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(Revision of

AGMA 904-889)

Metric Usage

(This Information Sheet is NOT an AGMA Standard)

=·.-=

_

_ ~ · Reproduced By GLOBAL

ENGINEERING DOCUMENTS

_ffe.With The Pennission Of AGMA

=- Under Royalty Agreement

AGMA 904-C96

Contents

Page

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

1 Scope ................................................................... 1

2 SI Units ................................................................. 1

3 Multiples and Sub-multiples of SI Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

4 Units Outside the International System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

5 Definitions of the SI Base Units and Dimensionless Derived Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

6 Preferred Dimensions and Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

7 Conversion - Non-metric to Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

8 Module System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

9 Multiples for Use in AGMA Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

1o Gear Symbols for Use in Metric Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Figures

Figure 5-1 Angular Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Figure 7-1 Total Variation Incurred by Rounding Off .............................. 11

Tables

Table 2-1 Base Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Table 2-2 Dimensionless Derived Units ......................................... 1

Table 2-3 Examples of SI Units Derived from Base Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Table 2-4 Examples of SI Derived Units With Special Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Table 2-5 Examples of SI Units Derived From SI Units With Special Names . . . . . . . . . . 3

Table 3-1 SI Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Table 4-1 Other Units of Measurement Used with SI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Table 6-1 Preferred Metric Tolerances and their Inch Equivalent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Table 7-1 Possible Difference Due to Rounding ................................. 10

Table 7-2 Round Off Practice for Toleranced Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Table 7-3 Conversion of Other Units and Recommended Rounding Method . . . . . . . . . 13

Table 8-1 Metric Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Table 9-1 Multiples and Conversion Factors for Use in AGMA Standards . . . . . . . . . . . 15

iii

AGMA 904-C96

Foreword

[This foreword, footnotes, and appendices, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not

be construed as a part of American Gear Manufacturers Association Information Sheet 904-C96, Metric

Usage.]

In 1972, the AGMA Technical Division Executive Committee (TDEC) started the formation of a committee

referred to as the Metric Study Committee. The first meeting of this Metric Study Committee was on January

23, 1973. In March 1974, the AGMA Board of directors instructed its Technical Division to:

• Form a standing Metric Resource and Advisory Committee.

• Establish detailed procedures to effect a changeover, i.e., create a metric usage standard.

The first meeting of the Metric Resource and Advisory Committee was held on November 4, 1974. A proposed

AGMA Information Sheet, Guide for Use of SI (Metric) Units in Gearing, AGMA 600.XX was drafted over the

next years. On September 21, 1977, the Metric Resource and Advisory Committee changed the name of the

proposed standard 600.:XX to AGMA Standard for Metric Usage. The standard 600.01 was issued in March

1979.

On September 12, 1979, the first draft of Procedural Guidelines for Metrication of AGMA Standards was

written. This document was released on June 4, 1980 as Policy and Practice guide Number 040.17,

Procedure for the Metrication of AGMA Standards. The Guidelines for Metrication were approved by the

AGMA Board on November 2, 1977.

In 1988, the TDEC converted this revision to an Information Sheet and assigned compliance review to AGMA

Headquarters Staff. In 1996, it was uptdated and the symbols tables 10.1 and 10.2 were removed, which can

be found in AGMA 900-F96.

This Information Sheet is to be used as an editorial guide when preparing the AGMA metric standards and

information sheets. It describes the SI system of units and the multiples and sub-multiples to be used in

AGMA standards.

The guidelines for metrication are as follows:

(1} The intent of the process is conversion to SI units, not the revision of content.

(2) The purpose of these guidelines is to assure uniformity of metric terms and abbreviations.

(3) Generally, metrication will be performed by the responsible committee. Exception will be at the

discretion of the TDEC.

(4) There shall be two methods of generating metric standards, the choice of which shall be at the

discretion of the originating committee. All standards on which revision is begun after January 1, 1991 shall be

prepared in accordance with one of the two following methods.

(a) Standards may be developed in hard metric only.

(b) Parallel standards, in which both hard conversion SI and conventional inch versions of standards will

be available for the same purpose.

(5) Metrication shall conform to AGMA 904-C96 which references ANSI/IEEE 268-1982 and ISO 1000.

(6) Preparation of a hard metric document shall be approved by the TDEC prior to starting work.

(7) The documents shall be reviewed for conformance to the Information Sheet concurrently with

committee comment.

This addition, AGMA 904-C96, was approved by the TDEC on October 28, 1996.

Suggestions for the improvement of this information sheet will be welcome. They should be sent to the

American Gear Manufacturers Association, 1500 King Street, Suite 201, Alexandria, Virginia, 22314.

iv

AGMA 904-C96

Committee (at the time of AGMA 600.01 development)

0. Thurman, Vice Chairman (Caterpillar)

ACTIVE MEMBERS

W. A. Bradley (Consultant)

M. R. Chaplin (Contour Hardening)

P. M. Dean, Jr. (Honorary Member)

R. Green (Eaton/Transmission Division)

L. J. Smith (Invincible Gear)

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS

J. T. Cook (Power Tech International, Inc.)

E. H. Diedrich (Rockwell)

C. R. Firestone (Reliance Electric/Reeves)

W. H. Heller (Peerless-Winsmith)

T. J. Krenzer (Gleason)

J. R. Kuehnel (Rockwell)

T. Meyer {Harnischfeger)

C. E. Overton (Overton Gear)

J. R. Partridge (Lufkin Industries)

A. E. Phillips (Emerson Power Transmission/Browning)

G. R. Schwartz (Power Tech International, Inc.)

H. A. Swierczynski (Fellows)

G. Sykes (Falk)

J. D. Szynkiewicz (Farrel)

J. 0. Tennies (Renold)

H. Wedler (ferry Corporation)

V

AGMA 904-C96

vi

Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

of SI from the previous gravimetric form of Metric

This editorial manual describes the SI system of units Engineering Units is the separate and distinct units

to be used in AGMA standards. Where necessary, for mass and force. In previous Metric Systems, the

specialized metric dimensions, tolerances and units kilogram was used as both a force and mass unit.

are used which are specifically suited to the gear Technically, units should have been labeled as

industry and may not be part of the referenced kilogram-force or kilogram-mass but it was com-

documents. mon practice to ignore such labeling, which often re-

sulted in confusion as to whether mass or force was

1.1 Historical Background. The 11th Conference

intended. The same practice was true in the non-

Generale des Poids et Mesures (1960) (CGPM), by

metricinch-pound system where the pound was also

its Resolution 12, adopted the name International

used as both a mass or force unit and rarely labeled.

