
8Y THE US ASPHATT til$m'TEl .': . . . .'. . . .... . . . 182
lotjTililrD
.olJAilTY (0!{TR0L
8.8 ilr R0AD C0ilSrRUCt0li ..... 183

6.1 R0Al) DRAlllAGt SYSTEI'IS ... ..64

H6way and Briaoe Enginaers I n"rrt r," H Manua! for Highway and Bridga Engineers
Raina's Field Manualfor f
'.CONIENIS

il.g SpE0fl(AIt0N 0F STRAI{DS FoR (ABt_t.STAY5 ... . . . . ..284

9.O PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE -.....-...I9I ll.l0 spt0FttATt0il0FANCH0RAGISroRftBtESIAYS... ...........2S5


9.t MAtllTIltANftAfltvtTttsAND0PIRAT|0NS ...........193
il.il spE0flftTt0N0tpRoTtfitvEMATtRlAtSFoRCABLESTAYS... ............286
lt.t2 suppty ot,sIAy'sTtEL ..........287
9.2 ASSISS|I{G MAllITENAll(E NttDS .. .........193
9.3 RtDhtG oUAUTY ........ ........t96
il.r3 tNsTAil.Ail0NOtACABTESrAy ... .........287
g.4 sKrD RrsisrAilcr MEASURTMENTS ..........1e7 I2.O STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION,
9.5 STRUfiURAI.EI/ALUATION CRACK DAMAGE AND REPAIR........-.. .-.-.-.295
9.6 TXISTING PAVTMINT CRUSTAND SUBGRADI CHARAfiTR6TITS .....200 t2.r FORilWORl(

9.7 REfltfl$TtoN
SURtA(t DttEfiS AND THflR ... .. .. . . .201 12.2 REINFORTTMTNT

9.8 RI$IFI(ATION
SURIA(I DETORIIATIONS AND THEIR . ....2I3 12.3 AGGRTGATIS

9.9 SPt0AtrSTRtPAtRS ......... ............223 12.4 IN.SITU COl'|(RITT

9.10 POSSIBLE DEFtfiS lN HOT tAlD ILtXlELE PAVEMEIITS ((ouses ond Defects) .... .......224 12.5 PRECAST (OIICRI]I

IO.O BRIDGE STRUCTURE - SOME IMPORTANT ASPECTS ..-^.225 12.6 ADMMURIS Tt) (ON(RITI

12.7 WORKABIIjTY OFA (()N(RITT MIX ....


r0.r GENtRAt (0MPAR|S0I{ 0F Rflt'troR(ED (0t{cRnr
12.8
AtID PRTSTRTSSED (ON(RilE SUPTRSTRUfiURES .226
10.2 Dtff sttTtol{ TYPI ... .226
12.9 lffilil11T;',lll:': :1T lT111 :::: ^1 1l*
12.10
IO.3 TOIIGITUDII{ATARRAIIGTMTI{T .231
PRTSTRTSSTD CONCRffE

12.il
10.4 GNTILEIIIR (0ilSnufl()il [4FrH0D . .238
PREMST SEGMTNT MANUTAfiURT AI{D ERIOION

IO.5 STRUOURE TYPE, OPIIMUI,{ SPAN TO DIPTtl RATIO 12.12 IP()XY BOIIDING AGTIITS FOR PRIftST STGMII{IAI 8OX GIRDIRS ... ..
At{I) \,ARI0US 0TfltR (01{$D[MI|0NS ...... . ... .243 l2.r 3 IIISPEOIO}I OT PRT$ST SEGMEI'|IAI- BOX GIRDER JOINIIl'|G PRO(IDURES

10.6 tcolt0Mtcs AlrD 0pTrl{sATt0il .249 12.14 TP()XY BO}lDING AGENT T[STS

10.7 TETIDER PRI(T .-. REAI.I$I( OR NOT ? .257 12.t5 GR0l.JT[{6 0F ftBtt l)UOS [,t PosT-TEil$01{Et) pRtSTRtSStI) t0il(RtTt
(0NIR0L 0F suRtAcE tv,lp0RATt0il, At{D tTs tillpoRTAt{(E . .. . .....
I t.o CABTE-STAYED BRIDGES -..... --------"--261 12.16 .

12.11 (oilsilufiror i0tilTs, txpAilst0il J0tilIs (0tD JoilTs


II.I GTNTRAI. .
12.18 D[P05tTtilG (0iltRrft uN0rR wAItR
AND

II.2 ilBI.E SIAY RTI.IABITITY


12.19 n{sPifit0il AND Ttslil'tc tOR cot{mm
II.3 GIIITRAI. (ABI.E STAYARRANGEMEIIT ..
12.20 cuR[{G AltD PR0ltfit0il 0r cONcRIIi
II.4 DITFEREHT TYPTS OF $8IE STAYs . . . .
12.21 coilcREfllr6 tt{ ADVERSt WEATHtR toilDlilolt5
lr.5 THE FREySSt[ff CABtt STAY ...... .. .
12.22 (01'tmff ilPosfD T0 stAwATtR
il.6 BBR STAY AND At{ffonA0t .: .. .. ...
12.23 APPilftTr0il 0F (0N(R[T[ (sHoTCRr]r]
ll.7 rRffsstt{tl sTAy A}tff0RAGE . .. . . ..
AilD
SpRAyrD
SPRAYTD M0RTAR (cUiltrEl
II.8 SINEilGTII ()FTHE STAYS
12.24 GUrDEill{ES FoR REpAtR 0t DAMAGTD/SPAIED C0l{CRtTt 0t
Raina's Field Manual for Highway anO enaOe enOineers
ffi ffi *rrro Fietd lrtanuat for Highway and Bridge Engineers -*---*M
r *iiL:.i:idlr3'1tjiiii#ii.r4?i CoNIENIS
QONTENIS
I3.I5. AC(TPTABILITY O[ IIST RISULTS IOR COMPRISSI\,E
E)(ISTII'IG (ONRITT BRIDGTS BY S[|OT(RI]II{G OR GUNIIII{G ... .,,369
TRUSHIllc STRIiIGTH OF ((}NCR[TE .538

12.75 CARI F()R STRUOURAI t0N(RITt ..........371


IN
12.26 (oil(Rtit STRIIIGIII . .... . .386
t4.o CONCRETE DESERT.REGIONS WITH HOT.DRY
A(ffPTABILITY 0F IIST RISULTS FoR
OR HOT.HUMID CLIIIAATCS, AND CONCRETE IN
12.27 .......
0PtN F0UNDAIIONS ......391
SEA-WATER SURROUNDINGS------- ---"----'-539
12.28 PlLt t()UNDATl0l{s .. ...392
I4.I INTR()DUfiION .541

12.29 (Atss0Ns 0R''Jvt[L't0ut{DAllol'ts i. .. . . .! ..... . ...411 14.2 INFLUEII(E OI ftMT}IT CHOI(E OI{ DURABITITY .552

12.30 ...
BEARII{GS .. . i. . ... .... ..433 I4.3 SUITABII.ITY OT AGGRTGATES .559

12.3r JoIl{IS
EXPAil$0N . . ... ..... ..434 14.4 ADMIXTURES AS A}I AID TO MAKING TOTITRITT .566

tl.tz pARAptTS ............434 14.5 rrfffi 0r (uMATt AllD ttloRKlNG (0t{DlIl0NS .568

I2.33 SUGGESTTD GUIDTLINES IOR INSPTfiIOTI OF BRIDGTS 14.6 (URll{G . .573

At,|D flI"'/ERIS ATTIMI OI TAKII'|G OVTR THE SIRUOURTS .. . .. .. .436 14.7 RE(0MM[NDATI0I'|S ... .. .574

12.34 (RA(l( RtPAtR TrffiNlQUtS . ... .. .440


r5.o CONTROL AND PREVENTION OF CORROSION
12.35 DtrAlLs0ts0MEREPAIRTt(HNlQUEs. .....440 tN BRIDGE STRUCTURES ------------ "'--""'---5 83
r3.o DESIGN OF }IIGH.STRENGTH CONCRETE MIX, r5.l tNTR0DUfil0ll .585

STATTSTTCAI CONTROT OF ITS GlUALlry GOOD 15.2 TYPES 0t (0RR0SI0N .585

CONCRETE PRACTICE & ACCEPTABITITY CRITERIA 15.3 CATCIUM CHLoRl0r AilD C0RR0SI()N 0f RtltlF0R(tMENT . . . . . . .586

FOR COIVIPN. TEST RESUHS ------485 r5.4 PRIVENTI0N 0t C0RROS|0t{ .587

13.r. il{IRoDUffl0N .. :. .. .. .487 I5.5 REMEDIALMEASURESAGAINSTCORROSIOII ... .58i

13.2. 'AVERAGE' AND'li{lI{IMIJM' STRII{GTHS .490 15.6 RIEAR PRoTtfil0N .588

I3.3. DIGREI OF W()RKABII-ITY OF (ON(RNE .491


r5.7 PRoTtfilot{ 0r PRtsTREsslllG siln ... .593

.492
t5.8 AilCHoRAGtPR0ItOl0t{ .593
13.4. GRADIIIG OFAGGRTGATTS .

.496
I5.9 PROIEfiIOII OF COI{(RTIE SURTAII . .593
13.5. MTItlOD OT (OMBINIIIG AGGRTGATES .594
15.10 $IHoDlcPR0Ttfil0ll
t3.6. Dtsrcil 0r A (0t{REIr Mlx ..... .502
l5.ll lllvtsTlGATl0ll0rsTRufiuRtS .594
13.7. txAti{Ptts 0F IIIGH-STRIIIGTH Cot{cRtlt illx Dtsl6l{ . .. .510
I5.I2 MONITORII{G THE SNUfiURIS AGAII{ST
(ORR()SIOII .595
({)I{(RI]I QUALIIY . .516
t3.8. SIATISTI(AL COIiTROI" OF 15.13 . METH0DS FOR ESIII'IATING (0RR0Sl0l{ .596

t3.9. EXPTRIEN(tS: .525 I5.I4T, IECHNIQUTS FOR REHABII.ITATIOII OT BRIDGTS AFTTflfD BY CORR{)SI(}II .599

13.10. R[(0MMENDATl0l{S lor good contrele in hot & oggresive


..... .534
r6.0 BRIDGE INSPECTION .......(WHY ANDI
dimules in morine envhonmenl
WHAT TO IOOK FOR --------
l3.ll. (OIITROI OF SURFA(T I'JAP()RATIOI{ AND ITS IMPORTAI,Iff .534
l6.l sEQuEilffoilllsPt$|oil .......;
t3.12. iltsPE$t0t{, SAilPUl{G & TESTING r()R C0ll(RtTt ... . . .534
16.2 WHATT() L()Ol( TOR II{ IACH NTMfiII .

t3.13. c0MPUAilG Wril I,AR|0US RIQUTREMIi{IS .. . .537


t6.3 PRoFoRMA toR SPiClAt ltlsPt$l0ll Al{D c0tlDlll0t{ RAIII{G 0t BRlDGts

r3.i4. CURHG AilD PR0TtOtoil 0F (oilffiUE .538 r6.4 RATII{G THE (OTII)ITIOII OF Ail NTil${T

fr a"ir"'"ri"bManuatforHighwayandBtidgeEngineers ---*- --.-.-@


Raina's Field Manual for Highway anA Ariage engmeer" ffi
coNrENrs L ..., ,,i, ., . . ,
CONIENTS

