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SUMMER INTERNSHIP TRAINING

L&T CONTRUCTIONS-B&F
IKEA Project

SUBMITTED BY
ASHISH PAWAR
NICMAR(ACM)

Duration of internship: 24/04/2018 – 30/06/2018


NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CONSTRUCTION

MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH


SUMMER TRAINING REPORT

1. The Name of the Company: M/s Larsen Toubro Limited

2. Name of the Project: Construction of IKEA retail and warehouse


Place of Work: Tube, Navi Mumbai

3. Department (if allocated):

4. Name of Student: PAWAR ASHISH BHASKAR

5. Roll No.: AP17458 Batch No.: 31st Batch

6. Mailing Address
Company Personal
ECC Division ASHISH PAWAR
1ST Floor, A Wing, ACM Section-5
Landmark Building, NICMAR PUNE
Suren Road, Andheri East
Mumbai - 400093,

Phone No. 022- 61342642 Phone No. 8883173438


Email id: Email ID: ashishpawar310@gmail.com

Company Officer’s Signature Student’s Signature

Date: Date:
BLANK PAGE
Acknowledgement

The summer training opportunity I had with L&T constructions - B&F at their IKEA retail
cum warehouse project, Turbhe, Navi Mumbai was a great chance which helped me to discover
my potential. I believe this training will forever shape and influence my professional life.

I would like express my sincere gratitude to project manager Mr Rajesh Srinivasan and Mr
Manoj Lokhande for allocating roles and responsibilities in various department, also I would
like to thank Mr Pritam Bhandari who helped me to understand functioning of departments
and skills and knowledge I should acquire at each department. He also helped me in preparing
the schedule of my internship and took time out to analyse me on a weekly basis.

My heartiest thank to all Departmental Heads and manger and engineers. All of them helped
me to enhance my technical as well as managerial ability firstly by understanding roles of and
responsibilities departments for smooth functioning of project also daily functioning and later
by giving assignment.

Further on, I want to thank supporting staff and supervisors for helping me out with problems
and challenges faced during performing task also emissions of name in this short
acknowledgment does not mean lack of gratitude

Thanking you

Ashish Pawar
Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Details of each floor are given as below ....................................................................................... 1
1.1.1 P 2 level: Parking area ........................................................................................................... 1
1.1.2 P1 level: Parking area ............................................................................................................ 1
1.1.3 Level 1 ................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1.4 Level 2 ................................................................................................................................... 2
1.1.5 Roof........................................................................................................................................ 2
1.1.6 Outside area / external finish ................................................................................................. 2
1.2 Other project details given in (pre – bid phase) ............................................................................ 3
1.2.1 Foundation ............................................................................................................................. 3
1.2.2 Concrete: ................................................................................................................................ 3
1.2.3 Specifications of material used in project .............................................................................. 4
1.3 Project conditions.......................................................................................................................... 7
1.4 Precast, pre –stressed hollow core slab ......................................................................................... 7
1.5 Basement waterproofing with pre –formed HDPE membrane ..................................................... 8
1.6 Expansion joint for building ......................................................................................................... 8
1.7 Metal roof deck, roof insulation with water proofing ................................................................... 8
1.8 General Notes................................................................................................................................ 9
2. PLANNING DEPARTMENT .......................................................................................................... 11
2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 11
2.1.1 Construction planning from Contractors perspective: ......................................................... 11
2.1.2 Various schedule which are prepared before commencement of project ............................. 12
2.2 Summary of IKEA Project .......................................................................................................... 13
2.2.1 Timeline ............................................................................................................................... 13
2.3 Quantity estimation of concrete .................................................................................................. 16
2.4 Cumulative quantity of concrete, formwork, reinforcement ..................................................... 17
2.5 Workmen Calculation ................................................................................................................. 18
2.6 Workman calculation of project (month wise)............................................................................ 20
2.7 Monthly progress report .............................................................................................................. 20
2.8 Budgeted vs actual tale ............................................................................................................... 22
2.9 Assignment: to prepare complete schedule (S0-S9) of current project on excel. ....................... 25
3.PROCUREMENT OF DOORS ......................................................................................................... 40
3.1 Analysing quotation .................................................................................................................... 41
3.2 EHS COMPLIANCE .................................................................................................................. 43
3.3 Selection of vendors:................................................................................................................... 43
4. CONTRACT ..................................................................................................................................... 44
4.1 Important dates............................................................................................................................ 44
4.2 Contract ....................................................................................................................................... 44
4.3 General conditions of contract .................................................................................................... 44
4.4 Fidic Red Book ........................................................................................................................... 44
4.5 Assignment given........................................................................................................................ 45
4.6 Conditions Favouring contractor .............................................................................................. 45
4.7 Conditions not favouring contractor ........................................................................................... 46
4.8 Summary of contract document .................................................................................................. 47
4.9 Pre-bid clarifications ................................................................................................................... 48
5. QUALITY ......................................................................................................................................... 50
5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 50
5.2 Project quality plan ..................................................................................................................... 51
5.3 Method Statement ....................................................................................................................... 52
5.3.2 RCC cast in- situ slabs ......................................................................................................... 55
5.3.3 Method statement for RCC raft ............................................................................................ 57
5.3.4 Anti-termite treatment .......................................................................................................... 58
5.3.5 RCC column......................................................................................................................... 59
5.3.6 Blinding concrete (PCC) ...................................................................................................... 61
5.4. CONQUAS ................................................................................................................................ 69
6. REINFORCEMENT ......................................................................................................................... 72
6.1 Controlling Reinforcement Activities ......................................................................................... 72
6.1.1 Planning ............................................................................................................................... 72
6.1.2 Infrastructure ........................................................................................................................ 73
6.1.3 Placing order ........................................................................................................................ 73
6.1.4 Receipt at Site ...................................................................................................................... 74
6.1.5 Preparation of BBS And Record of Consumption ............................................................... 74
6.1.6 Fixing of Reinforcement .................................................................................................... 75
6.2 Estimation ................................................................................................................................... 76
6.2.1 Quantity estimation of steel for Ikea site ............................................................................. 76
6.2.2 Calculation of quantity of binding wire. .............................................................................. 76
6.3 Steel Reconciliation .................................................................................................................... 77
6.4 Steel reconciliation report for month of May.............................................................................. 78
7. FORMWORK ................................................................................................................................... 79
7.1 Formwork.................................................................................................................................... 79
7.2 Shuttering .................................................................................................................................... 79
7.3 L& T formwork system .............................................................................................................. 79
7.3.1 L & T Wall / column Formwork .......................................................................................... 80
7.3.2 L&T Flex table system ......................................................................................................... 81
7.3.3 L&T Heavy duty tower system ............................................................................................ 82
7.3.4 L&T stair tower system........................................................................................................ 82
7.3.5 L&T Flex system for RC Floors .......................................................................................... 83
7.4 Cost of shuttering ........................................................................................................................ 84
7.5 Load transfer of formwork .......................................................................................................... 85
7.5.1 Plywood ............................................................................................................................... 85
7.5.2 Formwork checking ............................................................................................................. 86
7.5.3 Concept of Re- prop ............................................................................................................. 86
7.6. Challenges faced in formwork ................................................................................................... 87
7.6.1 Quality issue in shuttering and de shuttering ....................................................................... 87
7.6.2 Order and Method of Removing Formwork: ....................................................................... 87
7.7 Description of structural member ............................................................................................... 88
7.8 Design load over 1 sq.-m area ..................................................................................................... 89
7.9 Catering area and labour calculation ........................................................................................... 89
7.9.1 Labour requirement of formwork ........................................................................................ 90
8.CONCRETING .................................................................................................................................. 91
8.1 Placing of concrete on site was done with: ................................................................................. 91
8.1.1 Stationary Concrete pump .................................................................................................... 91
8.1.2 Internal vibration .................................................................................................................. 92
8.1.3 Laser screed ......................................................................................................................... 93
8.1.4 Ride on Trowel .................................................................................................................... 94
9. PLANT AND MACHINERY ......................................................................................................... 100
9.1Organisational chart: .................................................................................................................. 100
9.2 Total machineries on site .......................................................................................................... 101
9.2.1 Skid steer loader:................................................................................................................ 102
9.2.2 Tower crane ....................................................................................................................... 103
9.2.3 Work methodology of Tower crane ................................................................................... 105
9.2.4 Truck mounted – Boom placer........................................................................................... 107
9.2.5 Concrete Distributor 12 M ................................................................................................. 109
9.2.6 Air compressor – 300 CFM ............................................................................................... 109
9.2.7 Mobile crane: (telescopic crane) ........................................................................................ 109
9.2.8 Pump .................................................................................................................................. 110
9.3 Analysis in P&M department .................................................................................................... 111
10. QUANTITY ESTIMATION......................................................................................................... 114
10.1 Quantity estimation of............................................................................................................. 114
10.1.1 Column estimation. (p1 to l1) .......................................................................................... 114
10.1.2 Reinforcement wall .......................................................................................................... 121
10.1.3 Quantity of steel in column .............................................................................................. 122
11.SAFETY ........................................................................................................................................ 124
11.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 124
11.2 List Of job specific PPE to be used in site: ............................................................................. 126
11.3 Daily checklist to be maintained are as below ........................................................................ 126
11.4 Good practices on site ............................................................................................................. 127
11.5 Unsafe acts on site .................................................................................................................. 131
11.6 Unsafe condition observed on site .......................................................................................... 131
11.7 HIRA ....................................................................................................................................... 132
11.7.1 HIRA for carpentry works ............................................................................................... 133
11.7.2 HIRA for tower crane ...................................................................................................... 141
12. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………… 146
List of Tables
Table 1.1: Min. clear cover to reinforcement
Table 2.1 Summary of Master construction schedule of IKEA project
Table 2.2: Quantity estimation of concrete
Table 2.3: Cumulative quantity of concrete, formwork, reinforcement
Table 2.4: Workmen calculation for concrete
Table 2.5: Workmen calculation for formwork
Table 2.6: Workmen calculation for Rebar
Table 2.7: Total Workman calculation (month wise)
Table 2.8: Timeline and asking rate details
Table 2.9: The details of budgeted and actual work
Table 2.10: Master construction schedule
Table 2.11: cost estimate of structural item of a project
Table 2.12: Milestone details
Table 2.13: Schedule of plants and machinery
Table 2.14: Schedule of staff
Table 2.15: Schedule of quantity of material
Table 2.16: Labour requirement
Table 2.17: Schedule of specialised items
Table 2.18: Indirect cost to project
Table3.1: Quotation analysis
Table 3.2: EHS compliance rating
Table 3.3: Vendor selection Matrix
Table 5.1: Risk Rating
Table 5.2: concrete rejection
Table 5.3: quantity of rejection
Table 5.4: Weightages of structural work
Table 5.5: Sampling plan as stated in manual
Table 5.6: Assessment of P1 level (CONQUAS)
Table 5.7: CONQUAS summary (COMPLIENCE)

Table 6.1: Quantity of steel estimation

Table 6.2: Calculation of quantity of binding wire.

Table 6.3: Steel reconciliation for month of May

Table 7.1: De-Shuttering of structural member

Table 7.2: design load for formwork design

Table 7.3: Catering area and labour calculation

Table 7.4: Carpenter requirement

Table 9.1: Fuel reconciliation report

Table 9.2: Fuel requirement actual v/s budgeted

Table 9.3: Utility rates of machineries

Table 10.1: Quantity estimation of column

Table 10.2: Quantity estimation of retaining wall

Table 10.3: Quantity estimation of steel in column

Table 11.1: HIRA for carpentry work

Table 11.2: HIRA for Tower crane


List of Graphs

Graph 2.1: Concrete quantity for each month


Graph 2.2: quantity of steel, concrete and formwork (s –curve)
Graph 2.3: Overall workman
Graph 2.4: Planned vs. actual work
Graph 2.5: Quantity requirement
Graph 2.6: Labour requirement
Graph 5.1: Concrete rejection Pareto chart
1. INTRODUCTION
No of floors: four

1.1 Details of each floor are given as below

1.1.1 P 2 level: Parking area

a) Electrical room: 2
b) Staircase: internal and external: 15 nos.
c) Sewage treatment plant
d) Water treatment plant
e) Pump room
f) Escalator /Lift core =10
g) Public entrance / circulation area
h) Car parking area
i) Ramp

1.1.2 P1 level: Parking area

a) Electrical room: 2
b) Freezer refrigerator / garbage area
c) Landscaping and maintenance room
d) Driver room
e) Car parking
f) Two-wheeler parking

1.1.3 Level 1

a) Market hall
b) Warehouse (double area)
c) Recovery area
d) Garbage area
e) Goods unloading area

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f) Travellator
g) Plant room
h) Storage area
i) Public circulation area

1.1.4 Level 2

a) Cooling tower
b) Locker room
c) Showroom
d) Staircase /lift.
e) Restaurant

1.1.5 Roof

a) Metal decking
b) TPO membrane and PIR sheet
c) Natural day light
d) Exhaust fan
e) PVC tank
f) Air handling unit.
g) Air cooling system
h) MEP works

1.1.6 Outside area / external finish

a) Blue and yellow façade


b) IKEA world mark
c) Navigation tower
d) Day care facilities

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1.2 Other project details given in (pre – bid phase)

1.2.1 Foundation

a) Net safe bearing capacity of formation level is considered as 1700KN/m2


Which due to presence of Basalt rock.
b) All foundation work to be perform in accordance with IS 12070
c) Minimum thickness of blinding concrete shall not be less than 50 mm. The
contractor shall satisfy himself that blinding layer is adequate for further works.
d) Concrete blinding: Process of pouring a thin layer of concrete over the floor of a
new building, which can be at hard-core foundation itself, so as to prevent dirt &
mud interfering in structure.

1.2.2 Concrete:

a) All reinforced concrete shall be designated concrete as


i. PCC (blinding) = M15
ii. Raft = M30
iii. Footing = M 40
iv. Base slab (ground bearing slab) = M 40
v. Retaining wall /shear wall = M 40
vi. Columns = M40
vii. Beam and slab / flat slab: M40
b) IS Codes to be followed, IS 456, IS 14001, IS 1199, and IS 516.
c) All exposed external concrete edges shall have 20× 20 mm chamfers,
d) Formed surface shall be the following finish type as defined by specification.
i. Buried concrete: Type A (ROUGH)
ii. Exposed concrete: Type C (superior)
iii. All other formed surface: type B (NORMAL)
e) Uniformed surface shall have following finish types as defined the specification.
i. PCC (blinding): Floated
ii. Slabs with screed: Floated
iii. Slabs without screed: power float
iv. Car park: Brushed
v. Parapet & Exposed concrete walls/beam: steel trowel

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vi. All areas power floated or brush finished shall have approved surface
hardener and dust inhibitor applied
f) All structural members shall have Minimum shall have minimum clear cover to
reinforcement are as follows:

ELEMENT Clear cover


Raft and retaining wall external face 50mm
Raft and retaining wall Internal face 40mm
Columns 40 mm
Beam 35 mm
Shear wall
Slab 30 mm
Table 1.1: Min. clear cover to reinforcement

g) Concrete protection
i. All below ground concrete structures and other concrete structure in contact
with ground shall be waterproofed with continuous water proofing membrane
system in accordance with project specification.
ii. Top finish surface layer is covered with rubber sheet or plywood in some area
that in P1 and P 2 level as it is a final finish.
iii. Reinforcement:
• IS to be followed IS1786, IS13920
• Steel to be purchased from ISO 14001 accredited supplier
• Lap Length to be provided:
o Bars in tension = 36 × bar dia
o Bars in compression = 29 × bar dia

1.2.3 Specifications of material used in project

1) Earthwork= Not in scope of contractor


2) Anti-termite Treatment
a) General: Pre-construction anti-termite is process in which soil treatment is
applied to building in early stages of its construction. The purpose of anti-

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termite treatments is to provide the building with chemical barrier against
sub- terranean termites the preconstruction soil treatment is required to be
applied during the construction stages of the substructure up to plinth level.
b) Chemical used should be recommended by the Indian pest control
association.
c) Guarantee: the contractor has to furnish guarantee for 10 years from the
date of completion of work, stating that in case of reappearance of the
termites within the building area due to any other reasons, the contractor
will carry out the necessary post construction treatment to keep the entire
area free from termite once again, without any cost to the engineer during
guarantee period.
d) Soling materials: the size of stones to be used shall not be more the
120mm or less than 50 mm in any direction.

3) Concrete

a) Approval: the contractor shall supply method statement to the engineer


for his approval a minimum 14 working days before construction
commences.
b) The cement used shall be of one of the followings
• Grade 43 Portland slag cement
• Grade 43 OPC
• Grade 53 OPC
c) Super sulphate and high alumina cement should not be used in any part
of the work unless specified.

d) Sampling: For lot of 50 tonnes of cement, 2% of bags shall be picked out


at random from which one sample of 15 kg shall be taken.
e) ‘First In’ first out rule shall be applied while removing bags for use.

4) Formwork: L&T formwork system: explained in detail in Formwork

5) Steel reinforcement

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6) Structural Screed and Cast in –situ slab finishing

a) Performance requirements

• All concrete floors, with or without screed shall be constructed by lesser


levelling techniques.
• Structural Performance – Maximum of 75mm Cast-in-place structural
screed with nominal welded mesh of A393(10mm dia @200mm c/c)
floor assembly capable of withstanding the following design loads
Design Moment: 130 KN-m/m
Shear Force: 130 KN-m/m
Axial Load: 130 KN-m/m

b) Special Requirement’s

i. All screeds shall have a high-performance finish and shall incorporate


the use of a surface hardener.
ii. No joints other than one already shown on the drawings are permitted.
iii. The design life of the screed shall be 60 years.
iv. Shall be constructed by laser levelling techniques.
v. Use of fibre is prohibited.
vi. The screed shall have a minimum compressive strength of 40N/mm sq.
vii. The screed is for 4 areas distinguished by their loading function these
areas follow
o the self-serve and warehouse area
o the market hall and show room area
o the reaming area, including the store level 2, restaurant area and
the store level 2 area
o loading bay

7) Structural steel, fabrication and erection

After erection is complete entire structural steel work shall be painted with
vermiculates or exfoliated vermicular plaster of procreate/ Mandolite CP2/cafco300

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and intumescent fire retarding paint spray –film of Promatia as indicated of approved
shade and make and as per colour schemes specified on the drawings.

8) Steel coatings (Hot Dip Galvanizing)


The galvanizing shall be able to sustain the temperature range of +150c to 900C
during its service life of the structure.

9) Intumescent paint for exposed steel


a) Fire rating up to 2 hours
b) Water based Intumescent paints
c) Odourless
d) Low VOC
e) Fast drying time

1.3 Project conditions

a) Do not apply fire –resistivity materials when ambient or substrate temperature 40F
or lower unless temporary protection and heat is provided to maintained
temperature at or above this level for 12 hrs. Before, during and for 12 hrs. & for
12 hrs after product application.
b) Ventilate building spaces during and after application of fire resistive materials.
c) Protect application site from rain, fog high humidity or other forms of moisture
during and for a period of least of 24 hrs after application of intumescent coatings.
d) Warranty period: 5years for application of product service life as per
manufactures data.

1.4 Precast, pre –stressed hollow core slab

a) Erectors qualification: precast pre-stressed concrete institute PCI qualified erector


and should have regularly engaged for at least 5 years in the similar work.
b) Fire ratings 2 hrs.

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c) In concrete mixes use of calcium chloride or admixtures containing chlorides is
not permitted.
d) Field welding for the main structure shall be prohibited.

1.5 Basement waterproofing with pre –formed HDPE membrane

High density polyethylene (HDPE) for raft and base slab shall be pre-formed pressure
sensitive, pre-applied fully bonded type. It should be cold applied flexible, pre-formed
post applied fully bonded type.

1.6 Expansion joint for building

• Seismic performance: expansion control system shall with stand the effects of
earthquake motion
• The following are the types of expansion joint for which performance shall be ensured
a. Floor to floor
b. Ceiling to ceiling

1.7 Metal roof deck, roof insulation with water proofing

a) Warranty /guarantee: Engineer shall receive an insurance backed warranty against


defects due to improper materials and installation for a period of 15 years.
b) Manufactures to be accredited and registered under BS EN ISO 9001.
c) Profiled deep deck steel sheets to comply with BS EN 10326and should have
Ultimate tensile strength = min 280 N/mm2
Thickness of sheet = 0.84 mm
Weight of sheet =0.1114 kN /mm2
Minimum zinc coating mass = 275 g /sqm
Proof stress =min 200 N/mm2
Modulus of elasticity = 200000 n /mm2

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d) Colour as selected by IKEA.
e) Water proof membrane: min 1.2 mm thick membrane in location with snow
removal works on roof must be chosen.
f) Thermal insulation u value = 0.2w/m2k

1.8 General Notes

1) All materials used shall have is certification unless specified.


2) Unless otherwise specified high strength OPC of 53 grade conforming to latest is
12269 should be used.
3) The drawings attached with tender documents are for tender only, giving the tender
overall idea of the nature of the extend of the work.
4) Because of the security consideration, there could be some restriction on working hr
vehicles for transportation of materials and location of labour camps and contractor
should also follow all such restriction.
5) Painted (CGI)sheets to be used at height of 3m from the ground for the protection
purpose.
6) All materials shall be procured from ISO 14001 accredited supplier.
7) All cost relating to or arising out of carrying out the test and submission of test reports
and or samples to the engineer for his approval shall be borne by the contractors.
8) All rejected material shall be immediately removed at cost of contractors.
9) All further approvals are to be taken by GC for construction any further delay in it
should be the risk of contractor.
10) The contractor shall furnish all skilled and unskilled labour, plants & equipment,
scaffolding all materials etc. required for complete execution of the work.
11) The fact that contractor has used all materials required with approval of the engineer
no way relieve the contractor of his responsibility of producing concrete of the
required minimum strength, workability etc.
12) Any defects due to materials and workmanship not being in accordance with this
specification of the engineer by the contractor at his own expense.
13) All embedded and buried items and cables should be inspected and approved before
concrete is placed in the position .it shall be the responsibility of the contractors to see
that all embedded and buried items remain in proper position while concreting is being
done.

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14) Safety should be followed.

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2. PLANNING DEPARTMENT
2.1 Introduction
Construction planning is a fundamental and challenging activity in the management
and execution of construction projects. It involves the choice of technology, the
definition of work tasks, the estimation of the required resources and durations for
individual tasks and the identification of any interactions among the different work
tasks. A good construction plan is the basis for developing the budget and the
schedule for work. Developing the construction plan is a critical task in the
management of construction, even if the plan is not written or otherwise formally
recorded. When it comes to actual construction works of the project, failure to
undertake planning in construction will result into the tasks getting neglected or
unsatisfactorily done because one is in hurry to move on to the next task; and as a
result, the structure may not achieve the desired structural strength. Poor planning
results in delayed project completion, cost overruns and poor quality of work. It is
therefore important that the team accurately plans the construction works prior to the
execution of activities to achieve the project activities in terms of time, cost, quality,
safety and environmental sustainability.