System of Units, with the international abbreviation

In SI, the kilogram is restricted to the unit of mass.

SI, for this practical system of units of measurement

The newton is the unit of force and should be used in

and laid down rules for the prefixes, the derived and

place of kilogram-force. Likewise, the newton,

dimensionless derived units and other matters, thus

instead of kilogram-force, should be used in com-

establishing a comprehensive specification for units

bination units which include force.

of measurement. The expressions SI Units, SI Pre-

fixes and Dimensionless Derived Units as used in this Example:

Information Sheet, are in accordance with the metric

Pressure or Stress (N/m2 = Pa),

practices in ANSI/IEEE Std. 268-1982.

Energy (N•m = J), and Power

(N•m/s = m2kg•s-3= W).

2. SI Units

Table2-1

2.1 Classes of Units. SI units are divided into three Base Units

classes:

(1) Base units Name of

Quantity Base SI Unit Symbol

(2) Derived units

(3) Dimensionless derived units length meter m

mass kilogram kg

2.2 Base Units. SI consists of seven base units shown time second s

with their symbols in Table 2-1. Refer to 5.1.1 electric current ampere A

through 5.1.7 for definitions of base units. thermodynamic

temperature* kelvin K

2.3 Dimensionless Derived Units. Dimensionless amount of substance mole mol

derived units are shown in Table 2-2. Refer to 5.2.1 luminous intensity candela cd

and 5.2.2 for definitions of dimensionless derived

units. * Temperature is in general expressed in degrees

Celsius ( 0 C). The unit degree Celsius is equal to the

2.4 Derived Units. Derived units are expressed alge-

unit kelvin.

braically in terms of base, or dimensionless derived

units, or both by means of the mathematical symbols Table2-2

of multiplication and division. Several derived units Dimensionless Derived Units

have been given special names and symbols which

may themselves be used to express other derived Name of

Quantity Symbol

units in a simpler way than in terms of the base units. SI Unit

Derived units may therefore be classified under plane angle radian rad

three headings. Examples of them are given in Tables solid angle steradian sr

2-3, 2-4 and 2-5.

1

AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

Table2-3

Examples of SI Units Derived from Base Units

Name of SI Symbol

Quantity Derived Unit

area square meter m2

volume cubic meter m3

speed, velocity meter per second m/S

acceleration meter per second squared m/s2

angular velocity radian per second rad/s

angular acceleration radian per second squared rad/s2

wavenumber 1 per meter m-1

density, mass density kilogram per cubic meter kg/m 3

Concentration (of amount of substance) mole per cubic meter mol/m3

activity (radioactive) 1 per second s-1

specific volume cubic meter per kilogram m3/kg

luminance candela per square meter cd/m2

Table2-4

Examples of SI Derived Units With Special Names

Special Expression in Terms Expression in Terms

Quantity Symbol of Other SI Units

Name of SI Base Units

frequency hertz Hz s-I

force newton N m•kg•s-2

pressure pascal* Pa N/m2 m-I •kg•s-2

energy, work, quantity of heat joule J N•m m 2•kg•s-2

power, radiant flux watt w J/s m2•kg•s-3

quantity of electricity,

electric charge, coulomb C A•s

electric potential, potential difference,

electromotive force volt V W/A m 2•kg•s-3•A-1

capacitance farad F CN m-2•kg-l•s4•A2

electric resistance ohm Q V/A m2•kg•s-3•A-2

conductance siemens s A/V m-2•kg-l•s3•A2

magnetic flux weber Wb V•s m2•kg•s-2•A-1

magnetic flux density tesla T Wb/m2 kg•s-2•A-l

inductance henry H Wb/A m2•kg•s-2•A-2

luminous flux lumen Im cd•sr

illuminance lux Ix m- 2•cd•sr

* Bar was formerly used to express pressure: 1 bar = lOOkPa or lCP N/m2

2

Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

Table2-5

Examples of SI Units Derived From SI Units With Special Names

Quantity Name Symbol of SI Base Units

moment of force newton meter N•m m2•kg•s-2

surface tension newton per meter Nim kg•s-2

heat flux density, irradiance watt per square meter Wlm2 kg•s-3

heat capacity, entropy joule per kelvin J/K m2•kg•s-2•K-1

specific heat capacity, specific entropy joule per kilogram kelvin Jl(kg•K) m2•s-2•K-1

specific energy joule per kilogram J/kg m2•s-2

thermal conductivity watt per meter kelvin W/(m•K) m•kg•s-3•K- 1

energy density joule per cubic meter Jlm3 m-l·~·s-2

electric field strength volt per meter Vim m•kg•A- 1•s-3

electric charge density coulomb per cubic meter C/m3 m-3•A•s

electric flux density coulomb per square meter C/m2 m-2•A•s

permittivity farad per meter Flm m-3.kg-l•A2•s-4

current density ampere per square meter A/m2

magnetic field strength ampere per meter Alm

permeability henry per meter Him m•kg•A- 2•s- 2

molar energy joule per mole J/mol m 2•kg•s-2•mo1- 1

molar entropy, molar heat capacity joule per mole kelvin Jl(mol•K) m 2•kg•s-2•K- 1•mol- 1

radiant intensity watt per steradian Wlsr m2•kg•s-3•sr- 1

radiance watt per square meter

steradian W/m2•sr kg•s- 3•sr- 1

2.5.1 Weight. Considerable confusion exists in the mass and to provide clarity in these uses for the

use of the term weight as quantity to mean either general public we should specify mass followed by

gravitational force or mass. In commercial and weight in parenthesis and specify the value in grams

everyday use, the term weight nearly always means or kilograms. Example: Machine mass (weight)

mass; thus, when one speaks of a person's weight, the 1 500 kilograms.

quantity referred to is mass.