17.o BRIDGE CONDITION SURVEY AND c. HvEsilGAiloil 0F PosT.TEilStoltED STIEI .... ...../30
ESTIMATING CREW REQUIREMENTS..-.... ...685 rB.r9. vtsuAr_ tNsPrcrr0N .....730
tl.t OuTr_rNr 0t BRtDGt suRVIYs .. .. .686 18.20. (HE(K toR GR0UT tFfl(ACY. ......731
17.2 INSPICII(]NPRO(IDURES 18.21. BRTAK-UPSATRAIID IXPOSURT ............732
(ABrrS .
I7.3 MTANS OF AT(IS5 AND REQUIRED IQUIPME}IT ... .. .. .696
18.22. INDOSC0PY FoR TNSPECTTNG ......732
t8.23. \l0tUMffRlC MTASUREMTl,lT (HttK t0R p0SStBLt VOtDS tN (AB|_I DUOS ............733
11.4 S(HEDUI-I OF UNII RATIS IOR INVISTIGATI\,I SIRUCIURAT
(OMPUTATIOHS FOR BRIDGIS AllD (UI"VIRIS ........ ..703 i
D. tltvlsllcATtoll 0t 'sT[E[' STRUGTURES ............733
17.5 S(HTDUIT OF IJNIT RATTS FOR'STATI( LOAD'AND'MATIRIAL' TESTS .. ............704 t8.24. VtSUAt_ lNSPE(]t0li .. .. ..733
I8.25. 'MAGI'IITI( PARTICI-T TI"OW'TIST FOR DITICIING (RAffS AI OR I{IAR SURFAff . . . ... ,.734
r 8.o NON-DESTRUCTIVE & OTHER DIAGNOSTIC I8.26. UTTRASONI( TIIICKNESS-GAUGI FOR TISTII,|G'RIMAINII,IG.THITI(NIS5' . . .. .....,. ,...734
TESTTNG OF R.C., p.S.C. & STEEI STRUCTURES -----------705 MIASUREMENTS .....735
18.27. 'COATING THICKiITSS'
A. ltolt.DEsTRUcTtvE TESTS CoilCRtTE
oil ............707 18.28. DYt-PtNflRATl0NI!S1-......: ...........736
I8.1. SCHMTDT HAMMTR RtB0UilD TISI ... .... .. ./08 18.29. RAD|oGRAPHI(IISI .....737
18.2. PR0B[ M[Ttl0D TIST ... ........./09 I IIIERfrIAL PROPERTITS OT SIRUCTURAT COT{CRTTI .........738
18.3. STRIS9WAVT METHoDTISTUS|N0 PU[5t-Vfl_00TYTtcHtltout ............710 r9.o SPECIFICATIONS FOR SOME IMPORTANT REPAIR. -
I8.4. TORI}lG FOR DITIfiING IRAft PII'IIIRAIIOI'I, D[.I"AMII,|ATIONS AND MATERIATS, REPAIRS, PROCEDURES & TECHNIQUES -.'743
CON(Rfit STRIIIGTH: ...........714 I9.I. RIPAIRMATERIALS . .. ,.,745
18.5. [ND0SC0PI( IXAMTNAI|0N .......714 19.2. ADMTXIURTS ..........756
18.6. RADAR IETHNIOUT FOR DITIflING (RAIKS AND DITIRIORATION IN CONCRITI . . . . . . . . .714 19.3. Proclice
SH0TCRIT[... US .. .......762
18.7. ..
(ONCRITE'SIREilGTll'T[5IS .... ..... ...7t5 19.4. ffiEllst0N 0f STRUOURI ........718
t8.8. MAGNITI(MITH0DS .....717 19.5. 'BANI(' PR0T[O|0N....USProctite .........782
I8.9. (ARBOI{ATION DTPTH TIST t9.6. [RA(K RIPA|RS ........793
I8.IO OR SUIPHATT ATTA(I( Al'|D ITS COI'ITEiIIRATIOi| ..... .. .7I8 19.7. REpAtRtt{GSPAil.tD(ON(RilE ............809
IB.lt. tOR cHt"0RtD[ (0NIENT . .........7r8 19.8. DUAttS (Ot'lCRrTt
0F VAR|0US RTPAIRS T0 . .. ... .....813

18.12. RAptD(tlt"0RrD[TtSr(RO) .......ir8 19.9. tPOxY 8ONDNG (0MPOUi'|D ....... ......814

t8.13. fl"tctRtGt ilfftl0D roR c0RR05t0l{ DFrtcTtON .. . . .719


19.10. ltlt (OR[S
(0R|t'|G AND GR0UT|NG ... ......815
)

18.14. INFRA-RIDTHIRM0GRAPHYII{ITHOD ........726 I9.II. PIIR RTPAIR AEOIJI Al{D BEI"OWWATIR.I"II.II


l
18.15. RAD|0GRAPHIITttHilt0utWTHGAMIIA . ...........727
19.12. COI{TR0L 0r Al'lD
SURFACI IVAP0RATI0N IMP0RIAN(E: . . .. ...822
ITS

I
18.16. Rfl_AflVt HUMrDrry TESI (RH.T[SI) .. . . . . . . .728
t9.13. DtP0stItNGt0NcRtT[uNDtR't\,ATtR .......824
tOR C0|l(RtTt STRff{GTH
l
I 19.14. A(ffPTABtLlil 0t . . . .. ..829
i B. TESTS olt THE CoftPostTtolt Ot flARDEITED CoI|CREII ....728
19.15. (URING
TIST RESUT_TS

ond Proleclion of [oncrele: . . .. ...832


t
18.17. (t[rE}lT (0NI${T .......728
19.16. (0ll[R[I|NG rl{ ADVTRSE CoNDril0ils .......837
I
t8.18. DtTtRMtNAIt0N 0F THt 0RtciltAt WAtEWtMtNT RATI0 . . . . . . . .729
I9.t7. (0NCRU[tXP0StDI0SIAWATIR
'I/EATHER
.........840

Raina's Field Manual for Highway and Bridge Engineers : ,:.: . Raina's Field Manual for Highway and Bridge Engineers . xvll
CONTENTS

CONIENIS

26.0 DErAlLs oF PREsrREls]|g


19.18. RtC0Ml'ltllDAIl0llS for Durqble (oncrele in H()T ond
[nvironmenl in Seo'woler surroundings . .
-v'v soME
-
iir.roor'rs AND AN.HoRAGES
AGGRTSSIVE

I9.I9.'BEARIIIG' RTPI.AftMTIIT 26.I IYPES OI STTEI TOR


PRTSIRESSING

,BTARII|G'
.. ..
19.20. RIPAIR 26,2 PRISIRTSSINGTENDONS

I9.2I. IEMP()RARY SHIII.D OVTR RAITWAYIRA(K


27.0 PTANT "'---"-"--"-
r9.22. TIEEACKS
27.1 INIR0DUOI0N"""
20.o IOAD TESTING of BRIDGE ELEMENTS -*857
27.2 TARTHIYORK NAilT .
20.I. IUIL SftLT LOAD TTSTII{G OF BRIDGE ITEMENTS .. .. . ,...858 ROCK EXCA\IATION PLAI{T ..
27.3

20.2. LOAD TESTING A BRIDGT'SUPERSTRUfiIJRI' ,...859 27.4 PRODUOION OT AGGREGATTS

20.3. toAD TESING A'fttSS0N'(A F0UHDATI0N 'lvE[['] ... ....866 27.5 TRANSPORTING TQUIPMTNT

2t.4. t0AD TtSnNG A'PlL[': . . . ...86t 21.6 |IIATTRING TOUIPMTNT

COMPAOIONEQUIPMENT """':
2t.o F|NISHES -875 27.7
(Asphohit)work ' --.^ ''''''''' ' '
tii*t mi IQUIPMENT for BlTUMlNous
2I.I GUARD RAIT ... . . ..876
21.8

PtAllI FOR Ct[titlT C0NCRflE - MAKlllG' LAYlllG' C0MPACIING


ond FINISHING
27.9
21.2 R0AD I'lARKlilGS ....876 OPERATED TOOts

2r.3 TRAFfl(SICN5. ....877 27.10 ffi*i;*' ONd VARIOUS PNIUMATIGTTY

AND COI{TROI UNITS


27.11 PORTABTT TRAFFIC SIGNATS

22.O UTtLtilES -879


2T.12 EQUIPMEI'IT USAGE
RATES

0t' R0AD C0NSTRUfl lg!',


27.13 SEQUEi|(I r-T-lll'!lt
(APA(ITITS
THEIR RATED
T(lUIPMTNIS USE[) AND
RI.QUIRED TO SANSTAflORILY
21.14 TY?I$I I}IIJTIITORY OI PTNT
SAiIPU HISH'lllAY WORKS
COMPTTTE SOMT

28.O SAFETY AT WORK


2$.1 WORK PLA(E

28.1 sArffY 0t sffi. ...


OT ROADWORKS
28.3 ITMPORARY SIGIIING

28.4
(;
A CntcKtlsT roR sAtt ExcAvATl0llS " "'":
28.5 il0fts 0t{ slctls AllD c0t{Es
28.6 ITTUMIIIATII{G ROADWORKS
(oNtltltD sPAct
EllTtRltlc A sttvtR 0R
28.7 ,-iror r*ocount BET0RE

28.8 GTtIERAL SAITIY (OIISIDTRAII(}NS


------889 Generolftecklist

Bridge Engineers --'-'


a"ira'" Fi"td Manuat for Highway and
Endgufngine.rs ffi fi
CONIENIS
@oNr€Nrs

t. AcridenlPrevenlion0rgonisolion ... 33. (oncrele(onslrudion ...1024

2. Housekeeping snd Sonilolion ... ... 34. l{osonry . ...t024

3. FkslAid .
35. Highwoy (onslrudion . . . .1024

4. Fire Prevenlion
36. Ouonies ond Grovel Pih . . .1025

5. [ledricol lnshllotions ............ 37. Preslressing . . .1025

6. Hond Tools 29.O - EXPRESSION


OF INTEREST (E.o.l)
L Power Tools FROM CONSUTTANTS '-'-"' ---to27
8. Powder Arluckd Took . . 29.1. PURP0SE AND DtFlNlTl0NS . .. ;.... .. '...1028
9. lsdders .. 29.2. INSTRUffIONS FOR COMPTETING THT STANDARD TORMS FOR I)(PRTSSIOI{ OT INTTRIST .1028
t0. Scoffolding
30.o HOW TO PREGIUATIFY CONTRACTORS
Il. Derrkks ..
FOR A FARflCUUR CONSTRUCTION WORK ----------1O43
Hoisls, frones ond

12. Heovy [quipment


30.1. lNsTRUOl0l{s T0 (0NTRAfl0RS APPLYING toR PRI0IIALIFICATION .. ......1044
13.
30.2. TVATUATIOi'I (RITIRIA TOR PRTQUALIFICATION AI'ID
14.

i5.
HotryTo EVALUATI .....1066

16.
I
CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT
T'o FUNCIIONS & BID.STRATEGY .IO83
17. Goruges ond Repok

18. Bonicodes 3l'1. lllTRoDuol()l{ ""'1084


19. Hondling ond Storogeof l4oterioh . 3t.2. rUilOl0NS ...... .;.
C0t{sIRU$l0t{ l,tANAGtMEilI . .. .......1086

20. [xcoyqlion qnd Shoring 31.3. STRAIIGY


BlDDlt{G: C0llSlDERATl0l{S & ' '...... '...1112

21. Pipelines . 31.4. ..r..... .


APPR0PRIATETECHN0L0GY ... ... .. ... '...1123
22. Demolition 32;O GoNTRACT MANAGEfnE NT SYSTEIYI -- --- ----- --
---- - - I t 27
2t. Pile Driving
32.r PRO(UREMEIITAI{D (ONTRA$ PROftDURES . ..1129
24. Iunnek .
32.2 0tDDtilGPR0CISS ............., ..riif:
25. Shofti
A. Tendbr Doaumenk :....i.'..... .. . ..ll5l
26. tompressedAirWork ......... 8., Preporolion of Tender ..1153
21. Eoilers . . ..1160
irltj! c Submission of Tenders

tt,Ji
28. Pressure Vessels
D Tender0pening und Evoluofion ... :....... ..1162
29. fxplosives . ... .. . ..
t1 !t "Jfitillfii'tti' 33.O CoNTRACT MONtrO"Rlr{G PROCEdS, I t67
30. ' eaiiii i,na r.idiiids . . .
r i0i
;i.lli . ..l{eldidg ohd{ufiing 33.1 |ilfR0qllfinil.........,.'ri.' .;...'....rr;......;..... ..1169
,:0i '32:' Stiel'tretion .... 33.2 SAMru fl ilGtR-TlP'lllDlCAT0RS', iRfSULTlilG'rR0il (0llTRAfi ,ll0lllT0Rltl6 . .1170

Ruin"t ri" Id Manuat for Highway and Bidge Engineers


hahab Fletd'Manuat for Highway ana eadge Enoineers
f I
coNrEN]'s CONTENIS

33,3 PRAfiI$L ITTUSTRAII()N OF HOW A MONTHTY PR(}JEfi 35.6 MOEITISATION ADVANff AND MACHI}IERY ADt/AIIft - PAYMTIIT ANI) RffOVERY. ,1232

RIP0RT (lilPR) SH0UID BE (0MPOS[D AllD PRtstl{TtD - A SAMP|E MPR ..........11/3 35.7 flilAL AC(0UNT 0t (0NTRAfl0R'S WoRK. . . . . .1235

ANNIXURTS ..........1201 35.SIIQUIDITYDAMAGT,COMPENSATIOIITVINIS,ffiTI{SI()IIOfTIMEANI)BONIJS,


.r236

A - locolion Mop.... ..........1201


- ..........t20t 36.0 IMPORTANT FIDIC* CONDITIONS
SOTVTE
-1243
oF GoNTRACT ----"'-"
B Proiecl Stoffing .