In addition to these technical aspects of construction planning, it may also be


necessary to make organizational decisions about the relationships between project
participants and even which organizations to include in a project

2.1.1 Construction planning from Contractors perspective:

a) Liquidated damages (negative)


b) Incentive or bonus (positive)
c) Delays result in extended overhead costs and other liabilities
d) Delays also put a crunch on critical cash flow
e) Extending durations beyond the acceptable time frame limits the contractor’s bonding
capacity and ability to bid more work
f) Inefficient time management results in higher labour and equipment costs
g) A reputation for late completions is bad for business (especially in negotiated work)

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2.1.2 Various schedule which are prepared before commencement of
project:

➢ S0 =MASTER CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULE


➢ S1= INVOIVE SCHEDULE
➢ S2= MILESTONE
➢ S3= P&M SCHEDULE
➢ S4= STAFF SCHEDULE
➢ S5= WORKMEN SCHEDULE
➢ S6=MATERIAL SCHEDULE
➢ S7=SPECILAISED MATERIAL
➢ S8 = DIRCT COST
➢ S9 =INDIRECT COST BUDGET

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2.2 Summary of IKEA Project

2.2.1 Timeline

• Tabulation done on excel


• Data collected from master construction schedule

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STRUCTURE Architectural MEP WORKS
Start date finish date DAYS Start Date finish date DAYS Start Date finish date DAYS
P2
ZONE 1 10-Mar-18 10-May-18 61
Parking 05-Jun-18 07-Feb-19 247
ZONE 2 02-Apr-18 18-May-18 46
ZONE 3 06-Apr-18 07-Jun-18 62
ZONE 4 24-Apr-18 14-Jul-18 81
Entrance 01-Sep-18 02-Sep-18 1 03-Sep-18 04-Sep-18 1
staff entrance 27-Jul-18 08-Nov-18 104 09-Aug-18 26-Nov-18 109
P1
ZONE 2 27-Mar-18 30-May-18 64
Parking 28-Jun-18 09-Jan-19 195
ELECTRICAL 23-Jul-18 31-Dec-18 161
PHE 06-Jul-18 31-Dec-18 178
FPS 28-Jun-18 03-Jan-19 189
HVAC 28-Jun-18 05-Jan-19 191
ELV/IBMS 10-Sep-18 15-Jan-19 127
INSTALLITON 31-Aug-18 24-Nov-18 85
ZONE 4 24-Apr-18 19-Jun-18 56
Entrance 16-Jul-18 01-Feb-19 200 01-Aug-18 31-Dec-18 152
co worker enternce 28-Jun-18 20-Oct-18 114 12-Jul-18 01-Nov-18 112
Restaurant kitchen 28-Jun-18 20-Oct-18 114 10-Jul-18 05-Nov-18 118
ZONE 3 27-Apr-18 28-Jun-18 62
ZONE 1 21-May-18 06-Jul-18 46
L1
ZONE 2 11-Mar-18 31-May-18 81
ZONE 4 24-May-18 23-Jun-18 30
Entrance/Exit 20-Jun-18 27-Dec-18 190
ELECTRICAL 21-Jul-18 12-Dec-18 144
PHE 07-Jul-18 11-Dec-18 157
FPS 20-Jun-18 13-Dec-18 176
HVAC 29-Jun-18 15-Dec-18 169
ELV/IBMS 27-Aug-18 20-Dec-18 115
CAST IN STU 24-May-18 21-Jun-18 28
HOLLOW CORE
30-May-18 23-Jun-18 24
SLAB
ZONE 3 06-Apr-18 07-Jun-18 62
STRUCTURE 31-May-18 08-Nov-18 161
METAL DECKING 31-May-18 10-Jul-18 40
ZONE 1 21-Jun-18 26-Jul-18 35
STRUCTURE 21-Jun-18 26-Jun-18 5
HOLLOW CORE
02-Jul-18 26-Jul-18 24
SLAB

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L2
ZONE 2 22-May-18 03-Aug-18 73 01-Jun-18 02-Nov-18 154
ELECTRICAL 06-Jul-18 27-Sep-18 83
FPS 06-Jul-18 28-Sep-18 84
HVAC 19-Jul-18 27-Sep-18 70
ELV/IBMS 09-Aug-18 28-Sep-18 50
STRUCTURE 22-May-18 03-Aug-18 73
METAL DECKING 22-May-18 03-Aug-18 73
ZONE 4 18-Jun-18 23-Feb-19 250
COWORKERS
ENTERENCE 01-Jun-18 02-Nov-18 154
ELECTRICAL 20-Jul-18 18-Sep-18 60
PHE 28-Jul-18 28-Sep-18 62
FPS 13-Jul-18 29-Sep-18 78
HVAC 19-Jul-18 29-Sep-18 72
IBMS 09-Aug-18 29-Sep-18 51
RESTAURANT/
20-Jun-18 27-Dec-18
KITCHEN 190
ELECTRICAL 23-Jul-18 12-Oct-18 81
PHE 31-Jul-18 13-Oct-18 74
FPS 02-Aug-18 16-Oct-18 75
HVAC 04-Aug-18 16-Oct-18 73
ELV/IBMS 14-Aug-18 23-Oct-18 70
STORE OFFICE 04-Aug-18 04-Dec-18 122
ELECTRICAL 21-Aug-18 15-Mar-19 206
PHE 17-Aug-18 16-Nov-18 91
FPS 16-Aug-18 16-Nov-18 92
HVAC 22-Aug-18 20-Nov-18 90
ELV/IBMS 06-Sep-18 22-Nov-18 77
SEATING AREA 03-Sep-18 20-Dec-18 108
ELECTRICAL 30-Aug-18 08-Dec-18 100
PHE 31-Aug-18 10-Dec-18 101
FPS 08-Sep-18 11-Dec-18 94
HVAC 12-Sep-18 14-Dec-18 93
ELV/IBMS 18-Sep-18 12-Dec-18 85
Structure 18-Jun-18 23-Feb-19 250
metal decking 22-Jun-18 02-Aug-18 41
ZONE 1 18-Jul-18 26-Feb-19 223

Table 2.1 Summary of Master construction schedule of IKEA project

15
2.3 Quantity estimation of concrete

• Tabulation done on excel


• Data collected from master construction schedule
• GFC drawings

Area Thicknes Quantity Start Finish Days Per day


s cum date date quantity
Raft 35000sq 750mm 26250 14-02- 27-05- 102 257.3529412
m 2018 2018
Slab1 35000sq 350mm 12250 10-03- 14-07- 126 97.22222222
m 2018 2018
Slab3 34500sq 375mm 12937.7 11-03- 26-06- 107 120.9130841
m 2018 2018
Table 2.2: Quantity estimation of concrete

Graph 2.1: Concrete quantity for each month

16
MONTH Quantity
Feb 3598
March 15412.38
April 21288.6
May 20939.68
June 13549.8
July 3763.62

2.4 Cumulative quantity of concrete, formwork, reinforcement

STEEL
CUM CONCRETE (KG) FORMWORK
61426.5 107615 14947000
FEB 5% 5% 3071.325 5380.75 747350
MARCH 15% 20% 12285.1 21523 2989400
APRIL 20% 40% 27641.48 43046 5978800
MAY 25% 65% 42997.85 69949.75 9715550
JUNE 20% 85% 55282.95 91472.75 12704950
JULY 10% 95% 60196.99 102234.3 14199650
AUG 5% 100% 61425.5 107615 14947000
Table 2.3: Cumulative quantity of concrete, formwork, reinforcement

• Graphical representation (S CURVE)

17
Formwork

120000

100000

80000

60000

40000

20000

0 Series3
FEB MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUG

Reinforcement
16000000
14000000
12000000
10000000
8000000
6000000
4000000
2000000
0
FEB MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUG

Series3

Graph 2.2: Quantity of steel required for project

2.5 Workmen Calculation

per day no of
CONCRETE CUM days quantity workers/day
In substructure 43773 129 339.325581 56
In superstructure 16444 142 115.802817 18
Hollow core slab 1015 51 19.9019608 4
Metal deck sheet roof 194.5 23 8.45652174 2

61426.5 142 432.580986


NO OF WORKERS / 80
Table 2.4: Workmen calculation for concrete

18
FORMWORK SQM days workers
Class f1 (footings) 2320 142 16.3380282 4
Class F2 type (superstructure) 105295 127 829.094488 207
107615 142 757.852113 189.463
NO OF WORKERS 211
Table 2.5: Workmen calculation for formwork

REBAR MT KG days
in substructure 7510 7510000 129 58217.0543 388
in superstructure 4804 4804000 142 33830.9859 226
fabrication & installation of structural
steel 2633 2633000 79 33329.1139 222
14947000 160 93418.75 623
NO OF WORKERS 836
Table 2.6: Workmen calculation for Rebar

19
2.6 Workman calculation of project (month wise)

Bar
Mason carpenter/helper Bender TOTAL
FEB 21 56 208 285
MARCH 59 155 575 789
APRIL 79 207 767 1052
MAY 95 249 923 1267
JUNE 98 259 958 1315
JULY 30 80 295 405
AUG 8 21 77 105
Table 2.7: Total Workman calculation (month wise)

OVERALL WORKMAN
Mason carpenter/helper

1315
1267
1052

958
923
789

767
575

405
295
285

259
249
208

207
155

105
98
95

80
79

77
59
56

30
21

21
8

FEB MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUG

Graph 2.3: Overall workman

2.7 Monthly progress report

• Tabulation done on excel


• Data collected from master construction schedule
• Use of Daily progress report

NOTE: Asking Rate: (balance work/ no of days remaining)

20
Planned Planned
S/No Description UOM Scope
Start Finish NO OF DAYS ASKING RATE

A PCC SQM 35475 14-Feb-18 26-Apr-18 71 499.6478873


ZONE 2 SQM 13736 14-Feb-18 09-Mar-18 23 597.22
ZONE 4 SQM 5100 05-Mar-18 20-Mar-18 15 340.00
ZONE 3 SQM 6265 09-Mar-18 02-Apr-18 24 261.04
ZONE 1 SQM 10374 27-Mar-18 26-Apr-18 30 345.80
B Waterproof SQM 35475 16-Feb-18 02-May-18 75 473.00
ZONE 2 SQM 13736 16-Feb-18 13-Mar-18 25 549.44
ZONE 4 SQM 5100 08-Mar-18 24-Mar-18 16 318.75
ZONE 3 SQM 6265 13-Mar-18 06-Apr-18 24 261.04
ZONE 1 SQM 10374 31-Mar-18 02-May-18 32 324.19
1 Raft SQM 35475 16-Feb-18 15-May-18 88 403.13
ZONE 2 SQM 13736 16-Feb-18 25-Mar-18 37 371.24
ZONE 4 SQM 5100 09-Mar-18 09-Apr-18 31 164.52
ZONE 3 SQM 6265 13-Mar-18 20-Apr-18 38 164.87
ZONE 1 SQM 10374 31-Mar-18 15-May-18 45 230.53
2 Raft SQM 35475 16-Feb-18 17-May-18 90 394.17
ZONE 2 SQM 13736 16-Feb-18 27-Mar-18 39 352.21
ZONE 4 SQM 5100 08-Mar-18 11-Apr-18 34 150.00
ZONE 3 SQM 6265 13-Mar-18 23-Apr-18 41 152.80
ZONE 1 SQM 10374 31-Mar-18 17-May-18 47 220.72
C Retaining RMT 1031 10-Mar-18 31-May-18 82 12.57
ZONE 2 RMT 305 10-Mar-18 05-Apr-18 26 11.73
ZONE 4 RMT 160 05-Apr-18 25-Apr-18 20 8.00
ZONE 3 RMT 250 06-Apr-18 08-May-18 32 7.81
ZONE 1 RMT 316 28-Apr-18 31-May-18 33 9.58

2 Columns P1- SQM 344 27-Mar-18 21-Jun-18 86 4.00


ZONE 2 SQM 125 27-Mar-18 23-Apr-18 27 4.63
ZONE 4 SQM 51 23-Apr-18 17-May-18 24 2.13
ZONE 3 SQM 68 27-Apr-18 26-May-18 29 2.34
ZONE 1 SQM 100 16-May-18 21-Jun-18 36 2.78
2 L1 Floor SQM 34555 02-Apr-18 23-Jun-18 82 421.40
ZONE 2 SQM 14260 02-Apr-18 25-Apr-18 23 620.00
ZONE 4 SQM 5100 30-Apr-18 19-May-18 19 268.42
ZONE 3 SQM 6265 05-May-18 29-May-18 24 261.04
ZONE 1 SQM 8930 23-May-18 23-Jun-18 31 288.06
Table 2.8: Timeline and asking rate details

21
2.8 Budgeted vs actual tale
Following table shows the details of budgeted and actual work at site for month of
1) February
2) March
3) April
a) Reason for early completion of project - Early site hand over at certain area
b) Reason for shortfall or delay of work -
i) As it is progressive handover of site but delay in site handover (Client attributed
delay)
ii) Excavation of zone 3 was done up to full scope (Client attributed & excusable delay).
iii) Labour availability (non-critical delay)
iv) Material availability (non-Availably of Double sided water proofing tape)
(Client attributed delay).

22
shortfall/ahe
Monthly plan achieved SHORTFALL Monthly plan achieved ad Monthly plan achieved Balance
Feb-18 Feb-18 Mar-18 Mar-18 Apr-18 Apr-18
8361.04 13179 -4817.96 17601.07 12927 4674.07 9512.88 8525 987.88
8361.04 10584 -2222.96 5374.96 3152 2222.96 0.00 0 0.00
0.00 710 -710.00 5100.00 662 4438.00 0.00 3195 -3195.00
0.00 0 0.00 5742.92 2582 3160.92 522.08 3600 -3077.92
0.00 1885 -1885.00 1383.20 6531 -5147.80 8990.80 1730 7260.80
8791.04 5295 3496.04 17265.66 15542 1723.66 17556.88 9587 7969.88
8791.04 5295 3496.04 7142.72 8356 -1213.28 0.00 85 -85.00
0.00 0 0.00 5100.00 1282 3818.00 0.00 1470 -1470.00
0.00 0 0.00 4698.75 812 3886.75 7831.25 4332 3499.25
0.00 0 0.00 324.19 5092 -4767.81 9725.63 3700 6025.63
5939.89 0 5939.89 16098.60 16719 -620.40 11694.01 8396 3298.01
5939.89 0 5939.89 9281.08 9630 -348.92 0.00 336 -336.00
0.00 0 0.00 3619.35 1042 2577.35 1480.65 1300 180.65
0.00 0 0.00 2967.63 820 2147.63 3297.37 4260 -962.63
0.00 0 0.00 230.53 5227 -4996.47 6916.00 2500 4416.00
5635.28 0 5635.28 15930.75 13606 2324.75 11786.21 9433 2353.21
5635.28 0 5635.28 9509.54 9810 -300.46 0.00 430 -430.00
0.00 0 0.00 3450.00 680 2770.00 1650.00 955 695.00
0.00 0 0.00 2750.49 0 2750.49 3514.51 4809 -1294.49
0.00 0 0.00 220.72 3116 -2895.28 6621.70 3239 3382.70
0.00 0 0.00 234.62 0 234.62 425.31 221 204.31
0.00 0 0.00 234.62 0 234.62 58.65 184 -125.35
0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 160.00 0 160.00
0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 187.50 0 187.50
0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 19.15 37 -17.85
0.00 0 0.00 62.50 48 14.50 161.38 91 70.38
0.00 0 0.00 62.50 48 14.50 59.38 55 4.38
0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 51.00 2 49.00
0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 51.00 5 46.00
0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 29 -29.00
0.00 0 0.00 7924.62 3379 4545.62 15007.73 9670 5337.73
0.00 0 0.00 7924.62 3379 4545.62 5811.38 5310 501.38
0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 5100.00 5100.00
0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 4096.35 4096.35
0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4360 -4360.00
0.00 0 0.00 7384.86 7384.86 15019.22 5660 9359.22
0.00 0 0.00 7375.86 7375.86 6884.14 4140 2744.14
0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 4462.50 4462.50
0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 3672.59 3672.59
0.00 0 0.00 9.00 9.00 0.00 1520 -1520.00
0.00 0 0.00 18.52 18.52 128.39 18 110.39
0.00 0 0.00 18.52 18.52 106.48 18 88.48
0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 14.88 14.88
0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.03 7.03
0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 17628.42 970 16658.42
0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 17360.00 970 16390.00
0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.00 268.42 268.42

Table 2.9: The details of budgeted and actual work

23
Graph 2.4: Planned vs. actual work

24
2.9 Assignment: to prepare complete schedule (S0-S9) of current
project on excel.

1) S0: Master construction schedule

25
26
D2) Vendor selection of materials /equipments
D2.1 steel 7 08-Feb-18 15-Feb-18
D2.2 RMC plant 7 09-Feb-18 16-Feb-18
D2.3 sand/backfiiling material 7 10-Feb-18 17-Feb-18
D2.4 PICK and carry crane 7 11-Feb-18 18-Feb-18
D2.5 CARS /TRUCK 7 12-Feb-18 19-Feb-18
D2.6 Telescopic crane 7 13-Feb-18 20-Feb-18
D2.7 plywood /formwork material 7 14-Feb-18 21-Feb-18

D3) Sub - Contractor selection


D3.1 electrical 45 09-Feb-18 26-Mar-18
D3.2 plumbing 45 10-Feb-18 27-Mar-18
D3.3 Hvac 45 12-Feb-18 29-Mar-18
D3.4 FPS 45 13-Feb-18 30-Mar-18
D3.5 finishing works 45 18-Feb-18 04-Apr-18
D3.6 external development works 45 19-Feb-18 05-Apr-18

E) construction
E.1) SUB- structure
E.1.1) EXCAVTION 01 February 2018
E.1.1.1 DIGGING 1 01 February 2018 02 February 2018
E.1.1.2 CLEARENCE OF UNDERGROUND UTILITIES 1 01 February 2018 02 February 2018
E.1.1.3 Anti- termite tratment 30 06 February 2018 08 March 2018
E.1.1.4 levelling 2 10 February 2018 12 February 2018

E.1.1) foundation
E.1.1.1) zone 1 10-Mar-18
E.1.1.1.1 PCC 10 13 February 2018 23 February 2018
E.1.1.1.2 Waterproofing 7 23 February 2018 02 March 2018
E.1.1.1.3 Raft slab concrete 16 02 March 2018 18 March 2018
E.1.1.1) zone 2
E.1.1.2.1 PCC 10 16 February 2018 26 February 2018
E.1.1.2.2 Waterproofing 7 26 February 2018 05 March 2018
E.1.1.2.3 Raft slab concrete 16 05 March 2018 21 March 2018
E.1.1.1) zone 3
E.1.1.3.1 PCC 10 18 February 2018 28 February 2018
E.1.1.3.2 Waterproofing 7 28 February 2018 07 March 2018
E.1.1.3.3 Raft slab concrete 16 07 March 2018 23 March 2018
E.1.1.1) zone 4
E.1.1.4.1 PCC 10 20 February 2018 02 March 2018
E.1.1.4.2 Waterproofing 7 02 March 2018 09 March 2018
E.1.1.4.3 Raft slab concrete 16 09 March 2018 25 March 2018

27
E2) SUPERSTRUCTURE
E.2.1) P2 LEVEL
E.2.1.1) ZONE 1
E.2.1.2) parking area
RCC works 13 April 2018
COLUMN 45 13 April 2018 28 May 2018
SLAB & F1 Finish 50 21 April 2018 10 June 2018
RETAINING WALL 60 13 April 2018 12 June 2018
MEP WORKS
Electrical 60 12 May 2018 11 July 2018
FPS 70 15 May 2018 24 July 2018
PHE 80 15 May 2018 03 August 2018
HVAC 50 14 May 2018 03 July 2018
E.2.2) ZONE2
E.2.2.1) parking area
RCC works 02 April 2018
COLUMN 50 02 April 2018 22 May 2018
SLAB & F1 Finish 60 12 April 2018 11 June 2018
RETAINING WALL 60 02 April 2018 01 June 2018
MEP WORKS
PHE 60 06 July 2018 04 September 2018
Electrical 70 06 July 2018 04 September 2018
FPS 80 10 July 2018 18 September 2018
HVAC 50 12 July 2018 30 September 2018
E.2.1.2) ZONE 4
E.2.1.2) parking area
RCC works
COLUMN 30 10 April 2018 10 May 2018
SLAB & F1 Finish 45 20 April 2018 04 June 2018
RETAINING WALL 60 10 April 2018 09 June 2018
MEP WORKS
Electrical 60 26 June 2018 25 August 2018
FPS 70 28 June 2018 06 September 2018
HVAC 80 01 July 2018 19 September 2018
PHE 50 01 July 2018 20 August 2018
E.2.1.2) ZONE 3
E.2.1.2) parking area
RCC works
COLUMN 40 19 April 2018 29 May 2018
SLAB & F1 Finish 45 23 April 2018 07 June 2018
RETAING WALL 60 19 April 2018 18 June 2018
MEP WORKS
Electrical 60 02 July 2018 31 August 2018
FPS 70 04 July 2018 12 September 2018
phE 80 06 July 2018 24 September 2018
HVAC 50 06 July 2018 25 August 2018

28
E.2.1) P1 LEVEL
E.2.2 ZONE 1
E.2.2.1 parking area
RCC works
COLUMN 25 22 June 2018 17 July 2018
SLAB & F1 Finish 30 30 June 2018 30 July 2018
MEP WORKS
Electrical 15 30 August 2018 14 September 2018
FPS 16 01 September 2018 17 September 2018
HVAC 12 06 September 2018 18 September 2018
E.2.2) ZONE2
E.2.2.1) parking area
RCC works
COLUMN 25 14 July 2018 08 August 2018
SLAB & F1 Finish 40 22 July 2018 31 August 2018
MEP WORKS
Electrical 80 21 September 2018 10 December 2018
FPS 90 25 September 2018 24 December 2018
HVAC 92 29 September 2018 30 December 2018
E.2.1.2) ZONE 4
E.2.1.2) parking area
RCC works 60
COLUMN 25 07 August 2018 01 September 2018
SLAB & F1 Finish 30 19 August 2018 18 September 2018
MEP WORKS
Electrical 80 09 October 2018 28 December 2018
FPS 90 11 October 2018 09 January 2019
HVAC 92 14 October 2018 14 January 2019
E.2.1.2) Ramp
RCC works 15 07 August 2018 22 August 2018
slabs and column 15 07 August 2018 22 August 2018
E.2.1.2) ZONE 3
E.2.1.2) parking area
RCC works
COLUMN 30 29 August 2018 28 September 2018
SLAB & F1 Finish 40 06 September 2018 16 October 2018
MEP WORKS
phe 80 06 November 2018 25 January 2019
Electrical 60 09 November 2018 08 January 2019
FPS 90 12 November 2018 10 February 2019
HVAC 60 15 November 2018 14 January 2019
E.2.1.2) Ramp
RCC works 15 05 August 2018 20 August 2018
slabs and column 15 05 August 2018 20 August 2018

29
E.2.3) L1 LEVEL
E.2.3) zone 1
E.2.3.2) Market Hall
structural works
Hollow core slab 23 08-Jul-18 31-Jul-18
column 30 06-Jul-18 05-Aug-18
Architectural works
block work 45 02-Sep-18 17-Oct-18
finishes 120 22-Sep-18 20-Jan-19
façade work 40 17-Oct-18 26-Nov-18
Glazing works 30 29-Oct-18 28-Nov-18
MEP works
BMS 80 04-Sep-18 23-Nov-18
FPS 90 08-Sep-18 07-Dec-18
HVAC 80 12-Sep-18 01-Dec-18
PHE 90 16-Sep-18 15-Dec-18
E.2.3) zone 2
E.2.3.1) warehouse
structural works
column 35 01-Aug-18 05-Sep-18
slab 30 09-Aug-18 08-Sep-18
Architectural works
block work 40 03-Sep-18 13-Oct-18
finishes 90 19-Oct-18 17-Jan-19
MEP works
FPS 80 08-Oct-18 27-Dec-18
BMS 60 10-Oct-18 09-Dec-18
HVAC 90 12-Oct-18 10-Jan-19
PHS 60 14-Oct-18 13-Dec-18

E.2.4.) ZONE 4
E.2.4.1) public circulation area
structural works
slab 38 18 September 2018 26 October 2018
Column 25 01 September 2018 26 September 2018
Architectural works
block work 60 26 October 2018 25 December 2018
finishes 90 26 October 2018 24 January 2019
MEP works
FPS 80 16 November 2018 04 February 2019
BMS 60 18 November 2018 17 January 2019
phs 90 20 November 2018 18 February 2019
HVAC 60 22 November 2018 21 January 2019
E.2.4.1) exterior façade 90 26 October 2018 24 January 2019

ZONE 3
E.2.5.1) GOODS unloading
structural works
steel canopy 35 16 October 2018 20 November 2018
steel column 15 06 October 2018 21 October 2018
Architectural works
finishes 90 31 October 2018 29 January 2019
MEP works
electrical 60 11 December 2018 12 October 2018
HVAC 70 11 December 2018 02 October 2018
E.2.5.1) external loading bay
structural works
canopy 30 28 September 2018 28 October 2018
steel column 3025 20 September 2018 15 October 2018
E.2.3) L2 LEVEL
E.2.3.1) zone 1
E.2.3.1) Market Hall
structural works
Hollow core slab 45 31-Jul-18 14-Sep-18
column 25 23-Jul-18 17-Aug-18
Architectural works
block work 60 17-Aug-18 16-Oct-18
finishes 90 01-Sep-18 30-Nov-18
façade work 38 25-Aug-18 02-Oct-18
Glazing works 30 25-Aug-18 24-Sep-18
MEP works
BMS 60 05-Oct-18 04-Dec-18
FPS 70 08-Oct-18 17-Dec-18
HVAC 60 11-Oct-18 10-Dec-18
PHE 70 14-Oct-18 23-Dec-18
zone 4
E.2.3.1) Restaurant seating area
structural works
slab 35 08 October 2018 12 November 2018
Column 20 30 September 2018 20 October 2018
Architectural works
block work 40 28 October 2018 07 December 2018
finishes 70 17 November 2018 26 January 2019
MEP works
FPS 60 03 December 2018 01 February 2019
BMS 70 03 December 2018 11 February 2019
HVAC 60 03 December 2018 01 February 2019
E.2.4) ROOF
E.2.4.1) zone 1
metal decking 32 14-Sep-18 16-Oct-18
TPO membrane 30 08-Oct-18 07-Nov-18
MEP units
Air handling unit 70 28-Oct-18 06-Jan-19
exhaust fan 80 07-Nov-18 26-Jan-19
PVC tank 45 14-Nov-18 29-Dec-18
Natural day lighrs 80 19-Nov-18 07-Feb-19
Gabriel system for water collection100 19-Nov-18 27-Feb-19

E.2.4.2) zone 2
metal decking 32 22-Oct-18 23-Nov-18
TPO membrane 45 30-Nov-18 14-Jan-19
E.2.4.3) external staircase 30 03-Dec-18 02-Jan-19
E.2.4.4) power distribution room 25 01-Dec-18 26-Dec-18
MEP units
Air handling unit 70 23-Nov-18 01-Feb-19
exhaust fan 80 26-Nov-18 14-Feb-19
PVC tank 45 03-Dec-18 17-Jan-19
Natural day lighrs 80 10-Dec-18 28-Feb-19
Gabriel system for water collection100 17-Dec-18 07-Mar-19

E.2.4.5) zone 4
metal decking 32 23-Nov-18 25-Dec-18
TPO membrane 30 28-Dec-18 27-Jan-19
MEP units
Air handling unit 70 25-Dec-18 05-Mar-19
exhaust fan 80 28-Dec-18 18-Mar-19
PVC tank 45 31-Dec-18 14-Feb-19
Natural day lighrs 80 03-Jan-19 24-Mar-19
Gabriel system for water collection80 06-Jan-19 27-Mar-19
HANDING OVER 73 17-Jan-19 31-Mar-19

Table 2.10: Master construction schedule

31
2) S1 =Cost estimate: it consists of schedule of all payments amount of each item and amount
required for month
Following is summary of cost estimate of structural item of a project:

Budgeted Cost
concrete 379747375
formwork 37767260
steel 481416237.5
Total 898930872.5

In similar way cost estimate of each resources such as Plants and machinery and MEP item
has to be done and to be included in this schedule

3) S2 = Milestone details

MILESTONE
SR NO LEVEL DISCRIPTION duration START FINISH
1 P2 Raft slab concrete 60 15 March 2018 14 May 2018
2 P2 RETAING WALL 60 19 April 2018 18 June 2018
3 P2 MEP WORKS 80 06 July 2018 24 September 2018
4 p1 SLAB 40 22 July 2018 31 August 2018
5 p1 Ramp 15 07 August 2018 22 August 2018
6 p1 MEP WORKS 92 29 September 2018 30 December 2018
7 L1 hollow core slab 30 09 August 2018 08 September 2018
8 L1 Architectural 120 22 September 2018 20 January 2019
9 L1 MEP WORKS 90 16 September 2018 15 December 2018
10 l1 STEEL CANOPY 35 16 October 2018 20 November 2018
11 L2 Architectural works 90 01 September 2018 30 November 2018
12 L2 MEP WORKS 70 03 December 2018 11 February 2019
13 ROOF metal decking 32 22 October 2018 23 November 2018
14 ROOF TPO & PIR 45 30 November 2018 14 January 2019
15 ROOF MEP WORKS 84 06 January 2019 31 March 2019
16 HANDING OVER 73 17 January 2019 31 March 2019
Table 2.12: Milestone details