2.5.2 Mass. In engineering calculations involving

In science and technology, the term weight of a body structures, vehicles, or machines on the surface of the

has usually meant the force that if applied to the body earth, the mass in kilograms is multiplied by 9.8 to

would give it an acceleration equal to the local obtain the approximate force of gravity in newtons.

acceleration of free fall. (The force of gravity acting on a mass of 1 kilogram

varies from about 9.77 newtons to 9.83 newtons in

Because of the dual use of the term weight as both a various parts of the world).

force and a mass, this term should be avoided in

technical practice. 2.6 Rules for Writing SI Symbols.

To ensure complete understanding we should use the 2.6.1 SI Symbols (see Table 9-1 for SI computer

terms mass and force in place of weight. symbols):

It should be understood that where the term weight is (1) Shall be printed in roman (upright) type re-

used in machine specifications, etc., it has meant gardless of the type used in the rest of the text

3

AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

(2) Shall be written in lower-case letters except NOTE: A dot shall not be used as the

that the first letter is written in upper case when the multiplication symbol in conjunction with

name of the unit is derived from a proper name, and numerals.

the symbol for liter is a capital L. See Tables 2-1 Example:

through 2-5. Examples: m meter, s second, A am-

pere, Wb weber

234 x 126.7, not 234•126.7

(3) Shall remain unaltered in the plural 2.7.2 Division. A slash ( oblique stroke /), a

(4) Shall be written without a final full stop (pe- horizontal line, or negative powers may be used to

riod) except at the end of a sentence express a derived unit formed from others by

(5) Shall be placed after the complete numerical division.

value in the expression for a quantity, leaving a space Example:

between the numerical value and the first letter of

the symbol

Example: 32 lm, not 321m, for 32 lumens 2.7.2.1 Use of Parenthesis and Negative Exponents.

( 6) Symbols are the same in all languages The slash must not be repeated in the same

expression. Ambiguity is avoided by parenthesis or

2.6.2 Practice. It is recommended that the symbols by the use of negative powers.

for SI units, and not written words, be used in written

Examples:

text; e.g., 16 m2, not 16 square meters. Spelled-out

unit names and prefixes are treated as common m/s2 or ms- 2, but not m/s/s;

nouns in English. Thus, the first letter of a unit name m•kg/(s3•A) or m•kg•s-3•A-1 , but not

is not capitalized except at the beginning of a m•kg/s3/A

sentence or in capitalized material such as a title. An 2.7.2.2 Use of"Per". When names of units are used,

exception to this is degree Celsius. The unit name is division is indicated by the word "per", and not the

degree and modified by the adjective Celsius and is slash.

written degree Celsius.

Example:

In text, a symbol should not be used to start a 50 kilograms per square meter,

sentence. not 50 kilograms/square meter.

2.7.3 Scalar Multiplier. The scalar multiplier dot or

2.7 Units Formed by Multiplication and Division. a slash must be used when the unit symbols m (meter)

and T (tesla) are followed by other unit symbols (ex-

2.7.1 Multiplication. The product of two or more cept kg).

units in symbolic form can be indicated by a dot. In

Examples:

the international recommendation the dot may be

dispensed with when there is no risk of confusion Volt meter second may be written V •m•s

with any other symbol. The dot may be placed on the (preferred), or Vm•s, but not V•ms, which

line if the preferred position cannot be produced as means volt millisecond;

on a computer printout, or an asterisk may be used. Volt meter per second may be written

V•m•s- 1 (preferred), Vm•s-1 or Vm/s, but

Examples: not V•ms- 1, vms-1 or V/ms, which means

volt per millisecond

for newton meter; N•m or N.m or N*m, but

not mN, the symbol for millinewton:

3. Multiples and Sub-multiples of SI Units

for meter per second; m/s or m•s-lor m•s-1,

but not ms- 1, the symbol for one per 3.1 SI Prefixes. The prefixes given in Table 3-1 and

millisecond their symbols are used to form names and symbols of

4

Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

decimal multiples and sub-multiples of the SI units. 3.1.2 Unit Symbol. The term "unit symbol" means a

Prefix symbols are shown without spacing between symbol for a base unit, a derived unit with a special

the prefix symbol and the unit symbol. The prefix name or a dimensionless derived unit. For example,

name is attached directly to the unit name. the "unit symbol" for power is W (watt); kW

(kilowatt) is not a unit symbol because it is a multiple

3.1.1 SI Prefixes Symbols. The symbol for a prefix is of the unit.

combined with the unit symbol to form a new symbol

3.1.3 Exceptions. The name of the base unit for

which can be provided with a positive or negative ex-

mass, the kilogram, is the only one containing a

ponent. The exponent indicates that the multiple or

sub-multiple of the unit is raised to the power ex- prefix. The names of the decimal multiples and

sub-multiples are the word gram and words formed

pressed by the exponent. Compound units may be

by adding the prefixes to the word gram.

expressed by combining this new symbol with other

unit symbols. Examples:

Mg (megagram), not kkg (kilokilogram)

1 cm3 = 1 (cm)3 = (10-2m)3 = 10-6m3

1 µs-1 = I (µs)-1 = (lo-6s)-1 = 1a6s-1 3.2 Selection of Multiples, Prefixes and Exponents.

1 mm 2/s = 1 (mm)2/s = (10-3m)2/s = rn-6mZ.s- 1 The choice of the appropriate multiple ( decimal

multiple or sub-multiple) of an SI unit is governed

NOTE: Compound prefixes should not be used. by convenience, the multiple chosen for a particular

application being the one which will lead to

Example: numerical values within a practical range. See

Write nm (nanometer), not mµm Section 9 for multiples approved for use in AGMA

( millimicrometer) Standards.

Table3-1

SI Prefixes

SI Factor by which

Symbol

Prefixes Unit is Multiplied

exa E 1018 = 1 000 000 000 000 000 000

peta p 1015 = 1 000 000 000 000 000

tera T 1012 = 1 000 000 000 000

giga G 109 = 1 000 000 000

*mega M 1()6 = 1000000

*kilo k u>3 = 1000

hecto h 102 = 100

deka da 10 = 10

deci d 10-1 = 0.1

*centi C 10-2 = 0.01

*milli m 10-3 = 0.001

*micro µ 10-6 = 0.000 001

nano n 10-9 = 0.000 000 001

pico p 10-12 = 0.000 000 000 001

femto f 10-15 = 0.000 000 000 000 001

atto a 10-18 = 0.000 000 000 000 000 001

* preferred prefixes

5

AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

3.2.1 Selection of Multiples. The multiple can compound SI unit. The prefix should preferably be

usually be chosen so that the numerical values will be attached to the unit in the numerator except when

between 0.1 and 1 000. the base unit kilogram appears in the denominator.

