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ASSESSMENT OF COMMERCIAL FISHES IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF LEBAK AND

KALAMANSIG SULTAN KUDARAT

Michelle F. Caday

In Partial Fulfillment of the Course Requirements in Methods of Research 1

December 2018
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Various of fish satisfies a vital food need by billions of people. The consumption

of fish was one of the most basic commodities of human. According to Ani (2015),

fishing serves as huge food basket in providing food security and livelihood to millions of

Filipino fisherfolks here in the Philippines. Fishery and Aquaculture Organization (FAO)

also added that, Philippine fishing industry comprises marine capture fisheries, inland

capture fisheries and aquaculture. Marine capture fisheries can be further divided into

municipal fisheries and commercial fisheries. Wherein municipal marine capture

fisheries operate in coastal waters within 15km from the coastline (“municipal marine

waters”), using vessels up to 3 gross Tons (GT) or without the use of vessels while

commercial fisheries operate outside municipal waters, using vessels 3 Gross Tons or

larger.

The Municipality of Lebak and Kalamansig Sultan Kudarat were two of the three

coastal municipalities in the province of Sultan Kudarat. This simply implies that the one

of the major source of living of people here were fishing. Various fish species were

commercially sold in these municipalities. Other neighboring municipalities and even

cities were purchasing fishes from it. However, there were only few studies conducted

on the variety of fish that were commercially sold in the said municipalities. There were

also previous studies conducted by SKSU College of Fisheries students as to the

inventory of marine resources which include fishes in the said municipalities however it

was not classified if it is commercially sold. Hence, this study will be conducted in order

to determine the different fish species particularly marine fish species that were

commercially sold in Lebak and Kalamansig.


Objective of the Study

Generally, this study aim to assess the commercial fishes found in the

Municipality of Lebak and Kalamansig Sultan Kudarat.

Specifically it aims to:

1. Identify the commercial fish species found in Lebak and Kalamansig Sultan

Kudarat

2. Determine the distribution of commercial fish in different fish landing areas of

Lebak and Kalamansig.

3. Identify the fishing gears use by the fishermen in catching commercial fish.

Significance of the Study

Result of this study will serve as baseline information about commercial fish

species that are found in the municipality of Lebak and Kalamansig. This will also help

fishermen to have knowledge on the type of fishes that they are catching. This study will

also be beneficial to authority wherein it will serve as their basis on making concrete

policies and guidelines to attain sustainable fishery resources and avoid commercial fish

exploitation.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study was only limited on identification of commercial marine fishes found in

different fish landing area of Lebak and Kalamansig. Also included in the study is the

determination of the distribution of commercial fish in the two municipalities as well as in

identifying the type of fishing gear that the fishermen used during fishing. This study will

be conducted on the month of January 2019 to February 2019.


Operational Definition of Terms

Commercial Fishes – fishes that were commercially sold in public markets.

Distribution - Geographic area where individual species occur


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Commercial Fishes

Fishery products provide 11.7%of total Filipino food consumption and in 2010 5–

6million Filipinos depended directly on the fishing industry for livelihoods .More than one

million ‘municipal’ fishers (vessels 3gross tonnes, GT) exploit coral reefs and adjacent

shallow marine ecosystems. This has led to habitat degradation and a halving of the

potential Philippine coral-reef fishery production by the 1990s .Philippine fishing

grounds that were very productive in the 1950s and 1960s were overfished bythe1980s

and two-thirds of the major fishing grounds are now overfished. In addition to high

fishing pressure, other factors such as life-history traits of the species targeted and the

socio-economic circumstances of the fishers have contributed to this poor state of the

fisheries(Lavides et al., 2016).

Fish Consumption
Guzman and Capaque (2014) stated that, fish populations have engendered a

wide array of ecological benefits among human. They also added that, this are

conspicuous for their function in food chain, nutrient cycling and regulation of

biological processes.

The consumption of fish was one of the most basic commodities of human. In the

Philippines fishing serves as huge food basket in providing food security and livelihood

to millions of Filipino fisherfolks (Ani, 2015). Being a country with one of the longest

coastlines, the Philippines has a vast fishing grounds which contributes 18.6% to gross
value added on agriculture with a net export earnings of US$720 million in 2012 (Ani,

2015; Anticamara et al., 2012).