4) S3= Schedule of plants and machinery

32
Equipment requirement
Sr NO equipments start date FINISH months
1 SKID steer loader 0.4 CUM 13 January 2018 13-Sep-18 8
2 Tower crane -fixed 2.7@ 60 M 20 February 2018 20-Oct-18 9
3 Tower crane -fixed 2.7@ 60 M 02 March 2018 02-Oct-18 7
4 Tower crane -fixed 2.7@ 60 M 02 March 2018 02-Oct-18 7
5 BOOM placer 02 March 2018 02-Sep-18 6
6 air compressor 02 March 2018 02-Sep-18 6
7 Power generator 125 KVA 01 January 2018 31-Mar-18 14
8 Power generator 250 KVA 01 January 2018 01-Oct-18 7
9 Loder backhoe 01 January 2018 20-Sep-18 6
10 Mobile crane -60T 01 March 2018 31-Mar-19 13
11 pick and carry crane F 15 20 February 2018 31-Mar-19 13
12 Truck -10 T 06 February 2018 31-Mar-19 13
13 vacuume cleaner 02 March 2018 02-Oct-18 7
14 Ride on trowel 02 March 2018 01-Oct-18 7
15 lesser screed machine 02 March 2018 01-Oct-18 7
16 concrete pump 02 March 2018 01-Oct-18 7
17 weight brige 13 January 2018 13-Oct-18 6
18 bar bending maching 13 January 2018 13-Sep-18 6
19 bar cutting machine 13 January 2018 13-Sep-18 6
20 excavator cum loader 13 January 2018 13-Sep-18 6
21 Diesel bowser 01 January 2018 01-Oct-18 7
22 Lighting mask with DG set 02 March 2018 01-Jan-19 9
23 dewatering pump 06 May 2018 06-Oct-18 5
Table 2.13: Schedule of plants and machinery

33
5) S4 = Schedule for staff

DESIGNATION NO
project manager 2
PLANNING
Planning manager 1
ast planning manager ( schedule) 1
ast planning manager ( contract) 1
ast planning manager ( billing) 1
sub -contractor billing Eng 2
staff 3
Quality
Quality Dept head 1
qality manager 2
quality engineer (concrete) 3
quality engineer (steel) 1

34
Formwork
Formwork manager 1
ast maanger 1
site manager 2
site engineer 4

safety
safety manger 1
site manager 2
saftey engineer 3
site supervisor 15

plants and machinery


p&m manger 1
site manager 2
site supervisor 6
site engineer 4

MEP
MEP HEAD 1
ast maanger 2
ast manager ( procurement ) 1
site manager 2
site engineer 4
staff 2

accounts
accounts dept head 1
staff 2

concreting
construction manger 3
sectional incharge 4
site engineer 12

store
store head 1
supporting staaff 2

TIME department
head 1
supporting staff 2

reinforcemnt department
head 1
supporting staff 2

other staff 5
TOTAL 108

Table 2.14: Schedule of staff

35
6) S5= Schedule of quantity of material
CSR quantity
steel concrte shuttering
feb 1769.5
march 2016.45 11199 6843
april 2421.97 11296.11 20332.998
may 1545.64 8768.15 15782.67
june 1448.48 8764.34 15775.812
july 860.37 7614.6 13706.28
aug 1856.81 9631.7 17337.06
sept 458.36 5346.1 9622.98
total 10608.08 64389.5 92557.8

Table 2.15: Schedule of quantity of material

Graph 2.5: Quantity requirement

36
7) S6 = Schedule of labours
labour requirement
steel concrete shutturing total
FEB 10 10
MAR 448 62 58 568
APR 538 63 169 770
MAY 343 49 132 524
JUN 322 49 131 502
JUL 191 42 114 348
AUG 413 54 144 611
SEP 102 30 80 212

Table 2.16: Labour requirement

Labour Requirement
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP

labour requirement steel labour requirement concrete


labour requirement shutturing labour requirement total

Graph 2.6: Labour requirement

8) S7= Schedule of a specialised items

37
Specialised material
Purchase Requsting analysing PURCHASE Commencemnt of
requisition quotation quotation ORDER RECEIVING GOODS work End date
Blue and yellow facde 23 March 2018 22 April 2018 01 June 2018 08 June 2018 06 October 2018 26 October 2018 26 December 2018
Grid Ceiling 07 February 2018 17 February 2018 29 March 2018 05 April 2018 03 August 2018 23 August 2018 26 January 2019
solar panel 01 March 2018 11 March 2018 20 April 2018 27 April 2018 25 August 2018 14-Sep-18 26 January 2019
navigation tower 01 March 2018 11 March 2018 20 April 2018 27 April 2018 25 August 2018 14 September 2018 26 January 2019
Intumescent fire retarding paints 08 February 2018 18 February 2018 30 March 2018 06 April 2018 04 August 2018 24 August 2018 26 January 2019
Metal Deck sheet 01 March 2018 11 March 2018 20 April 2018 27 April 2018 25 August 2018 14 September 2018 14 December 2018
Hollow core slab planks: 05 February 2018 15 February 2018 27 March 2018 03 April 2018 01 August 2018 21 August 2018 11 September 2018
water proofing 01-Jan-18 09 January 2018 19 January 2018 24 January 2018 13 February 2018 23 February 2018 16 January 2019
HVAC
chillers 09 March 2018 19 March 2018 28 April 2018 05 May 2018 04 July 2018 24-Jul-18 11 March 2019
primary and secondary pump 10 March 2018 20 March 2018 29 April 2018 06 May 2018 05 July 2018 25-Jul-18 11 March 2019
Air Handling unit 11 March 2018 21 March 2018 30 April 2018 07 May 2018 06 July 2018 26-Jul-18 11 March 2019
cooling tower 12 March 2018 22 March 2018 01 May 2018 08 May 2018 07 July 2018 27-Jul-18 11 March 2019
Electrical
transformer 06 March 2018 16 March 2018 25 April 2018 02 May 2018 01 July 2018 21-Jul 25 January 2019
HT panels 07 March 2018 17 March 2018 26 April 2018 03 May 2018 02 July 2018 22-Jul 25 January 2019
UPS 08 March 2018 18 March 2018 27 April 2018 04 May 2018 03 July 2018 23-Jul 25 January 2019
LT Panel 11 March 2018 21 March 2018 30 April 2018 07 May 2018 06 July 2018 26-Jul-18 25 January 2019
Fire fighting
main Fire water pump 11 March 2018 21 March 2018 30 April 2018 07 May 2018 06 July 2018 26-Jul-18 01 February 2019
spinklers 12 March 2018 22 March 2018 01 May 2018 08 May 2018 07 July 2018 27-Jul-18 01 February 2019
fire house 13 March 2018 23 March 2018 02 May 2018 09 May 2018 08 July 2018 28-Jul-18 01 February 2019
others
Sky lights 30 April 2018 10 May 2018 19 June 2018 26 June 2018 25 August 2018 14 September 2018 13 March 2019
wall & edge protection 30 April 2018 10 May 2018 19 June 2018 26 June 2018 25 August 2018 14 September 2018 13 March 2019
Fire sealant & protection 09 April 2018 19 April 2018 29 May 2018 05 June 2018 04 August 2018 24 August 2018 01 February 2019
canopy 01 June 2018 11 June 2018 21 July 2018 28 July 2018 26 September 2018 16 October 2018 20 November 2018
Architectural works
ceramic tiles 07 April 2018 17 April 2018 27 May 2018 03 June 2018 02 August 2018 22 August 2018 26 January 2019
Painting 05 April 2018 15 April 2018 25 May 2018 01 June 2018 31 July 2018 20 August 2018 26 January 2019
Resilient flooring 06 April 2018 16 April 2018 26 May 2018 02 June 2018 01 August 2018 21 August 2018 26 January 2019
Resin flooring 07 April 2018 17 April 2018 27 May 2018 03 June 2018 02 August 2018 22 August 2018 26 January 2019
Gypsum plasterboards Partitions 08 April 2018 18 April 2018 28 May 2018 04 June 2018 03 August 2018 23 August 2018 26 January 2019
Toilet cubicals & urinal partition 09 April 2018 19 April 2018 29 May 2018 05 June 2018 04 August 2018 24 August 2018 26 January 2019
metal ceiling 10 April 2018 20 April 2018 30 May 2018 06 June 2018 05 August 2018 25 August 2018 26 January 2019
Steel Doors & Louvers 11 April 2018 21 April 2018 31 May 2018 07 June 2018 06 August 2018 26 August 2018 26 January 2019
Ironmongery 12 April 2018 22 April 2018 01 June 2018 08 June 2018 07 August 2018 27 August 2018 26 January 2019
Glazing 24 April 2018 04 May 2018 13 June 2018 20 June 2018 19 August 2018 08-Sep-18 26 January 2019

Table 2.17: Schedule of specialised items

38
9) S8 = Direct cost to Project
10) S9 = Indirect cost to project
SR.no indirect heads
1 Tower crane foundation
2 site office construction
3 stores set up
4 temporary fencing
5 Labour collony
6 security cabin
7 water and drainge arrangment
8 cluster office staff expenaces to ikea project
9 safety cost
11 Office expence
12 Tendering and biiding cost
14 inefficency in productivity (delay)
15 Haulage cost
16 poor handling of resources
17 depriciation of P&M
18 Inventory cost
19 revision of mangement decisions
20 acidental damges

Table 2.18: Indirect heads

39
3.PROCUREMENT OF DOORS
1. Acceptable makes given by IKEA
a) Shakti Horman Pvt. LTD
b) Metaflex doors India Pvt. LTD
c) Sehgal doors
d) Dortek LTD
e) Bhavani steel
f) Dauerhaft engineers Pvt. LTD
2. Clients Requirement
a) UL certified for Fire doors
b) IS0 9001 certified company
c) 10 years of warranty /guaranty
d) EHS compliance
3. Stages during procurement
a) Request for quotation
b) Analysis of quotation
c) Prequalification
d) Meeting / negotiation on rates, availability, terms and condition, and lead time,
credit period.
e) Finalisation of vendor.
4. Technical specification (door requirement)
a) Acoustics Rated doors and door assemblies
b) Steel louvers
c) Fire rated doors and door assemblies
d) Hollow steel doors
5. Qualified vendors-based Clients requirement’s
a) Shakti Horman Pvt. LTD
b) Sehgal doors
c) Dauerhaft engineers Pvt. Ltd.
6. Vendors had to submit
a) 300× 300 mm sample
b) Maintains data and schedule

40
3.1 Analysing quotation
STEEL PANEL DOORS shakti Hormann Dauerhaft engineers Shehgal
S. No. Description UoM Qty RATE amount Rate Amount Rate Amount

A Steel frames NA NA Steel frames Steel Frames & Shutters

Supply and Installation of Steel Frames as per Drawings,


1
Specifications, Documents and Instructions of Engineer in-charge.

1.1 Non Fire Rated; Non Acoustic


1.1.1 Door Size: 1500mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 5130 5130 15,877 15,877
0 -
1.2 Non Fire Rated; 30dB Acoustic Rated 0 -
1.2.1 Door Size: 1000mm x 2100mm Nos. 2 4680 9360 11,913 23,826
1.2.2 Door Size: 1200mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 4860 4860 13,498 13,498
1.2.3 Door Size: 1500mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 5130 5130 15,876 15,876
1.2.4 Door Size: 2000mm x 2100mm Nos. 4 5580 22320 19,840 79,360
0 -
1.3 Non Fire Rated; 40dB Acoustic Rated 0 -
1.3.1 Door Size: 900mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 4590 4590 11,119 11,119
1.3.2 Door Size: 1500mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 5130 5130 15,876 15,876
0 -
1.4 Non Fire Rated; 52dB Acoustic Rated 0 -
1.4.1 Door Size: 800mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 4500 4500 10,327 10,327
1.4.2 Door Size: 1000mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 4680 4680 11,912 11,912
0 -
1.5 120 Mins Fire Rated; Non Acoustic 0 -
1.5.1 Door Size: 1200mm x 2100mm Nos. 4 4860 19440 13,498 53,992
1.5.2 Door Size: 2000mm x 2100mm Nos. 36 5580 200880 19,840 7,14,240
0 -
1.6 120 Mins Fire Rated; 30dB Acoustic Rated 0 -
1.6.1 Door Size: 1200mm x 2100mm Nos. 7 4860 34020 13,498 94,486
1.6.2 Door Size: 2000mm x 2100mm Nos. 21 5580 117180 19,840 4,16,640
1.6.3 Door Size: 2500mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 6030 6030 23,803 23,803
0 -
1.7 120 Mins Fire Rated; 40dB Acoustic Rated 0 -
1.7.1 Door Size: 900mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 4590 4590 11,119 11,119
1.7.2 Door Size: 1000mm x 2100mm Nos. 2 4680 9360 11,912 23,824
1.7.3 Door Size: 1200mm x 2100mm Nos. 11 4860 53460 13,498 1,48,478
1.7.4 Door Size: 2000mm x 2100mm Nos. 5 5580 27900 19,840 99,200
1.7.5 Door Size: 2500mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 6030 6030 23,803 23,803
-
1.8 120 Mins Fire Rated; 44dB Acoustic Rated -
1.8.1 Door Size: 1200mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 4860 4860 13,498 13,498
-
1.9 120 Mins Fire Rated; 52dB Acoustic Rated -
1.9.1 Door Size: 1000mm x 2100mm Nos. 6 4680 28080 11,912 71,472
1.9.2 Door Size: 1200mm x 2100mm Nos. 5 4860 24300 13,498 67,490
1.9.3 Door Size: 2000mm x 2100mm Nos. 14 5580 78120 19,840 2,77,760
1.9.4 Door Size: 2500mm x 2100mm Nos. 2 6030 12060 23,803 47,606

Total Amount (A) 130 6,92,010.00 22,85,082.00

Table3.1: Quotation analysis

41
B Steel Leaf Swing Doors

Supply and Installation of Steel Leaf Swing Doors as per Drawings,


2 Ironmongeries
Specifications, Documents and Instructions of Engineer in-charge.

2.1 Non Fire Rated; Non Acoustic


2.1.1 Door Size: 1500mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 28366.65 28366.65 12480 12480 17,577 17,577
-
2.2 Non Fire Rated; 30dB Acoustic Rated -
2.2.1 Door Size: 1000mm x 2100mm Nos. 2 36524.61 73049.22 9120 18240 22,845 45,690
2.2.2 Door Size: 1200mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 40066.61 40066.61 10464 10464 21,275 21,275
2.2.3 Door Size: 1500mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 48982.61 48982.61 12480 12480 65,535 65,535
2.2.4 Door Size: 2000mm x 2100mm Nos. 4 56378.61 225514.44 15840 63360 70,700 2,82,800
-
2.3 Non Fire Rated; 40dB Acoustic Rated -
2.3.1 Door Size: 900mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 35328.61 35328.61 8448 8448 19,976 19,976
2.3.2 Door Size: 1500mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 48982.61 48982.61 12480 12480 38,228 38,228
-
2.4 Non Fire Rated; 52dB Acoustic Rated -
2.4.1 Door Size: 800mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 0 0 7776 7776 33,136 33,136
2.4.2 Door Size: 1000mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 36524.61 36524.61 9120 9120 24,295 24,295
-
2.5 120 Mins Fire Rated; Non Acoustic -
2.5.1 Door Size: 1200mm x 2100mm Nos. 4 26580.61 106322.44 11976 47904 39,610 1,58,440
2.5.2 Door Size: 2000mm x 2100mm Nos. 36 41724.22 1502071.92 18360 660960 63,367 22,81,212
-
2.6 120 Mins Fire Rated; 30dB Acoustic Rated -
2.6.1 Door Size: 1200mm x 2100mm Nos. 7 41500.61 290504.27 11976 83832 42,983 3,00,881
2.6.2 Door Size: 2000mm x 2100mm Nos. 21 58769.61 1234161.81 18360 385560 70,700 14,84,700
2.6.3 Door Size: 2500mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 47024.48 47024.48 22350 22350 61,494 61,494
-
2.7 120 Mins Fire Rated; 40dB Acoustic Rated -
2.7.1 Door Size: 900mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 36404.61 36404.61 9582 9582 22,845 22,845
2.7.2 Door Size: 1000mm x 2100mm Nos. 2 37719.61 75439.22 10380 20760 24,900 49,800
2.7.3 Door Size: 1200mm x 2100mm Nos. 11 41500.61 456506.71 11976 131736 33,787 3,71,657
2.7.4 Door Size: 2000mm x 2100mm Nos. 5 58769.61 293848.05 15960 79800 66,970 3,34,850
2.7.5 Door Size: 2500mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 47024.48 47024.48 22350 22350 62,384 62,384
-
2.8 120 Mins Fire Rated; 44dB Acoustic Rated -
2.8.1 Door Size: 1200mm x 2100mm Nos. 1 41500.61 41500.61 11976 11976 24,144 24,144
-
2.9 120 Mins Fire Rated; 52dB Acoustic Rated -
2.9.1 Door Size: 1000mm x 2100mm Nos. 6 37719.61 226317.66 10380 62280 24,900 1,49,400
2.9.2 Door Size: 1200mm x 2100mm Nos. 5 41500.61 207503.05 11976 59880 33,787 1,68,935
2.9.3 Door Size: 2000mm x 2100mm Nos. 14 58769.61 822774.54 18360 257040 70,700 9,89,800
2.9.4 Door Size: 2500mm x 2100mm Nos. 2 47024.48 94048.96 22350 44700 62,384 1,24,768
-
Total Amount (B) 130 60,18,268.17 20,55,558.00 71,33,822.00

C Ironmongeries ( extra as below) NA NA

Supply and Installation of Ironmongeries for doors as per Drawings,


3
Specifications, Documents and Instructions of Engineer in-charge.

3.1 Hinges (garg-4*3*3mm) Nos. 1170 280 327600


3.1.1 door closer (yale) Nos. 346 1900 657400
3.1.2 locker (yale) Nos. 146 1750 255500
3.1.3 flush bolt (yale) Nos. 38 875 33250
3.1.4 lever handle (yale) Nos. 39 850 33150
3.1.5 push plate (yale) Nos. 12 1250 15000
3.1.6 pull handle Nos. 174 1200 208800
3.1.7 panic device for single shutter door Nos. 92 5600 515200
3.1.8 pannic trim Nos. 92 4500 414000
3.1.9 cylinder Nos. 92 550 50600
3.1.10 kick plate (300mm x 700mm) Nos. 71 1800 127800
3.1.11 Acoustic seal for wooden door per psc Nos. 1067 250 266750
3.1.12 fire seal (rmt) Nos. 377 375 141375
3.1.13 Dust proof strike Nos. 36 450 16200
3.1.14 floor stop Nos. 338 325 109850
3.1.15 wall stop Nos. 56 275 15400
3.1.15 sign plate Nos. 20 575 11500

Total Amount (C) 4146 31,99,375.00

Total Amount 6018268.17 52,54,933.00 94,18,904.00

42
3.2 EHS COMPLIANCE

Factors weightage shakti Hormann Dauerhaft engineers Sehgal


Number of fatalities (Avg Of past three years ) 0.2 20 20 20
Number of reportable accient 0.15 15 15 15
Number of man hr. worked 0.1 10 10 10
Legal complience 0.15 12 15 12
Past history 0.15 15 15 15
EHS mangment system ,competance and other
requirment 0.2 18 16 15
EHS award & Recognition 0.5 4 3 2
94 94 89

Table 3.2: EHS compliance rating

3.3 Selection of vendors:


VENDOR SELECTION
Dauerhaft shakti Dauerhaft
shakti Hormann Sehgal Sehgal
SUPPLIERS WEIGHTGES engineers Hormann engineers
FACTORS
COMMERCIAL (COST) 0.3 95 100 75 28.5 30 22.5
TECHNICAL 0.15 92 95 95 13.8 14.25 14.25
WARRENTY 0.2 95 90 95 19 18 19
LEAD TIME 0.05 90 85 90 4.5 4.25 4.5
specification 0.15 80 90 100 12 13.5 15
EHS 0.15 94 94 84 14.1 14.1 12.6
1 91.9 94.1 87.85

Table 3.3: Vendor selection Matrix

Dauerhaft engineers were selected and purchase order was placed.

43
4. CONTRACT
Employer = IKEA Indian Pvt. Ltd
Engineer = WS Atkins Pvt. Ltd
Contractor = M/s Larsen Tourbo Limited
Contract price= 450cr

4.1 Important dates

o Tender document = 12 Aug 2017


o LOA=19 December 2018
o Commencement of project = 1february 2018
o Completion date =30 march 19
o Duration 14 months
o Defects notification period = 24 months from completion
o DLP= depending on DNP based on it

4.2 Contract
Agreement between two parties, the Client & the Contractor to perform a predefined scope of
work for a pre-determined amount of money.

4.3 General conditions of contract: taken from FIDIC RED BOOK

4.4 Fidic Red Book: Conditions of Contract for Construction for Building and
Engineering Works designed by the Employer

44
4.5 Assignment given
a) To incorporate special conditions of contract in FIDIC red book
b) To list out clauses in favour and against the contractor in contract

4.6 Conditions Favouring contractor


a) Commencement date is clearly mentioned that is after 15 days of issuance of LOA
b) The employer will pay the charges to statutory bodies for labour cess, the contractor
will not require to pay labour laws
c) Provision has made by employer for entitlement for extension of time and cost because
of hindrance caused to progress of work due to restricted access to the site or delay in
possession of site
d) Electricity, water and gas shall be obtained by contractor but when required for testing
will be paid by employer
e) The contractor shall not provide facilities for employer’s personnel, whereas FIDIC
asks to provide facilities
f) Variation in the quantities may be paid from evaluation of BOQ
g) the first instalment of the advance payment has to be paid within 15 days as against 21
days given in FIDIC

h) the amount certified in each Interim Payment Certificate and final payment within 30 days
after the Engineer receives the Statement and supporting documents as against 56 days
in FIDIC
i) In case in delayed payment the contractor is entitled to levy simple interest at the rate
of 10% on unpaid amount
j) Statement of completion date has reduced to 30 days from 84 days which allows to
early release of funds
k) Contractors all risk (CAR) policy shall be obtained by employer

45
4.7 Conditions not favouring contractor
1) In priority of document least importance is being given contractors technical proposal
2) In case of assignment of whole and part of contract employer reserves the right and can
assign the whole or any part including benefits without consent of contractor
3) Employers financial arrangement clause is deleted (evidence that financial arrangement
has made)
4) All risk associated with errors in setting out of the work has to be taken by contractor
whereas FIDIC states “The Employer shall be responsible for any errors in these
specified or notified items of reference, but the Contractor shall use reasonable efforts
to verify their accuracy before they are used.”
5) Contractor shall, within a reasonable time at its own cost, charge and expense appoint
an internationally recognised third party auditors, which is additional cost to be borne
by contractors
6) NSC packages: GC should be responsible for any delay and performance of NSC’s.
once the agreement is signed between NSC and GC
7) Commencement of works at site is independent of the release of advance payment to
contractor
8) The delay damages are applicable on Milestone which is .2% of contract value per week
and maximum limited to 5% of contract value
9) If the engineer gives (EOT) Then to delay damages has to be paid
10) Escalation of prices is not allowed during contract period
11) Performance BG and advance BG of 10% contract amount to be submitted for release
of advance payment. which is cost to contractor (0.4% of amount per annum)
12) Contractor has to agree terms and conditions agreed between employer and NSC, for
the advance payment to NSC has to submit PBG and ABF to employer
13) In terms of retention money of NSC contractor has to submit equivalent retention BG.
14) Insurance against Injury to Persons, Damage to Property and workmen has to be done
by contractor alone
15) Notice for entailment of (EOT) shall be given within 24 days instead of 48 days and
also final claims to be submitted is been reduced to 14 days instead of 28 days

46
4.8 Summary of contract document

1) No adjustments will be allowed in respect of any rates or prices for any fluctuations
in the cost of labour, materials equipment’s, services
2) The contract is based upon the FIDIC Red book of Contract, First Edition ,1999
general conditions of contract and particular conditions of contract including
amendments
3) NSC packages is in line with FIDIC sub Contract and particular conditions
4) Payment terms
a) 30% of the accepted Contract sum shall be released within 7 days after approval
of advance payment request by engineer against Advance and performance Bank
guarantee
b) Payment against Delivery and installation of material
60% of supply value shall be pro rata basis upon delivery
20% on completion of installation
20% on testing and installation
5) Materials are as below
i. Structural steel
ii. Hollow core slab
iii. TPO membrane
iv. Chillers
v. DG
vi. Transformer
vii. STP& WTP equipment
viii. Groove couplings –firefighting &HVAC
ix. Pumps –plumbing –firefighting &HVAC
x. Cooling tower
xi. UPS

6) Power and water for construction to be arranged by contractor and for testing to be
arranged by employee.

47
4.9 Pre-bid clarifications

1) Site visit, investigation, shall be done by contractor but shop drawing to be given
employer
2) Price inclusion – GST should be included in price and which is considered as
18% and any upward or downward variation shall be adjusted according in the
contract price
3) Changes in rainwater harvesting and fire alarm system
4) Base bid price – AMC. charges to be quoted separately
5) Delays attributed to client: to be discussed
6) Retention money: 5% OF total contract value to be considered.
And BG should be given for same
7) NSC packages: GC should be responsible for any delay and performance of
NSC’s. once the agreement is signed between NSC and GC
8) Advance payment: For advance payment of 10 % the contractor shall submit
equivalent amount of advance and performance BG
9) Order of precedence which contractor has suggested
i. Contract agreement
ii. LOA and its acceptance
iii. Contractors offer BOQ,
iv. Particular conditions
v. General conditions
vi. Specifications
vii. Drawings
viii. Schedule of quantities
10) Working hours: Smooth functioning/operation of existing services without
disruption during the execution of work. This may require rescheduling the
normal working hours and nothing extra will be paid for it
11) Letter of indemnity to be given
12) BG formats: FIDIC Form shall be adopted
13) Working hours and overtime, wages should comply BOCW ACT
14) Housing conditions: the avg. living space is not less than 3.8 m2 per individual
15) SCOPE: only construction related sanctions to be taken by GC rest that is pre-
& post construction approvals to be taken by employer

48
16) Price inclusion
i. Contract price should consist of GST which will be paid by contractor
ii. Labour cess to be paid by employer
iii. Royalty as applicable for excavation works shall be paid by employer
17) Compensation of losses: not attributed to contractor should be discussed
18) Escalation: being the short duration project escalation clause will not be
applicable
19) Tender security: Tender security of 0.05% of tender amount 100L.whichever is
lower is in form of BG to be submitted
20) Mobilization advance:
i. 5% on contract signing
ii. Balance 5% on meeting all deliverables
iii. Recovery – 3rd interim payment certificate onwards on pro-rata basis
and the entire recovery should be done after 80%of work is completed
21) Liquidated damages (delay damages)
Shall be 0.2%of contract price of unfinished items maximum limited to 5% of
contract value
22) Payment terms:
i. Monthly bills
ii. Certification –within 28 days upon submission of interim payment
iii. Payment details –payment within 30 days after submission

49
5. QUALITY
5.1 Introduction

• Quality: Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements.