Examples: Examples:

1.2 x 1<>4N can be written as 12 kN V/m, not mV/mm; MJ/kg, not kJ/g

0.003 94m can be written as 3.94 mm

can be written as 1.401 kPa

3.2.3 Selection of Submultiples and Exponents.

1401 Pa

Fewer errors will be made in calculations if prefixes

3.lx 10- 8s can be written as 31 ns

are replaced by powers of 10.

However, in a table of values for the same quantity or

in a discussion of such values within a given context, Example:

the same multiple for all items should be used, even mg•cm2/ns = (10-6kg) X (10- 4m2)/10-9s

when some of the numerical values will be outside the = 10-11cg.m2s-1

range 0.1 to 1000. For certain quantities in particular

applications, the same multiple is customarily used

even though this means exceeding the range of0.1 to 4. Units Outside the International System

1 000. For example; the millimeter is used for all

linear dimensions on Mechanical Engineering 4.1 Units Used with SI. These units are given in

Drawings; the kilopascal is used for all values of Table 4-1. The prefixes given in Table 3-1 may be

attached to many of the units given in Table 4-1.

pressure.

3.2.2 Selection of Prefix. It is recommended that Example:

only one prefix be used in forming a multiple of a milliliter, mL; megapascal, MPa

Table4-1

Other Units of Measurement Used with SI

time

minute min 1 min= 60 s

hour h lh=3600s=60min

day d ld=86400s=24h

plane angle

0 1)

degree!) 1° = (n/180) rad

minute , 1)

1' = (~/10 800) rad= (1/60)°

second ,, 1)

1" = (n/648 000) rad = (1/60)'

capacity Iiter2) L 1L = 1 dm3 = 10-3m3

temperature

degree Celsius3) oc4) 5) =

an interval of 1°C 1 K

by definition 0°C = 273.15 K

mass

metric ton6) t lt=lOOOkg=lMg

pressure

pascal Pa lPa= N/m2

pressure

standard atmosphere atm 1 atm = 101.325 kPa

1) Decimal degree is preferred, but degrees, minutes, and seconds may be used where required.

6

Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

2) The CGPM in October 1979 approved Land I as alternative symbols for the liter. Since the letter symbol I

can easily be confused with the numeral 1, only the symbol Lis recommended for USA use. Use of the script,

t as a symbol for liter is discouraged.

3 The Celsius temperature scale (previously called centigrade, but renamed to avoid confusion with

"centigrade" associated with angular measure) is the commonly used scale except for certain scientific and

technological purposes where the thermodynamic temperature scale is preferred Note the use of upper

case C for Celsius.

4) No space is left between these symbols and the last digit of a number.

5) °C is the symbol for degree Celsius (not 0 ) . For example 38-54°C not 38°-54°C.

6) Metric ton is the common name for the SI unit megagram (Mg) also called tonne (t). Due to possible

confusion between the written and spoken word "tonne" versus "ton" meaning 2 000 pounds, the term

"metric ton" is recommended for general use and consistency.

5. Definitions of the SI Base Units and of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple

Dimensionless Derived Units point of water. [13th CGPM (1967), Resolution 4]

The 13th CGPM (1967, Resolution 3) also decided

5.1 Base Units. that the unit kelvin and its symbol K should be used to

5.1.1 Meter (m). The meter is the length equal to express an interval or a difference of temperature.

1650763.73 wavelengths in vacuum of the radiation In addition to the thermodynamic temperature

corresponding to the transition between the levels (symbol T) expressed in kelvins, use is also made of

2p10 and 5d5 of the krypton-86 atom [adopted by Celsius temperature (symbol t) defined, by the

11th CGPM 1960, Resolution 6]. equation t = T-To wl:!ere To = 273.15 K (freezing

5.1.2 Kilogram (kg). The kilogram is the unit of point of water, absolute). The Celsius temperature is

mass; it is equal to the mass of the international in general expressed in degrees Celsius (symbol °C).

prototype of the kilogram. [1st CGPM (1889) and The unit "degree Celsius" is thus equal to the unit

3rd CGPM (1901)] "kelvin" and is used in place of the kelvin for

expressing temperature intervals.

5.1.3 Second (s). The second is the duration of

9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding 5.1.6 Mole (mol). The mole is the amount of

to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of substance of a system which contains as many

the ground state of the cesium-133 atom. [13th elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012

CGPM (1967), Resolution 1] kilogram of carbon 12. When the mole is used, the

elementary entities must be specified and may be

5.1.4 Ampere (A). The ampere is that constant atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or

electric current which, if maintained in two straight specified groups of such particles. [14th CGPM

parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible (1971 ), Resolution 3]

circular cross-section, and placed 1 meter apart in

5.1.7 Candela (cct). The candela is the luminous

vacuum, would produce between these conductors a

intensity in the perpendicular direction, of a surface

force equal to 2x10-7 newton per meter of length.

of 1/600 000 square meter of a black body at the

[9th CGPM (1948), Resolution 2)

temperature of freezing platinum under a pressure

5.1.5 Kelvin (K). The kelvin is a unit of of 101 325 newtons per square meter. [13th CGPM

thermodynamic temperature and is equal to 1/273.16 (1967), Resolution 5]

7

AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

5.2 Dimensionless Derived Units. 6.2 Tolerances. Table 6-1 lists tolerance values to be

specified in conjunction with new millimeter dimen-

5.2.1 Radian (rad). The radian is the plane angle sions. The table shows the inch equivalent

between two radii of a circle which cut off on the

circumference an arc equal in length to the radius. '!able 6-1

See Fig 5-1. [ISO Recommendation R 31, Part 1, Preferred Metric Tolerances and their