C - (onlrsclo/s [quipmenl ..........1202


D - Loborolory & tield Tesls ..........t203 g7.A SOME IMPORTANT WORLD BANK
[ - lteofter Reporl .. ..........1204 lcB coNDlrloNs oF CoNTRACT "-"'
t - Job Photogrophs .. . .. ..........1204 37.I PTRIORMAN(TSKURITY

G - A Typkol lP( - A somple exomple . ..........1205 37.2 $GNII{G OF AGREIMEI{I


34.O PRTMAVERA - TOOTS FOR. PROJECT MANAGEMENT -t2t3 37.3 t0MMlH(ElltNI0rwoRK .
....
34.1 llTR0DU$t0t{ ........1214
37.4 ilQlJlDAIED DAMAGES toR DtLAY (LDl

34.2 PRIfiIAVIRA softwsre pockoges help: ... .....1214


37.5 VARIATIONS
34.3 P[AtlNltlG WIH ' PRIMAr/ERA P3E' Soitwore pockoge ... .......1214
3i.6 RITTNTION MONEY ..

34.4 INGINEIRING&C0l{sTRUfil0N-Streomline
31.7 ADVAI{CI PAYMENIS . .. ...
fie entke construction proied lifecyde .......: ......1215 37.8 ESCAIATI0N
34.5 PRTMA',IRA toR THr EXr(UTtVt . . . . . . 37.9 DAYII/ORKS
14.6 PRTMA'JEM roR THE PR0JE0 ilAilAGtR . . .. . . ...... .1216 37.10 PR0vlslONAtsuMs ......
34.7 PRIMAI/IRA tOR THt tlttD Ii{AIIAGIR .......1217 38.O ESSENTIAIS OF HOW THE CONSUHANT
34.8 PRIMAI,IRA F()R THE COSTI{ANAGTR... .....I2I8 SHOULD SUPERVISE A HIGHWAY & I

34.9 PRTMAVERA FoR THE (ot{rRAO0R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1218 BR.TDGE PROJECT TO FIDIC'\999/87 "-"'1269
34.10 pR0GRtss REf0RIIR ..........1219
MONITORING THE EFFECTS OF PTANT
39.O
34.11 CHARTSAI{DftARTDES|GI'|By,fRtilAVrRA ...........t?19
PRODUCTION-RATES & JOB EFFICIENCY-FACTORS
35.O CONSTRUCTIONCONTRACT FOR WORKI/IAN IIKE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT
..'I29I
- SOME ITYIPORTANT POINTS 39.I IIIORI( PROGRAMME TOR R()AD COi{STRUOIOI{
.1292
ii
I 35.I C]|AIIGT !il QUAIITITI$ suffi TllAT VARIATIOI{ II{ II{ITIAL 39.i. RTIIIEIY ()TACTUAI-WORK PROGRAMMES SUBMITIED BYTHT(ONIRAfiOR ........ .1295
c0llIRA$ PRtct D0t5 iloT t)(ctEt) t5% 1222
39.3 EOUIPMTNT PRODUfiIOI{ RATIS ... .r299
35.? c0ltTRAcf PRtcE vARtATt0l{ EX(tEDtilG 15%. . .. .. 1222
39.4 W0RK PR0GRAMME tOR ER|DGIS & (UIVERTS (Struoured .1313

35.3

35:i
. l9y:R"91 !!r9l'r!I[r0 ll RATrs (A.s

c0ilnAfi0R's il{tERtM PAYMENT tilv0'tff (tpt)At{D


prRrfDr(] .... 1224
39.5 tilSURlilG THAT AN APPR0PRIAII PR0GRAM lS lll tttEfi ((ontroc Monitoringl . . . .t315
IllE tllclllEtR'S ltlltRll'l PAYilEIIT CtRIltl(ATt (lPCl tOR I 1225 40.o CONSTRUCTION CONIRACT - PRI€E'E$CAIATION
3i.5''rnfffffi[lltrl0i{ty- DrDucfloil AilD'RER liD. :.
;. .... .. . t23l AND HOW TO ESTIMATE IT .....-.. t317

Ralrta's Field Manual for Highway and Bridge Engineers


f f Rainat Field Manuat fot Highway and Btidge Engineers
CONIENTS

40.1 INTRODU$IOtI

40.2 APPtlftTl()N 0F A PRI([ ADJUSTMENT F0R[{UIA

40.3 APPR0A(H - tl..tffiPtE ,,trD Co*tPA(' nEffiODl .....


40.4 APPRoA(H - frEIrrODl:.............
il l.,WORtD BANK
40.5 APPR0ACH -nt(.A SttPIE BUf DEIAIIED ffiEIHODI ...
40.6 tTtMs 0!t wflrff PRIG ADJUSTMTNT WtLt iloT Appty . .. . .. .. .
:
40.7 RilIEWOF F()RMUI.A APruCATION ....
40.8 RTFEREII(ES

4r.o pRoTEcTtoN oF THE ENVTRONMENT -------------------t343

APPENDICES t35r
Sumple DAIIY REP0RT Sheel 1352

Somple RtOUt$ t0R lllSPtOl0N Sheet 1353

SompleW0RKAPPROI/ALfiRDS{6nos.:sompled ...........1354
TNDEX ..---:--.---------t36t
I.O INTRODUCTION

i ,.a r -

,,r,(i . :_

;r it i:i.,A11..1.-;

nuirut riu ld Manuat for Highway and Bridge Engineers


Raina's Field lutdnual forHighway ana errdge angineers
] !
INTRODUCTION
Chapter I

l.o INTRODUCTION g)Co.oPera'tionratherthanconfrontattonwi||achievebetterresultsand


you ihould look to esrablish a good professional working relationship
t.l Thiis FIEID MANUAI is a IIANDBOOK of FIELD-PROCEDURES. lt pttts with the Contractor's staff'
forward good engineering practice and provides guidance to site engineers
involved with Highway and Bridge projects worldwide!

1.2 Vhilst it is addressed to the supervision aspects of contract management lor


the client's site staff, it is equally relevairt to contractors who should acquaint
themselves with its contents and ensure that their engineers understand it and
employ the same control practices.

t.3 Not every aspect of construction can be considered here since this Manual is
intended to be only an indicative check-list guide. Care should. be ta.ken to
qppu tbe actually appltcable condltlons of tbe Contract

t.4 Users of this MANUAL should note the following:

a) If you are in doubt about anything, do not keep quiet about it. Ask
someone. Everyone will give you the benefit of his experience.
b) This Manual is not intended to take precedence. over the applicable
specifications, contract conditions and requirements, which must be
carefully followed.
c) Altltouglt references baoe been made to aarlous BS / IS / IRC /
ASTM / AASHTO speciJilcatlons at aarlous places ln tbls Ma.nual,
you tnust follotD tlte spec{lcatl.ons tbat are contra,ctually
apphcable to your ProJect !
d) As a memtrer of the field staff, one should always bear in mind that until
a particular aspect of the work is complete, one cannot be certain that the
Contractor will not comply with the specification - unless it is clearly so.
You can advise but generally ]rou cannot stop the work when the
Contractor does not accept advice. However. you must report the matter
to your R.E. / A.R.E. Most Contractors will welcome constructive criticism d
and sussestions.
e) If you are certain thaf materials for the permanent works do not comply
with the specification, inform the contractor and contact your supervisor
if the contractor is reluctant to stop the work and replace the materials.
D If you suspect that materials do not comply with the specifications, get
the laboratory staff to check them and make sure that your -supervisor is
informed of the test results.

Raina's Field Manuat for Hlghway ana arioge engineers a"inu't riub Manual for Highway and Btidge Engineers
f, I
,

2.o ADMlNlsrnAnoN
2.1 THI RESIDEIIT ENGIIIEER {R.T.I
2.2 ASS|SIAI{T RtStD$fi $tGHffRS {A.R.t.}
2.3 SUPERVTSoR UUliloR llrcril[[Rl
I 2.4 OFFI(T TOCATIOII AND ROUII]IE
2.5 PERSOI{AL SITI DIARIIS 0f A.R.ts.lXo SUptnVSOnS
i
2.6 SUPTRVISOR'S DAITY REPORT
{',
!

I n"H"', a"H Manuat for Highway and Bridge Englneors


j:;.-:*;::;.,,:':'l:
Chapter 2 l',ri*i.l;::?;':t*.e{##S1}.!gi:.iii'.i*::!.]i#e,r:,liiBi:'ii;i,:t;r::j:jil,'i:::,:i:;. ADMtNtSTRATtQN

2.O ADMINISTRATION should all be consulted well in adVance of any intended traffic diversior.rs.
g) Ensure that the Contractor has given the local police the names and
(..... also see Chapter 31) telephone numbers of staff members of the R.E. and the Contractor who
can be contacted before / after office hours.
2.t THr RTSIDTNT rilctNEER (R.r.) h) Arrange meetings with involved parties, e.C.-pybli-i1!li!!99 Sutho{!ig}.".
The R.E. (the Chief R.E., if rhere is a C.R.E.) is generally rhe Engineer,s traffic and programming, etc., and aggg
Representative on site.
A guide to the R.E.'s general responsibilities is as follows:- i) Advise the staff about the way instructions should be issued (to the
Contractor) who is authorised to sign, and how to deal with confirmation
a) The R.E. will be expected to control the day-to-day supervision of the of verbal instructions from the c;*aeta;. -
'\Xl'orks and,
other than in exceptional circumstances, all formal
communication should be through him. j) Maintain a register of all contract drawings issued, including otl.rer
amendment identification, so that later date it will be possible to
b) Liaison with the Contractor's Agent: All communication with the ^t ^ drawing at any particular time.
establish the operative version of each
Contractor will be through the Re;ident Engineer.
Drawings will, however, be issued by the Engineer'.
'$7hen
writing to the Contractor, the R.E. should sign as ,'Resident
k) Ensure that a complete set of operative drawings is maintained at site.
Engineer'r. In tl-re absence of the R.E., an A.R.E. acting as his designated
depury should act on his behalf and should sign as "Deputy R.E. for. l) Monitor safety procedures to ensure that:-
Resident Engineer".
i. All site personnel are familiar with safety proceclures.
c) Administration:
ii. Safe working procedures are adopted by the Contractor and that all
i. Deal with.staff problems, discipline and timekeeping. Certify claims . scaffolding, lifting appliances and other plant ancl temporary works
for expenses, overtime, weekend working, leave, etc. comply with the appropriate regulations.
ii. Ensure that staff members understand their obligations regarding iii. Familiarity with action required in emergencies, e.g., contacts with
health and safefv at work. Ambulance, Doctors, First Aid services etc., and Contractor's repofts
of any accidents.
Arrange staff rotas to cover working outside regular hours. if
needed, where this is the Contractor's practice. Make arrangements iv. All First Aid boxes are fully stocked and available at suitable points.
to scc that Contractor's oveftime in the week is covercd fully by
superuision at fhe correct level.
v. Proper precautions are taken at all times and, particularly, when
using explosives, u'orking over water, etc. Precautions include:-
d) Endeavour to engender team spirit within the sire organisation including
the qontractor,s staff, with the common goal of completing, the work in
., o Wearing protective clothing and safery helmets,
good time.' o Using safety equipment at appropriate times,
e) Exchange lists of staff with the Contractor and their duties and quickly r Displaying warning boards,
inform each other of changes. This will help to avoid confusion on site,
i.e., when unknown or new personnel issue instructions to the o Roping off danger areas.
Conttactorrs staff. m) Check on the proper use and protection of the site.
D Monitor the contractor's liaison with local authoriries, police, etc. They n) Ensure qualiry control aspects in the provisio., of ,r.jl", and testing.

ffi"-- Raina,s Fierd Manuar for Hrghway and Bnuge Enginee.s ffi ffi n"rutri"lo Manuatfor{ighwayand}idgeEngine --'*-ffi
Chapter'.2
ADMINISTRATION