• Quality assurance: A part of quality management focused on providing confidence
that quality requirements will be fulfilled.
• Quality control: Part of QM focused on fulfilling requirement.
• Quality plan: A document specifying which procedures and associated resources shall
be applied by whom and when to a specific product, process, project or contract.
• Quality consist of fulfilling requirement of following:
a) Customers
b) Codel provisions
c) Regulatory bodies
d) Government and community
e) Management
f) Suppliers
g) Sub-contractors

• Tools for quality assurance:


a) Quality Assurance Manual
b) Project Quality Plan
c) Specifications
d) Method statements
e) Checklists
f) Inspection
g) Testing
h) Statistical QC
i) Controlled Documentation

50
5.2 Project quality plan
a) Purpose: - The PQP is prepared and formulated as management summary of
quality related activities required to meet the terms of contract. The quality plan
sets out the management practices and describe the quality management system.
b) Two basic approaches are adopted: -
i. Proactive: This approach deals with measures taken before
commencement of work.
ii. Reactive: This approach deals with measures taken after
commencement of work
c) Risk management guidelines: - providing for the users to identify the risk
involved in the project and to grade the potential or likelihood of the risks
identified from a process and to take appropriate actions.
d) Risk identification: Risk shall be identified from internal and external issues
determined for the project. This exercise would involve asking and searching
questions like.
i. What is source of risk
ii. What can happen that may lead to increase in time, cost or affect the quality
iii. When, where, why & how are these risks are likely to occur
iv. Who might be impacted/key players involved
v. What presently exist to treat the risk
vi. What is effectiveness of the risk control measure presently practiced?
e) Risk rating

Probability Description

Almost certain More than 90%

Likely Between 60% to 90%

Moderate Between 30% to 60%

Rare Between 10% to 30%

Unlikely Less than 10%

51
Table 5.1: Risk Rating

5.3 Method Statement

5.3.1 Water proofing


a) Objective – To provide field personnel with appropriate work method and
procedure, so that the highest possible construction quality is achieved.
b) Scope of work – basement waterproofing for IKEA project
c) Reference document – i) technical specification /BOQ
ii) Manufacture specification & technical data sheet

d) Responsibilities – Roles are assign to sub-contractor civil superintendent /


supervisor, construction manager, quality manager, quality engineer, EHS manger,
EHS engineer.

e) Take all safety precautions to be followed which are mentioned in EHS manual

f) Plant, equipment, tools and materials


i Roller
ii Knife
iii Tape
iv Cleaning cloth

52
v Ply board: cutting boards
vi Metal straight edge
vii Soft bristled broom
viii Drill machine
ix Mixing puddle
x Round nose trowel
xi Chalk lime string
xii Paint roller
xiii Bucket
xiv Hot air welding gun with scrapper
g) Material:
i MYK raft bond 7R – HDPE membrane with plastic film protection on
adhesive
ii MYK self-stick 3000X a self -adhesive HDPE membrane, design for retaining
wall proofing
iii MYK POWER PRUFE DST tape: a specially designed double-sided tape for
end lap & detailing area
iv MYK bond SBR 45 – cement Mortar and screed modifier cum bonding agent
for tie –rod hole filling
v MYK tarmat SB primer – solvent based primer for self-adhesive membrane:
MYK self-stick 3000x
vi Dimple Board: for protection of vertical membrane
vii MYK WATERBAR RS 800: sewell- able water stopper

h) Method of work

i) Preparation: it is essential to create a sound and solid substrate to eliminate


membrane movement during concrete pour, substrate should not have gap or void
12 mm

ii)Horizontal blinding: MYK raft bond 7R is rigid sheet and will not stretch under
the weight of concrete.

iii)Flow of work

53
iv)Preparation of work

1.Pre-check / sub surface preparation and cleaning

2.Tie rod holes shall be filled with cement mortar mixed with MYK bond SBR45

• Material:
A) MYK raft bond 7R is for horizontal sub surface (beneath foundation)

B) MYK self-stick 3000x is for vertical face of retaining walls, side of footing
& wall surface

C) MYK power prufe DST tape at horizontal and vertical member intersection

• During application:
A) Placement of raft bond 7R membrane, HDPE Side of substrate
B) Overlap the sides: 75 mm and compressed by roller
C) End laps to be staggered and should maintain lap width 100 mm
D) Application of self-stick 3000 x shall be commenced after drying of primer
but before 24 hrs.
E) Lap to be maintained – min 50 mm
F) The vertical surface to be primed with tarmat SB primer
G) Prevention

Work details: -

1) Installation –place the membrane HDPE film side to substrate, end laps should
be staggered to avoid built up layer
2) Overlapping with previous sheet should be 75 mm
3) Temporary protection for MYK RAFTBOND 7R (56DAYS) Should consist
of opaque preferably white polyethylene sheet
4) Damage repair procedure: if power prufe tape is not bonded properly then it
should be cleaned with damp cloths and again apply it
5) Placing of reinforcement steel: pile heads should be sealed with MYK coat
WPU 1-K, to prevent damages to the membrane spacer blocks to be used
6) Placing of concrete: after removal of temporary protection concrete should be
poured within 56 days.

54
7) Application
a) Install membrane according to manufactures instruction
b) Apply primer to substrate only where afterword’s sheet waterproofing will
be done, beyond 24 hrs re – prime areas

c)After alighting the sheets 50 mm minimum side lap and 150 mm end laps should
be provided

8) Treatment of construction joint: water ball shall be placed along with joint before
placement of concrete at 100m from edges to avoid damages.

5.3.2 RCC cast in- situ slabs

a) Objective: to provide appropriate work methods and procedure


b) Scope of work: work sequence intended for the RCC slabs
c) Reference and documents:
i Ikea technical spec.
ii Codes & Standard
iii IS456-2000 code of concrete practice
iv IS 4926 for RMC
v IS 1199: method of sampling and analysis of concrete
vi Is 519: method for test of concrete
vii IS1786: High strength steel bars and wire for concrete reinforcement
viii IS2502: code and practice for bending and fixing of bars for concrete
reinforcement

d) Responsibility: Take all necessary safety precautions given in safety manual

e) Plant, equipment & tools & materials:

i Plants & equipment’s: transit mixture, concrete pump and pipelines,


concrete vibrator, total station and auto level.
ii Tools: Hand trowel, steel float, laser levelling floater, bull float
iii Materials: RMC of grade M40 of approved mix design
iv Form releasing agent; approved from realising agent
v Steel reinforcement

55
vi Cover blocks
vii Scaffolding

1) Survey

2)Construction method for slabs

i) Surface preparation
ii) Reinforcement

a) Checks: reinforcement bar shall be checked for no of bars, size shape,


spacing, lapping, coupling of bars and bars as per structural reinforcement.
Further adequate no of spacer bars and cover blocks shall be kept

b) Cover and reinforcement: cover blocks should have compressive strength


equal to or greater then grade of concrete, cover blocks shall be placed at 1m
c/c

c) Formwork: flow chart of formwork

- Formwork staking
- 1st tower crane
-Temporary table stockpile at pre-designated location
- Fixing of CT prop/ table placing with 2nd tower crane
(TC2, TC3, TC4&TC6)
-Table placing at designated area

3) Work flow diagram

a) Preparation of work plan


b) Surface preparation: At construction joint hyrib shall be used as stopper and
top surface shall be saw cut and bonding agent shall be applied to pour
c) Check for thickness & level
d) Inspection
e) Pouring

56
f) Surface finishing: level shall be maintained by lesser level, compaction shall
be carried out using 40/60 mm needle vibrator, top level to be done by lesser
screed machine, final finish shall be power trowelled finish
g) Curing: period 10 days
h) Formwork removal: side vertical forms removed after 16 hrs.

i) Formwork shall be removed as per time frame of 7 days and re propped.

5.3.3 Method statement for RCC raft

a) Objective: - To provide appropriate work methods and procedure

b) Scope of work: work sequence intended for the RCC Raft

c) Reference and documents:

a) Ikea technical spec.


b) Codes & Standard
c) IS456-2000 code of concrete practice
d) IS 4926 for RMC
e) IS 1199: method of sampling and analysis of concrete
f) Is 516: method for test of concrete
g) IS1786: High strength steel bars and wire for concrete reinforcement
h) IS2502: code and practice for bending and fixing of bars for concrete
reinforcement

d)Responsibility

e) Safety: Take all necessary safety precautions given in safety manual

f) Plant, equipment & tools & materials

i. Plants & equipment’s: transit mixture, concrete pump and pipelines, concrete vibrator,
total station and auto level.
ii. Tools: Hand trowel, steel float, laser levelling floater, bull float
iii. Materials: RMC of grade M30 of approved mix design
1. Form releasing agent: approved from realising agent
2. Steel reinforcement
3. Cover blocks
4. Scaffolding
57
g) Method work

A. Preparation
B. Surface preparation
C. Reinforcement

5.3.4 Anti-termite treatment

a) Objective – So as to provide field personnel with appropriate work method and


procedure, so highest possible construction quality is achieved
b) Scope of work – procedure shall be adopted for all preconstruction anti-termite
treatment works for IKEA project
c) Reference document – A) technical specification /BOQ
B) Indian standard 6313 (part2):2013

d) Responsibilities – roles are assign to sub-contractor civil superintendent


/supervisor, construction manager, quality manager, quality engineer, EHS
manger, EHS engineer.
e) Safety -Take all safety precautions to be followed which are mentioned in EHS
manual
f) Plant, equipment & Tools and materials:
Mixing drum 200 lit, calamex pump, shower spray can, electric 1HP spray pump
(with house and shower handle), mixing jar and mixing can
Material: liquid pesticide containing imidacloprid 30.5%- premise
g) Method of work
1) Preparation: the chemical shall be diluted in proportion of 2.1 ml per 1 lit of
water and the diluted solution shall be applied at a specified rate.
2) Work details
3) Treatment to RCC basement building: the treatment starts after excavation and
before laying soling and PCC
a) Stage 1: treatment to soil below raft: if the filled rammed earth surface
does not allow the emulsion sip through holes of 50 mm depth and 150
mm c/c may be made up with MS core bar to facilitate the saturation. In

58
case of soil/sand filled above the raft the treatment @ 5L/m3 should be
applied. and further treatment shall need not to be carried out
b) Treatment of soil along the retaining wall: the soil retained by wall
(coming in contact) shall be treated at rate of 7.5L/m3 of the vertical
surface. The treatment shall be follow the backfill as backfilling is done 30
cms. Roding may be carried out to facilitate the treatment @ 150 mm c/c
at depth of 150 mm
c) Treatment of soil along external perimeter of the Building: after building is
complete the external perimeter of the building, should be rodded at
interval of 150 mm and to depth of 300 mm
d) Stage 4 treatment of soil surrounding pipes and conduits: when pipes,
waste and conduits enter the soil, the inside area of the foundation, soil
surrounding the point of entry shall be loosened around each such pipes
wate or conduits for a distance 150 mm to depth of 75 mm before
treatment is commenced
4) Prevention: treat soil should not be disturbed in order to maintain the
continuation of the chemical barrier.

h) Material

1) Imidacloprid 30.5% sc = shall not expire


2) Preparation of diluted solution = 2.1 ml per 1 lit of water
3) Application
a) Below raft: 5ltr / sq. m.
b) Along retaining wall: 7ltr / sq. m.
c) Along external perimeter of building: 7ltr / sq. m.
d) Surrounding points waste and conduits: all the inserts

5.3.5 RCC column

1) Scope of work: work sequence intended for the RCC slabs


2) Reference and documents:
a) Ikea technical spec.
b) Codes & Standard
IS456-2000 code of concrete practice

59
IS 4926 for Ready mix concrete
IS 1199: method of sampling and analysis of concrete
Is 519: method for test of concrete
IS1786: High strength steel bars and wire for concrete reinforcement
IS2502: code and practice for bending and fixing of bars for concrete
reinforcement
3) Plant, equipment & tools & materials
a) Plants & equipment’s: transit mixture, concrete pump and pipelines,
concrete vibrator, total station and auto level.
b) Tools: Hand trowel, steel float, total station, theodolite and auto level.
c) Materials: RMC of grade M40 of approved mix design
Form releasing agent; approved from realising agent
Steel reinforcement
Cover blocks
Scaffolding
4) Method of work:
Survey: check the existing benchmark as well as coordinates with respect to
permanent BM
Construction method for column:
a) Surface preparation
b) Reinforcement
c) Checks: reinforcement bar shall be checked for no of bars, size shape,
spacing, lapping, coupling of bars and bbs as per structural reinforcement.
Further adequate no of spacer bars and cover blocks shall be kept
d) Cover and reinforcement: cover blocks should have compressive strength
equal to or greater then grade of concrete, cover blocks shall be placed at
1m c/c
e) Transportation of concrete: Transit mixtures
f) Receipt at site: temp should not exceed 30°C and lead time should be 3 hrs
max
g) Placing: concrete shall be poured via pipeline, if pouring height is less than
2m. no cold joint should occur until completion of said pour. no
segregations, and bleeding. Shear key will be used in top surface so as at
have good bond with succeeding concrete
60
h) Compaction of concrete: compaction shall be done with internal vibrator
of 60 mm & 40 mm. the vibrator shall be hold in position until air bubble
cease come to surface
i) Curing: Curing shall be done by applying water-based curing compound
on the surface after removal of forms. After application of the curing
compound, the compound shall be wrapped with transparent plastic sheet
to maintain the moisture and protect the surface
j) De shuttering and removal of forms:
Column and wall: after 16 -24 days hrs. of completion of concrete
k) Inspection and test:
Records: 1) Concrete pour card

2)Concrete pour log

3)Reinforcement checklist

4)Formwork checklist

ACCEPTABLE CRITERIA

1) Setting out grid line = as per drawings


2) Fixing of rebar’s, stirrups/ link bars: should be as per BBS
3) Fixing cover block = cover 40 mm
4) Formwork line, level = as per MS
5) Chamfer at corner= as per MS
6) Concrete drop height: not more than 2m
7) Finishing top level: line to be maintained
8) Curing up to 14 days

5.3.6 Blinding concrete (PCC)

a) Objective: to provide appropriate work methods and procedure


b) Scope of work: work sequence intended for the RCC slabs
c) Reference and documents

61
d) Ikea technical spec.

e) Codes & Standard

IS456-2000 code of concrete practice


IS 4926 for Ready mix concrete
IS 1199: method of sampling and analysis of concrete
Is 516: method for test for strength of concrete

f) Responsibility

g) Safety: Take all necessary safety precautions given in safety manual

i) Plants & equipment’s: transit mixture, concrete pump and pipelines, concrete
vibrator.

Tools: Hand trowel, steel edge.


Material: Ready Mixed concrete Grade M15 of approved mix design.
Form releasing agent; approved form releasing agent

j) Surface Finishing

k) Curing: curing shall be carried out by continuous sprinkling ponding or wet


hessian cloth. For period of 7 days

l) Inspection and test

m) Record to be maintained: level records, concrete pour card, pour log.

PDCA CYCLE:
Thus L&T quality department uses Deming’s PDCA cycle. This is an iterative four-
step management method adapted in QMS. It involves planning stage where plan is
designed for compliance with quality requirements which is performed on site. The
completion of work is succeeded by a check on the quality of product. If observation
pertaining to comprised quality is obtained, proper action is taken for improvement
that is internal NC’s are raised. Which are then closed in fourth stage that is DO. It
also tool which is used for continuous improvement

62
Fig. 5.1 PDCA Cycle

A) Quality checking
• Slab (grid 22 to 24)
1) Pre –pour checkup
a) Top and bottom reinforcement ok
b) Addition Bar provided
c) Drop panel reinforcement as per drawing
d) Dowel bar toward north direction are to be provided properly
e) Grooving /cutting to be done.
f) Cleaning to be done properly
g) Master link to provide in column and welding to be done
h) Opening for MEP duct not there as per drawing
i) Column to be align properly
j) Stopper to be placed
2) During pour
a) concrete is workable Slump is ok
b) Cold joint is formed due to only one pump is available, delayed concreting
c) Use of Neto Bond (chemical) in proportion of 1:1;3

63
Fig. 5.2: Cold joint formed due to delayed concreting

3) Post pour
a) Apply curing compound
b) Immediately cover it with rubber mat to prevent damages
c) Take level using LESER level and record the data
d) Normal cracks are found and repaired immediately.
e) Error in level at acceptable that is below +/- 5mm

Fig 5.3: Taking level with machine Fig 5.4 Recording of post pour level reading

64
• Shear wall checking/ lift pit. (ZONE 3)
1) Pre-Pour
a) Horizontal length of formwork of lift pit not according to drawing
b) Vertical alignment ok
c) Starter casted properly
d) Door opening changed from 2750 mm to 2700 mm. changed to be
accordingly.
e) Cover not ok.
f) Spacing ok
g) MEP and lift clearance provided.
h) Previous holes due to Tie rods to be concealed
2) During pour.
a) Concrete has to be poured in three equal layers.
b) Holes of Formwork to be fill again
c) Needle vibration to be done only up to 60 sec. or till the air bubbles are not
coming
d) Concrete pipe line god chocked due uncleansed pipe line, as slurry was not
passed. Lead to delay in concreting.
e) Side chute for pouring the concrete in heights not exceeding 1.5 m if not
possible with an extension pipe
f) Round corners

• Concrete checkpoint
a) RMC truck checked for workability via slump test.
b) Cubes are casted and compressive testing is done on 7 DAY and 28
days
c) Sampling is done at every 50 m3.
d) Temperature of concrete is measured with help of digital thermometer.

65
Fig 5.5: Pour Log

• Troubleshoots which occur in concrete are as follows:


a) Plastic Shrinkage crack: These cracks occur in the plastic stage of concrete because of
excessive tensile forces created in concrete. In case of wind, these cracks are
developed in the direction perpendicular to wind flow. Retro welling should be done
to remove these cracks.
b) Drying Shrinkage crack: These cracks occur in hardening stage. Sequential cracking
is observed on the concrete surface which is due to the capillary action creating
negative pressure and resulting in tension. As concrete is weak in tension, such cracks
are formed.
c) Settlement crack: Such cracks are a result of settling of concrete. When concrete sets,
at the reinforcement positions, there is no settlement which results in tension at these
places and hence cracks.
d) Thermal crack: Theses cracks are caused due to temperature variation in concrete.
e) Crazing crack: Occurs when excessive finishing of concrete is done.
f) Surface imperfections that occur in concrete are:
o Blowholes
o Dusting
o Honeycomb
o Form offset and Cold joint

66
• Analysis of concrete rejection. (using Pareto chart)
DATE RMC Grade quantity defects
31-05-2018 swastik M30 6 colour change
31-05-2018 swastik M30 6 colour change
31-05-2018 swastik M30 6 colour change
31-05-2018 TNA M30 5.5 seggregation
31-05-2018 TNA M30 5 seggregation
30-05-2018 PRISM RMC M30 6 Slump drop
30-05-2018 PRISM RMC M30 6 Slump drop
30-05-2018 PRISM RMC M30 6 Slump drop
30-05-2018 PRISM RMC M30 6 seggration
29-05-2018 TNA M40 5 Slump drop
25-05-2018 TNA M30 5.5 delay pouring
27-07-2018 TNA M31 5.5 seggration
26-05-2018 PRISM RMC M30 6 Slump zero
25-05-2018 PRISM RMC M30 6 bleeding
25-05-2018 PRISM RMC M40 6 seggration
25-05-2018 PRISM RMC M30 6 pump chocked
25-05-2018 PRISM RMC M40 6 seggration
20-05-2018 PRISM RMC M30 6 extra admixture added
18-05-2018 swastik M30 5 seggration
17-05-2018 PRISM RMC M30 6 seggration
17-05-2018 PRISM RMC M30 6 seggration
16-05-2018 swastik m40 6 Slump drop
12-05-2018 PRISM RMC M30 6 Slump zero
10-05-2018 TNA M30 5.5 delay pouring
08-05-2018 TNA M30 5.5 water added
08-05-2018 PRISM RMC M30 5.5 seggragtion
04-05-2018 TNA M30 5.5 seggragtion
03-05-2018 swastik M31 6 slupdrop
02-05-2018 TNA M30 5.5 slump drop
Table 5.2: concrete rejection
Findings: thus 80% of concrete is been rejected due to 20 % of causes that is due to
segregation and slump drop. So always before pouring, concrete should be checked for this
causes.

67
Causes quantity
seggregation 88.5
Slump drop 45.5
colour change 28.5
Slump zero 12
delay pouring 11
pump chocked 6
extra admixture added 6
water added 6
bleeding 5.5
Total 209
Table 5.2: quantity of rejection Fig. 5.6: Causes of rejection

.
• Pareto chart

Graph 5.1: Concrete rejection Pareto chart

68
5.4. CONQUAS
A. Objective:

The construction Quality assessment system or CONQUAS was developed by building and
construction Authority (BCA) in conjunction with the major Public-sector agencies and the various
leading industry Professional bodies the measure the quality level achieved in completed project. L
&T has adopted the CONCUS system for an internal assessment of a product quality.

CONQUAS is designed with three objectives:

a) To have standard quality assessment system for construction project


b) To make quality assessment objective by:
- Measuring constructed works against workmanship standards and specification
- Using a sampling approach to suitably represent the whole project
c) To enable quality assessment to be carried out systematically within reasonable cost
and time.

B. Components to be assessed:

a) Structural works
b) Architectural work
C) MEP works

C. The assessment (for structural work assessment)

Reinforced Concrete works Weightages %

Formwork /rebar /precast 45

Finished concrete 25

Concrete quality 20

Steel –reinforcement quality 10

Total 100

Table 5.4: Weightages of structural work

69
D. Sampling plan:

Sr Item Criteria Min sample Max sample Remarks


NO

1 a) for structural works A> 8000 Sqm 30 150


(superstructure works)

2 Concrete quality As per ITP Cube


compressive

Strength

3 Rebar quality As per ITP MTC /Third


part report

Table 5.5: Sampling plan

E. Assessment of P1 level during last 2 months (data recorded during execution and through
interactions with site personnel).

sample location FORM WORK REBARS FINISHED CONCRETE


NO/size/Spac

LINKS/stirups
/triming bars
plumb leval

plumb level
Anchorage
/lap length

Dimension
alignment
dimension
Formwork

Formwork

alignmnet
/opeining
condition

condition

Exposed
surface
Rebar
Cover
SI NO

ing

sample location
P1 LEVEL
1 STRURAL SLAB ZONE 2 Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
2 STRURAL SLAB ZONE 4 Y N Y Y Y N Y Y Y N N
3 STRURAL SLAB ZONE 3 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
4 STRURAL SLAB ZONE 1 Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N
5 COLUMN ZONE 3 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
6 COLUMN ZONE 2 Y Y N Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y
7 COLUMN ZONE 1 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
8 SHEAR WALL (ZONE 1) Y Y N Y Y N N Y Y Y Y
9 RAMP Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

Table 5.6: Assessment of P1 level

70
NO OF No of
CHECK complianc %COMPLIE TOTAL
S e D weightage %
FORWORK /REBAR
/PRCAST 72 61 84.72% 45.00% 38.1%
FINISHED CONCRETE 27 24 88.89% 25.00% 22.2%
CONCRTE QUALITY 10 10 100.00% 20.00% 20.0%
STEEL REINFORCEMENT
QUALITY 5 5 100.00% 10.00% 10.0%
90.3%
Table 5.7: Conquas summary

FINDINGS: Overall quality achieved is 90.3%

71
6. REINFORCEMENT
6.1 Controlling Reinforcement Activities
The cost of Reinforcement in Reinforced concrete structures will contribute 15 % to 25%
of cost of contract value of a project. Hence there is a need to control on all activities
related to Reinforcement steel. The activities to be controlled are planning, indenting,
ordering, procurement, inventory management, storage, utilization, measurement,
reconciliation etc.

6.1.1 Planning

• Study the contract documents and technical specifications


• Find the provisions regarding mode of measurement in lumsum contract
• Arrange the required relevant codes, standards and other related documents at site for
reference and study.
• Study the tender drawings without fail.
• Calculate quantity as per the preliminary drawings, Dia wise and grade wise.
• Prepare the month wise procurement schedule as per the construction schedule.
• Prepare procurement schedule of binding along with reinforcement schedule.
• Plan for cover blocks and splices (if required) in advance to get required strength of
cover blocks casted at site.
• Obtain Dia wise and grade wise quantities from designer for lump sum contract if
drawings were not available at initial stages of project for planning procurement.
• Allow an inventory of 45 days while planning procurement or depending upon the
availability.
• Indent only 90% of quantities of total requirement till you have all approved drawings
to avoid variations due to design/drawing revisions.
• Cover block –with grade in excess of 5N/mm2

72
6.1.2 Infrastructure

• Locate the reinforcement yard at suitable location keeping logistics in view.


• Provide centralized reinforcement yard.
• Provide separate yard for storage and for cutting/bending.
• Provide separate yard for scrap storage.
• Fence all yards.
• Keep only one entry and exit with security in each yard.
• Plan the internal roads in the yard with proper drainage facility.
• Plan and Locate cutting and bending machine suitably.
• Maintain documents either in soft/hard from for entry and exit of vehicle with
registration number of vehicles.
• Install electronic weigh bridge of required capacity inside the yard.