Second Edition, December 1965] Inch Equivalent

5.2.2 Steradian (sr). The steradian is the solid angle Inch Inch

which, having its vertex in the center of a sphere, cuts mm * Equivalent mm * Equivalent

off an area of the surface of the sphere equal to that 0.003 0 0.00012 0.2 0.008

of a square with sides oflength equal to the radius of 0.005 0 0.00020 0.25 0.010

the sphere. See Fig 5-1. [ISO Recommendation R 0.008 0 0.00031 0.3 0.012

31, Part 1, Second Edition, December 1965] 0.010 0.0004 0.4 0.016

0.013 0.0005 0.5 0.020

QUANTITY NAME PRONUNCIATION SYMBOL 0.015 0.000 6 0.6 0.024

PLANE radian 'rade an rad 0.020 0.000 8 0.8 0.031

ANGLE 0.025 0.0010 1 0.039

0.030 0.0012 1.3 0.051

0.035 0.0014 1.5 0.059

0.040 0.0016 2 0.079

0.045 0.0018 2.5 0.098

0.05 0.002 3 0.118

SOLID steradian Sta ra' de an sr 0.08 0.003 3.5 0.138

ANGLE

0.1 0.004 4 0.157

0.13 0.005 5 0.197

0.15 0.006 6 0.236

listed, be sure to show enough decimal places so

that the rounded inch equivalent reflects the

required accuracy. For example 0.07 mm should

Fig 5-1 Angular Units not be used because it converts to 0.003 inch the

same as 0.08 mm. However 0.070 converts to

0.0028 inch.

6. Preferred Dimensions and Tolerances 6.3 Non-millimeter Units. Preferred increments of

10, 5, or 1 can usually be used. Large calculated

6.1 Basic Millimeter Dimensions. Select new or quantities generally do not require specification of

unique millimeter dimensions using increments in more than 3 significant digits.

the order listed.

Example:

1st Choice - Ten millimeter increments Rounded to3

Calculated Value Significant Figures

2nd Choice - Five millimeter increments

3rd Choice - Whole millimeter increments 452.61 453

4th Choice - Half millimeter increments 4526.1 4530

(smallest division on shop scales) 45261 45300

5th Choice - Select as required to express It must be remembered that these are guides and

precision fits or established inch sizes some applications may require greater accuracy than

NOTE: Commercial items available as the general recommendation.

established stock sizes may dictate other basic 6.3.1 Kilopascal (kPa). A unit used for measure-

dimensions. ment of pressure. A kilopascal is a small unit and

8

Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

pressure values in this unit can normally be rounded 6.3.S Newton and kilonewton (N and kN). The units

more than most other non-millimeter units. used to measure force. Values can generally be

rounded as follows:

kPa Values Specify to

N or kN Values Specify to

over incl nearest

over incl nearest

0 500 5 0 50 1

500 1000 10 50 250 5

250 500 10

1000 5000 50 500 1000 50

5000 10000 100

10000 50000 500 6.3.6 Newton-meter (N•m). The unit used to

50000 100 000 1000 measure torque. Values can generally be rounded as

follows:

6.3.2 Megapascal (MPa). A unit used to measure N•m Values Specify to

material stress. Recommended rounding for values over incl nearest

are listed below: 0 5 0.2

5 10 0.5

MPa Values Specify to 10 30 1

over incl nearest 30 60 2

60 125 5

0 5 0.05 125 250 10

5 10 0.1 250 500 20

10 50 0.5 500 1400 50

50 100 1 1400 and up 100

100 500 5 6.3.7 Liter (L). The unit to measure volumes.

500 1000 10 Values can generally be rounded as indicated below:

1000 5 000 50

L Values Specify to

6.3.3 Degree Celsius ( 0 C). A unit used to measure over incl nearest

temperature. Values can generally be rounded 0 10 0.1

according to the table below. The symbol for 10 50 1

identifying degrees Celsius is O C. When specifying a 50 250 5

temperature and a tolerance, show 20°C±2°C, not 250 and up 10

20° ±2°C. 6.3.8 Cubic centimeter (cm3). The unit used to

°CValues Specify to measure small volumes. Values can generally be

over incl nearest rounded as follows:

cm3 Values Specify to

50 1 over incl nearest

50 100 5

100 and up 10 0 100 1

100 500 5

6.3.4 Kilogram and Megagram (kg and Mg). The

500 and up 10

units used to measure mass. Values can usually be

rounded according to the following table: 6.3.9 Kilowatt (kW). The unit used to measure

power. Values can generally be rounded as indicated

kg or Mg Values Specify to below:

over incl nearest

kW Values Specify to

0 3 0.25 over incl nearest

3 5 0.5

5 50 1 0 50 1

50 250 5 50 150 5

250 500 10 150 500 10

500 and up 50 500 and up 50

9

AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

7. Conversion - Non-metric to Metric 7.3.2 Round Off Accura~ When the millimeter

value is rounded off, a small difference may exist

7.1 Application. This Section provides guidance for

between the millimeter value and the inch value

converting dimensions and tolerances in standards

which was converted, depending on the number of

from non-metric units to metric units in accordance

decimal places retained. Table 7-1 shows the

with SI.

maximum difference that can occur. The difference

7.2 lnterchangeabili~ Conversions of non-critical in the maximum or minimum limit of a bilateral or

dimensions may be rounded to ideal metric units as

unilateral dimension is twice that possible for the

long as functional interchangeability is retained.

maximum or minimum limit of a limit dimension

Good judgment is required in this area and consider-

because both the dimension and tolerance are

ation must also be given to the round off effect on

existing tooling, gauging, patterns, and dies. converted individually and each may have a rounding

difference. The maximum difference rarely occurs in

Example:

both the dimension and tolerance at the same time

(1) Use standard metric hole sizes de- and in many cases the differences in the conversions

fined in Metric Standards rather than direct of the dimension and tolerance are in opposite

conversions of inch sizes. Consideration of directions and cancel out.

existing tooling and part interchangeability

may require direct conversion in a few 7.4. Conversion - Inch to Millimeter Dimensions.

instances.