2.2 ASS|STANT RESIDEI{T tNGll{ErR (A.R.E.)


m) To check andjgglllgrsign the
-supervgols-daily-repsss;
2.2.t Ihe general duties of on A.R.E. ore 0s n) To ensure that supervisors are informed about details of the work. Also
followr:- to advise them of work to be carried out by dayevorks and when records
a) To organise and supervise his team
of Engineers and Superyisors to are to be kept.
all aspects of supervision of theii cover
;;;;;* work activities;
b) To liaise with the other A.R.Es. over
o) To ask for, check and approve all drawings and details from the
matters where their duties overlap, conrracror for remporary works, details ,l1l9j!S$igrr0" a$!1t199at .
e.g.: finished subgrade levels, backfill
to metloc! st43lqgnts, etc';
"f
bridge decks, road
p) To remind the Contractor of his legal requirenients in- respect of
c) To attend to correspondence as detailed
by the R.E. responsibilities to third parties, t.uf{9-g3-+ggement iq,-raad div'ersions,
d) To instruct his staff tt"--riioar;^;;;"; health and safety at work, etc.;
"n-
supelision and record-keeping; for a'aspects of
q) To assist in measurement of his section of the works and keep all
Note: In the early stages of construction, it necessary recQrds;
is suggested
that the A.R.Es. read
their staffls diaries once a week
and ensure that everyone is recording
potentially useful informariqn withour
r) To check the Contractor's progress applications, *.-yi]yl!i-"l.gly:ll$iggl ,

undue re and assist in checking his final statement. (Depending'uipirn'ihe-size of


e) ihe contract package, the R.E. might have a Measurement Engineer in his
tearn who would interact with the Contractor's Quantity Surveyor for this
. duty);
s) To assist the R.E. in preParation of_lris finanSie.l-fgppg]ng;
t) To maintain records of consttuction
restrict
a very u) To maintain "as built" drawings and
PlgLgWd-chanse;.*
0To and difficulties in the construction, 2.2.2 Assislont Residenl Engineer' Pcrtitular Dulies
the work, eg.,
Vithout limiting his other cluties, the following are Points for particular
To attend site meetings; attention:-
h) To liaise with the Contractor,s organisation,
at rhe appropriate level;
i) To prepare and check site instructions as
delegated by the R.E.;
D To approve materials wirh, if appropriafe, advice from
Laboratory (if one is assigned ,o the A.R.E._
tf,"'."io".0, pefson will, therefore, be
k) the greatest risk for
inseect and approve road formations
lo
constfuction;
and subsequent pavement required to be fully conversant with the Contractor's proposed method
of working and be able to spo_t_P9q$j3lgp!!.*t and their contractual
__,_d

I) To assist the R'E' in checking the


contractor,s detailed work prograryrme implications.
for eriors and anomalies;
b) &&8'Ilrafnug:- Apart from the A.R.E.'s normal supervision of the
work, a very important part of his work will be to check that the

Ralna's Fietd Manuat for Highway


ana eriag" Engineers
ffi I n"r"s rle ld Manual for Highway and Btidge Enginaers
Chaplsr 2'
g'x?aift:rf'',:.,;i;.i.rli,::i,r.lJ.\:;:til:gifiai!::iii*;:tiiI€c'li*F#Effii$Sffiffi ADMtNtsTRArtoN

contracror keeps the sire area properly drained, and that rain precipitation i) checking the inventory of the site materials laboratory against the
is kept from the site as efficiently as possible with minimum detriment to listofequipmenttobesuppliedbytheContractorunderthe
the works. contract.
c) A.RE.-pauement :- This A.R.E. wiil be responsible for acceptance of ii) The instruction and supervision of staff seconded to assist him'
consrrucrion of the road pavement for all stages from.pr-gp-aratiog_-gj
qlre ,
iii) Maintaining liaison with the A.R.E.s and the Contractor's
- paremenr riill-b6 influenced grearly_p;4k_qgdily-91-Wgi!'e-rrO ,.pr"r".rtuti.r"s, relative to the construction programme and the
.cer:lrol of
the proportions and quality approved methods of materials disribution, placing, compaction,
-r;;il"tr-bil;;;a. ih;Td._pavemenr
wiil' therefore, have to "f
co-ordinare tris wJrk crosely with the A.R.E.s piotection and general compliance with the specification and the
responsible for. Earthworks and the Laboratory. specilied tes[ing.

d) &R.nt&ragturcs-- The folrowing is a guide ro rhe particular duries of iv) Visits to the soutces of basic materials - supply and manufacturing
this A.R.E. :- plants proposed by the Contractor to cl-reck that they can provide
materials of the required quality, quantity and rates of delivery
i) carry out any minor modifications and corrections to the throughout the estimated period of construction.
bridge,/culvert drawings, e.g.: ro bar bending schedules, and
prepare 'ras built' drzwings. The latter should be prepared v) Carrying out initial and subsequent periodic tests on all aggrega-tes'
the course of the works. ,
during cement, reinforcing steel, bitumen, base materials, etc', to confirm
that they comply with the specification.
ii) A'ange witl.r tl.re A.R.E.- Laboratory for the srorage and testing of
such items as concrete cubes used for determinir! stripping vi) The immediate notification to the Contractor, the appropriate
for formwork in addition to the normal concrete ..rb" t"r,r.
times Section Engineer anci the Resident Engineer, of any materials which
have failed or are considered likely to fail in complying with the
iii) Establish false work srandarcls with the R.E.,s approval. specification. A clecision will then be made by the C'R'E' or R'E' as
iv) check contractor's temporary works drawings in accordance with to whether the suspected material is to be replaced.
the current standards. vii) The selection and testing of concrete mixes of all classes which the
v) Check and approve foundation formations. Contlactor proposes to Llse. Subject to these being satisfactory,
details are to be submitted with recommendations to the Resident
vi) Check and approve Subcontractors, and Suppliers, drawings,
e.g. Engineer for apProval.
Parg$-lg4llsa.*eqcllxaaqpjgn-P$rs.
viii) The initial and frequent subsequent checking of all concrete
vii) $/here delegated by rhe R.E., a.,nge for inspection and approval
of batching, mixing and transporting equipment, including calibration'
materials, including off_site mamrfacture of products.
ix) Selection and marking, in accordance with the specification of
e) 4&E:6eeetatisl;- $'here some construction packages ., concfete test specimens, and subsequent witnessing of all site tests
: which is unusual or sophisticated, e.g., an extensive. area ofinclude work
stage loaded carried out on them.
embankments,- a large bridge or a iunnel, the Engineer
will assign an x) Compiling and maintaining comprehensive records of all concrete
A.R.E. to take full-time responsibiliry for trrese items]The
A.R.E. will have placecl as well as the submission of the required refurns'
had extensive particular experience in these fypes of *o.kr. ,

D anLwptslary;- xi) Advising the R.E. on the approval of admixrures, curing agents, etc'
The A.R.E. assigned ro managing the laboratory will
be expected ro superuise rhe quarirytf materials *.I in
the works. The xii) In conjunction with ihe Contractor and the A'R'E'-Earthworks:
following notes are a guide to carrying out these dudes:_ establishing through laboratory trials - the properties of soils being
used in embankment construction, backfilling, etc'
Raina's Field Manual for Highway and Briage Engineers
ffi ffi t etd Manual for Highway and Eridge Engineers
^rrr""
Chaptet 2
ADMINISTRATION

xiii) In conjunction with the contractor: establishing where required by


the specificatio", qg in situ properties of ground beneath proposed h) Liaise with the engineers when checking work.
embankments and behind proposed cut slopes.
i) Liaise with the A.R.E.-Laboratory and his technicians on the results of
. xiv) Ensuring the proper execution by technicians of in-situ densiry materials testing;
testing of soils. .
i) Give special attention to matters concerning public safety, e.g., mud on
xv) supervising whatever other in situ testing of soils is required by the roads, signing and lighting of works.
specification.
xvi) In conjunction with the A.R.E.-pavement: supervising the 2.4 Ottl(t L0CATl0N Al'lD R0UTINE
contractorrs test trials to establish the design of asphalt mixes and
All appointed staff of the Resident Engineer will be expected to use the
submitting recommendations to the R.E.
appropriate site office of the Resident Engineer as their work base. The person
xvii) In conjunction with the A.R.E.-pavement: the initial ancr frequent appointed as the Engineer will be expected to be available with his support
subsequent checking of ail mixing and transporting equiprnent for staff at the firm' office but not
asphalt materials.
The Resident Eng.ineer-on site and his staff will be expected rg.devise and set

2.3 SUPERVIS0R UUNIOR tl'tctilEtR)


up an offi-e routine. They should familiarise themselves with the Contractorrs
office routine, including hllgggqBgpJlgng-g_4ad. .lilbc _sJ.€lgll9;
+* -'

The main duties are to:- 4 Houls of work wiil generally be defined by the Assistant Resident Engineer
a) Ensure that the contractor's work is properly supervised at all times and under whom you are working.
that it is ca'ied our in accordance with ihe drawings and specification.
Pafiicular duties will be allocated by the R.E.,/A.R.E. Transfer from one part of
b) contact the A.R.E. or his assistant when faulry work occurs or where a a Package to another or transfer to another Package will be notified bv
variation is required. (It should be noted that no instruction should R.E./A.R.E.
be
issued which constitutes a variation to the contract).
c) Ensure and understand the drzwings and specification. 2.5 P[RS0NA[ SlTt DlARltS 0F A.R.E.s AND SUPIRVIS0RS
d) Ensure that the records for plant and labour are kept accuratery and
that
These are to be completed daily by them to record events pertaining to the
any removal of plant from tl-re site by the contr.actor is reported progress of the work and, in particular, with regard to their own involvement
immediately to the A.R.E.s in these events, whether by observation or direct action.
e) Agr€e to dawvork records with the Contractor. (These should be signed Items to be recorded should include:-
and endorsed "for record purposes onry,'.) Keep dairy site diaries and
complete daily reports.
a) W'ork carried out by the diarist, i.e., site supervision, level checking, etc.

0 Ensure thaf inspections caled for by the contractor are carried out
b) \7ofk cariecl out by the Contractor with reference also to events of note,
e.g., commencement of earthworks, bridgeworks, piling, etc.
promptly and that the prescribed forms are used. It should be noted that
the contractor is required under the contract to give specific prior notice
,
c) Instructions to the Contractor and any work-related conversations with
of inspections requiied. the Contractor's representatives.
g) Vhen working outside normal working hours, ensure they have d) Inspections made, any decisions given, to whom, and when.
emergency telephone numberc available for communication with A.R.E.s
or R.E. to enable then to report any exceptional events such as a serious e) Conversations and agreements with other.parties, e.g., land owners, local
accident or construction breakdown. authorities and public utility representatives.

Raina's Field Manual for Highway and Briage Engineers


ffi Raina's Field Manual for Highway and Bridge Engineerc
ADMINISTRATION
Chapter 2

O Contractor's plant on site, rype and location, and whether it is in working D A description of work being carried out should be included. Examples are :
or standing condition or in disrepair. i) "Fixing West Sring lvall Shuttersrr.
g) Operations being carried out with respect to plant and labour, and any ii) "Placing Bridge Beams".
/
comment on their suitability or otherwise with regard to the tasks in hand. iii) "Laying Sub-base" .
It should be noted that for certain operations, there is to be a specific
works progress record attached to the daily reports. g) A statement on the weather should be included. Examples are:-
i) "Fine all day". r
The diary will be supplied by the Resident Engineerrs Office and if you have
not been supplied with one, you should ask.for it. i) "Heavy shower 10.30 - 11.15 am." /
iii) r'No work - rain all day". z'
2.6 SUPERVISOR'S DAIIY REPORT iv) "S hade Te mpe rature excee d ed !-ClZ1y_o p.11 _. 4.3-0-.pm. "

2.6.1 Tl-ris should be completed not later than the following day and should be as h) The report shor-rld note any difficulties t[{_yS1e,.ele-o."tratered and how
complete as possible. The report should be completed to show the following:- theYX.Ig gJrqtcome'
a) The bridge or culvert identiry should be shown. In the case of earthworks, i) The names of all yjsitgrsao;[eggtkg{e s$ggjg..i9ql.uded.
the locations of both cut and fill should be stated. For pavement works,
the start and finish chainage must be shown together witl.r the 2.6.2 Iypical Doily Reporls should include lhe following informotion, whele
carriageway and l{ne. .r
oppropriote to lhe wriler:
b) For the purpose of identifying the carriageway, the following should be a) Topsoil strip-chainage _qr_d_{epth.
used:-
b) Earthmoving operation, chainage, haul distances, material, plant and their
i) The direction "North-bound" or "South-bound," "East-bound" or ourput, and weather, including:- material classification, suitabiliry and
rrlWest-bound".
compaction records (noting reference to moisture contents, also hardness
ii) The right hand lane is the '!!qy:'.lane and the left hand lane is the of materials and strata levels with reference to "rock" claims, e.g., use of
"fast" lane_(or as applicable). rippers g lleugggigglant).

iii) For si4e road5, slip roads, interchanges and toll areas, des_c-ribe by c) Soft spots - lccation, dimensions, material - above and below, and
chairyGdin4 inctud6?-idu gh sTAAi,
-f ne cesi'a-ry.*' . suspected causes.

c) A complete list of the Contractor's labour and plant should be included. d) Drainage - operation, chainage, amendments (if any).
-
'Where work is being carried out on a dayrvorks basis, the names and job e) Sub-base - location, state of formation at time of instruction.
positions, driver, crane etc., are esseniiai with
"p911!ol D Pavdrnent construction - chainage, weather, materials being laicl, layer
their
depths and extra depths, .at and material temperatures.
d) A comptete list of the plant being used should be included. \Vorking g) Bridgeworks progress - daily reeerds-for-eaCLstructure of labouq plant
hours should be stated and so also any plant idling or broken down.
and ionstructior"r, r.i.rfor."r"",
Again, if the work is being done on a day'works basis, plant identification
"fr""g"r, lGmgf
h) Piling - location, sets, length, time through different strata, obstructions,
numbers should be included. time faken, and methods used to overcome them.
e)
. !?here work is being carried out on a dayworks basis, materials used and i) Concrete pour - weatheq batching, quantity and rate, curing, etc.
their quantities should also be stated.
j) Soiling and - location, weather.