6.1.3 Placing order

• Indent for quarterly requirement 30 days in advance apart from total requirement in
phase.
• Specify supply lengths Dia wise along with quantity.
• Specify the rolling margin and straight length bars and avoid U-bars procurement.
• Insist for traceable manufacturers test certificate with each lot.
• Check the purchase order before releasing to the vendor with the indent raised at site
to avoid miss match with indented quantity, type/size and other requirements.
• Before releasing of PO check the stock at site to avoid excess inventory of
reinforcement at the site either in the form of cut/bend/protruding steel/usable scrap,
etc.
• In metros check for availability of ready-made cut and bent steel suppliers and amend
the PO accordingly. In our site (indu steel)

73
6.1.4 Receipt at Site

• Declare receiving time as Day time only.


• Inspect carefully for defects like excessive corrosion, scaling, pitting etc. before
accepting the consignment.
• Check type and grade of reinforcement steel. Correlate the material, invoice and
the MTC before accepting/ even taking weighment.
• Accept only after weighing and check physically verifying weight on Weigh
Bridge.
• Where weigh bridges are not installed, inform the transporter to stop the vehicles
at nearest Weigh Bridge to site to avoid redirecting truck from site to weigh
bridge.
• Keep an escort from Weigh Bridge to site yard after weighing and for weighing of
tare weight of vehicle.
• Take random samples to establish actual unit weight and rolling margin supplier
wise and diameter wise for each lot.
• Put tags/identification boards with diameter, weight, batch etc.
• Unload the reinforcement carefully by mechanical means or manually to avoid
deformation of bars.

6.1.5 Preparation of BBS And Record of Consumption

• Prepare bar bending schedule from approved, latest revised drawings and check for
error/inconsistencies and take approval from consultant/client.
• Plan and check for fix ability and sequence of fixing.
• Plan intelligent cutting from full length bars by preparing cutting length.
• Cutting length shall be worked out after considering bend effect.
• Check the bent shapes for dimensional accuracy against full scale template and get
approval from client.
• Keep painted specimen bars for comparison with production.
• Use cut pieces for ancillary works and record consumption.

74
6.1.6 Fixing of Reinforcement

• Stagger laps and avoid excessive laps.


• Use mechanical splices for higher diameter.
• Insist for open stirrups and links in case of complex structures.
• Provide minimum number of laps by using full length bars wherever possible.
• Use pre-fabricated cages wherever possible. Provide adequate bracing, spacers and
sufficient lifting points to avoid deformation of cage.
• Avoid substitution of bars, if unavoidable check for over consumption.
• Do not use tack weld at cross points.
• Avoid excessive chairs. Arrive at optimum spacing of chairs by trials.
• Use cut pieces/welded scraps for chairs. Avoid using full length bars for making
chairs.
• Use spider beam to lift heavy cages.
• Check spacing’s, number of bars, location of bars etc. before start of concrete.
• Fix the bars accurately with specified cover of size and grade.
• Plan best fixing sequence to achieve accuracy and to accommodate form work, void
formers, starter bars etc.
• Ensure inspection of reinforcement fixing intermittently to avoid redoing.
• Avoid large time gap between the concrete pours to prevent deterioration of projected
reinforcement
• Record deviations /extra bars provided as per instruction of consultant / client.

75
6.2 Estimation

6.2.1 Quantity estimation of steel for Ikea site

Dia of bars
scope min max per m3
(ton) quantity
Raft 2130.42 12 25 60.05750853
column 477.72 10 32
slab 5710.8 12 28 196.5851979
beam 31.61 8 20
shear wall 383.13 8 25

retaining 252.87 8 28
wall
drop panel 579.37
other (stair 666.73 10
case, chair,
pump room
etc)
Total 10232.65
Table 6.1: Quantity of steel estimation

6.2.2 Calculation of quantity of binding wire.

Binding wire 16SWG=


Ton.
Total scope 12600

required binding
wire 100.8
Table 6.2: calculation of quantity of binding wire

Size of standard wire gauge varies from 0.8mm to 1.6mm

76
6.3 Steel Reconciliation
Steel being the high value item of the project it needs to be reconciled monthly by
considering the following factors:

• Scrap measurement
• Billable quantity
• Stock of cut & bent steel in yard
• Transfer to other sites
• Consumption against ancillary works
• Stock available in Stock yard
• Invisible wastages
• Steel saved from cutting and bending allowances
• Theft documents, if any

77
6.4 Steel reconciliation report for month of May

STEEL RECONCILIATION
SR STEEL
NO Particulars (MT)
AS PER
A Steel Received Details 6791.8
RECEIPT
1 Quantities Received up to 11/05/2018
B Steel Received/ Transfer From/To Other Sites
1 Transferred to another site 27.2 STATEMENT
Cumulative Net Steel Quantities Received up to this
2 Month 6764.597
C Physical Stock at site
1 Full Length of Steel Available 1981 JMR
2 Short Bars Available 29.20752 JMR
3 Indu Steel Cut and Bend 266.5624 JMR
4 Available Cut and Bend Apart from Indu on Site 239.145 JMR
5 Total Stock 2515.915

D Actual Qty for Consumption 4248.682


6 Quantity Used on Site(CASTED) 3572.896
7 Quantity in Progress (NOT CASTED) 465.317
8 Steel Quantity used for Infrastructure-Unpayable 24.93342
Total theoretical consumption 4063.146
E Bifurcation of Balance Qtys
1 Difference (theoretical-actual) 185.5356
2 Quantities Sold as Scrap 0
3 Quantities Available as Scrap 0
4 % Wastage 4.37%
Table 6.3: Steel reconciliation for the month of May

Finding: wastage should be in range of 1-3% but as the project is in progress. So, amount of
steel actually used on site may be varied, also scrap data. Is not available. So, at end wastage
should be below less 1%.

78
7. FORMWORK

7.1 Formwork
Formwork is the term used for the process of creating a temporary mould into which concrete
is poured and formed. Traditional formwork is fabricated using timber, but it can also be
constructed from steel, glass fibre reinforced plastics and other materials.
While formwork is a broad term that is used in relation to the forming process using a wide
variety of materials, shuttering is a term that is often used to refer to the process of using
plywood to form the mould.
All kinds of construction projects are likely to employ formwork and shuttering techniques

7.2 Shuttering
Shuttering is perhaps the most popular type of formwork and is normally constructed on site
using timber and plywood. A special grade of plywood is necessary for shuttering, and it
must be water-resistant. It is easy to produce, although it can be time consuming for larger
structures. It is used when the labour costs are lower than the cost of producing re-usable
formwork from materials such as steel or plastic. It also has the advantage of being built in
such a way that a significant amount of concrete can be poured at once.

Simple plank shuttering can be used for the construction of a path or hard standing. The
planks should be trimmed so they are level with the top surface of the slab, allowing a tidy
concrete finish to be achieved.

7.3 L& T formwork system


a. Wall formwork
b. Flex
c. Beam formwork support system
d. Heavy duty tower system
e. Stair

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f. Access
g. Column
h. Climbing

7.3.1 L & T Wall / column Formwork

L&T Wall & Column Formwork System is suitable for casting RC-walls and columns of
minimum 15 x 15 cm. In both cases, the plywood sheathing is supported by H-beams, backed
by steel walers. This assembly facilitates fixing working platforms for access, checking of
reinforcement, concreting, etc. Panels have extra provision to achieve verticality and the
concrete pressure is sustained by high strength tie system. The high strength tie system can be
through tie system or lost anchor system depending on the structure. The H-Beams can be butt
and splice jointed to form larger size of panels.

The entire panel, along with the platform and alignment system can be Shifted using cranes as
a single unit. Panels are created in workshops at the Site and the assembly of components is
reduced, enhancing accuracy Throughout. Since the entire unit is handled as a whole, loss of
smaller Component is reduced, and contributes to material productivity. In the absence of a
crane the panels can be dismantled and handled manually. The walers are available in sizes of
0.8m, 1.2m, 1.6m, 1.8m, 2m and 2.4m for making panels and combination of panels with
splices and adjustments can be made to arrive at the exact lengths of RC wall.

➢ Salient Features:
• Ideal system for speedy construction
• Panels can be dismantled and handled manually
• Minimizes the number of sheathing joints
• Ensures excellent concrete finish with minimum specialized skill
• Large panels can be handled as a single unit with a crane resulting in high
material
• land labour productivity Simple shuttering and de-shuttering operation
• Wall Formwork panels facilitate fixing of working platform and alignment
system
• Column Formwork panels can be used along with Climbing Formwork System

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➢ Labour productivity
• For Straight Walls:
0.9 man-hours per sq. using crane
1.7 man-hours per sq. without crane

• For Circular Walls:


1.3 man-hours per sq. using crane
2.0 man-hours per sq. without crane

• Column:
1.0 man-hours per sq. using crane
1.8 man-hours per sq. without crane

7.3.2 L&T Flex table system

Widely used in making large scale flat slabs in construction majors like IT parks, commercial
complexes and malls, L&T Flex Table System is handy and easy to use. It is highly suited for
laying RC-floors up to 5.80m height. Depending on grid sizes, standard tables are made using
suitable and effective components: timber beam, steel member, aluminium member,
collapsible props and plywood sheathing. These primary and secondary beam components are
connected firmly with table heads, making the entire system rigid and robust. Horizontal
shifting of the system is done using hydraulically operated pallet trucks, while vertical
shifting is done using cranes. This avoids dismantling of individual components, hence
reducing labour and cycle time.

➢ Salient features

a) Increased Productivity – no need to dismantle and erect again while shifting

b) Boosts savings within a short period of usage

➢ Labour productivity
a) 2.25 man-hours per sq. (making)
b) 0.85 man-hours per sq. (shift & align)

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7.3.3 L&T Heavy duty tower system

L&T Heavy Duty Tower System is widely used as staging for heavy floors at higher
altitudes, and also serves as scaffolds on certain occasions. Heavy duty frames are braced
using standard bracings, forming the heavy-duty tower system. Couplers and pins connect
frames together, ensuring verticality. Spindles provided at the bottom can be used to adjust
height and level. At every 6m interval, the towers are braced with permanent structures that
prevent the tower from twisting under abnormal loading conditions. Each heavy-duty tower
has an unmatched capacity of 25 MT and is ideal for handling heavy loads at unusual heights.
It also serves as Table Formwork in multi-storied constructions and can be handled as single
units up to a height of 10m. The Heavy Duty Basic frames are available in heights of 0.9m,
1.2 m or 1.8m. The Heavy-Duty Towers are available in two sizes namely 1525x1525 mm or
1525x2250 mm (in plan). Heavy duty towers can also be used as scaffolding for application
like external finishing works, painting, cladding etc.

➢ Salient features:
• High load carrying capacity of 6.25 MT per leg
• Rigid and stable with minimum bracings
• Easy to erect and dismantle using unskilled labour
• Easily shifted using cranes and transport devices
• Ideal for heavy floors involving greater heights
• Can be converted into stair-tower with additional standard components
• Towers are available in plan sizes ofl1525x1525 mm and 2250x1525 mm
• Can be used as scaffolding for external finishing works, painting, cladding, etc.
• Height adjustments up to 700 mm is made possible by adjustable spindles at top and
bottom
➢ Labour productivity for staging
1) l0.3-man hours per cu.m for 1525 x 1525 towers
2) 0.2-man hours per cu.m for 1525 x 2250 tower

7.3.4 L&T stair tower system


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L&T Stair Tower is a safe and sturdier system used as a temporary access for men,
materials, etc. to reach the receptive heights in construction sites. The 1525 x 2250 mm
heavy duty tower can be converted into a Stair Tower system with additional
components such as landings, handrails, etc.
➢ Salient features:
1) Light, easy to handle components
2) Size in plan is only 1525mm x 2250mm
3) Very safe and convenient system for accessing up to 100m height with a
provision of bracings to permanent structure at every 6m height intervals
4) Landing at every 1.20m height Uses only Standard Heavy-Duty l
5) Scaffold units and additional components Shifting of structure easily achieved
6) through transport devices Built-in safety to the highest level

7.3.5 L&T Flex system for RC Floors

A suitable and more convenient type of formwork for laying RC floors, the L&T Flex
System is made up of components that give a firm support to floorings. It is suitable for
RC floors as high as 5.80 m and is very well adapted for use with the Beam Forming
System. H-beams positioned at designed intervals provide additional support to the
plywood sheathing. These H-beams, supported by telescopic props mounted on tripods,
ensure lateral stability. Props of various sizes – CT-250, CT - 300, CT - 340, CT - 410 &
EUREX 550 - can be effortlessly mounted on the tripods, enabling faster and easier
erection of the shuttering system. Height adjustments are done by adjusting the prop
nuts. Required dimension is obtained through side-lapping of H-beams in either the
primary or secondary layer. By facilitating re-propping, the system minimizes the
quantity of formworks significantly
➢ Salient features

1) Foldable tripods eliminate the need for bracings

2) Flexible spacing and arrangement options Simple shuttering & de-


shuttering results in high labour productivity
3) Clean, accurate and smooth concrete finish Suitable re-propping increases
material productivity

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➢ Labour productivity
1) 0.8-man hours per sq. for flat slabs
2) 1.5-man hours per sq. for beam & slabs (beams using conventional system)
3) 1.0-man hours per sq. for beam & slabs (beams using beam forming support
system)

7.4 Cost of shuttering


1) LMP cost + Overheads + Staff charges + internal hiring cost + opportunity cost
(all formwork is owned by L&T)
2) LMP cost =
a) Labour: The cost of Labour / Carpenter is about Rs 120 to Rs 150 Sq- m.
Now this cost is for the current common practice of Ply and steel shuttering.
For Aluminium Shuttering, owing to dearth of skill labour the prices may go
up or down
b) Material: the cost for shuttering varies depending on type of formwork
Material which are used in wall form work are as follow:
i Lifting bracket
ii Head adaptor
iii Alignment strut
iv 12m thick plywood
v H beam (3.6m ht) @260 m c/c
vi Water barrier disc
vii Winget bracket
viii Tie road
ix Flange claw assembly
x Standard steel waler
xi Waler /ISMC 150 box
c) Plant and machinery cost: It is cost which consist of cutting fixing of
material and transporting material from one location to required area through
cranes, and other equipment so P& M Cost is also taken into account.
3) Cost of the formwork per sq. ft also consist of staff salaries, internal hiring cost, as
all equipment are being owned by L&T.

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4) Budgets cost of previous project:

a) SEAWOODS: Reasons for price escalation in formwork.

i Project got delayed for around 7 years


ii Variation labour cost
iii Material misplaced due to delayed project
iv Less repetition of plywood (4-5), which lead to additional plywood
procurement.
v Transporting, handling, haulage damages of material.
vi Loss of opportunity cost

b) Budget cost for IKEA project: 700- 750 Rs /sqm `

7.5 Load transfer of formwork


a) Tertiary member: plywood or surface where concrete is placed is tertiary member
as it is in direct contact with concrete. It is also called as sheathing material.
Concrete load is transfer to plywood, then to primary member
b) Secondary member: H beams below plywood act as a secondary member which
further transfer loads to tertiary members
c) Primary members: Steel weler and CT props act as primary members which
further transfers load.

7.5.1 Plywood

A) Test on plywood
a) Moisture Content
b) Glue shear strength
c) Resistance to Water Test
d) Tensile Strength
e) Static Bending Strength
f) Rigidity value
g) Allowable deflection
h) Boiling test at 48 degrees to be done at submitted at site for approval
B) Type of Plywood used: Film faced shuttering plywood

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C) Realising oil: 0.4 lit /m2

Fig. 7.1: Worker applying realising oil.

7.5.2 Formwork checking

While checking formwork during preliminary inspection (before concreting) found


following observations/ challenges:
a) Drainage level formwork was up by plus 30 mm
b) MEP openings where not at aligned at at correct level
c) Holes in formwork have to be concealed
d) Hyrib was not able to place due to congestion
e) No of welders available less than required. Much of time got wasted.

7.5.3 Concept of Re- prop

a) It is the temporary propping support provided under a slab when it is subjected to


a superimposed load exceeding its safe load carrying capacity.
b) As de-shuttering is done within 7 days and slab till the time has not gain sufficient
strength table is removed and again H beams are placed which are then connected
to CT props so as it acts as UDL. Which is done up to 28 days.
c) When slab is cantilever props are kept as it is till next slab is casted.
d) Around 50 % of props are kept at preceding floors.

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Fig 7.2: Re-propping at P2 level

7.6. Challenges faced in formwork


a) Identification of De- shuttering gang or team
b) Integration of excess or working platform scheme
c) Using HD Tower as scaffolding which is having mismatch platform which may i
lead to accident
d) Non- Availability scaffold, staircase tower of sufficient design

7.6.1 Quality issue in shuttering and de shuttering

a) Use of damage /worn plywood or use of small ply pieces or cut pieces in
shuttering affecting quality
b) Formwork scheme drawings are not being followed
c) Improper sealing of gaps
d) Opening in formwork leads to improper finished.
e) Improper sequence of slab de shuttering and re-propping
f) Improper method of formwork of column- beam junction.

7.6.2 Order and Method of Removing Formwork:

The sequence of orders and method of removal of formwork are as follows:

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a) Shuttering forming the vertical faces of walls, beams and column sides
should be removed first as they bear no load but only retain the concrete.

b) Shuttering forming soffit of slabs should be removed next.

c) Shuttering forming soffit of beams, girders or other heavily loaded


shuttering should be removed in the end.

Rapid hardening cement, warm weather and light loading conditions allow early
removal of formwork. The formwork should under no circumstances be allowed to be
removed until all the concrete reaches strength of at least twice the stresses to which
the concrete may be subjected at the time of removal of formwork. All formworks
should be eased gradually and carefully in order to prevent the load being suddenly
transferred to concrete.

7.7 Description of structural member

S. No. Description of structural member Time Period

1 Walls, columns and vertical sides of beams 1 to 2 days

2 Slabs (props left under) 3 days

3 Beam soffits (props left under 7days

4 Removal of props to slabs

a) For slabs spanning up to 4.5 m 7 days 7 days

(b) For slabs spanning over 4.5 m 14 14 days

5 Removal of props to beams and arches

(a) Spanning up to 6 m 14 days

(b) Spanning over 6 m 21days

Table 7.1: Deshuttering of structural member

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7.8 Design load over 1 sq.-m area

DESIGN OF FORMOWRK for 1 M2


area
DEAD LOAD OF Concrete 915
LIVE LOAD 250
DL of shuttering 150
reinforcement load: 130
Total load 1445 kg/m2
Table 7.2: design load for formwork design

Findings: Thus, for each 1m2 of area load is 1445 kg /m2. So, uses H beams as given in
schematic drawings

7.9 Catering area and labour calculation

Slab at level 1
TOTAL SHUTTURING SCOPE 35643
area start date end date days pour total area march april may june july
ZONE 2 11-Mar-18 31-May-18 81 13 14428 178.1235 3562.469 5343.704 5521.827
ZONE 4 24-May-18 23-Jun-18 30 5 5100 170 0 0 1190 3910
ZONE 3 06-Apr-18 07-Jun-18 62 5 6265 101.0484 0 2425.161 3132.5 707.3387
ZONE 1 21-Jun-18 26-Jul-18 35 10 9850 281.4286 0 0 2532.857 7317.143
TOTAL 208 35643 3562.469 7768.865 9844.327 7150.196 7317.143

Table 7.3: Catering area and labour calculation

amount of shuttering required at site 11321.75 (15% wastages)

• Thus, catering area is being decided based on the following points


1) Total scope

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2) Time duration
3) Cycle time
4) Working days

7.9.1 Labour requirement of formwork

labour requirement
march April may June July
48 105 127 100 100
productivity 2.5sqm/day/person
Table 7.3: catering area and labour calculation

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8.CONCRETING
The main objective in placing is to deposit the concrete as close as possible to its final
position as quickly and efficiently as you can, so that segregation is avoided and it can be
fully compacted. Concrete can be transported by a variety of different methods ranging
from wheelbarrows, dumpers and ready-mix trucks to skips and pumps, and though it is
obviously desirable to place the concrete directly into position this is not always possible;
for example, it will seldom be practical to discharge from a dumper or ready-mix truck
directly into the top of a column or wall.

8.1 Placing of concrete on site was done with:


a) Stationary Concrete pump

b) Boom placer

c) Bucket.

8.1.1 Stationary Concrete pump

Stationary concrete pump is a machine used for transferring liquid concrete by


pumping. There are two types of concrete pumps. These are:

a) Electrical

b) Diesel

• Pump capacity: 14 m3 /hr. 18 m3 /hr. 28m3 /hr.


• Capacity is directly proportional to stoke. So, capacity of pump is decided by
depending upon distance and also direction vertical or horizontal
• Specification of pipe
a) Length of each pipe: 3m
b) Thickness of pipe:4mm and 7.1 mm. 4mm thickness pipe is used foe
movable pipeline, whereas 7.1mm pipe is used for Stationary pipe line.
which is fixed for 2-3 months so as to prevent frequent removal of pipe.

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c) Thickness of Pipe is check with help of gauge in every 15 days. At 4 to 5
points. Pipe should not be used if its thickness is less than 2.5mm. which
happens due to wear and tear.
d) Two pipes are connected with each other via bend which are of 15, 30 .60,90
degree. also, two pipes are connected with PVC o ring and rubber layer and
fixed with each other via clamps.
e) Chairs are places at every 9 m that is in 3 pipes.
f) Pipe shifting should be done with help of crane not manually, however not
followed at site.

Fig. 8.1: Concrete is being poured in pump

8.1.2 Internal vibration

a) Make sure you can see the concrete surface. Lights may be required in thin
deep sections.
b) Put the head in quickly. When inserting the poker, allow it to penetrate to
the bottom of the layer as quickly as possible under its own weight. If done
slowly, the top part of the layer will be compacted first, making it more
difficult for the entrapped air in the lower part of the layer to escape to the
surface.
c) Insert the head vertically. This minimises the voids created by inserting the
head and allows air bubbles to rise up unimpeded by a slopping vibrator.
d) Do not stir. This only increases the voids. Leave the poker in the concrete
for about 10 seconds.

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e) Withdraw the poker slowly. The main thing is to see that the hole made by
the poker is closed up; otherwise you will be left with a hole in the finished
concrete. If this does happen-and it is often difficult to prevent if the concrete
is very stiff put the poker back in near enough to the hold for the next spell
of vibration to close it up. For the final insertion, withdraw the poker even
more slowly and wiggle it about to ensure that the hole closes up properly.
f) Avoid touching the form face with the poker. Not only will the form face be
damaged but a mark will be left on the finished concrete surface. To be on
the safe side, keep the vibrator about 75-100 mm from the formwork.
g) Avoid touching the reinforcement with the poker.
h) Avoid sticking the poker into the top of a heap. Although heaps should be
avoided in placing they are sometimes unavoidable or caused by mistake.
To flatten a heap, insert the poker around the perimeter. Do this carefully to
avoid segregation.
i) Make sure that the poker extends about 100mm into any previous layer. This
will knit the layers together, and any laitance on top of the previous layer
will be mixed with the bottom of the new one. The new layer should not yet
of course be rigid.
j) Avoid leaving the poker running when it is not in the concrete. Otherwise
there is a risk of bearings overheating.
k) Avoid sharp bends in flexible drives. Otherwise the shaft can be broken.
l) Remember that, where finish is important, a little bit of extra vibration can
reduce the number of blowholes.
m) Clean it afterwards.

8.1.3 Laser screed

Laser Screeds are self-propelled four-wheel drive, four-wheel steer units. It has a
20' telescoping boom with a 12' wide placement head. The screed head itself consists
of 3 parts: the plow, the auger, and the vibrator. The plow disperses the concrete
evenly, the auger removes the excess material to finished grade, and the vibrator
smooths the surface. The screed has an on-board computer system. This system is
able to determine the correct elevation height and provide commands for to the head

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for elevation control. The machine's automatic laser control system ensures an
accurate level finish through the use of electro-hydraulic controls. Laser receivers
mounted at each end of the screed head receive a signal from a transmitter multiple
times per second providing totally automatic control to finished floor level. A single
laser transmitter controls up to 1000 ft enabling the screeds to work to a tolerance of
1/8th of an inch or better.

Concrete is discharged in strips to match the size of the machine approximately 1"
higher than final grade. The Laser Screed moves into position and the telescopic boom
extended over the discharged concrete. The screeding/compacting head is then lowered
to the grade established by the laser-level transmitter. Retraction of the boom causes
the screed head to be drawn across the fresh concrete which is levelled and compacted
in a single pass. Once a pass is completed, the machine is repositioned to the right with
some overlap on the previously screeded concrete. The operation is repeated, ensuring
optimum finished level tolerances are attained across the whole floor area.

Fig.8.2: Laser screed machine

8.1.4 Ride on Trowel

a) When to use: The ideal smooth and even surfaces on freshly poured concrete
can be achieved by processing it before it dries. For small surface areas a hand
trowel can be used, but for larger areas Ride on Trowel is a much better option,
because they are much faster and more efficient. Power Trowels are fairly easy to
use, but like any piece of equipment, it takes training and a little practice to

94
maximize their potential. If you have never used one before, then you may find the
following tips particularly useful.

b) Timing: Make sure your pour is set for a rain free day. Once poured, the concrete
mixture will start to dry. It is critical to wait for the right time to start your trowel. A
useful guideline to know when you can start up your trowel, is when the operator can
stand on the concrete surface and leave footprints about 1/8”-1/4” in depth and you
can walk on it firmly without the top layer sticking to your boots it is ready to power
float. Right away you will be able to tell if you are working the top 1/4" slurry, or if
you're sinking in. -Watch it closely and stop if you think it's too soft.

i. Basic movement: To move the Power Trowel, lift the handle up a little to go
left, and push down to move right. The machine doesn't react immediately, so
watch that it doesn't swing too far in either direction.
ii. Float first and Finish later: The concrete surface should be floated prior to
finishing. This means a Power Trowel has to be fitted with the correct tools
for floating first;
iii. There are 3 options available.

Fig 8.3 Blades for ROT

1. Combination Blades are easy to use, since you only have to bolt on one set
of blades; you leave the combination blade flat for floating, and then adjust
the angle of the pitch for finishing. The front side of the combination blade
is curved up and the back side is a flat edge. However, Combination Blades
are more expensive than using a combination of floats and finish blades.