Table 7-1

(2) Dimensions that are normally mea-

Possible Difference Due to Rounding

sured with shop scales are rounded to whole

and half millimeter. For dimensions such as Maximum Difference mm (inch)

hole and thread depths, use the practical di- No. of Decimal Bilateral or

mensions shown in metric standards instead Places in Unilateral Limit

Rounded mm Toleranced Dimensions

of direct conversions if functional inter- Dimensions Dimensions

changeability is not affected

4 0.0001 0.00005

(3) Specify metric material sizes when the (0.000 004) (0.000 002)

design permits.

3 0.001 0.000 5

(4) Round non-critical dimensions such (0.000 04) (0.000 02)

as casting and forging outline to whole and

half millimeters. 2 0.01 0.005

(0.000 4) (0.000 2)

7.3 Round Off Practice.

7.3.1 Practice. Round all decimal values as shown 1 0.1 0.05

below: (0.004) (0.002)

dropped is: retained is: Examples

7.4.1 Toleranced Dimensions. The total tolerance

5 or less unchanged 1.500 49-1.500 applied to an inch dimension shall be the basis for

morethan5 increased by 1 1.500 61-1.501 rounding the converted millimeter values of the

dimension and tolerance. The number of decimal

5 followed unchanged 1.502 50-1.502

places to be retained in the conversion based on total

only if even

tolerance is shown in Table 7- 2. Total tolerance is

by zeros increased 1.501 50-1.502 the difference between the maximum and minimum

by 1 if odd limits of size.

10

Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

135.7376mm

Tolerance Specified Inch Total

(2) +0.012 inches x 25.4 mm/inch

Method Dimension Tolerance

= +0.3048mm

Bilateral 6.235 ± 0.005 0.010 (3) -0.003 inches x 25.4 mm/inch =

Unilateral 0.750 +0.000 0.005

-0.005 -0.0762mm

Limit dim. 0.626 5 0.0005 (4) Combining 1,2, and 3

0.626 0 = 135.737 6 +0.3048 mm

-0.0762

(5) Rounding off on the basis of 0.015 inch

Table7-2 total tolerance and Table 7-2.

Round Off Practice for Toleranced = 135.74 +0.30 mm

Dimensions -0.08

Converted Value in DIFFERENCE 0.000 008 7 inch

At Least Less Than Millimeters shall 0.00022 mm

be rounded to !

,----,

0.000 00

0.000 4

0.004

0.0004

0.004

0.04

4 dee. places (0.000 1)

3 dee. places (0.001)

2 dee. places (0.01)

0.0015

inch

'

+0.038

mm

' 282.809

mm dim.

inch 0.000 012 6 inch mm

7.4.2 Conversion Examples. 0.00032 mm

illustrates graphically the total variation or

difference which can occur by this method.

Y---

DIFFERENCE 0.000 016 5 inch

0.00042 mm

+

Example:

To convert 11.134 2 ± 0.001 5 inches to Fig 7-1 Total Variation Incurred by

millimeters: Rounding Off

(1) 11.134 2 inches x 25.4 mm/inch

= 282.808 68 mm

(2) 0.001 5 inches x 25.4 mm/inch 7.4.2.3 Unilateral Tolerance Conversion. Unilateral

= ± 0.0381mm tolerance shall be rounded according to the magni-

(3) Combining 1 and 2 tude of the sum of the tolerance values.

282.808 68 ± 0.038 1 mm Example:

( 4) Rounding off, considering a total To convert 12.072 2 +0.0015 inches to milli-

tolerance of 0.003 inches and rounding -0.0000

according to Table 7- 2, the metric meters:

equivalent is 282.809 ± 0.038 mm. (1) 12.072 2 inches x 25.4 mm/inch

7.4.2.2 Unequal Bilateral Tolerance Conversion.

= 306.633 88 mm

(2) +0.001 5 inches x 25.4 mm/inch

Unequal bilateral tolerancing shall be rounded

according to the magnitude of the sum of the

= +0.0381mm

(3) Combining 1 and 2

tolerance values.

306.633 88 +0.0381 mm

Example: -0.0000

To convert 5.344 +0.012 inches to millimeters: ( 4) Rounding off, consider total tolerance

+0.003 of 0.0015 inches and then round according to

11

AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

Table 7-2. The metric equivalent is 306.634 7.5.4 Surface Texture. Convert microinch values to

+0.038 mm micrometer values.

-0.000

7.5.5 Hole Sizes. Convert in accordance with Metric

7.4.3 Limit Dimensions. Convert each limit Standards. There are some exceptions where existing

dimension and round off on the basis of the tooling cannot be economically changed.

difference of the two limit dimensions and Table

7-2. 7.5.6 Welding. Specify values in accordance with

metric welding standards.

7.4.4 Fractional Inch Dimensions. Conversions

shall be based on the decimal inch equivalent. 7.6 Conversion - Other Units.

Example: 7.6.1 Dimensions. These dimensions are normally

To convert 9/16 inches to millimeters: less critical and do not require the precise round off

9/16 = 0.562 5 accuracy associated with linear dimensions. They

0.562 5 X 25.4 = 14.287 5 mm describe things such as tank capacities, test

Rounding off millimeter value is based on tolerance pressures, material stress, heat treat temperatures,

and Table 7-2. tightening torques, and balancing, see Table 7-3.

7.4.5 Dimensions Without Tolerance. Basic, refer- 7.6.2 Rounding Off Methods. Most units can be

ence, gauge, minimum, and maximum dimensions rounded according to one of the four methods de-

shall be rounded off on the basis of intended preci- scribed below. The recommended method for com-

sion in accordance with good engineering judgment. monly used units and the conversion factors are

The maximum difference created by rounding off shown in Table 7-3.

must also be considered. Refer to Table 7-1.

Method 1. Round off to three significant digits.

7.4.5.1 Rounding Off Method. Round off the Examples with varied decimal point locations:

millimeter dimension to one less decimal place than 0.003 486 4 rounds to 0.003 49

the number of places required in inches to express

0.348 64 · rounds to 0.349

the required precision. Non-significant zeros may

3.486 4 rounds to 3.49

be omitted where the number of decimal places

34864 rounds to 34 900

retained would be two or less.