Bid1e Enlineers f, R in"t ri" M Manuat for Highway and Bidge Engineers
Raina's Field Manuat for Highway and ffi
Chapter 2

2.6.3 Supervisors are to append to their daily reports their retained copies of
'Request for Inspection' or 'rVork Approval' Cards; these are a ready source of
information of progress. @u.

2.6.4 Typical examples of 'Daily Report' Sheets, 'Request for Inspection' Sheets and
'Work Aooroval Cards are shown in the Aooendix of this Manual.

t 3.O GENERAT

3.t STTING oUT 3.t2 SAfflYATSITI


3.2 oUAl.lW 0t ltlATIRlAl.s AllD TESTII{G 3.t3 PRI-(0I|SIRUO|0J{'STAGI

3.3 PI.AIIT AI{D I.ABOUR 3.t4 FHAI{ffitASPEffS


3.4 ilIoRilAlloll FRot IHt (ollTRActoR 3.I 5 fiTASURTffIENT AIID PAYfrIE}IT

3.5 I}ISPECTION AND APPROVAT 3.t6 SoItlE lmPonTAilI Col{Dlllolls


3.6 LOCATIOI{ 0F EXlSTll{G SERVTGS 3.t7 SroutN(E ot RoAD (ollsTRucTloll,
TYPI(AI TOUIPIIITilT USID AIID IHEIR
3.7 IXlSililqRoADS AND ItlrtPoRARY TiIAIE i
DlvERSl0l{s
nrfii$ti?lchiiSiA
3;8 MtASURElllfl[I'RE(ORDS
3.18 BRIDOI COl{STRUGIIOl{rGEtllRAt
, '.; :l' PRIPAnATIOI,', ftioBlllsffi 10il'AilD
3.9 !g/!l{1ulr.r(ATr91r wIH lfiI SIORES
COI{TRACTOR AI{D SUB.(OIIIRACTORS
3.I9 HIGHWAY coHiinricniilii'Urfu rnm
3.t0 ust 0r IHE sP[clllcATloil
3.II !!.q$Ir_gr{,,f t-gP,!|f lsrls,
PROGRESS AI{D SIORIS
.'L-

:'r.,.
\
Raina's Fietd Manualfot Highway and artdoe Enoineers f nunut r,e H Manuat foi Highway and Bildge'Engineers
f
GENERAL
Chapter 3

out. Official proglamme information will be supplied by the Contractor ancl


3.O GENERAT your A.Ii.E. shor-rld let you know wirat is planned for yonr part of the works.
Try to think aheacl and request information from tl-re Contractor on sr.rch things
3.t SETIING OUT as times of concrete pours so that shuttering and reinforcement can be finally
The responsibility for setting out the works is that of the Contractor's. The approved or whether temporaly works, diversions or stream diversions are
Il.E.'s Surveyor will check that the Contractorrs setting out is cort'ect. needed.

Before the Contractor starts any aspect of the work, make sure that the If you are not ceftain as to how a particular aspect is goir-rg to be carried out,
surveyor is notified by contacting him directly or tlrrough the A.I{.8. To assist ask both the Contractor and your own superior
with the detailed setting out, tgfergqsgjlatg$ q/4lbggteptishg-d:lheck these
occasionally to see that they l4_vq_agt been damlgq{. If there is susp_ect_ed
damage, notiSr the Contractor immediatety'?s well as tl1-e- R,E.'s Surveyor. .,
3.5 INSPECIION AND APPROVAT
'fhe Contractor should obtain approval to commence any aspect of the work
Always check that you ancl the Contractor are working to the latest approved . and obt:rin approval on completion. You tngs_t-ll9!-!11.1!!qqes-s4rily delay tl-re .
edition of the drawings. A register of drawings should be maintained by the Contlactor as this can give rise to a claim and ireedless expenditure of money.
Dr:rughtsman in the R.E.rs office. . Check each stage of tl-re work 4q lt-p1-o-gg.e_dq. and have any errols-corlected as .
Use your eyeslfor'qui.ck and. slmple'cbecks; cbeck tbat the lhrcs are tl-rey appear. A final inspection should be made when the Contractor says that
straigbt and that tlte curaes are smootlt; olffsets a.re recltecked ctnd he is. r'eac[1, to proceecl qo the tr-e.!t gtage. .
respected, and double check against att! closirtg enors. It is not to the benefit of the ploject for a Supervisor to leave his comurettts
Oaercottlfidenc-e- can proae to .!e, expey2il.tg! - . , ' on work until the Contractor has completecl it. Comments should be convcyecl
as y94 is,!-ggg done.
3.2 OUAI.ITY OF TIIIATERIATS AND TTSTII{G
large concreting operations, do not delay giving the Contractor approval
Or-r
The job can only be as good as the materials and workmanship that are used.
to if there are minor en'ors that are being worked on ancl will not be
.start
Substandard materials will give a substandard job. The responsibiliry of testing
covered with fol: some time.
for ar:ceptance is generally that of thg A.R,Erl,ai)-o.ratqry._Yor-r should see that
the rnaterials that have detcriorated are not used, e.g., concrete that has been If testing is recluired, notify the llboratory _i_n_.gg!,9 !ime.
mixed f<rr too long (past its initial setting time) or rebar that has mill scale or
cliscernible rust. OI
3.6 IOCATION EXISTING SERVICES
Report via the A.R.E. any new material that the Contractor brings to the site, Before the Contractor begins excavations for foundations below existing
including a change in fill material in the earthworks. ground, check that the underground
,t , V',( selvlces waterl not lrab]glo3nuge.
J.J PIAI{T AND TABOI'R
Tlre end product of the job will depend very largely on the peformance of
,t:1.' The utilities drawings will,/should indicate whet'e seruices are but they should
be exposed by pilot trenches prior to any excavation. If in doubt, inform thc
the plant and labour. Check particularly that vibrating equipment - rollers, Contractor who will contact the Seryice Authority if necessary. You should
concrete vibrators, etc., - are functioning correctly. If not, advisejf. also inform the A.R.E. who will check that the Contractor has contacted the
Confractol and inlorm your superior Service Authority.

The same applies to heavy plant crossing roads, public or private.


3.4 INFORMATION FROTIII THE (ONTRAffOR
It is important to know in advance what work the Contractor intends to carry
r'
Raina's Field Manual for Highway and Bridge fngneers F,: i.:j l'!: ..-. J. :' Rana's Field Manual for Highway and Bridge Engineers 1-g
Chapter 3
GFNERAL

3.7 TXISTING ROADS AI,ID TEIUIPORARY DIVTRSIONS matters freely with your
The Contractor is obliged not to interfere with or damage existing roads or your Superuisor
make use of them without the permission of rllg_&4dQjlgggtaig- Any
breach of this should be reported in detail to the A.R.E. giving times, names,
Except in an informal way, 4q lgljgCtlrclthe Silh.onffactorrs rqpEseqtatives,-*
if possible, and vehicle rypes and their registration numbers. lVhere a
temporary diversion is needed, it is thei responsibility of the Contractor to
obtain the necessary approval to the alignment and the type of construction,
and get p"rdr.iolllgpglery3!9l$s!
3.t0 UST OF THE SPT(TICATION
Check all diversions and plant crossings to see that they are clean and do not
have potholes. Do not try to merely remember the Specification. Get a photocopy of the part
that is relevant to your present duties and carry it with you. If in cloubt, refer
Check that signing is as approved and well maintained. to your superior.
At plant crossings, check that the Contractor's safety precautions are adequate.
3.II PROGRESS
3.8 MTASURETUITilT RTCORDS Draw the attention of your superior to any aspect of the work that seems to
Even if the work is in accordance with the drawings, it is aclvisable to keep be slow so that he may take it up at a highe{-level. Tty tolgl_gut th.e reasons
measurement records. However, if the work is varied or additional, then a af vour level--\ I
,-:!__*e-
record of the wor* will be required.
r
,

I
I
! Tire A.R.E. will inforrn of the and these must be i.r sAFETY AT srTE
i
I

li
Ensure that the records are in If you notice anything on site that you consider to be unsafe, ciraw it to the
the format required by the are sent to him. For record, t.Sqejgpv- attention of the Contractor and your superior.
i, ,in-v-our office. Examples of the type of things to look for are:
I

i Occasionally, the Contractor will feel that he is entitled to extra pavmenr rhat a) A ladder that has bro@g rugg; or is not properly secured in position.
rl
has not been instructed as such. Th. cont.ffi
lecords of time spent his and piant and materials used for
b) An excavation near a public access that is not properly barricadecl or
I
adequately lit aJ.nighJ,
I
this work. If you consider'
I of the wolk done, you (the sign it and add the words c) Blasting equipment not kept under se.,rre condiltio6
I . RECORD PURpp,SES ON!!'", d) Mechanical defects in plant: This particularly applies to any vehicles
supplied by the Contractor in which L9g!gy.l. Remember that it is yoyl
3.9 - COIilMUMCATIOI{WITHTHTCONTRACTORANDSUB.CONTACTORS fif6 in danger.
You must always be aurare of Nate: See Chapter 28for rnore details tegardtnS!'S;ffi|
4?--'
Contractorrs organisation. communication with
the Contractor. If
to the attention of
ryuft bring this 3.I3 PRE.CONSTRUCIION STAGE

--ttre--CsntracroL- 3.13.1 Pfior to commencing construction activities, the main Contracl"or and the
Instructions should be.given to the Contractor on matters where the work Supervision team should ensure smooth and speedy commencement of the
contravenes the Specificati on/ Drawings/Contract. works on completion of all preliminary contractual procedures.

K-* Raina's Field Manuat for Highway ano eriaoe engineers


] ft n rrs rr d Manual for Highway and Bridge Engineers
GENERAL

Qhaptor 3
- vhere existing services occur within the limits of the works, precise
The preparation prior to the start of work is very important, and some of the locations and depths must be established by hand-excavated trial
marters can indeed be carried out dufing the period up to the final signing of pits and agreed to with the relevant services representative, prior to
the contract. anyworkcommencingintheaffectedarea.Recordthedetailsand
sign them jointlY. i

3.13.2 Controcl Drowings & Documenls


- Any required protection measures for the utilities shall be sought
Carry out the following checks:- from the authorities concerned and instructed in writing to the
a that a of Contractor. The Contractor's programrhe for these activities will be
List communicated to ttie duthoriry's rg!1lesenggry jg95!9l. qE! lreg
arranse to be in attendance.
a Closely inspect the Contract Drawings and DocumenLs to check that all
are in order; no errors nor omissions ate apPment, and amendments - Should any unfore'seen seryices, diversions 'or other alterations
reborded at pre-handover inspection (where applicable) .have been
becomenecessary'deailswillbeagreedtowiththeresponsible
completed. Srudy and become familiar with all the details of the contract,
authority.for.theworktobecarriedglr:Anyinterferenceordelay
making notes of any unusual aspects for future reference' caused to the noabs contraitor shall be agreed to in detail, and
o See that the for of recorded and lointlY signed.
\fay) is the
Check to ensure that Plannj4g-!914qissi<-rn ignditionr are-refleEgglon the (ii) Proposed Setvices
Drawings. - $fhere new services are to be installed, such information should be
:
detailed on the contract Services Drawings. These activities should
3.13.3 Avoilobility of Site ond handing il fie (ontroctor
over to be .clearly indicated on the Contractor's programme, following the
check the following and identify problems an early stage and alert the discussions held at the Services lvleeting.
^t
superiors immediately: - Any subsequent delays by the Roads Contractor, which might affect
a) Existing properties and buildings, fences, accesses, boundary lines, the programme fQr services installations, must be notified to the
servicei, cabies, septic tanks, trees, planted areas, etc., shall be checked authorities in sufficient time for them to reschedule their operations.
for any interference with the proposed c6nstruction work'
The services authorities must also provide a programrne of their
b) Any restrictions / special requiremenls regarding Planning Permission and
'wayleave shall be investigated. Land appropriation procedures shall be proposed wolkS,' :monitor: their progress and record any delays
checked with the superiors, and necessary actiofls taken-for smooth iffe.Eting the Roads Contractor. Should the service installations not
working. proceed in a satisfactory maqnet the authority's representative must

lir effects,lo the 44iq co41rapt.