95
Some people don't mind changing the blades, so it depends on your
preference.
2. Clip-On Float Blades work a little differently. Finish Blades stay bolted to
the trowel; you simply slide the Clip-On Float Blades over the finish blades
to start. Once you have effectively floated the concrete, just slide the Float
Blades off, and run you’re Finish Blades, starting with a slight pitch. You
will be able to use both sides of the Finish Blades after rotating them 180
degrees.
3. Panning- Once again, keep the Finish Blades bolted to the trowel. Set the
entire trowel down on to the Pan and slide the blades into the fixtures
provided. The Float Pan covers a lot more surface area to help you get more
done quickly. However, Panning takes more operator effort and control
because of the additional surface area of the Pan

Fig 8.4: Floating with Help of ROT

A. Laying of concrete.
a) Stationary pump is fixed at location which is near to pour area,
b) Pipe are connected with help of clamps and sleepers and chairs also providing
bend wherever it is required.
c) First slurry is passed through pipes so as to remove the dirt and harden concrete
so concrete can be easily placed.

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d) Thus, it is observed at site that it usually takes 2 hr. after concrete is indented
at RMC plant. Time is taken for to fill the pipe line, fixing of pipes etc.
e) Number of workers required at while concerting is as follow:
3-4 mason. 7-8 workers for activities such as levelling, vibration etc.
g) Needle vibration is used which is of 40 -60 mm for vertical member needle
is placed vertically before concerting so as to prevent honeycombing in case
of slabs or raft both horizontal as well as vertical vibration is done.
h) Then surface is level with help of lesser screed machine and also which
mechanical means at the edges.
i) And again levelled with if variation is there maximum permissible level is
+/- 5 mm.
j) Then surface is finished with the help of Ride on Trowel, it has two blades
one for finishing and other for cutting of excess concrete.
k) Curing compound is applied immediately and surface is covered with mat.

Fig 8.5: Laser level Fig. 8.6: Pouring of concrete

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Fig 8.7: Finished Surface

B. Placing of concrete with bucket


a) Concrete is placed in column with the help of bucket and lifted by tower crane.
b) Capacity of bucket varies from 0.5 m3 to 1m3 on site.
c) Placing of concrete is similar as stated above.
C. Cleaning of concrete pump. (by water)
a) Water is poured in hopper and cleaned thoroughly
b) First pipe is removed and sponge ball placed in shaft and pumped with help of
water
c) At the end of pipe line ball catcher is placed so as to prevent in injury to workers
as it has high speed.

Fig 8.8: Placing of concrete with the help of bucket

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D. Pumping rate for slab should be as follow:
a) Up to 200 m3 15 to 20 m3 per hr.
b) More to 200 m3 > 25 m3 per hr.
E. How to prevent concrete wastage on site.
a) Post indent of concrete for 3-4 miller trucks for hr
b) Pour the concrete and order it at the same rate up to 85% of work.
c) Take physical measurement of balance area it mostly done with help of
measuring tape.
d) Then order the concrete.
F. Challenges Faced while concreting
a) Pump get chocked when concrete is not workable and requires time to open all
parts.
b) If slurry is not passed at passes concrete get chocked in pipes.
c) Large volume of concrete often leads to to formation of cold joint
d) Weather condition
e) Amount of labour required
f) Availably of concrete at site as RMC prefers other customer as it’s a short
duration project and quantity of concrete required is daily is huge

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9. PLANT AND MACHINERY

Plant and machinery is the supporting team in the construction project. It is one of the
most important resources required at site for easy and smooth functioning of project.
Functions of P&M department are as follows:

• It monitors all the requirements of tools equipment’s plants and machineries required
for the project. So as to make them available at site
• Manage the setting up and maintenance of the machines
• Safety and labour management of plants and machineries

9.1Organisational chart:

P&M Incharge
(Udit Narayan)

Maintenance Incharge Operation Incharge SES Incharge

Maintenance Technician Operation Technician Electrical Technician

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9.2 Total machineries on site
A) Earth Moving
a) Excavator cum loader
b) Skid steer loader
B) Lifting and Handling
a) Tower crane
b) Mobile crane
c) Pick and carry crane
C) Power and Utility
a) Air compression
b) Ambulance
c) Welding DG
d) Lighting mask with DG set
e) Power generator
f) Mobile light mask
g) Diesel bowser
D) Haulage and other
a) Vibratory Road Roller
b) Articulated trailer flat bed
c) Compression testing machine
d) Weight bridge
e) Bar bending machine
f) Bar shearing machine
g) Dewatering pump
h) Plate compactor
i) Surface /wood planner
j) Circular saw machine
• Following are hired equipment on site
a) Loader Backhoe
b) Mobile crane -60T
c) Pick and carry crane

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d) Truck 10T
e) Trailer- 20 T
f) Pick up van

9.2.1 Skid steer loader:

• Small rigid frame, engine powered machine with lift arms used to attach a wide
variety of labour saving tools or attachment
• Skid steer loaders are typically four-wheel vehicle with the wheels mechanically
locked in synchronization on each side.
• Left side drive wheels can be driven independently of the right-side drive wheels
• Turning is done by differential steering in which the left and right wheel pairs are
operated at different speeds
• Skid loaders are capable of zero radius, pirouette turning, which makes them
extremely manoeuvrable and valuable.
• Skid loaders are sometimes equipped with tracks instead of wheels, such a vehicle
is known as a multi terrain loader
• Uses
It can push material from one location to another, carry material in its bucket or
load material into a truck or trailer. Used in place of a large excavator, where there
is restriction of overhead space.
• Specification
o Make: TEREX
o Model: HEMAN 175
o BHP: 60 HP
o RPM: 2200
o Bucket Width :1780mm

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Fig 9.1 Bobcat

9.2.2 Tower crane

• Tower crane is an equipment which is commonly used in high rise building to shif
the material and structure erection works.
• Steps of erection:
o PCC for foundation done by civil department
o Basic mast: 2 Nos
o Normal mast: 2 Nos
o Telescopic cage: To increase height
o Swing Unit: 360 degrees (Rack and Pinion)
o Cat head (installed limit switch for 1 and half turns)
o Counter Jib
o 1st counter weight 4.2 tonne
o Length of main jib (60 metres, weight 17.5 ton)

• The maximum load that the crane can lift is 16 metric tons (39,690 pounds), but the
crane cannot lift that much weight if the load is positioned at the end of the jib. The
closer the load is positioned to the mast, the more weight the crane can lift safely.
The 300 ton-meter rating tells you the relationship. For example, if the operator
positions the load 30 meters (100 feet) from the mast, the crane can lift a maximum of
10.1 ton

103
• The crane uses two limit switches to make sure that the operator does not overload the
crane:

o The maximum load switch monitors the pull on the cable and makes sure
that the load does not exceed 16 tones. (which is Load Limit switch)

o The load moment switch makes sure that the operator does not exceed the
tone-meter rating of the crane as the load moves out on the jib. A cat head
assembly in the slewing unit can measure the amount of collapse in the jib
and sense when an overload condition occurs. (Hoist, Trolley, slewing
limit switch)

• Application: To carry Material right top of building


1) During concreting & plastering
a) Concrete
o For column filling
o Carries to the top floor
b) Long rebar &stirrups
o Rebar carrying up to 500 Mt
c) Bricks, aerated concrete blocks & plastering
d) Bricks: Faster & easy, proper stacking.
e) Mortar for plastering
o Reduce wastages
o Carries to the top
f) Special cage makes it easy to carry

• Anti-collision system: though each tower crane is above or below the other anti-
collision system is provided.

• Ground monitoring system


a) Company – SMIE
b) TYPE: SGS 241
c) Graphical representation of crane
o Crane name
o Reception

104
o Sensor defect
d) AC
e) Working Crane
f) Movement cut
g) Trolley position
h) Full diagnosis of crane
i) BY- Pass crane

Fig 9.2 Ground monitoring system

9.2.3 Work methodology of Tower crane

A) General:
1) The current height of the tower crane is 20.2 m
2) 8 no’s most section will be added, so no of mast section above the basic mask
will be 12 after telescopic.
3) Jib length is 65m.
4) The height of the other tower crane from ground level
a) TC1: 30.7 m
b) TC3: 24.7 m
c) TC4: 29.7 m
d) TC5: 36.7 m
e) TC6: 27.7 m

105
B) Electrical & hydraulic unit preparation
1) Main power supply will be made free, hydraulic power pack insulation, starter
functional check
2) Hydraulic pump, pipes and cylinder will be checked
3) Shift the power pack to the telescopic cage bottom platform
C) General check functioning of hydraulic and pump
1) Hoist hook will be changed with telescopic hook
2) Anemometer = used for wind speed control which will be stopped if the wind
speed is above 45 kmph
3) Hoist limit and Trolley limit switch will be adjusted as per requirement
4) Tower crane will be brought into the balance position by holding
NO load at 60.7 m radius at 60.7 m radius or at 1T @ 32.5 m
D) Telescopic and balancing
1) Telescopic cylinder will be withdrawn up to the required locking lug and the
lower yoke shoes will be released and the telescopic cylinder will be extended
till the telescopic shoes is in position for locking with the next pair of lugs
2) Telescopic cage will be lifted up to the swivel base and will be fixed at 4 no of
pins.
3) Tower crane telescopic will be done up to 3.1 m as per the above mentioned
4) Tower crane will be brought into the balance position by holding No load at
46 m radius.
5) Tower crane telescopic will be done up to 3.1 m
6) The connection between mast section and slewing base will be ensured before
removal of pins connecting telescopic cage to slewing base.
E) No load & load test
1) Telescopic hook will be changed with hoist hook block
2) Hoist trip & lower limit switch checking will be done
3) No load function of tower crane and limit switch checking will be done.

F) Work methodology statement

1) Erection of tower crane


2) Mobile crane position
3) Mobile crane placing area needs to be compact & clear for movement,
required counter weight should be completed

106
4) Stage inspection: check the soil compaction, outrigger position, check the
required counter weight installed, check safe working load condition
5) Installation of mast: mast sequence is basic mast 2*7 + 3* standard mask. -
6) Basic mast – 4.12 T will be lifted with 60-ton mobile crane available site by 4
nos’ of 5T slings @12 m radius of the mobile crane is 8.8 T @12m radius
with boom length 22.9
7) Erection of telescopic cage: the telescopic cage -6.4 T will be lifted with
mobile crane by 4 NOS 5 T slings of 6 m length @ 16 m radius. SWL of the
mobile crane is 23.3-ton T @ 14m radius with boom length 43.5 m
8) Stage inspection: check free standing height, capacity of the mobile crane at
lifting erection radius
9) Check the climbing position
10) Check the mast configuration as per OEM
11) Check ladder position
12) Addition of cabin base: 5.935T
13) Cabin head: 1.115 T
14) Cat head: 5.875T
15) Erection of counter jib with (20.5) – 10.5 t will be lifted with mobile crane
@14 m radius by 4 nos slings of 6 m and 4 noes 4.5T shackle
16) Erection of main jib & installation of counter weight.
17) Stage inspection
18) Electrical connection and wire rope revving.

9.2.4 Truck mounted – Boom placer

A) Model: MX36- 4 folding (z type)

• 180 cc hydraulic pump


• S valve: Delivers the concrete
• 68 grade hydraulic oil
• 2 engines: 1 for concrete pumping other for trolley engine
• Total Boom length 36 metres
• Hose Pipe: 4 metres

107
• Stoke: 28-30 per minutes
• Ramp: helps in pumping concrete
• Diesel Capacity: 160 litres
• Diesel Efficiency: 6ltrs per hour (ideal condition)7-8ltrs per hour (during
pumping)
• Agitator is present in the hopper, which does not allow the concrete to set
the boom arm is controlled by a remote, it has a emergency switch which
disables all functions until it is reset

B) There are two types of pumping techniques

C) Rod side: Low output, High Stoke

D) Piston Side: High output, low stoke

i. Levelling: all four legs are placed and centring should be done in same
way we do auto level
ii. Cleaning: around 1000 Litre Of water is placed in hopper and cleaned
it through water. Then sponge ball is placed in S- valve and pressure is
applied so as to clean the pipe.
iii. Application on site : used for concreting of column
i. 2. Retaining wall.
ii. 3. Shear wall of up to reach.

Fig 9.3: Sponge ball Fig 9.4: Boom Placer

108
9.2.5 Concrete Distributor 12 M

• It is used when to place a concrete in 180 degrees where it is difficult to place


with concrete pump as lot of bends are to be provided decreasing concrete pour
rate and making it difficult to pour
• On Site concrete distributor is used for pouring in inner shear walls

Fig 9.5 Concrete distributer

9.2.6 Air compressor – 300 CFM

• Air compressor is a device that converts power (using an electric motor, diesel or
gasoline engine, etc.) into potential energy stored in pressurized air
(i.e., compressed air).
• Classification:
o Low Pressure air compressor (LPAC’s) >150 psi
o Medium Pressure air compressor (MPAC’s) >151to 1000 psi
o High Pressure air compressor (HPAC’s) <1000 psi
• Types of Air compressor pumps
o Oil lubed (last for more time)
o Oil less (expensive louder, delivers better quality air
• Use at site: used for cleaning slabs before pour.

9.2.7 Mobile crane: (telescopic crane)

109
• Telescopic cranes are another form of heavy cranes employed to transport and
manoeuvre objects from one place to another. Cranes like the telescopic cranes are
often used in day-to-day hauling operations but it has also to be noted that these
heavy cranes are very important when it comes to carrying out manoeuvring
operations in ports as well
• Use at site :1) used for erection of tower crane
2) Used when tower crane cannot reach
3) Lifting of formwork of retaining wall at zone 1 and zone 2

Fig 9.6: White colour crane: Telescopic crane

9.2.8 Pump

• Pump use at site are


2) Mono block pump.
3) Tulu pump

110
9.3 Analysis in P&M department
1) Fuel reconciliation report

FUEL RECONCILLATION REPORT


Description Litre.
OPENING STOCK 781
FUEL RECEIPT 9910
FUEL ISSUED TO P&M assets 8708
other 5
total consumption 9485
month end stock 1194
Variation 12
Percentage 0.12%

Table 9.1: Fuel reconciliation report

Findings: Fuel losses are within permissible limit which 0.25% for High Speed Diesel

2) Fuel Requirement actual Vs budget

Sr Description shift Ht fuel budgete actu actual


no hrs metre. norm d Fuel al Fuel
Reading s per
hr
1 SKID steer loader 0.4 CUM 360 67 3.5 234.5 3.33 223.1
1
2 SKID steer loader 0.46 CUM 360 45 3.5 157.5 3.33 149.8
5
3 Tower crane -fixed 2.7@ 60 M 360 109 0 0 0
4 Tower crane -fixed 2.7@ 60 M 300 81 0 0 0
5 Tower crane -fixed 2.7@ 60 M 360 101 0 0 0
6 Tower crane -fixed 2.7@ 60 M 360 120 0 0 0

111
7 Tower crane -fixed 2.7@ 60 M 360 109 0 0 0
9 BOOM placer 120 25 7 175 14.6 366
4
10 air compressor 373 123 8 984 6.7 824.1
11 Power generator 125 KVA 360 16 12 192 8 128
12 Power generator 250 KVA 328 115 22 2530 25 2875
13 Power generator 500 KVA 360 28 45 1260 37 1036
14 Loder backhoe 144 115 4 460 4 460
15 Loder backhoe 200 162 4 648 4 648
16 Mobile crane -60T 280 59 6 354 4.23 249.5
7
17 pick and carry crane F 15 593 79 2.5 197.5 1.72 135.8
8
18 pick and carry crane F 15 600 88 2.5 220 1.72 151.3
6
19 pick and carry crane 156 59 2.5 147.5 1.72 101.4
8
20 Truck -10 T 652 530 5 2650 4.05 2146.
5
TOTAL 10210 9494.
85
Table 9.2: Fuel requirement actual v/s budgeted

Finding: Boom placer consuming more fuel then required better to use pump instead of
placer. Also due to regular periodic maintenance budget fuel is more than actual
consumption; which is cost saving in project.

3) Utility rate of machineries

sr no Description Shift hr. meter. availability Utility quantity


hrs. Reading Rate worked
1 SKID steer loader 0.4 360 67 100% 19% 183 cum
CUM
2 SKID steer loader 0.46 360 45 100% 38% 135 cum
CUM

112
3 Tower crane -fixed 2.7@ 360 109 100% 91% 108cum
60 M
4 Tower crane -fixed 2.7@ 300 81 100% 81% 97 cum
60 M
5 Tower crane -fixed 2.7@ 360 101 100% 84% 89 cum
60 M
6 Tower crane -fixed 2.7@ 360 120 100% 100% 199 cum
60 M
7 Tower crane -fixed 2.7@ 360 109 100% 91% 43 cum
60 M
9 BOOM placer 120 25 100% 21% 302 cum
10 air compressor 373 123 100% 33%
11 Power generator 125 KVA 360 16 100% 4% 262 kwh
12 Power generator 250 KVA 328 115 100% 35% 5996 kwh
13 Power generator 500 KVA 360 28 100% 8% 1552 KWH
14 Loader backhoe 144 115 100% 80% 104 cum
15 Loader backhoe 200 162 100% 81% 157 cum
16 Mobile crane -60T 280 59 100% 21% 57 MT
17 pick and carry crane F 15 600 79 100% 13% 11MT
18 pick and carry crane F 15 600 88 100% 15% 441 cum
19 pick and carry crane 156 59 100% 38% 250MT
20 Truck -10 T 652 530 100% 81% 2047MT
TOTAL
Note = tower crane
working hrs is calculated
on rotating motor but it’s
still in use when not
rotating so utility factor is
multiplied by 3
(experience)
Table 9.3: Utility rates of machineries

Findings: utility of Pick and carry crane is to less, so it is sufficient to use one crane other
than two t for transporting reinforcement. And also, one skid steer loader is sufficient.

113
10. QUANTITY ESTIMATION
10.1 Quantity estimation of
1. Column
2. Retaining wall
3. Shear wall

10.1.1 Column estimation. (p1 to l1)

114
SR NO DESCRIPTION GRID MARK capital NUMBERS length(L) B H CONCRETE QTY BOTTOM SIDE
1 C5 A1 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
2 C4 2A NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
3 C5 A3 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
4 C4 A4 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
5 C4 A5 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
6 C3 A6 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
7 C4 A7 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
8 C2 A8 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
9 C4 A8 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
10 C2 A9 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
11 C4 A9 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
12 C4 A10 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
13 C2 A10 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
14 C6 A10 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
15 C4 A10 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
16 C6 A11 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
17 C2 A11 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
18 C6 A12 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
19 C4 A12 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
20 C6 A13 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
21 C5 A14 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
22 C6 A15 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
23 C4 A16 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
24 C6 A17 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
25 C5 B1 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
26 C5 B2 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
27 C2 B4 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
28 C2 B6 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
29 C2 B8 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
30 C4 B10 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
31 C2 B12 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
32 C2 B14 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
33 C2 B16 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
34 C4 C1 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
35 C5 C2 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
36 C4 C4 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
37 C4 C6 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
38 C5 C8 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
39 C4 C10 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
40 C2 C12 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
41 C2 C14 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
42 C2 C16 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
43 C4 D1 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
44 C2 D2 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
45 C2 D4 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
46 C2 D6 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
47 C2 D8 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
48 C6 D10 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5

115
49 C9 D10 YES 1 1.45 0.5 4 2.9 -0.725 15.6
50 C2 D12 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
51 C2 D14 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
52 C2 D16 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
53 C2 E1 NO 1 1 0.5 3.625 1.8125 -0.5 10.875
54 C4 E2 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
55 C4 E4 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
56 C4 E6 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
57 C5 E8 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
58 C4 E10 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
59 C2 E10 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
60 C4 E12 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
61 C2 E14 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
62 C2 E16 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
63 C2 F1 NO 1 1 0.5 3.625 1.8125 -0.5 10.875
64 C4 F2 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
65 C2 F4 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
66 C2 F6 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
67 C2 F8 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
68 C2 F10 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
69 C3 F12 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
70 C2 F14 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
71 C2 F16 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
72 C2 G1 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
73 C4 G2 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
74 C20 G4 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
75 C2 G6 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
76 C2 G8 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
77 C5 G10 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
78 C2 G12 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
79 C2 G14 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
80 C2 G16 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
81 C2 H1 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
82 C5 H2 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
83 C5 H4 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
84 C5 H6 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
85 C5 H8 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
86 C2 H10 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
87 C4 H12 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
88 C3 H14 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
89 C2 H16 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
90 C2 I1 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
91 C4 I2 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
92 C2 I4 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
93 C2 I6 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
94 C2 I8 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
95 C2 I9,10 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
96 C5 I 10 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
97 C3 I10 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
98 C2 I12 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
99 C2 I14 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
100 C2 I16 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
101 C2 J1 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
102 C4 J2 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
103 C2 J4 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
104 C2 J6 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
105 C2 J8 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
106 C2 J10 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5

116
107 C2 J12 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
108 C2 J14 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
109 C2 J16 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
110 C2 K1 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
111 C5 K2 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
112 C4 K4 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
113 C4 K6 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
114 C4 K8 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
115 C5 K10 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
116 C4 K12 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
117 C4 K14 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
118 C4 K16 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
119 C3 L1 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
120 C5 L2 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
121 C3 L4 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
122 C2 L6 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
123 C4 L8 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
124 C3 L10 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
125 C4 L12 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
126 C5 L14 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
127 C4 L16 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
128 C5 M1 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
129 C2 M2 NO 1 1 0.5 3.625 1.8125 -0.5 10.875
130 C3 M3 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
131 C2 M4 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
132 C4 M5 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
133 C4 M5,6 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
134 C2 M6 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
135 C5 M7 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
136 C5 M9 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
137 C2 M10 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
138 C4 M10 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
139 C3 M12 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
140 C4 M14 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
141 C4 M16 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
142 C3 N5,6 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
143 C2 N7 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
144 C2 N,O9 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
145 C4 N10 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
146 C2 N11 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
147 C2 N11 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
148 C4 N12 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
149 C5 N14 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
150 C13 N16 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
151 C3 O5,6 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
152 C2 O7 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
153 C4 O8 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
154 C3 O11 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
155 C2 O11 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
156 C2 O12 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
157 C4 O13,14 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
158 C6 O14 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
159 C5 O16 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
160 C15 P5,6 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
161 C4 P6 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
162 C3 P7 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
163 C3 P8 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
164 C5 P9 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
165 C1 O,P,9,10 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
166 C2 P10 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
167 C4 P11 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
168 C6 P11 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
169 C5 P12 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
170 C1 O,P12,13 NO 1 0.45 0.45 3.675 0.7441875 -0.2025 6.615
171 C1 O,P,13 NO 1 0.45 0.45 3.675 0.7441875 -0.2025 6.615
172 C4 P13 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
173 C4 P14 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
174 CX 0,P14 NO 1 0.5 0.5 3.675 0.91875 -0.25 7.35
175 CX O,P14,15 NO 1 0.5 0.5 3.675 0.91875 -0.25 7.35
176 C6 P15 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025

117
178 C6 P17 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
179 C4 A18 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
180 C6 A19 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
181 C5 A20 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
182 C6 A21 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
183 C5 A22 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
184 C6 A23 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
185 C3 A24 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
186 C5 A25 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
187 C5 A26 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
188 C6 A27 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
189 C4 A28 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
190 C4 A29 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
191 C5 A30 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
192 C7 A31 NO 1 1.2 0.6 4 2.88 -0.72 14.4
193 C6 A32 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
194 C2 A33 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
195 C2 B18 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
196 C2 B20 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
197 C2 B22 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
198 C2 B24 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
199 C2 B26 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
200 C2 B28 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
201 C2 B29 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
202 C7 B31 YES 1 1.2 0.6 3.5 2.52 -0.72 12.6
203 C2 B33 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
204 C2 C18 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
205 C2 C20 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
206 C2 C22 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
207 C2 C24 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
208 C2 C26 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
209 C2 C28 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
210 C4 C29 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
211 C10 C31 YES 1 1.2 0.6 3.5 2.52 -0.72 12.6
212 C2 C33 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
213 C2 D18 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
214 C2 D20 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
215 C2 D22 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
216 C2 D24 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
217 C2 D26 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
218 C2 D28 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
219 C2 D29 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
220 C7 D31 YES 1 1.2 0.6 3.5 2.52 -0.72 12.6
221 C2 D33 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
222 C2 E18 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
223 C2 E20 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
224 C2 E22 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
225 C2 E24 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
226 C2 E26 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
227 C4 E28 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
228 C2 E29 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
229 CX E29,30 NO 1 0.5 0.5 3.675 0.91875 -0.25 7.35
230 CX E30,31 NO 1 0.5 0.5 3.675 0.91875 -0.25 7.35
231 C11 E31 YES 1 1.2 0.6 3.5 2.52 -0.72 12.6
232 C2 E33 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5