Over-exploitation of Marine Species

Over the past two decades, pressure from overexploitation and destructive

human activities have contributed to the degradation of Philippine reefs and the

deterioration of coastal resources (Nanola & Alino, 2006; Nañola, Aliño, & Carpenter,

2011; Briones, 2007).

Marine fisheries resources include numerous fishes as well as invertebrates such

as crustaceans, mollusks and sea cucumbers. In the Philippines, two distinct sectors

comprise marine fisheries which are the large- scale or commercial sector and the

small-scale sector, which is also called artisanal or municipal sector. Marine fishery

resources contribute employment and are a major factor that maintains economic and

social stability of the country particularly in rural areas where fishers resides. (Luna,

C.Z., et.al., 2004)

Fishery and Aquaculture Organization (FAO) stated that Philippine fishing

industry comprises marine capture fisheries, inland capture fisheries, and aquaculture.

Marine capture fisheries can be further divided into municipal fisheries and commercial

fisheries. Wherein municipal marine capture fisheries operate in coastal waters within

15 km from the coastline (“municipal marine waters”), using vessels up to 3 GT or

without the use of vessels while commercial fisheries operate outside municipal waters,

using vessels 3 GT or larger. They also added that, in 2012, 51 percent of reported

marine fisheries that was produced were from municipal fisheries and 49 percent from

commercial fisheries.
Fishing Gears Used by Fishermen in Catching Fishes

Simple Hook and Line (kawil) The most traditional form of fishing gear is the

simple hook and line, which is basically made with one or two hooks. This kind of fishing

gear is the most common since it can be used in both shallow and offshore waters. A

basic hook and line is made of a hook suspended to an extended mainline averaging

100m in length, usually reeled to a homemade bamboo or wooden cylinder. It is the

cheapest form of all the cited fishing gears.(Galenzoga and Quinones,2014). Multiple

Hand Line (lagolo) This type of handline uses multiple hooks suspended with equal

distance to a mainline. Artificial bait made of silk thread and bird feathers are used. The

basic operation of the gear involves tugging the line in a regular up and down motion.

The time of operation typically falls within dusk and dawn periods where a slight portion

of the sun lights the sea surface. During these periods, the artificial bait is said to be the

most attractive to pelagic fish. This fishing gear is used second to simple hook and line.

Bottom Set Gill Net (patitig)This type of fishing gear is specifically designed to catch

demersal fishes. It is generally constructed at 1-5m in depth. Built with at least 1-10

panels, the gear may be set at depths of 2-10m. Each panel is constructed with an

average of 1m in length. The gear is normally employed in an overnight use to a

maximum of 24 hours. It can also be operated an hour before the net is hauled and

relocated to another area for its next use. .(Galenzoga and Quinones,2014).Bottom Set

Long Line (kitang) This is a fishing line that uses at least 40–100 hooks suspended

along the length of a mainline primarily to catchdemersal fish species. This gear is

usually setting the line from shallow to deep waters. A typical outfit is usually installed

and kept in a box, and the hooks are placed individually in gaps along the frame of the

box to case the laying of baits. In some fishing grounds, the fishermen cannot wait until

hauling to avoid loss of gear due to theft. .(Galenzoga and Quinones,2014).Spear Gun
(pana) The spear gun consists of a homemade wooden gun with a rubber sling. The

gear is singularly pointed usually with a suspended nylon rope long enough to keep the

device retrievable. This gear is complemented with diving implements like makeshift

goggles (silip) and flippers (panyapak) to assist the diver during the deep fishing pursuit.

.(Galenzoga and Quinones,2014).Troll line – a trolling line is consists of a line with

natural or artificialo the surface or at a certain depth.Several lines are often towed at the

same time, by using outriggers to keep the lines away from the wake of the vessel. Ring

Net – a ring is a long net that is shot to surroundings a shoal of pelagic fish with a a wall

of netting. It can be operated by a single vessel or by a pair of vessels. Surface gill net-

this type of gill net captures that species that swim or live near the sea surface and are

attached by lights during night time. It also catches fish by driving the school toward a

waiting net using a scareline. Drift gill net – consists of a string of gillnets kept more or

less vertically by floats on the upper line (head rope) and weight on the lower

line(ground rope) sometimes the ground rope is without weight drifting with the current,

in several near the surface or in mid water.


CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY

Place and Duration of the Study

This study was conducted in the Lebak and Kalamansig Sultan Kudarat. The

sampling area for Lebak was barangay Tibpuan. There were two sampling station in

Kalamansig. These were barangay Poblacion where there fish landing area was

established and Sitio Poral in barangay Sta. Maria where some fish vendor purchased

fish that they sold. Secondary data was taken from the public market of the said two

municipalities. This is because some of the small scale fishermen directly sold their

harvested fish in the market. This study was conducted from the month of January to

February 2019.Figure 1 below show the sampling area where the study will be

conducted.

Figure 1. Location of the Sampling Area in Lebak and Kalamansig, Sultan Kudarat
Identification of Commercial Fish and Fishing Gear Use

Fish species caught by the fishermen was recorded and identified using fish

guide books. It was also validated using other sources such as fishery website namely;

Fish and Agriculture Organization and Bureau Fishery and Aquatic Resources websites

for more update information. Fish information that was presented includes; local names,

scientific name, English name. After this, information that presented was then validated

using published studies and books. An interview to the fishermen on what type of fishing

gear they are using during fishing was also done.

Determination of Commercial Fish Distribution

Identifying fish species present in different sampling station was done. After

identifying it, a checklist was made as to the present of fish species in different sampling

area. This is to determine the distribution of fish in different sampling station of Lebak

and Kalamansig Sultan Kudarat.

Photo Documentation

Fish species caught and fishing gears used by the fishermen was documented

using digital camera for proper identification.


CHAPTER IV
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Table1. List of Commercial Fish Species Caught by Fishermen Kalamansig,
Sultan Kudarat
Family Name Scientific Name Local Common Name
Danggit
Palik
Pirit
Kitong
Anday anday
Salmon
Lipti
Pagi
Maya maya
Rumpe
Bulaw
Katambak
Bukaw
Timbungan
Molmol
Tulay
Tayang
Barilis
Sabagon
Talakitok
Sapsap
Kitong
Pandawan
Langisi
Bagangan
Tabastabas
Bangsi
Ilak
Salmoniti
Dalagang bukid

Table 2. List of Commercial Fish Species Caught by Fishermen Lebak,


Sultan Kudarat
Family Name Scientific Name Local Common Name
Sagisihan
Timbungan
Talakitok
Danngit
molmol
Sapsap
Pak an
Bolinao
Tunong
Gusaw
Ubod- ubod
Bugaong
Dawat
Palo
Latob
Burikat
Tilapia
Maya maya
Salmoniti
Molmol
Table 3. Commercial Fish Species Caught by Fishermen in Selected Area of
Lebak and Kalamansig, Sultan Kudarat.
Fish Species Sampling Area
(Local Name)
Tibpuan Poblacion Poral
Danggit   x
Pirit   
Palik x  x
Manila x  x
Kitong x  x
Anday anday  x
Salmon x  x
Lipti x  x
Maya maya   x
Rumpe x  x
Bulaw x  x
Katambak x  x
Bukaw x  x
Timbungan   x
Molmol   x
Tulay   
Tayang   
Sagisihan  x x
Talakitok   
Sapsap   x
Pak- an  x x
Bolinao  x x
Tunong  x x
Gusaw  x x
Ubod-ubod  x x
Bugaong  x x
Dawat  x x
Palo  x x
Latab  x x
Pandawan   x
Tilpia  x x
Salmoniti  x x
Table 3. Fishing Gear Used by Fishermen
English Name Local Name Tibpuan Poral Poblacion
Palangri   
Pukot   
Baklad   x
Purse seine   
CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary
The study on Assessment of Commercial Fishes in the Municipality of Lebak And

Kalamansig Sultan Kudarat was conducted to assess the commercial fishes found in

the Municipality of Lebak and Kalamansig Sultan Kudarat. It specifically it aims Identify

the commercial fish species found in Lebak and Kalamansig Sultan Kudarat, determine

the distribution of commercial fish in different fish landing areas of Lebak and

Kalamansig as well as to identify the fishing gears use by the fishermen in catching

commercial fish.

Conclusion
Recommendation
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