3.13.4 Services, Diversions & 0perotion
Before any work.commences,.which.is in the viciniryof known or suspected '- Particularregard,shall'trd given to the'standard of bacKilling of
services, the concerned authorities shall be requested to attend the site for excavations by the Services Contractors, and no: substandard
carrying out thd necessary discussions.4nd divetsiogp:'i r . , r.' , .
:
compaction will be tolerated. Any unsatisfactory standard of
woikmanshio bv the servic6s contractors must be immediately
(il Existing Servkes brought:to ?he anentiijil of 'the repre5'entative of the concerned
- Any dam4ge whatsoever to exiSting, services shall be imrnediately uutnJ.ity atta , elaii, recorded in wriding'dnd"prefbrably iointly
brought to the attention of the.relevant authority' signed.

Raina's ne H Manuat for Highway antt Bridgte Engineers


Raina's Fietd Manual for Highway ana eridye enOineers f !
GENERAL
Chapter 3

3.t4 TINANCIAI. ASPECTS 3.r 5 TNEASUR EMENT AN D PAYIVIENT

3.t 4.t Funding 3.15.1 Mecsuremenl ol (ompleted Work


a) The Project Budget comprises the funds committed to pay all costs of the a) Ascertain an<l determine the value of works completed in :rccordance
r.qqpitigq, _g-oppg!.qation, .constructiq.n with the contract. This shall be in accordance with the Civil Engineeling
project, including ]g$ -;4" I _wglkq,.
Standard Method of Measurement as laid down in the contract.
*e".1'.: 4r"lq,j:l1$E::Ee, "i.
b) The Connact Vahte is that portion of the Proiect Budget, which is b) \yhen intending to carry out measurement, give adequate notice in order-

necessary to pay for the cost of all items inclucled in the Roads Contract. that the Contractor may attend if he so wishes. Failure of the Contractor
For Tendered Contracts, this may be in the form of a Lump Sum or Item to attend any joint measurement shall bc recorded in writing and the
Rates to be paid to the Contractor fol'the works as shown on the Contl'act
Contractor duly informed of this. The measurements thus taken shall folm
the basis of the relevant valuations. Me;rsurernent of all buried or lriclden
Drawings,/BOQ and includes a contingenry allowance. In the case of
work shall take place before covering ttp.
Term Con[acts, this is the total amount allocatecl to be subsequently
issued in portions as Term Contract Orders, the costs of which are c) \Vhere required, a representative of the Q.S. (Quantity Survey)
individually estimated and subject to re-measure on completion. Department shall be invited to attencl any valuation mcetings at-rcl liaison
kept with the Q.S. Dept. regarding any matters of measttretncnt where
3.14.2 (ontrol ol [xpendilure there may be contention or necd of classification.
a) Continually monitor the expenditure of the contract to ensLrre thzrt the cost
3.15.2 Ptotessing ol Poyment lnvoites & (ertificuter
of the works does not exceed the Contract Value.
a) All contractor's iuvoices shall be passed on by the li.E. for checking of
b) Any necessary item of work not shown on the Contlact Drawings, which quantities---agai-4g! feSg-tdp crf- qile .illq.astlrement previously taken and
involves additional costs, shail be ordered in writing by means of a Site i;plr3".a. \Where Site Instructions have been issued (e.g., in cor-rfilmation
Instruction to be signed by the R.E. of provisional Iterns, additions, alterations, etc.), these shall be referred to
c) Prepare, on a monthly basis, a report itemising all additional costs, in the wolk description whenever relevant.
including Site Instructions issued together with any other anticipated b) Vhen the checking of quantities has been cornpleted, these should be
extras known at the time. Thiq, pp"_grt shall be sent for monthly approval clearly marked in red ink on the invoice, which shall tl.ren be initialled, datecl
of expenditure ol' the Co4tirrgerpy. Sum., and passed (to the Q.S. Dept.) for evalnation and certification. Enstue that
the completed Certificate is coffect; sign it, and pass it to the Ii E fol his
d) A cumulative record of the value of Site Instructions shall be maintained
signature before retitrning it (to the Q.S. Dept.) for processing the payrnent'
for a continuous comparison with the amount of the Contingency Sum.
Should the Ctintingency Surn be expended, no further aclditional works
may be ordered until the Ministry,/client approves any necessaly increase ': 3.I6 SOIJIT IMPORTAI.IT CONDITIONS
to the Contract,Value .by alloedtion'of 'fufther'funds frorn the Project COI\DITION DESCRIPTION
I
Budget. (a) Insurance Documents r The Contractor shall pt'ovide evidenc-e that tl"re
required insurance-__pelicies . have bgert
e) Should the anticipated expenditure exceed the Proiect Budget, no further f
,

obtained.
additional works can be instructed" ,rlqli1,,?qSngements
' for increased
funding have been made by tiJMiiiiittyZ.li;;.' '- ' (b) Commencement of o The works should commence as soon as is
the Works practicable, after completion of all the
'.
, ?.
!.:: necessary legal and contractual reqttirements
;^24' ,''26
Raina's Fietd Manual for Highway and Bridge Engineers y.,'.!:!:i '':: .',-j',t e"r"a ta ld Manual for Highway and Bridge Engineers '
!:,

,, ttl
!&..
GENERAL
Chapter 3

their oualifications and experience shall be


and within the stated in the Tender. *re R E:
;bnil"; at thdiiia.dtft A-if requested b1''
r The Engineer's 'Qrder to Commence' shall he assigned by the Contractor to
ariY pefsons
issued iri writing aiid sent to thd Contractor to
participate ln the contract ate subject
by Fax and Registereal,Post. by the Engineer at any
approval or reiection
in accordance with time. The Contractor has to alfafige for
the and shall clearly of staff immediatelY
indicate completion of; the works within the
, r specified completion: period. r : (f) Location of On-slte
This programme will: 'be a subject for
' discussion"at'both the'Pre-Construction and
',the Services' meetings, prioi'to its submission
by the Contractor within'the allotted nurnber
,9f day,o ,fter fre ,Satq qf the 'order to
Qommpqqg.: ', tt ,.. j:,
,o Therprograrnine i9; s115j".t to approval by the
I Bngineerland shall be revised and modified
during the course of the contract, as and
esrlqquirgd,pydP&egdine.,' the on
Contra.ctorrs prlgress.. the erectioo:
r The prggrar-nme must be clear and precise, o Ensure that the necessary copies
of all
showing duration-s of .work activities, services completed applicabie 'documents ate carrect
operations, .mAterials deliveries, etc. A poorly aqd made avail4ble to thg CQnftactor ,and
the
thought:out and s]<ptchy bar chart is not R.E, client
the Contractor's obligations for
organisdtion rshall be inade clear at (h) Matertals SamPling a

andTesting.
plant,
!a
to complete
and 1n

shall be stored
inideQuate -to' compfetg'r'ihqiirWorkS in - These Samples, on approval'
o
and location for
in-- suitabl,e
'""tnt"tit"" condition
asgo1d?rye with tlm ''lubisfxp4',Br,9er-rnrrl.i, be required by
-his tests, which may
shall increase resources
.,.*19,
;#tfu. atl^ter dates during.the course of the
" ''vbiks. '

contBct, .to
of setting out shall be discussed,
proyide competent, to
inciuding the proposed checking by the
superintend his operations. The of
Englneers
Ralna's Fietd Mahuat lot Htghway and'Brldg" enOin"".s n"rut a" H'Manual for'Highway and Brtdge
! !
GENERAL
Chapter 3

(iv) Details of site visits by representatives of


Supervision Team; joint setting out is public works, service utilities or other
acceptable. Existing beacons and markers are
authorities, which may be relevant to the
to be located, and any conflicts recorded and Contract.
the R.E. informed.
(v) Full details of any internrptions to the
o Levels of the existing ground shall be taken works, including times, plant and labour
along the proposed alignment and records
affected.
agreed to and signed jointly by the Contractor
and the R.E. (o) Site Safety o The Safety Officer /R.E. shall remind the
(i) Contractor of his obligations regarding
Contract Signboards r The Contractor shall confirm his proposals provisions./activities/controis necessary to
for the Contract Signboards; the wording and
maintain safety of the work and of the site
locations shall be approved by the R.E.
superuisors, workers, operators, members of
(k) Wayleave r The original copy of the Vayleave shali be the public, etc.
provided to the Contl-actor for clearance by
r Regular, unannounced site inspections for
the appropriate authorities. This procedure this purpose will be made by the Safety
can best be completed during the Services Officer,/R.E. during the course of the works.
Meeting to avoid unnecessary delays
(l) p) Traffic Safety & Control r Proposals for temporary traffic diversions
nrogress Meetings r Dates and frequency of future progress shall be submitted to the R.E. for inspection,
Meetings shall be agreed to; these shall be correction, if necessary, and approval who
dependent on the Period for Completion and will also make arrangements for afiy
subject to rescheduling as may become .t necessary media announcements prior to
necessary during the course of the works. {. implementing the diversion.
(m) Works Check and o The Contactor shall be reminded of the need
Approval Requ€st Forms o The R.E. will arrange for notification to the
to provide printed copies of the Check and emergency authorities.
Approval Request Forms for all stages of
construction. q) Any Other Business As and when it arises.

r This procedure shall be strictly followed at all


times, and failure to comply shall make the
Contractor responsible for any resulting
delays.
(n) Site Records o The following daily records are to be agreed
to jointly and in writing befween the
Contractor and the R.E.
(i) Numbers and activities of the Contractor's
stafl labour and machinery.
(ii) Location and progress of work activities.
(iii) Details of all verbal instrucrions, spoken of
via telephone (to be followed tn writing
where ).
Raina's Fietd Manual for Highway and Brdge Engrneers
ffi
ffi Rainas Fleld Manual for Highway and Btidge Engineers ffi
GENERAL
Chapter 3

3.17 STOUINCE OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION, TYPICAI. TOUIPTUIENT USTD (d) Water Tanker ...... Mercedez2624 18 m3/load

AND THEIR RATTD CAPACITIIS (e) Compactor ...... Dynapac CA- 51 120 m'lhr

Sequence No. I Sequente No. 4

Surveying Work ond Stoking Subgrode Preporolion:


(A) Excavating
Sequence No. 2

Choring ond Grubbing: done either by the bulldozer or motor grader, depending (B) Loading
upon the nature of grou.nd, depth of excavation and as per special
(C) Hauling
specifications of the project
(D)Spreading and Mixing
Sequence No. 3
(E) Compacting
[orthwork ([xcovotion* ond [mbanknent**] Equipment Type Productivity
* [xcovolion For (A): Bulldozer (i) Cat.D-10 As in Sequence
(ii) Cat.D-9 No. 3 above
Equipment Productivlty/hr (iii) Cat.D-8
Type Hard Rock Rock SorT
(iv) Cat.D-7 90 m3/hr (soil)
(v) Cat.D-6 70 m3/hr (soil)
Bulldozer (i) Cat. D-10 40 Cu. m 70 Cu. m 180 Cu. m
(i) cat.988 300 m3/hr
For (B): Loader
(ii) CaL D-o 25 Cu. m 50 Cu. m 140 Cu. m (ii) Cat977 27O m'lhr

(iii) cat. D-8 15 Cu. m 30 Cu. m 100 Cu. m (iii) Cat. 966 180 mj/hr
(iv) CaL 950 120 m3/hr
** [mbonkmenl
(v) Cat.930 100 m3/hr
Mercedez 3823 , 12 m3/load
Plant Productivity For
(i) For (D):
(a) Loader cat. 988 300 m3/hr
'Spreading and (i) Cat. 16 G 80 m3/hr
(ii) Cat. 977 270 m'lhr
Mixils' (ii) Cat. 14 G 60 m3/hr
(iii) Cat. 966 180 m3/hr (Motor Grader) (iii) Cat. 12 G 4O,m3lhr

(iv) cai. 950 120 m'/hr For (E): Compacting Dynapac CA-51 12O m3lhr

(v) Cat.930 100 m'/hr


(b) Dump Truck Mercedez 3823 12 m'lload

(c) Motor Grader (i) cat. 16 G 120 m3/hr


(ii) Cat. 14 G 80 m3/hr
(iii) Cat. 12 G 60 m3/hr

Raina's Field Manuat for Highway and Bridge Engineers j ffi n"rut Field Manualfor Highway and Bridge Engineers
i'
GENERAL
Chapter 3