Method 2. Round off to one decimal place but retain

7.5 Dimensions of Specific Features. a maximum of 3 significant digits. Use zeros as

7.5.1 Thread Designations. The designation of a required. Examples with varied decimal point

thread is considered a name or nominal size and is locations:

recognized internationally. Use the same basic 0.003 486 4 rounds to 0.0

thread designation on all drawings, both inch and 0.348 64 rounds to 0.3

metric. Specify tap drill size, major diameter, and 3.486 4 rounds to 3.5

pitch diameter in millimeters using values from met- 34864 rounds to 34 900

ric standards as applicable.

Method 3. Round off to whole number but retain a

7.5.2 Angular Dimensions. No conversion is

maximum of 3 significant digits. Use zeros as

required.

required Examples with varied decimal point

7.5.3 Taper. Express taper. as a ratio by specifying the locations:

rate of taper on diameter to one unit of length. The 0.003 486 4 rounds to 0

diameter change for any length taper is easily found 0.348 64 rounds to 0

by multiplying the length times the rate of taper. For 3.486 4 rounds to 3

example, the common taper in customary units on an 34 864 rounds to 34 900

NPTF pipe thread is a 0.75 "inches on diameter per

foot". To specify as a ratio, divide 12 by 0.75 and Method 4. Round off according to the appropriate

specify as 1:16 taper on diameter. figure in Section 6.

12

Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

Table 7-3

Conversion of Other Units and Recommended Rounding Method

Unit by Metric Unit Method

psi (pressure) 6.895 kPa (kilopascal) 4

psi (stress) 0.006 895 MPa (megapascal) 4

~F (fahrenheit) (°F-32)(5/9) °C (Celsius) 4

°F (tolerance) 5/9 °C (tolerance) 4

lb (force) 4.448 N (newton) 4

oz (force) 0.278 N(newton) 2*

lb ft (torque) 1.356 N•m (newton meter) 4

lb in (torque) 0.113 N•m 4

oz in (balance) 0.7201 g•m (gram meter) 1

sq in 645.2 mm2 1

6.452 cm2 1

cu in 0.000016 39 m3 4

cuyd 0.764 6 m3 1

cu in 16.39 cm3 4

qt (quart) 0.946 3 L (liter) 4

gal (gallon) 3.785 L (liter) 4

lb (mass) 0.453 6 kg (kilogram) 4

oz (mass) 28.35 g (gram) 3

oz (liquid) 29.57 mL 2

lb (force)/in 0.1751 N/mm 2

in AGMA Standards, it shall mean metric module.

8.1 Metric Module. The metric module of a gear is a Modules 1 and above as listed in ISO 54 are shown in

number which designates the millimeters of pitch Table 8-1.

diameter per tooth.

8.4 Modules < 1. Modules with a value less than 1

8.2 Diametral Pitch. The diametral pitch of a gear is are listed in Table 8-1.

the number of gear teeth per unit of pitch diameter. 8.5 Conversion. Conversion from inch diametral

The inch diametral pitch of a gear is the number of pitch to metric module: Module = 25.4/(Inch

gear teeth per 25.4 millimeters of pitch diameter. Diametral Pitch).

13

AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

Metric Modules Column I. The three modules shown in Column III

should be avoided if possible.

Modules> 1

{ISO 54)

9. Multiples for Use in AGMA Standards

Modules

<l I II III

Table 9-1 includes multiples and derived units which

0.05 1 should be used in AGMA Standards. The Metric

1.125 Resource and Advisory Committee should be

0.06 1.25 advised of any terms which should be added to this

1.375 list, or revisions that should be made.

0.08 1.5

1.75

0.10 2

2.25

0.12 2.5

2.75

0.16 3 (3.25)

3.5

0.20 4 (3.75)

4.5

0.25 5

5.5

0.3 6 (6.5)

7

0.4 8

9

0.5 10

11

0.6 12

14

0.7 16

18

0.8 20

22

0.9 25

28

32

36

40

45

50

14

Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

Table9-1

Multiples and Conversion Factors for Use in AGMA Standards

MULTIPLY: BY TO GET BY: TO GET:

OR

MULTIPLY

SI or Conversion Conversion SI or Computer

Application Non-metric

Other Unit Factor Factor Other Unit Symbol§

Unit

ANGULAR

Standard unit use degree ( 0 ) in both systems of measurement DEG

crank angle use radian (rad) in both systems of measurement RAD

AREA

Standard unit square tnillimeter(mrn2) X 0.001 550 00 = sqin X 645.160 = mm 2 MM2

clutch and square centimeter(crn2) X 0.155 000 = sqin X 6.45160 = cm2 CM2

brake lining

surface contact square centimeter(crn2) X 0.155 000 = sqin X 6.45160 =cm2 CM2

radiator area square meter (m2) X 10.763 9 = sqft X 0.092 903 0 =m2 M2

standard unit newton meter (N•m) X 0.737 562 = lbft X 1.355 82 = N•m N.M

standard unit newton meter (N•m) X 8.850 75 =!bin X 0.112985 =N•m N.M

balance gram meter (g•m) X 1.388 74 =ozin X 0.720078 = g•m G.M

small springs millinewton meter X 0.141612 =ozin X 7.06155 = mN•m MN.M

(mN•m)

battery rating use minute (min) in both systems of measurement

(reserve capacity)

dielectric volt per millimeter X 0.0254000 = V/mil X 39.3701 =V/mm V/MM

strength (V/mm)

electrical use microfarad (µF) in both systems of measurement UF

capacitance

electric current use ampere (A) in both systems of measurement A

electrical charge use coulomb (C) in both systems of measurement C

stored

electrical use henry (H) in both systems of measurement H

inductance

electrical use ohm (Q) in both systems of measurement OHM

resistance

electrical use volt (V) in both systems of measurement V

potential

electrical system use volt(V) in both systems of measurement V

resistance

linear electrical ohm per meter(Q/m) X 0.304800 = Q/ft X 3.28084 =Q/m OHM/M

radio frequency use decibel (dB) in both systems of measurement DB

(interference suppression)

ENERGY*

work joule (J) X 0.737 562 = ftlb X 1.355 82 =J J

heat joule (J) X 0.000 947 817 =Btu X 1055.06 =J J

heat radiation watt per square meter X 0.316998 = Btu/sq ft•h X 3.15459 =W/m2 W/M2