118
233 C2 F18 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
234 C2 F20 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
235 C2 F22 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
236 C2 F24 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
237 C2 F26 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
238 C2 F28 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
239 C2 F29 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
240 CX F29,30 NO 1 0.5 0.5 3.675 0.91875 -0.25 7.35
241 CX F30,31 NO 1 0.5 0.5 3.675 0.91875 -0.25 7.35
242 C7 F31 YES 1 1.2 0.6 3.5 2.52 -0.72 12.6
243 C2 F33 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
244 C2 G20 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
245 C2 G22 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
246 C2 G24 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
247 C2 G28 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
248 C2 G29 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
249 CX G29,30 NO 1 0.5 0.5 3.675 0.91875 -0.25 7.35
250 CX G31,3O NO 1 0.5 0.5 3.675 0.91875 -0.25 7.35
251 C10 G31 YES 1 1.2 0.6 3.5 2.52 -0.72 12.6
252 C2 G33 YES 1 0.5 0.5 3.675 0.91875 -0.25 7.35
253 C2 H18 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
254 C2 H20 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
255 C2 H22 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
256 C2 H24 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
257 C2 H26 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
258 C4 H28 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
259 C2 H29 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
260 C10 H30 YES 1 1.2 0.6 3.5 2.52 -0.72 12.6
261 C2 I18 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
262 C2 I20 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
263 C2 I22 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
264 C2 I24 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
265 C2 I26 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
266 C4 I28 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
267 C4 I29 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
268 C10 I31 YES 1 1.2 0.6 3.5 2.52 -0.72 12.6
269 C2 J18 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
270 C2 J20 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
271 C2 J22 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
272 C2 J24 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
273 C2 J26 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
274 C4 J28 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
275 C4 J29 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
276 C10 J31 YES 1 1.2 0.6 3.5 2.52 -0.72 12.6
277 C4 J33 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
278 C2 J35 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
279 C4 K18 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
280 C4 K20 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
281 C4 K22 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
282 C2 K24 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
283 C2 K26 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
284 C4 K28 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
285 C4 K29 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
286 C11 K31 YES 1 1.2 0.6 3.5 2.52 -0.72 12.6
287 C6 K33 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
288 C2 K35 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
289 C5 L18 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
290 C5 L20 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
291 C4 L22 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
292 C4 L24 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
293 C4 L26 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
294 C4 L28 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
295 C6 L29 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
296 C11 L31 YES 1 1.2 0.6 3.5 2.52 -0.72 12.6
297 C6 L33 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
298 C2 L35 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
299 C4 M18 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
300 C4 M20 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
301 C4 M22 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
302 C2 M24 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
303 C3 M26 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
304 C4 M28 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
305 C4 M29 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
306 C7 M31 YES 1 1.2 0.6 3.5 2.52 -0.72 12.6
307 C6 M33 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
308 C2 M35 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
309 C5 N18 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
310 C2 N20 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
311 C2 N22 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
312 C2 N26 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5

119
294 C4 L28 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
295 C6 L29 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
296 C11 L31 YES 1 1.2 0.6 3.5 2.52 -0.72 12.6
297 C6 L33 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
298 C2 L35 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
299 C4 M18 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
300 C4 M20 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
301 C4 M22 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
302 C2 M24 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
303 C3 M26 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
304 C4 M28 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
305 C4 M29 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
306 C7 M31 YES 1 1.2 0.6 3.5 2.52 -0.72 12.6
307 C6 M33 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
308 C2 M35 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
309 C5 N18 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
310 C2 N20 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
311 C2 N22 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
312 C2 N26 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
313 C2 N28 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
314 C5 N29 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
315 C7 N31 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
316 C5 N33 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
317 C2 N35 NO 1 1 0.5 3.675 1.8375 -0.5 11.025
318 C5 O11 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
319 C4 O20 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
320 C4 O21 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
321 C3 O22 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
322 C3 O23 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
323 C2 O24 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
324 C2 O25 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
325 C2 O26 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
326 C4 O27 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
327 C2 O28 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
328 C2 O29 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
329 C4 O30 YES 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
330 C10 O31 YES 1 1.2 0.6 4 2.88 -0.72 14.4
331 C6 O33 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
332 C6 O34 YES 1 1 0.5 3.5 1.75 -0.5 10.5
333 C6 O35 YES 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
334 C4 P18 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
335 C4 P19 NO 1 1 0.5 4 2 -0.5 12
336 C14 O,P20 NO 1 1.05 0.85 3.675 3.2799375 -0.8925 13.965
337 C14 P20 NO 1 1.05 0.85 4 3.57 -0.8925 15.2
338 C8 A35 NO 1 1 0.7 4 2.8 -0.7 13.6
339 C8 B35 NO 1 1 0.7 4 2.8 -0.7 13.6
340 C8 C35 NO 1 1 0.7 4 2.8 -0.7 13.6
341 C8 D35 NO 1 1 0.7 4 2.8 -0.7 13.6
342 C8 E35 NO 1 1 0.7 4 2.8 -0.7 13.6
343 C8 F35 NO 1 1 0.7 4 2.8 -0.7 13.6
344 C8 G35 NO 1 1 0.7 4 2.8 -0.7 13.6
345 C8 H35 NO 1 1 0.7 4 2.8 -0.7 13.6
346 C8 I35 NO 1 1 0.7 4 2.8 -0.7 13.6

Table 10.1: Quantity estimation of column

120
10.1.2 Reinforcement wall
SHUTTERING AREA
INSIDE outside TOTAL
SR NO DESCRIPTION GRID MARK length(L) actual length B*H CONCRETE QTY height total height total
1 RW1 A 1-2 8.00 7.00 2.375 16.625 2.925 20.475 4.75 33.25
2 RW1 A2-3 8 7.00 2.375 16.625 2.925 20.475 4.75 33.25
3 RW1 A4-5 8 6.00 2.375 14.25 2.925 17.55 4.75 28.5
4 RW8 A5-7 16 15.00 2.41 36.15 3.25 48.75 4.82 72.3
5 RW28 A 7-8 16 15.00 2 30 3.675 55.125 4.75 71.25
6 RW28 A8-12 32 27.00 2 54 3.675 99.225 4.75 128.25
7 R8 A12-14 16 16.00 2.41 38.56 3.25 52 4.82 77.12
8 R14 A15-16 8 8.00 2.36 18.88 5.2 41.6 4.82 38.56
9 R38 A16-17 8 8.00 2.27 18.16 5.2 41.6 5.95 47.6
10 RW 1 A1 8 7.50 2.375 17.8125 2.925 21.9375 4.75 35.625
11 RW15 B-D1 24 22.00 2.05 45.1 4 88 4.75 104.5
12 RW27 D-E 8 7.50 2 15 4 30 4.75 35.625
13 RW14 D-I 40 40.00 2.36 94.4 5.2 208 5.95 238
14 RW23 I-J 8 8.00 2 16 4 32 4.9 39.2
15 RW14 J-K 8 8.00 2.36 18.88 5.2 41.6 5.95 47.6
16 RW 27 K-L 8 7.00 2 14 4 28 4.75 33.25
17 RW7 L-P 32 32.00 3.0175 96.56 5.7 182.4 7.85 251.2
18 RW7 P 1-6 32 30.00 3.0175 90.525 5.7 171 7.85 235.5
19 RW1 P 7-8 8 6.50 2.375 15.4375 2.925 19.0125 4.75 30.875
20 RW19 P 8-10 16 14.00 2 28 4 56 4.75 66.5
21 RW1 P 10-12 16 13.00 2.375 30.875 2.925 38.025 4.75 61.75
22 RW19 P 12-13 8 7.00 2 14 4 28 4.75 33.25
23 RW1 P13-14 8 7.00 2.375 16.625 2.925 20.475 4.75 33.25
24 RW19 P 14-15 8 7.00 2 14 4 28 4.75 33.25
25 RW1 P15-18 24 21.00 2.375 49.875 2.925 61.425 4.75 99.75
26 RW37 19-20 3.2 3.20 0.495 1.584 2.85 9.12 3.6 11.52
27 RW28 20-23 24 24.00 2 48 3.675 88.2 7.6 182.4
28 RW8 23-28 40 40.00 2.41 96.4 3.25 130 4.82 192.8
29 RW32 28-30 16 16.00 3.83 61.28 4 64 8.965 143.44
30 RW31 30-33 24 24.00 3.83 91.92 7.875 189 9.95 238.8
31 RW29 33-35 16 16.00 4.795 76.72 6.525 104.4 7.6 121.6
32 RW2 A-I 64 55.50 4.97 275.835 5.63 312.465 7.92 439.56
33 RW22 I 4 3.50 0 8.3 29.05 9.05 31.675
34 RW2 I-O 48 48.00 4.97 238.56 5.63 270.24 7.92 380.16
35 RW18 O 4 4.00 3.91 15.64 7.975 31.9 9.05 36.2
36 RW21 O 5 4.00 5.81 23.24 8.3 33.2 9.05 36.2
37 RW13 33/34 1 1.00 5.81 5.81 8.3 8.3 3.675 3.675
38 RW11 30-31 4 4.00 2.405 9.62 5.3 21.2 5.025 20.1
39 RW12 31/34 12 12.00 5.81 69.72 7.975 95.7 9.2 110.4
40 RW11 30/31 4 4.00 2.405 9.62 5.3 21.2 5.025 20.1
41 RW17 31/32 4 4.00 3.55 14.2 6.45 25.8 7.87 31.48
42 RW33 REAMP 8 7.00 3.55 24.85 4 28 4.75 33.25
43 RW34 REAMP 8 8.00 3.55 28.4 4 32 4.75 38
44 RW34 REAMP 8 8.00 3.55 28.4 4 32 4.75 38
45 RW33 REAMP 8 7.00 3.55 24.85 4 28 4.75 33.25
46 RW5 30-31.5 28 28.00 1.155 32.34 7.1 198.8 8.6 240.8
47 RW4 26-27 8 8.00 2.405 19.24 4 32 4.75 38
48 RW4 27-23 24 24.00 2.405 57.72 4 96 4.75 114
49 RW25 22-23 8 8.00 2.725 21.8 5.35 42.8 5.025 40.2
50 RW24 20-23 20 19.00 2.405 45.695 5.35 101.65 4.75 90.25
51 RW23 20 4 4.00 2 8 4 16 4.9 19.6
52 RW24 20 4 4.00 2.405 9.62 5.35 21.4 4.88 19.52
53 RW16 19/20 16 15.00 7.6 114 15.2 228 10.65 159.75
54 RW1 17-14 8 7.00 2.375 16.625 5.5 38.5 4.75 33.25
2290.029 4807.185

Table 10.2: Quantity estimation of retaining wall

121
10.1.3 Quantity of steel in column

CUTTING LENGTH
NO.OF COLUMNS

OF EACH BAR(M)

UNIT WT.(KG/M)
DEDUCTION FOR

TOTAL WT.(TON)
MEMBERS REQD

PROVISION FOR
OVERLAP(MM)
RANGE LENGTH

LENGTH AS PER
TOTAL NO. OF
LOCATION OF

SHAPE(MM)

BENDS(MM)
NO.OF BARS
REQD PER
MEMBER
SPACING
BAR
MEASUREMENTS OF BARS(MM)
DIA(MM)
SR.NO

a b c d e f

COLUMN C1 (450X450)
1 25 4 vertical starter bar 8 1 1500 4040 5540 50 5.49 3.854171 0.677101
2 10 4 stirrups big size 150 2667 17 1 100 370 370 370 370 100 1680 80 1.6 0.616667 0.067093
3 10 4 stirrups small size 100 1333 14 1 100 260 260 260 260 100 1240 80 1.16 0.616667 0.040059
4 10 4 stirrups big size 100 1333 14 1 100 370 370 370 370 100 1680 80 1.6 0.616667 0.055253
5 10 4 stirrups small size 150 2667 17 1 100 260 260 260 260 100 1240 80 1.16 0.616667 0.048643
COLUMN C2 (1000X500)
1 20 149 vertical starter bar 20 1 1200 4040 5240 2.466669
2 10 149 stirrups big size vertical 150 2667 17 1 100 920 420 920 420 100 2880 80 2.8 0.616667
3 10 149 stirrups big size vertical 100 1333 14 1 100 920 420 920 420 100 2880 80 2.8 0.616667
4 10 149 stirrups small size vertical 100 1333 14 1 100 155 420 155 420 100 1350 80 1.27 0.616667
5 10 149 stirrups small size vertical 150 2667 17 1 100 155 420 155 420 100 1350 80 1.27 0.616667
6 10 149 stirrups small size vertical 100 1333 14 1 100 308 420 308 420 100 1656 80 1.656 0.616667
7 10 149 stirrups small size vertical 150 2667 17 1 100 308 420 308 420 100 1656 80 1.656 0.616667
8 10 149 links vertical 100 1333 14 1 100 420 100 620 40 0.58 0.616667
9 10 149 links vertical 150 2667 17 1 100 420 100 620 40 0.58 0.616667
10 10 149 stirrups small size horizontal 100 1333 14 1 100 920 210 920 210 100 2460 80 2.38 0.616667
11 10 149 stirrups small size horizontal 150 2667 17 1 100 920 210 920 210 100 2460 80 2.38 0.616667
12 10 149 link horizontal 100 1333 14 1 100 920 100 1120 40 1.08 0.616667
13 10 149 link horizontal 150 2667 17 1 100 920 100 1120 40 1.08 0.616667
COLUMN C3 (1000X500)
1 20 18 vertical starter bar 24 1 1200 4040 5240 40 5.2 2.466669
2 10 18 stirrups big size vertical 100 1333 14 1 100 920 420 920 420 100 2880 80 2.8 0.616667
3 10 18 stirrups big size vertical 150 2667 17 1 100 920 420 920 420 100 2880 80 2.8 0.616667
4 10 18 stirrups small size vertical 100 1333 14 2 100 115 420 115 420 100 1270 80 1.19 0.616667
5 10 18 stirrups small size vertical 150 2667 17 2 100 115 420 115 420 100 1270 80 1.19 0.616667
6 10 18 stirrups small size vertical 100 1333 14 1 100 215 420 215 420 100 1470 80 1.39 0.616667
7 10 18 stirrups small size vertical 150 2667 17 1 100 215 420 215 420 100 1470 80 1.39 0.616667
8 10 18 link vertical 100 1333 14 1 100 420 100 620 40 0.58 0.616667
9 10 18 link vertical 150 2667 17 1 100 420 100 620 40 0.58 0.616667
10 10 18 stirrups small size horizontal 100 1333 14 1 100 920 210 920 410 100 2660 80 2.58 0.616667
11 10 18 stirrups small size horizontal 150 2667 17 1 100 920 210 920 410 100 2660 80 2.58 0.616667
12 10 18 link horizontal 100 1333 14 1 100 920 100 1120 40 1.08 0.616667
13 10 18 link horizontal 150 2667 17 1 100 920 100 1120 40 1.08 0.616667
COLUMN C7 (1000X600)
1 32 6 vertical starter bar 30 1 1920 4040 5960 64 5.896 6.314673
2 10 6 stirrups big size vertical 100 1333 14 1 100 1120 520 1120 520 100 3480 80 3.4 0.616667
3 10 6 stirrups big size vertical 150 2667 17 1 100 1120 520 1120 520 100 3480 80 3.4 0.616667
4 10 6 stirrups small size vertical 100 1333 14 3 100 112 520 112 520 100 1464 80 1.384 0.616667
5 10 6 stirrups small size vertical 150 2667 17 3 100 112 520 112 520 100 1464 80 1.384 0.616667
6 10 6 stirrups small size vertical 100 1333 14 1 100 224 520 224 520 100 1688 80 1.608 0.616667
7 10 6 stirrups small size vertical 150 2667 17 1 100 224 520 224 520 100 1688 80 1.608 0.616667
8 10 6 link vertical 100 1333 14 1 100 520 100 720 40 1.608 0.616667
9 10 6 link vertical 150 2667 17 1 100 520 100 720 40 1.608 0.616667
10 10 6 stirrups small size horizontal 100 1333 14 1 100 1120 104 1120 104 100 2648 80 2.568 0.616667
11 10 6 stirrups small size horizontal 150 2667 17 1 100 1120 104 1120 104 100 2648 80 2.568 0.616667
12 10 6 stirrups big size horizontal 100 1333 14 1 100 1120 312 1120 312 100 3064 80 2.984 0.616667
13 10 6 stirrups big size horizontal 150 2667 17 1 100 1120 312 1120 312 100 3064 80 2.984 0.616667

122
COLUMN - C8 (700x1000) (10.50-6.50)-M40
1 32 9 vertical starter bar 28 1 1920 4040 5960 64 5.896 6.320 9.387
2 10 9 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE VERTICAL 150 4000 28 1 100 920 620 920 620 100 3280 80 3.200 0.617 0.495
3 10 9 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE VERTICAL 150 4000 28 2 100 160 620 160 620 100 1760 80 1.680 0.617 0.513
4 10 9 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE VERTICAL 150 4000 28 1 100 265 620 265 620 100 1970 80 1.890 0.617 0.288
5 10 9 Links VERTICAL 150 4000 28 1 100 620 100 820 40 0.780 0.617 0.117
6 10 9 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE HORIZONTAL 150 4000 28 1 100 920 250 920 250 100 2540 80 2.460 0.617 0.378
7 10 9 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE HORIZONTAL 150 4000 28 1 100 920 155 920 155 100 2350 80 2.270 0.617 0.351
8 10 9 Links HORIZONTAL 150 4000 28 1 100 920 100 1120 40 1.080 0.617 0.162
COLUMN - C9 (500x1450) (10.50-6.50)-M40
1 20 1 vertical starter bar 34 1 1200 4040 5240 40 5.200 2.468 0.436
2 10 1 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE VERTICAL 150 4000 28 1 100 1370 420 1370 420 100 3780 80 3.700 0.617 0.063
3 10 1 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE VERTICAL 150 4000 28 6 100 155 420 155 420 100 1350 80 1.270 0.617 0.130
4 10 1 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE HORIZONTAL 150 4000 28 1 100 1370 245 1370 245 100 3430 80 3.350 0.617 0.057
5 10 1 Links HORIZONTAL 100 4000 41 1 100 1370 100 1570 40 1.530 0.617 0.039
COLUMN - C10 (600x1200) (10.50-6.50)-M40
1 28 10 vertical starter bar 30 1 1680 4040 5720 56 5.664 4.830 8.210
2 10 10 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE VERTICAL 100 1333 14 1 100 1120 520 1120 520 100 3480 80 3.400 0.617 0.300
3 10 10 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE VERTICAL 150 2667 17 1 100 1120 520 1120 520 100 3480 80 3.400 0.617 0.350
4 10 10 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE VERTICAL 100 1333 14 3 100 160 520 160 520 100 1560 80 1.480 0.617 0.390
5 10 10 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE VERTICAL 150 2667 17 3 100 160 520 160 520 100 1560 80 1.480 0.617 0.460
6 10 10 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE VERTICAL 100 1333 14 1 100 265 520 265 420 100 1670 80 1.590 0.617 0.140
7 10 10 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE VERTICAL 150 2667 17 1 100 265 520 265 520 100 1770 80 1.690 0.617 0.170
8 10 10 Links VERTICAL 100 1333 14 1 100 520 100 720 40 0.680 0.617 0.060
9 10 10 Links VERTICAL 150 2667 17 1 100 520 100 720 40 0.680 0.617 0.070
10 10 10 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE HORIZONTAL 100 1333 14 1 100 1120 340 1120 340 100 3120 80 3.040 0.617 0.270
11 10 10 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE HORIZONTAL 150 2667 17 1 100 1120 340 1120 340 100 3120 80 3.040 0.617 0.310
12 10 10 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE HORIZONTAL 100 1333 14 1 100 1120 155 1120 155 100 2750 80 2.670 0.617 0.240
13 10 10 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE HORIZONTAL 150 2667 17 1 100 1120 155 1120 155 100 2750 80 2.670 0.617 0.280
COLUMN - C11 (600x1200) (10.50-6.50)-M40
1 32 3 vertical starter bar 36 1 1920 4040 5960 64 5.896 6.320 4.023
2 10 3 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE VERTICAL 100 1333 14 1 100 1120 520 1120 520 100 3480 80 3.400 0.617 0.090
3 10 3 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE VERTICAL 150 2667 17 1 100 1120 520 1120 520 100 3480 80 3.400 0.617 0.105
4 10 3 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE VERTICAL 100 1333 14 6 100 133 520 133 520 100 1506 80 1.426 0.617 0.228
5 10 3 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE VERTICAL 150 2667 17 3 100 133 520 133 520 100 1506 80 1.426 0.617 0.132
6 10 3 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE HORIZONTAL 100 1333 14 1 100 1120 340 1120 340 100 3120 80 3.040 0.617 0.081
7 10 3 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE HORIZONTAL 150 2667 17 1 100 1120 340 1120 340 100 3120 80 3.040 0.617 0.093
8 10 3 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE HORIZONTAL 100 1333 14 1 100 1120 155 1120 155 100 2750 80 2.670 0.617 0.072
9 10 3 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE HORIZONTAL 150 2667 17 1 100 1120 155 1120 155 100 2750 80 2.670 0.617 0.084
COLUMN - C13 (500x1000) (10.50-6.50)-M40
1 32 1 vertical starter bar 26 1 1920 4040 5960 64 5.896 6.320 0.969
2 10 1 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE VERTICAL 100 1333 14 1 100 920 420 920 420 100 2880 80 2.800 0.617 0.025
3 10 1 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE VERTICAL 150 2667 17 1 100 920 420 920 420 100 2880 80 2.800 0.617 0.029
4 10 1 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE VERTICAL 100 1333 14 2 100 160 420 160 420 100 1360 80 1.280 0.617 0.023
5 10 1 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE VERTICAL 150 2667 17 2 100 160 420 160 420 100 1360 80 1.280 0.617 0.027
6 10 1 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE VERTICAL 100 1333 14 1 100 320 420 320 420 100 1680 80 1.600 0.617 0.014
7 10 1 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE VERTICAL 150 2667 17 1 100 320 420 320 420 100 1680 80 1.600 0.617 0.017
6 10 1 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE VERTICAL 100 1333 14 1 100 145 420 145 420 100 1330 80 1.250 0.617 0.011
7 10 1 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE VERTICAL 150 2667 17 1 100 145 420 145 420 100 1330 80 1.250 0.617 0.013
10 10 1 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE HORIZONTAL 100 1333 14 1 100 920 245 920 245 100 2530 80 2.450 0.617 0.022
11 10 1 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE HORIZONTAL 150 2667 17 1 100 920 245 920 245 100 2530 80 2.450 0.617 0.025
12 10 1 Links HORIZONTAL 100 1333 14 1 100 920 100 1120 40 1.080 0.617 0.010
13 10 1 Links HORIZONTAL 150 2667 17 1 100 920 100 1120 40 1.080 0.617 0.011
COLUMN - C14 (850x1050) (10.50-6.50)-M40
1 25 2 vertical starter bar 32 1 1500 4040 5540 50 5.490 3.850 1.352
2 10 2 MAIN STIRRUPS 100 1333 14 1 100 970 770 970 770 100 3680 80 3.600 0.617 0.064
3 10 2 MAIN STIRRUPS 150 2667 17 1 100 970 770 970 770 100 3680 80 3.600 0.617 0.074
4 10 2 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE VERTICAL 100 1333 14 2 100 160 770 160 770 100 2060 80 1.980 0.617 0.070
5 10 2 STIRRUPS SMALL SIZE VERTICAL 150 2667 17 2 100 160 770 160 770 100 2060 80 1.980 0.617 0.082
6 10 2 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE VERTICAL 100 1333 14 1 100 290 770 290 770 100 2320 80 2.240 0.617 0.040
7 10 2 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE VERTICAL 150 2667 17 1 100 290 770 290 770 100 2320 80 2.240 0.617 0.046
8 10 2 Links VERTICAL 100 1333 14 1 100 770 100 970 40 0.930 0.617 0.016
9 10 2 Links VERTICAL 150 2667 17 1 100 770 100 970 40 0.930 0.617 0.020
10 10 2 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE HORIZONTAL 100 1333 14 2 100 970 245 970 245 100 2630 80 2.550 0.617 0.090
11 10 2 STIRRUPS BIG SIZE HORIZONTAL 150 2667 17 2 100 970 245 970 245 100 2630 80 2.550 0.617 0.106

Table 10.3: Quantity of steel in column

123
11.SAFETY
11.1 Introduction
➢ Safety: “A thing is provisionally categorized as safe if its risks are deemed known and,
in the light of that knowledge, judged to be acceptable

Human
y Factor
lator M
Regu cies ed
ia
Agen

S Jo
b
Cost SAFETY
SAFETY Se
cu
rit
y

Qua Hea
lity Production lth

Fig 11.1

➢ Risk: Risk is the combination of possibilities and consequences associated with a


particular hazard. On a construction site risk is any exposure to possible loss. Every
construction site is different. Each offers a multitude of varying risks
➢ Hazard: Hazard refers to the potential source which may be an object, situation or
behavior of harm or adverse effect on human health, property as well as environment.
➢ Safety concerns at site: At a construction site, safety is a major concern. The main
reasons behind safety concern at site are mentioned below:
1. Social: Company involved in the project has to look into the welfare of the
workmen.
2. Economical: Company has to maintain the costs occurring in construction.
They are supposed to deliver better quality work with a nominal construction
cost. But, accidents occur during work due to improper preventive measures
adapted by the company for safety. In such a case, the injured worker is
provided with compensation by company. Also, penalty is given by the
government. This causes a huge economical loss to the company. This makes
safety crucial at site.