Sequenre No. 5 3.18 BRIDGEC0NSIRUCII0N:GINERALPRIPARNIoN,moBll.lsAlloN


AND STORES
Sub-boses or Aggregote Bose (ourse
(F) Crushing Aggregate
1. SurveYing instruments'

2. Vehicles for personnel and transportation'


(G) Loading fot aggregate grad^tior'' curing'
3. Concrete laboratory (required equipment
(H) Hauling
testing, ancillaries, etc'),
(t) Spreading and Mixing
4. PreParation of shoP drawings'
(I) ComPacting pour and also of average pour'
5. Determine size of maximum concrete
hence size of Batching Piant'
Equipment for (F): Crushing Plant ..............up ro 300 t/hr
reinforcing steel, and capacity required'
Equipment for (G): Loading ........ as in Sequence No. 4 above 6. Cu*ing and bending machines for
and tendons (cables) required' then
Equipment for (H): Hauling ...... as in Sequence No. 4 above. 7. Any prestressing anchorages' ducts
etc'
alsoihe stressing iacks, grout pumps'
Equipment for (I): Spreading and Mixing
B. Scaffolding' formwork, ancillaries'
(Motor Grader) (i) Cat. 16 G 60 mt/hr Bearings, expansion joints' bedding
and grout materials'
9.
(11) Cat. 74 C 40 m3/l-tt finishes'
10. Any particular liners for side-surface
(tii) Cat. 12 G 30 m1/hr 11. APProval of
Equipment for Q): Compacting.... as in Sequence No. 4 above. (a) Aggregates, cement' water' additives'
methods' operation of
Sequenre No.6 (b) Formwork design'/drawings' construction cycles'
temporary ;;'i;;'o'.,i' tott"*ction and operational
Bituminous Base Course/Weoring (ourse (c) Concrete Mix design (various)'
(i) Crushing Planr .................... productiviry up to 3A0 t/br (d) Prestressing materials'
(ii) Asphalt Planr ........... producriviry up ro 300 r,/hr
(e) Necessary shop drawings' bar
schedules' etc'
(iii) Bitumin Tanker up to 45 t/load 12ri Mobilisation:
(iv) Loaders for Plants (various) (a) Taking over site and staking out
the bridge' setting up camp'
etc''
(v) huttings, faciiities' postal/phone/fax facilities'
Dump Trucks for Hauling Aggregares and Asphalt "ffit","tt"*ptrt
(vD Paver .......... .up to 300 t,/hr O) Adequate water source and Yield'
(vii) Asphalt Distributor (c) Aggregate sources and'Yields'
(viii) Rollers (different rypes: Light Steel Roller, pneumatic (d) Stores (steel, ^[greg^tes' cement' and other materials)'
Tyred Roller and Heavy Steei Roller). (e) Scaffolding and shuttering'
and Btidge Engineers
Raina's Fietd Manual for Highway and Briage engineurs
ffi ffi Rarnas Fietd Manual lor Highway
1!
GENERAL

Chapter 3
curing works'
casting' finishing and
(D r r-oreman for concrete
Tempolary structures (Launching Girder, if needecl), Piling Eqpmt.,
Grabs, Sheet Piles, etc. r Accountantand time keePer'
operators'
storekeepers' computer
(g) Concrete mixers and mixing trucks, weigh batching plant r General staff including-clerks' and ward'
(depending on demand and spread), a'id *atth
Pt"titu'"i'?tP;li;"t
(h) labour'
Water chiileq if required, for concrete mix water, r Skilled and unskilled
(i) services/pharmacy'
Concrete pumps, as required, Camp Doctor and medical
drawn up and approved
() Cranes for loading and unloading as well as for any construction of uo1k.u'p:.' ,y:?-:dequately to va'ri111^''activities'
'l"i
74. Commencernent ""rt"aur
activity, work plan u'
<ptonn))'i';'f; various"'even6' that
n g'fr :'-o;;;;;: ; it1'-'"n ""'o
"au'iing-'"f communication' arrange
(k) Cranes at the site to handle steel, formwork, etc., constitut i

establish tt.'un'-'Zt of
consrirure J':r;i;i;;j;
execudon'
0) \X/elding sets (electrical, diesel) and appropriate elecrrodes, cash f'low and commence
(m) Flame-cutting equipment,
(n) Generatom ancl Compressors for the camp and site work, '
v't
3.lgHIGHWAYCoNsTRucIl0N:GENERAIPRIPARAIIoN,]tfi0BltisNloN
(o) Tnrcks lor transportation lno stonts of the project' and the
EquiPment as ne^eded for the size
Road Construction areas' coarse and fine
(p) Sheds for steel reinforcement working, carpentry, steel workshop, mat;r' hiir from approvei-to".o*
necessary g'ua"'-'I"' sweet water' etc'); siaff'
mechanical workshop, etc.,
aggregztes"";fi;"i;aif "'a
us'generally indicated
in"tpn'r''
318'
(q) Tools (various), etc., - -
"ff """'lll*iv
(r) Protected stores for bearings, expansion ioints, prestressing
materials, steel, cement, fuels, etc.,
(s) Light earthwork equipment: showel, compactot etc.,
(r) Computers (with Printers, etc.),
(u) Sweet water, as required.
13. Sraff:
a Proiect Manager,
a Site Engineers and Superuisors,
a Assistant for steel handling,
a Assistant for formwork handling,
a Assistant for machinery and machine handling (workshop staffl,
a Assistant for concr€te making, quality control, distribution and
general handling of concrete,

and Bidge Engineers


Rainat rre ld Manual for Highway
Raina's Field Manual for Highway and Bridge Engineers
fi
4.O SITE CLEARANCE

4.t GtNtRAL

4,2 BURNIIIG IHE RTSIDUT


4.3 OBJECTIOIIS TO I.A}ID ENIRY
4.4 INVIRONMTNTATSAFEGUARDS

i
I

a"inu'" Fi"ld Manual for Highway and Bidge Engineers


J
Chapter 4

4.O SITE CTEARANCE


4.1 GEIIERAT
Before the Contractor enters any atea to carry out site clearance, make sure
that the pegs defining the Right of 'Way (RO\f) have been checked by the
(R.E.'s) Surveyors.

Check with the R.E. if there are special requirements as to the width to
^(ty
be cleared.
Point out to the Contractor any potential dangers that could affect persons or
property.

4.2 BURNII{G THT RTSIDUE


\fhere the Contractor intends to burn the residue of site clearance materials,
make sure that fires are properly controlled, pafticularly if they are to burn
overnight. Follow envirgnmental safeguards.

4.3 OBJECTIONS TO I.AND E]{TRY


5.O EARTHWORKS
If any objections to lancl entry by the Contractor arc made by the owner or
tenant, inform the R.E. immediately for him to take further action via the 5.t BRoAD CIASSIFI(ATIOt{ Ol SOILS 5.t0 r.0AD-B[ARlllG]lLL
authorities. A((oRDIilG I0 oRlGlN AilD 5.I I SIAEIUSING THE SOTT SOII. BY P1ASTIC
DrsmPilol{ IABRI(s
4.4 ITYIBOilTNEilTAI. SAFTGUARDS 5.2 clAq{irl$IroN oF EARIHwORT(S 5.I2 IIEIHODS OT DRYIIIG OUI
IIIATIRIAIS. WAIIRIOGGTD GROUIID
Monitor that the Contractor follows the requirements of the contract. Advise
the R.E. gn any deviation and potential harmful impais on the er'lvlronment. 5.3 9OTIT TTRMS USTD 11{ ROCK DISCR. 5.r3 USI 0t SAullE WATER IoR
(..See Chapter 41:) lPTl0llS: (BASID 0ll'8.S. 5930, lgSll cofiiPAolllc IHE soll flLl
5.4 ixprosrvls lttD Bt Asrlttc 5.14 S0lL C0ftlPACtl0]| PROOOR (ond
ond CBR
5'5 Ex(avAI[gN 0,r cuflilGs ilt0,
PlFl[D' PR0CTOR],

5.6 EX(AVAII0ll B[[0$, IIIIBANKIItt{TS


r i s.r5 (omPAcftoN IESIING

AilD BII.OW SUBGRADE FORITiATIOI{ 5.t6 SOlt mosIURE


tEvEt m (uTTlllcs
' '. ,.: ' ," 5t.17 COl{SlSItllff OF A SOlL

5.7 IX(AVATION OT PITS A}ID TRIIICHES 5.18 u0ulD HfillT AllD PlAsTlc Llilll
5.8 BA(KfltU]lG PITS AilD IR[tl$tS 5.ti PtASilCITY INDIX = LnUD iltfi -
5'9 toRillllc flllBAl{Kxlil{Ts AllD 0THIR PIASI|C ilfflll
TII.T ARTAS 5.20 PtASItCtW ftDEX VS. CBR

Raina's Field Manual tor Highway ana eriage enOineers I nuir"'" ri"H Manuat for Highway and Btidge'Engineers
f
EARTHWORKS
Chapter 5

Aeolian or Materials Highly uniform gradation with indistinct


5.O EARTHWORKS transported and or no stratification. Typically silt or fine
Loessial
deposited by sand sized, but sometimes the surface is
5.t BROAD CI.ASSIIICATIOI{ OT SOITS ACCORDING TO ORIGIN AND wind. covered by a single layer of pebbles'
DESfilPTl0l'l Loess typicallY has a secondary
structure ol vertical cracks, ioints and
5.1.1 Procticol Soil dossificotion i,
root holes.

.... see Table 5.1 Organic Formed in place Peats are dark coloured, fibrous or
by growth and amorphous and highly compressible'
Table 5.1 Mixtures of fine sediment and organic
decay of plants.
Process o1f matter produce organic oils and clays'
Classl;flcation Nature of DePosl.ts
Formatlon Ash and pumice Sitt-sized particles along with larger
Volcbnic
Residual Chemical Product of complete weathering is a deposited in volcanic debris. Particles are highly
weathering of clay whose type depends mainly on the volcanic angular and often vesicular. \Teathering
parerit rock weathering process. Products of partial eruptions. producesa highly plastic, sometimes
with little or no weathering are more stony and depend Lxpansive, claY. The weathered
movement of more on rock type. Soil becomes more consolidated deposits sometimes form a
particles. compact, more stony and less light, easily worked stone.
weathered with incieasing depth.
Evaporites Materials Forms cemented soils or soft
Alluvial Materials Vary from the finest clays to very coarse
precipitated cir sedimentary rocks. Includes oolites
transported and gravel and bouiders. Soils usually.show in sea w4ter
pronounced stratification. River gravels evaporated from precipitated from calcium
deposited by and gypsum precipitated from sulphate;
water action. are usually rounded. solution of high
salt content. rich playa lakes in deserts. Evaporites
Colluvial Materials Includes avalanches, landslips, hillside -"y fotrn as hard crust iust below the
transported by creep, downwash matelial . and surface in arid regions.
\l graviv. solifluxion deposits. Varies fr6fir'clays to
t t l, .. boulders; Mateial ','i.si ,usualbr
heterogeneous with a widg ,q4nge of
particle sizes. Often termed hill wash or
itead deposi'G. '
'' : i \ t: ';
")
Glacial Materials Glacial till a;d morain deposii's usually d
'transported and have, broad gradings'r:angifi9,'frofp clay
deposited by to boulders. Grain size t{r.thgiputwash
glacial ice or by materials decreaseq;gith.distancg from
.:-. :1
melf 'waters the source of melt w;;er.'stratifiiation in
.from glaciers. moraineS' :and ' fill 'is
usuafy g. 1'
heteroger,lgous,:but outwash d,eposilg. )
give rise to laminated (varved) aqd
'qjlt
clay in glacial lakes. Grains are ty'picallt'
angular.
Raina's Fteld Manudl lor Highway and Bldge Engineers
Raina's Field Manuat for Highiay ana AriAOe enOineerc f
-
o

5.1.2 Soil choroderistits o
q
SeeToble 5.2 Table 5.2

S h em Stren gh/Re I ativ e D ens ity Stntcare/ Colour Type ofParticle Inclusions
Weathering