124
3. Legal: In case of an injury to public/worker, if the person has knowledge about
the safety norms the company followed and finds a flaw in the norm which
resulted in accident, PIL can be filed by the person against the company. This
will bring down the reputation, the company built for years
➢ Induction Training
All personnel before entering workplace had to undergo Induction training.
This process ensured that the new employees and staff were familiar with:
▪ General site rules
▪ Employees’ safety responsibilities
▪ Know the hazards associated with work
▪ Familiar with standards and safe work procedures and practices
▪ Emergency and fire evacuation procedure
▪ Workers welfare facility location
▪ Personal hygiene

➢ Environment, Health and Safety Plan


EHS plan was followed by L&T construction B&F IC to ensure proper
safety during construction at site. This plan was formed in accordance
with the existing norms for safety which also include the safety norms
prescribed by IKEA.
The safety standards followed included:
Occupational health and safety management OHSAS 18001:2007
Environmental Management system standard ISO 14001:2004
The main objectives that EHS Plan dealt with include:
▪ Protection of environment by minimization of impact of operation (e.g. minimizing
concrete waste, provision of wheel wash station)
▪ To provide a healthy and safe work environment (e.g. installation of delay start
mechanism in all machines, ensuring pre and periodic medical checkup for workmen,
modular scaffolding for column work)

125
11.2 List Of job specific PPE to be used in site:

• Safety helmet
• Reflective jacket
• Safety shoes
• Safety gumboots
• Face Shielded for gas cutters and welders
• Full body Harness
• Rope grab fall arrester
• Protective leather Shoulder pad for manual handling
• Safety goggles &full shielded –clear (as required)
• Nose mask
• Ear plug & Ear Muff
• Hand gloves & leather apron
• Fall arrester

11.3 Daily checklist to be maintained are as below

• General EHS inspection checklist


• Electrical Safety inspection checklist
• Crane inspection checklist
• Tower crane inspection checklist
• Vehicle & earth moving equipment
• Diesel generator inspection
• Passenger hoist checklist
• Plant inspection checklist
• Full body harness inspection checklist
• Scaffold inspection checklist
• Ladder inspection checklist

126
11.4 Good practices on site
1) PPE and non-PPE zone are separated
2) Pedestrian walkway is being there and barricaded properly and signage are given
properly
3) Whole site is barricaded and divided in zone which is clearly specified
4) Drinking water is available on site for workers working on site in drum thus
preventing time loss
5) Each and every worker is given
6) Safety induction before start of work
7) Medical check-up is done and only fit workers are allowed to work on site
8) Each of the workers is given personal protective equipment based on the job
9) Work permit is issued before every job which to be done
10) Height pass test is done before allowing to work at height
11) Golden rule of working at height is been followed that safety harness to be used while
working at height above 1.8m
12) Tool box talk is done weekly and same data is been send to client
13) Good housekeeping
14) Dustbin are being provided for bio degradable and non-bio degradable waste
15) Matting is being provide so as to prevent the raft or structure from damages
16) Access is being given on site for working and area is illuminated properly
17) Tag system is used for the site whether scaffolding is safe to use or not
18) Proper staking of material is done on site
19) Plants which are cut down on site are again planted on other site in some other
location
20) Housekeeping indicator is being placed on site which is scale from 1-10 which. And
rating for same is given by client that is IKEA
21) Authorised operator list been given on each and every instrument and that persons are
only permitted to do work on site
22) EHS notice board is place on each zone showing rules of safety
23) EHS policy is been formulated
24) Emergency response plan is prepared and put on notice board
25) Various permits which are to be taken are as follow
➢ Permit to work at height

127
➢ Hot work permit
➢ Electrical work permit
➢ Permit to perform work on confined space
➢ Permit to perform work on plant and machinery
26) De shuttering sequence is being given to workers
27) Emergency contacts are being displayed
28) Signage boards which depicts information are been made up from the waste
29) Safety nets are being provided on site
30) Some area is having authorised personnel entry which prevents hazards
31) All electrical cables are overhead
32) Accident investigation report system is done
33) Helmet colour coding is done which is as a given below
➢ Red= electrician
➢ White = staff members
➢ Blue = supervisors
➢ Green = safety supervisors
➢ Yellow=workmen
34) Mobile of the RMC drivers and crane operators are collected before allowing them to
site so as to pass right job is been given such as
35) Gloves for right job:
➢ ordinary lifting = cotton gloves
➢ hot work= leather
➢ concrete = rubber or PVC gloves
36) Registers which are maintained by EHS department are as follows
➢ inspection report
➢ permit registers
➢ workers registers
➢ power tool inspection report
37) Led illumination is done on access at night
38) Preparation of hazard identification and risk analysis
39) Eye wash machinery available at site during any mishaps
40) EHS statistic and display board is available at site showing information regarding
workmen strength, safe man hrs. etc.
41) Roles and responsibilities are being allocated to each authority
128
42) On site for every 40 workmen one safety inspector is available
43) All staircases on site are been covered by nets so as to prevent falling of object
44) Information on machinery stating when servicing to be done
45) Proper Lessing of material during lifting of materials from cranes
46) Signal man is available to give direction to crane operator
47) All operators using equipment are trained and having licence
48) Locker area was 0being given to P& M personnel so that equipment’s are safe
49) All staircases are being covered with safety nates
50) Each fire extinguisher is given has given safe to use tag and servicing date specified
51) Toilets are also available on site so as to save the time for workmen
52) Worker colony is available

Fig 11.2: Notice board on site Fig 11.3: Restricted access

Fig 11.4: Access on site & illumination Fig 11.5: Overhead cables

129
Fig 11.6: Tag / DE tag system

Fig 11.7: Staircase covered Fig 11.8: Access at site

130
Fig 11.9: Induction room Fig 11.10: Fire point at every 300 m on site

11.5 Unsafe acts on site


1) Less number of tripods for formwork
2) Clamps are not in placed under vehicle tyres
3) Workers not using access allocated to them where as seen walking on reinforcement
4) Worker Siting under scaffolding without helmet
5) Harness not connected to lifeline
6) Extension of landing of ladder was not adequate
7) Siting on lifeline (rope)
8) Cutting of bending wire without gloves and glasses
9) Workers sitting on edges without harness (unsafe risk takers)
10) Talking on mobile phones (having casual attitude towards work). At edges
11) Workers not using shoulder cap during lifting of bars
12) Workers lifting
13) Incorrect lifting technique
14) Flag man shitting idle instead of giving directions
15) Sitting on concrete pump pipe while concreting

11.6 Unsafe condition observed on site


1) Life should be rounded to reinforcement while working at height. It was found that
lifeline was tied to single bar and had a chance it might have not taken load if any
miss hap would have happened
2) Lifeline found to lose and having less supports

131
3) Safety nets should be up to bottom portion rather than hanging in between
4) Barricading was not done at one side. On hilly area. Under which material was stack
which potential threat
5) Ladder was not at seen following 1:4 rule and also suitable landing space was not
available
6) Concrete waste was being dumped at floor only, where workers were working
7) Props where in between access roads
8) Though safe to used tag was not there on scaffolding workers were found using it
9) Reinforcement was stack on construction site in not safe manner
10) Proper illumination was not there at some area, where was small amount of work was
done

11.7 HIRA
Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment: Before the start of any activity at site, a
panel of members including management, execution, Safety, P&M, supervisor and
sometimes workmen discuss and list down the hazards and risks involved in the activity
and also discuss the control measures to avoid the risk. Before Identifying and
assessing the risk, following points are looked into detail:
➢ Nature of Work
➢ Equipment’s to be deployed
➢ Method Statement of the w0rk
A HIRA chart includes the following points
➢ Activity
➢ Sub Activity
➢ Hazard
➢ Hazard event
➢ Victim
➢ Control Measures
➢ Risk (Probability, Severity)
➢ Additional Risk
Risk is further divided into Probability and Severity
➢ Probability Rating (P)(Likelihood): The possibility of occurrence of the
event/accident.

132
Probability is divided into 5 grades
• 1-Never happened in construction industry.
• 2- Happened in construction industry but not in L&T.
• 3- Happened in L&T segment.
• 4- Happened a few times at our site.
• 5- Happened several times at our site.

Severity Rating(S): The rating is given on the basis of extent of damage caused to
workman after the event/accident has occurred.
• 1 -Small injury or cuts.
• 2- First aid attention is required.
• 3- Proper medication is required.
• 4- Needs to be hospitalized, can resume work after 48 days.
• 5- Cannot resume work after 48 hours, permanent damage Product of the
grades of severity and probability decides the rate of risk which is present in
a particular work.
1) HIRA for Carpentry works
2) HIRA for Tower crane

11.7.1 HIRA for carpentry works

133
Probability Rating
Population at risk

Severity Rating
Existing
Sr Sub activity Hazard Hazardous Possible Control

Risk Level
No Event Outcome Measure

1 Loading 1. Transport 1. Hitting to 1. Injury 1. Signal man


and hazard the to shall guide the
unloading of (either on pedestrian pedestrian truck to the
timber and road or on 2. Fatigue 2. Property desired location.
plywood site) due to damage 2. Induction will
from trucks 2. Improper prolonged 3. be given at gate
handling of driving Abrasion itself for drivers
object 3. Slip, injury and helpers for
3. Slippery movement of 4. Hit safe driving and
or uneven vehicle injury (can site safety rules.
ground 4. Adopting turn out to 3. Proper
4. Sharp poor posture be fatal) posture should
edges & fatigue 5. Cut be followed.
5. Excessive 5. Fall of injury 4. Only
working hour objects 6. Back identified crew
& workload 6. Trip, slip pain to the should do the
6. Manual & fall of person loading and
handling objects 7.First-aid unloading of the

M
8

5
2
7. Contact injury materials and
with sharp proper training
edges should be done.
8. Excessive 5. Tools and
workload tackles should be
checked prior to
use for material
handling.
6. All workmen
should strictly
follow the PPE's
& Full body
harness.
7. No workmen
should carry
more than 35 kg.

134
2 Stacking 1. Poor 1. Inadequate 1. Injury to 5 1 2 L 1. A layout
and Storage ergonomics space the person demarcating
of materials 2. Improper 2. 2. First aid areas for
stacking of Entanglement injury stacking and
materials 3. Slip, trip 3. Person storing of
3. Wet and fall injury various materials
surface 4. Fall of 4. Property shall be made
4. Stack object injury inside the yard.
height 5. Improper 5. Damage
5. Scatter access of 2. Barricading
material 6. Fall of materials shall be provided
6. Uneven object for stacking and
ground 7. Exposure storing outside
7. to water, air the yard.
Unfavourabl and 3. Proper
e weather temperature signage should
condition 8. Low be provided with
8. Poor visibility respect to
illumination material and its
property.
4. Proper
housekeeping
shall be there.
5. Stack area
should be free
from overhead
electrical lines.
6. Minimum
passage of 1m
shall be
maintained
between each
stack.
7. Stack height
should not be
more than 1.5m.
8. Adequate
illumination
shall be
maintained.

135
3 Cutting of 1. 1. Machine 1. Material 5 5 4 H 1. Only
timber with Unauthorized failure damage authorised
planar and operation 2. Failure of 2. Delay in person should be
cutting 2. Untrained operation work deployed.
machine workmen 3. Inhalation 3. Cardinal 2. Authorised
3. Exposure of dust attack, operator list
to saw dust 4. Excessive Skin should be
4. Noise noise irritation/ displayed.
5. Live 5. Contact eye injury 3. Training for
conductors with 4. Hearing the safe
6. Improper electricity impairmen operation should
insulation 6. Machine t, be given.
and earthing failure hypertensi 4. Provision of
of machines 7. Contact on earplug, face
7. Sharp with sharp 5. Burn shield and face
object edges injury mask
8. Rotating 8. Unguarded 6. Injury to 5. Proper
parts rotating parts person and insulation and
9. Hot parts 9. Contact object earthling should
of machines with hot parts 7. be done for all
10. Defective of machines Abrasion machines.
machine or 10. Short and cut 6. Periodic
emergency circuit/ injury inspection and
switch overloading 8. Multiple maintenance
11. & electric injury should be done
Inadequate shock due to 9. Property before and after
space to leakage of damage the use of
work current 10. Person machine.
12. 11. Excessive injury 7. Fire protection
Excessive workload arrangement will
workload 12. be provided with
13. Inefficiency available fire
Repetitive extinguishers.
work 8. Periodical
14. maintenance
Unsuitable should be done
environment for all
condition equipment’s.
9. All rotating
parts should be
guarded.
10. Job specific
training should
be given along
with safety rules.
11. Training
record should be
maintained.
12. Proper
ventilation

136
should be there.
13. Machine
connection
should be
disconnected
when not in use.
14. Damaged
tools should not
be used.
15. Sockets
should be used
for connections.
16. Good
housekeeping
should be
maintained.
17. Loose
clothes should
not be permitted
near rotating
parts.

4 Operation 1. Pounding 1. Adopting 1. First-aid 5 5 2 M


activity nails into the poor method injury 1. Provision of
(assembly of wood piece to hammer 2. Cut gloves, safety
table board 2. Protruding nails, fall of injury shoes, goggles,
and wall or sharp hammer 3. Multiple apron and
board) edges 2. Contact injury helmet.
3. Damaged with sharp 4. Martial 2. Authorised
tools edges or damage person should be
4. Rotating protruded 5. Person allowed only.
parts nails injury 3. Proper
5. 3. Operation training should
Accumulatio failure be given to the
n of scraps 4. Unguarded workmen along
and saw dust rotating parts with safety
6. Poor 5. Congestion precautions.
ergonomics 6. 4. Tools should
7. Inefficiency be checked

137
Unfavourabl 7. Low before and after
e weather visibility the use.
condition 5. The tools
8. Poor should be well
illumination sharped.
6. Position the
nail and hold it
in place until it
is driven enough
and will stay in
place without
being held.
7. Make sure
there is no any
protruded nails.
8. Safety guard
should be
provided in the
proper positions
and well
secured.
9. Sufficient
light should be
there.
10. Adequate
space should be
provided.
11. Scrap and
waste material
shall be removed
to the designated
place on daily
basis.
12. Loose
clothes shall not
be permitted
near sharp and
rotating parts.

138
5 Handle & 1. Inadequate 1. 20 2 2 L
remove saw 1. Poor space to work Entanglem 1. All wooden
dust safely ergonomics 2. Cut from ent dust will be
2. Sharp sharp objects 2. Cut collected and
objects 3. Inhalation injury disposed in the
3. Exposure of dust 3. designated area
to the dust 4. Accident Coordinal for disposal.
4. Unsuitable 5. Exposure attack, 2. Day-to-day
environment to asthma, clean-up
condition unfavourable skin 3. Inspection to
5. Scrap and weather irritation ensure clean-up
saw dust condition. and is clean.
deposit 6. Tripping redness of 4. Sufficient
6. Poor over loose eye due to safety
housekeepin objects on excessive precautions are
g floor saw dust needed for
7. Poor coming in preventing fire
management the accidents like
of disposal of contact. fire
scarp and 4. Fire extinguishers
saw dust injury (with checklist)
5. Land and fire point.
pollution 5. Handling
6. Person precautions
injury should be
followed
6. Burning of
saw dust near
construction site
should be strictly
prohibited.
6 Shifting of 1. 1. Failure of 1. Serious 10 4 5 H 1. Authorised
table board Unauthorised operation injury to person should be
and wall crew 2. Delay of workmen deployed only.
board from involvement work and 2. Rope should
yard to 2. Unskilled 3. property not rub against te
desired operation Destabilizatio 2. Hit edge of any
location 3. Heavy and n of injury structural
using crane bulky load equipment 3. Multiple members.
4. Defective 4. Accident injury 3. Suitable size
lifting due to 4. Cut of sling and D-
accessories unplanned injury shackle should
and activity 5. be used to lift
procedure 5. Slip, trip Electrical the materials by
5. Excessive and fall of shock crane.
rubbing of object 6. Burns 4. Person in the
ropes at the 6. Cut from due to cabin of TC
edges sharp edges electric should use
6. 7. Improper short walkie-talkie to
Unprotecting placing of circuit communicate.

139
edges board 5. No workmen
7. Loose 8. Contact should be
connections with allowed below
8. Stacking electricity the suspended
9. Uneven 9. Short load.
surface and circuit/ 6. Lifting permit
high overloading should be given
operating 10. Excess before lifting the
speed workload board.
10. Lack of 11. Excessive 7. All lifting
communicati wind speed operations shall
on 12. Rainfall be under the
11. during control of a
Electricity construction competent
12. Work “Lifting
load Supervisor.
13. 8. Surface of the
Unfavourabl lifting object
e weather should be
conditions levelled.
9. Provision for
Life line or
anchorage for
Full Body
Harness and
using harness
form 1.8-meter
height.
10. Job specific
training should
be done.
7 General 1. 1. Delay in 20 4 3 M 1. PPE's must be
hazards Unauthorised work 1. Person followed.
oriented to operation 2. injury 2. Provision of
this activity 2. Untrained Inefficiency 2. Property sufficient fire
work 3. injury extinguishers
3. Fire Inaccessibilit 3. Burn and fire points.
4. Poor y injury 3. Inspection tag
housekeepin 4. Land 4. should be tagged
g pollution Abrasion on each
5. Live 5. Fire due to injury machine.
conductors combustible 5. Multiple 4. Authorised
6. substance injury person list
Accumulatio 6. Delay should be
n of scrap tagged.
and saw dust 5. Periodic
7. Excessive inspection and
working maintains should
hours be done.
6. Defected tools

140
and machines
shall be
replaced.
7. Proper
housekeeping
shall be done.

Table11.1: HIRA for carpentry works

11.7.2 HIRA for tower crane

141
Sr. Sub Hazard Hazardous Possible Existing Control

Probability Rating
Population at risk
No. activity Event Outcome Measure

Severity Rating

Risk Level
1 Pre- 1. Damaged 1. Work stuck 1. Delay at 5 3 3 M 1. Permit for lifting
arrangeme extreme end limit in between construction should be provided
nt switch 2. Fall of 2. Multiple before work
2. Damaged hoist equipment injuries 2. Inspection
limit switch 3. Fall of 3. Fatal checklist for tower
3. Damaged hook material injuries/casua crane should be
4. Damaged wire 4. Collision lty marked accurately
rope between boom 4. Delay in 3. Clear visibility
5. Tools/Material and materials operation, for the operator
kept at height 5. Rotation of hindered along operation
6. Damaged Anti- boom progress path should be
Collision Device obstructed 5. Damage to ensured
(ACD) 6. Improper structure 4. Anticipated load
7. Defective functioning of 6. Damage to and working angle
machine trolley and equipment should be
8. Loose hoist 7. Increased mentioned at
connection (nuts & 7. Failure of work operation site
bolts) equipment pressure, 5. Hooks should be
9. Unfavourable 8. High wind exhaustion latched and should
weather conditions speed/rainfall 8. Fracture be properly
10. Insufficient 9. Congestion injuries functional
working space at operation 9. Damage to 6. Working of the
11. Unavailability place property limit switches
of fall arrester 10. Fall of 10. Delay at should be ensured
12. Damaged nuts person site 7. Required PPE
and bolts 11. Failure of 11. Electrical should be followed
13. Poor structure shock 8. Proper insulation
communication 12. Progress of 12. Burns due of cables to be
system work stopped to electric ensured
14. Live electric 13. Contact short circuit 9. Distribution Box
cables with electricity 16. Damage (DB) should be
15. Damaged 14. Improper to machine present inside
emergency stop insulation and 17. barricading
button lying of cables Suffocation 10. Cables should
16. Defective fan 15. Machine be at a height
in operator cabin failure greater than 1.8m
16. Unruly 11. Clear walkway
working should be there
condition 12. Operator cabin
should be properly
checked
13. Space and
functionality of

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machine in
operator cabin
should be properly
maintained
2 Lifting and 1. Working at 1. Fall of 1. Serious 5 3 5 H 1. Permit should be
Shifting height person injuries/ 0 checked before operation
operation 2. Improper lifting 2. Fall of fatality 2. Only authorized person
of of material object 2. Hit injury (operator and signal man)
materials 3. Overload 3. (can turn out should be allowed to enter
4. Fault in limit Destabilization to be fatal) 3. Thorough examination
switch of equipment 3. Damage to should be done before
5. Defective lifting 4. Collapse of property starting operation
equipment boom 4. Damage to 4. The crane operator
6. Loose 5. Fall of structure should be equipped with
connections object full body harness along
7. Defective sling 6. Fall of 6. Cut crush with fall arrester while
in tower crane material injury climbing the TC
8. Poor 7. Unbalanced 7. Fracture 5. The operator should have
communication load injuries the knowledge of the load
9. Improper 8. Work stuck 8. Delay of that needs to be lifted and
placement of in between work shifted
material 9. Fall of 9. Serious 6. Load limit should be
10. Incompetent material due to injuries known by the workmen
workmen destabilization 10. Casualty involved in lifting of
11. Collision 10. Failure of possible due material
between the operation to 7. Load chart should be
booms of adjacent possible carelessness provided at the operation
tower cranes when 11. Fall of 11. Damage site
working material/equip to property 8. Functionality of limit
simultaneously ment 12. Electrical switches should be ensured
12. Improper cable 12. Contact shock 9. Wire rope and hook
joints/ insulation wih electricity 13. Burns should be in good condition
and lying of cables 13. Fire due to (fatal 10. Sling should not be
13. Uneven ground explosion/heat possible) slacked
14. Unfavourable 14. On picking 14. Rework 11. Connections should be
weather conditions the material it 15. Bruises, done properly
15. Sharp edge will not be abrasion 12. Machines should be in
(Moving/stationar levelled 16. Serious proper working condition
y) 15. Excessive and multiple 13. Precautions should be
16. Suspended wind speed injuries taken while working under
load 16. Rainfall the lifted load
during 14. Proper communication
construction system should be
17. Contact maintained between crane
with sharp operator and signal man
edge 15. Placement of the
18. Slipping, material should be done in
imbalanced a clear and specified
movement of location only
load 16. Wooden plank should

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be placed where the
material is to be placed
(material to be placed
above the plank)
17. Proper working of ACD
should be assured
18. Proper insulation of
cables should be ensured
19. Electric cables should
be placed at a height above
1.8m
20. Lifting/shifting of
material should be done
only on levelled ground
21. Proper stacking of
material should be done
before lifting

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3 Maintenan 1. Working at 1. Fall of 1. Fatal 1 3 4 M 1. Permit should be
ce height person injuries/casua 5 provided for work at height
2. Damaged ladder 2. Fall of lty 2. Only authorized person
3. Damaged fall objects 2. Hit injury should be deployed
arrester 3. Slip, trip, 3. Abrasion, 3. Workmen should be
4. Loose materials fall on level bruises equipped with proper full
5. Slippery ground 4. Adapting 4. Body pains body harness along with
6. Manual poor posture 5. fall arrester
handling 5. Working in Congestion, 4. Ladder used for
7. Poor awkward suffocation movement should be safe
ergonomics position 6. Electrical for use
8. Live electricity 6. Inadequate shock 5. Proper handling of
9. Unfavourable working space 7. Heat stroke materials should be done at
weather conditions 7. Contact 8. Imbalance height
10. Unsecured with electricity resulting in 6. Working ground should
working platform 8. Excessive fall, fatal not be greasy or slippery
11. Working at heat injuries 7. Posture should be
edges 9. High wind 9. Slip and maintained while working
12. Sharp edges speed fall, fatal 8. Sequential steps for
10. Rainfall injuries working should be followed
11. Slip, fall 10. Fracture 9. Proper cable insulation
from edge injuries should be ensured
12. Contact 11. Cut crush 10. Lock Out Tag Out
with sharp injury (LOTO) should be followed
edge during electricity
maintenance
11. Working should be
done only under suitable
weather conditions
12. Medical check-up of the
workmen should be done
before working at height
13. Toe guard should be
provided on the working
platform
14. Sharp edges should be
secured with caps

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4 General 1. Fire and 1. Fire due to 1. Burn injury 1 3 3 M 1. Adequate protection
explosion combustible 2. Electrical 5 arrangement to be done
2. Electricity materials shock and 2. Timely inspection
3. Poor 2. Improper burns should be done
management of insulation, 3. Multiple 3. Periodical maintenance
space inside lying of cables injuries 4. Trained workmen should
barricading 3. Trip and fall 4. Inefficient be deployed
4. Excessive work of person work 5. Sufficient number of
hours 4. Work 5. Rework workmen should be
5. Uninspected overload 6. Property deployed
operation 5. Failure of damage 6. Electric cables should be
6. Incompetent operation maintained properly
workmen

Table 11.2: HIRA for Tower crane

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12.Conclusion
This internship has been an excellent and rewarding experience. I can conclude that I have
been able to learn a lot during this internship period. Firstly, I learnt the way of work in an
organization, the importance of being punctual and the importance of team spirit and co-
operation. I was given exposure in almost all the departments at site. In each department have
learn the functioning of department and also performed daily task which are performed by
department personnel. Apart from theoretical knowledge and interaction with experienced
worker I had given few assignments which are in sequence as follows

A. Introduction to site
1. Study of structural and architectural drawings. and listing out various components,
and materials used in project
2. Study of specification of materials used in project.

B. Planning department
1. Study of Master construction schedule of IKEA project ‘
2. Tabulate the timelines of IKEA Project
3. Quantity estimation of concrete formwork and reinforcement of IKEA
4. Plotting S –curve requirement of material for concrete formwork and
reinforcement (month wise)
5. Workmen requirement on IKEA site
6. Tabulated monthly progress report for month of February, March and April
and found out reasons of delay of project.
7. Prepared S0 to S9 schedule of factual project (similar to Current project)
➢ S0 =MASTER CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULE
➢ S1= INVOIVE SCHEDULE
➢ S2= MILESTONE
➢ S3= P&M SCHEDULE
➢ S4= STAFF SCHEDULE
➢ S5= WORKMEN SCHEDULE
➢ S6=MATERIAL SCHEDULE
➢ S7=SPECILAISED MATERIAL
➢ S8 = DIRCT COST

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➢ S9 =INDIRECT COST BUDGET
C. Procurement of door
1. Study of quotation and calculation of per door cost
2. EHS compliance of vendor
3. Selection of vendor based on various factors (using WA method)
D. Contract administration
1. Incorporation of special conditions of contract in FIDIC red book,
2. Conditions favouring to the contractor given in contract
3. Contractual risk to contractor (not favouring to contractor).
E. Quality
1. Study of method statement and checking the whether same practice is
followed on site.
2. Study of project quality plan.
3. Pre-pour quality checking of slab, column, shear wall, Raft and retaining wall
4. Post pour checking of slab, column, shear wall, Raft and retaining wall
5. Post pour level measurement with help of lesser level
6. Analysis of concrete rejection. (using Pareto chart) and finding out two major
causes for concrete rejection
7. Workability and compressive strength checking at check point
8. Performed construction Quality assessment system or CONQUAS on level 1
and found quality to be around 93% though This method has some flaws as it
is a binary method
F. REINFORCEMENT
1. Steel reconciliation report for month of may
2. BBS for retaining wall
3. Reinforcement tying (fixing) and checking at site
4. Calculation of requirement of binding wire
G. FORMWORK
1. Study of all L&T formwork system
2. checking of formwork and challenges faced
3. Calculation of catering area and formwork quantity required. For site.
H. CONCRETING
1. Study of ROT and lesser screed machine. Challenges faced during execution
I. PLANT AND MACHINERY
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1. Study of tower crane, boom placer and other machines in P&M department
2. Fuel reconciliation report for month of may
3. Calculation of utility rate of each machineries used in project and addition cost
to project
J. Quantity estimation
1. Concrete and shuttering area calculation for column, retaining wall and
shear wall using working drawings given in drawing binder
K. Safety
1. Unsafe acts and unsafe conditions at site
2. Good practices followed at site
3. Hazard identification and risk assessment (HIRA) Tower crane and
carpentry works
4. Study of safety manual.

So as to summarise in each department I was given brief introduction about department and
also were given assignments. It helped to enhance and develop my skills, abilities and
knowledge. L & T is a good company to do internship since it provides numerous benefits
and advantages to the practical trainee. The treatment by the company was equitable and
professional. I have learnt from different units and people. Thus, my overall internship was a
really good program.

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