Clavs Cohesion Characteristics Particle Size(mm)


c(BI/m')
Very soft <20 Exudes between lntact Grey Ciay < 0.002 ... with shells.
fingers when Fissured Brown fine 0.002-0.006 ... with scattered
Squeezed.
cobbles and
Soft 2040 Moulded by light Statified Blue-Gray I medium 0.006-0.02 boulders.
furger pressure. Silt
Firm 40-75 Moulded by Laminated Mottled
D
o strong finger yellow and with layers or
o presswe. brown coarse 0.02-0.06 lenses of fine
q' stitr 75-150
h Can be indented Heterogeneous sand.
o
d sfiff
by thumb. fine 0.06-0.2
Very 150-300 Can be indented Fibrous
t Hard > 300
by thumb nail.'
Dark green
Sand I medium 0.2-0.6
... with some
shell frag-
o Weathered Yellowish ments.
o etc. etc. etc.
coarse 0.6-2.0
G. Sands ,sPr+ I
E
s Very loose <4
$ Loose 4-10 Can be dug by fine 2-6
a. spade. 50 mm
p peg easily driven.
Medium 10-30 Gravel medium 6-29
aQ
o
rn dense
a Dense 30-50 Needs pick for coatse 20-60
5'
o Very dense > 50 excavation. 50 mm Cobbles
e 60-200
6 peg hard to drive Boulders > 200
* Standard penetration test N-values.
ffi
w Rel B.S. 5930 (1981) for Site Investigarions.

il t
b
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oi
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o

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6

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a
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ili*
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:

€-+i:e
ql3f5"qt h
u * =sa 'i +i r:; 3;a:r?s;i.
€# iia ;AT gI33fq
iisr: :F
aia=$ ar
?
I 6
r ac; ;ai ;;6$ ft

v"1 b 4 t+ ;i; E3g 9i$Fll $

rge iii Afll $*


i

V?ile +c
F B. €; =s'
a*F;e i;
'
I

ffi
NS
B
Chapter 5

EARTHWORKS
Rork Strength
This refers to the strength of the rock material Table 5.4
and is based on the unconfined
compressive strength. Descriptive terms
used and the Descriptive terms of the compressive stfength of rock material
are given in Table 5,4. strengths depend "or.rponairg,r.""grr',
on trre moisture content of trre
specimen at the time of test, anisotropic Compresslve Strength (MN/m') Description
features in the specimen and the test
procedure' and are generaty of little
use in assessing the strength or tr,r" .o.r. <7.25 Very weak
1..25-5.0 \(/eak
Table 5.3
5,0-r2.5 Moderately weak
Terms used to descdbe the spaclng of
discontinuities in rock mass
1,2.5-50.0 Moderately strong
Spacing Structural Featufes Dlscontinuitles Discontinuities 50-100 Strong
in One in Three
Dimension Dimensions* 100-200 Very strong

>2m > 200 Exhemely strong


Very thick Very widely Very large
spaced
Groin Size cnd Rork None
600 mm-2m Thick IiZidely spaced Large For engineering purposes, broad classifications are usually sufficient; detailed
200-600 mnr Medium
geological names are not necessary.
Medium spaced Medium
50-200 rnm Thin Recovery ond Rock 0uolity Desaiprion (RODf
Closely spaced Small
These terms refer to rock cores and are defined as follows:
20-60 mm Very thin Very closely Very small
spaced
Length of core recovered
6-20 mm Thickly laminated
Second term
Recouety (o/o) x 100
(seclimentary), Length of core lun
Blocky - (length drilled)
Narrow
equidimensional
(metamorphic and Extremely Tabular -
igneous) closely spaced thickness much less Length of rock recovered in sound
lengths of 100 mm or more
than length or width RQD go) x 100
<6mm Length of core run
Thickly laminated
Columnar - height
(sedimenrary),
much greater than
Very nanow They both give an indication of the strength of the rock mass but can be used
cross-section
(metamorphic only as a rough guide because values 6btained also depend on the diameter
and igneous) of the core, the method of drilling and the ski.ll of the driller. Descriptive terms
* Relates to for RQD values are given in Table 5.5.
spacing of maximum dimerrsion.

Raina's Field Manual for Highway and


enuge Engrneers
ffi
ffi Ruirut ri eld Manuat for Highway and Bridge Engineers
EARTHWARKS
Chapter s

Table 5.5 5.6 TXCAVATIOI{ BEI.OW EMBANKfIITNTS AND BEI.OW SUBGRADT


Descriptive terms for RQD values TORflIATION TEVIT IN CUTTINGS
Supervisors will generally be told by the A.R.E. if trnsuitablem terial is to be
RQD (o/o) Description
remeved from existing ground below an embankment. However, before the
0-25 Very poor filling commences, walk over the area and check for any area of doubt which
25-50 Poor should be drawn to the attention of the A.R.E. This is to be considered before
signing off the coresponding section of the 'Vork Apploval Sheet'.
50-75 Fair
It is the Contractor's responsibiliry to keep such excavation dry either by
75-90 Good temporary drainage ol pumping.
90-100 Excellent
Check that the Contrzctor maintains, wherever it is possible, natr.rral drainage
out of and away from the excavation; water which is unnecessarily trapped in
an excavation or within fill material can sometimes cause problems if the
5.4 TXPTOSIVTS AilD BTASTING
underlying ground is soft.
The Contractor should keep you informed as and when he intends to use
If the Contractor fails to keep the excavation dry, then any remedial works
explosives.
which may be reqr-rired will be at his expense.
Check that all safety precautions are taken when blasting is carried out.
Where the fill is to be placed unavoidably in standing water or on a weak
material, granular fill will generally be used. Compaction will either be by
5.5 TXCAVATION OF CUTTINGS tracking with a bulldozer or with a roller after about one metre depth has
If the material from the cut is to be used in lill areas, cl.reck that sufficient been placed.
spreading and compaction plant is on site. The Contractor should submit to \)flhere granular fill is placed on weak material, a filter fabric may be required.
you a 'Request for Inspection' form for this and you are to check on the
of the work Care must be taken to see that the filter fabric is not ripped or punctured.
equipment available before signing off the appropriate section
approval sheet. On the top of all rock-fill, one or more blinding layers are required to seal the
surface and prevent loss of fine material from the next layers of fill.
Confirm with the surveyors that the setting out of the slope stakes has been
agreed to.
5.7 EX$VATION OF PITS AND TREiICHES
Uncontrolled run-off of sulface water or ground water can often cause
The slbes of pits and trenches should be safe at all times.
damage to incomplete cut slopes. Check that the Contractor is always aware
of this and that he takes sufficient measures to control the run-off. Excavations for foundations are normally battered to a safe angle.

Completecl cut slopes should be given specified erosion protection (planting Deep trenches should have timbered or sheet piled support.
or turfing) as soon as possible. Any over-excavation and subsequent adequate backfiiling will be at the
'When a cutting nearly reaches the design level, get precise 'setting out' and ConLractor's expense.

'levels'from the surveyors so that the necessary protective layet can be left in If you consider any excavation dangerous, do not enter it. Inform the
place to enable the earth to be traversed by the construction plant, Contractor and your superior.

@- - - Raina's Field Manual for Highway and Bridge Enginee^ lE !f RrinrS fle U Manuat for Highway and Bridge Engineers
Chapter 5

Backfill to culverts must be brought r-rp evenly on both sides of the strucrufe'
5.8 BACKFII.I.IiIG PITS AND TRENCHES
as a haul route,
AII backfilling must be in accordance with the specification.
he will be expected to provicle a protective layer of at least 300 mm at his
All temporary suppolts, pafticularly timber, must be removed as the own expense
backfilling proceeds.
Areas of embankment that require a drainage layer should first be cleared as
required and then the geotextile filter material (if specified) laid. The drainage
5.9 f0RItJllNG EillBAl'lKtltNTS AND OTHIR rl[[ AREAS layer should be placed in layers not exceeding 250 rnm and tracked in Place
Only material that is classified as suitable by the laboratory should be used in The amount of tracking must be related to the strength of the underlYing
embankment fill. ground. Seek advice from your superiors.

The permitted layer thickness should be ascerrained from the A.R.E. This If geotextile tnaterials are employecl:
should be checked prior to compaction, if possible. An uncompacted layer a) Make surb that the-!g1>s 4r,Q in accordance with the specifications'
will be about 30o/o thicker than the compacted layer. Exercise a degree of
b) Geotextile f.abrics must not be exPosedld-protongea qUft-tttilS)
iudgement. A tolerance of plus on the layer thickness may be workable.
25o/o
For anything over dtis, rhe ConrraCtor should be made ro reduce the layer c)l fraffic should nor tte allowed. directly onto the geotextile fabiic)
thickness.
Ernbankments which are undergoing stage loading afe very sensitive to
An easy method of checking the layer thickness of uncompacted material is drainage out of the sand drainage layer under it. supervisors mr,rst check that
to push in a length of 20 mm diameter steel rebar until it meets reasonable the CJrtractor is at all times allowing water to drain oui of and well away
resistance (i.e., when it has reached rhe top of the layer below) and check the. from the drainage laYer.
depth of penetration. To save on measuring, paint a line on the bar at the
Movement o[ hea"ry plent near the edge of embankments uncler stage loading
maximum permitted depth including tolerances. -/ can also affect the stabilitY of the You should warn
'Where density the Contractor of this if he not your
check requires the moisture content to be reduced, you should
arrange to have the moisture content checked. Bear in mind, I-rowever, that superior.
the performance of the material is important. If on compaction there is little
or no movement under a wheel load, there is probably nothing wrong. 5.10 LOAD.BEARING TII.L
V,here.density determination is the acceptance criteria, remember to inform 5.t0.1 Many materials are suitable for use as load-bearing fill in roadworks
the laboratory in good time.
These materials include gravels, crushed lock, colliery shale, and
check that there is a slight (200-500 mm) overfill ro embankments and rhat material (such as broken brick, etc.) A more recent material catled
compaction is carried out to the edge. Fuel-'Ash or FIY ASh (PFA) iS useful as it
asa fill
The fill shquld be brought up over the full width of the embankmenr. It may
Al(,n. )
be permissible for the contractor to be filling on one side and compacting on
the other at the same time.
5.10.2 Ptoperties of PFA (. ?uLve/('?aa-\ "",
Irs compacred dry density is of the ordef of 7120 - 1.440 kglm3 which is below
Always ensure that the method of working provides natural drainage. that of most conventional fill materials (see Table 5 A' k follows that a tonne
\Where rock-fill is required, it should be graded so that it of PFA represents a greater volume than a tonne of conventional fill materials
can be placed in
and this is advantageous on ground of low-bearing capacity or where long-
layers not exceeding one metre. compaction is by means of tracked maci-rines
term settlement is Possible.
or rollers. A blinding layer is required to seal and even the surface.

Raina's Field Manual for Highway and Brdg" engr""rs ffi n"rrt ri" u Manual for Highway and Bridge Engineers
*w
ffi
Chapter 5 EARTHWORKS

Table 5.6

Tlpe offiIl Maximum dry density Optimum


(kgy'm) moistufe coflt€fit o/o

ffi _-__) 2050 9


Sand 1930 77
Sandy clay IB40 14
Silry clay 1660 21"

Heavy clay 1550 28 Figure 5.1 Extruded plastic mesh fabric


I)FA 1280 25

It also shows, in most cases, definite self-hardening characteristics, and when area under load
conditioned with the correct amount of water ind compacted, this self-
hardening qualiry mal<es it even mo.e useful as a load-bearing fill marerial.

*** * Plastic mesh


5.10.3 Sourte of PFA +-+
^t-+ r_+ load distributed to full
-ilbout 75o/o of ash frorn power starion boilers fired with pulverized coal is width of mesh
carried away by the flue gases in the for.m of a dry, very fine powder. This
product when recovered is known as pFA Pulverised Fuel Ftgure 5.2 Plastic mesh used as shear-reslstant layer in
soft ground
available in three main forms:
in the dry state, transported in pressurized vehicles or in bags; turf replaced

'conditioned' by the addition of a predeterminecl amount of water and mesh plastic turf to
transpofled by truck. (Netlon CE 121
anchor top
or similar)
the moist state, when a lagoon system of storage is in use
banksown with grass searl
The different fo'ns are ngt nercessarily availal:le from every power station.
....__\...*_ g steel 1m
300 mm and rows of
I I STABII.ISI}IG THT SOFT SOII. BY PI.ASTIC TABRICS about 30 45 m
slope
Plastic mesh fablic structures can be used to stabilise and improve 450 mm
the load_',
bearing capacity of soft soil ground. The mesh, in a nnge of sizes, is made
of lower edge of plastic mesh
integrally extruded plastic (see Figure 5.1). These net structures allow anchored into trench at foot of slope
free
passage of water and do not clog. The mesh also acLs as a
layer, thus reducing the stress in under.lying weak soil.s Figure 5.3 Plasttc mesh as embankment slope reinforcement
's Field Manuat for Highway and Bridge Engrneers
ffi ! n"r"t r,, H Manuat for Highway and Bridge Engineers