15

AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

Multiples and Conversion Factors for Use in AGMA Standards

MULTIPLY: BY TOGET BY: TO GET:

OR

MULTIPLY

SI or Conversion Conversion SI or Computer

Application Non-metric

Other Unit Factor Factor Other Unit Symbol§

Unit

FLOW-CONSUMPTION

air flow cubic meter per minute X 35.3147 = cuft/min X 0.028 316 8 = rn3/min M3/MIN

(rn3/min)

airflow kilogram per minute X 2.20462 = lb/min X 0.453 592 = kg/min KG/MIN

(kg/min)

engine air flow kilogram per hour X 2.20462 = lb/h X 0.453592 = kg/h KG/HR

(kg/h)

fan air flow cubic meter per minute X 35.314 7 = cu ft/min X 0.028 3168 = m 3/min M3/MIN

(m3/min)

oil flow liter per minute (Umin) X 0.264172 = gal/min X 3.785 41 = L/min L/MIN

oil flow kilogram per minute X 2.20462 = lb/min X 0.453592 = kg/min KG/MIN

(kg/min)

pump flow liter per minute (L/min) X 0.264172 = gal/min X 3.78541 = L/min UMIN

capacity

pump or motor cubic centimeter per rev X 0.061023 7 = cu in/rev X 16.3871 = cm3/rev CM3/REV

displacement (cm3/rev)

specific oil gram per kilowatt hour X 0.001 643 99 = lb/hp•h X 608.277 = g/(kW•h) G/(KW.HR)

consumption g/(kW•h)

water flow liter per minute (Umin) X 0.264172 = gal/min X 3.785 41 = L/min L/MIN

water flow kilogram per minute X 2.20462 = lb/min X 0.453 592 = kg/min KG/MIN

(kg/min)

FORCE

standard unit newton (N) X 0.224809 =lb X 4.448 22 =N N

or newton (N) X 0.101972 = kilopond(kp) X 9.80665 =N N

beam load newton per meter (N/m) X 0.068 5218 = lb/ft X 14.593 9 = Nim NIM

per length

beam load per newton per meter (N/m) X 0.005 710 15 = lbfm X 175. 127 = N/m NIM

length

bearing load dekanewton (daN) X 2.248 09 = lb X 0.444 822 = daN DAN

spring rate linear newton per millimeter X 5.71015 = lb/in X 0.175127 =N/mm N/MM

(N/mm)

spring rate newton meter per rad X 0.737 562 = lb ft/rad X 1.355 82 = N•m/rad N.M/RAD

(torsional) (N•m/rad)

total piston kilonewton (kN) X 224.809 = lb X 0.004 448 22 =kN KN

FREQUENCY

sound frequency hertz(Hz) X 1.00000 =cps X 1.00000 =Hz HZ

system vibration hertz (Hz) X 1.00000 = cps X 1.00000 =Hz HZ

HARDNESS - - use the same units in both

systems of measurement

LENGTH

standard unit millimeter (mm) X 0.0393701 =in X 25.4000 =mm MM

altitude meter (m) x3.28084 = ft X 0.304800 =m M

distance kilometer (km) x0.621371 =mile X 1.609344 =km KM

filter rating micrometer (µm) X 1.00000 = micron X 1.00000 =µm UM

paint & coating micrometer (µm) X 0.0393701 =mil X 25.4000 =µm UM

thickness

.,

16

Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

Multiples and Conversion Factors for Use in AGMA Standards

MULTIPLY: BY TO GET BY: TO GET:

OR

MULTIPLY

Application SI or Conversion Non-metric Conversion SI or Computer

Other Unit Factor Unit Factor Other Unit Symbol§

LENGTH (cont)

shipping meter (m) x3.28084 = ft X 0.304800 =m M

dimensions

surface texture micrometer (µm) X 39.3701 = µin X 0.0254000 =µm UM

vibration millimeter (mm) X 0.0393701 =in X 25.4000 =mm MM

amplitude

(see paragraph 2.5)

standard unit kilogram (kg) X 2.20462 = lb X 0.453 592 =kg KG

(mass)

standard unit kilogram per cubic meter X 0.0624280 = lb/cu ft X 16.018 5 = kg/m 3 KG/M3

(density) (kgtm3)

standard unit kilogram per cubic meter xo.ooo 036 1213 = lb/cu in X 27 679.9 = kgtm3 KG/M3

(density) (kg/m3)

coating for kilogram per X 0.001 422 33 = lb/sq in X 703.070 =( kg/m 2) KG/M2

insulation square meter kg/m2

(protection & sound dampening)

dust grams per cubic meter X 0.028 316 8 = g/cu ft X 35.314 7 = g/m3 G/M3

concentration (gtm3)

specific mass of kilogram per kilowatt X 1.643 99 = lb/hp X 0.608 277 = kg/kW KG/KW

engine or (kg/kW)

vehicle truck rating metric ton (t) X 1.10231 = ton X 0.907 = kg TNE

vehicle mass kilogram (kg) X 2.20462 =lb X 0.453 592 = kg KG

(weight)

MECHANICS

dynamic millipascal second X 1.000 00 =cP X 1.00000 = mPa•s MPA.S

viscosity (mPa•s)

kinematic square millimeter X 1.00000 = cSt X 1.00000 = mm 2/s MM2/S

viscosity per second (mm2/s)

absolute millipascal second X 0.145 038 = microreyn X 6.894 76 = mPa•s MPA.S

viscosity (mPa•s)

gears module (mod) MOD

see para. 8

impact strength joule (J) X 0.737562 = ftlb X 1.355 82 =j J

modulus of megapascal (MPa) X 145.038 = psi X 0.006 894 76 =MPa MAPA

elasticity

moment of newton meter second X 8.85075 = lb in•s2 X 0.112985 = N•m•s2 N.M.S2

inertia** squared (N•m•s2)

moment of meter4 (m4) X 2402510. = in4 x0.000000416231= m4 M4

section

moment of centimeter" (cm4) X 0.024 025 10 = in4 X 41.6231 =cm4 CM4

section

moment of millimeter" (mm4) X 0.000 002 402 = in4 x416231. =mm4 MM4

510

section

section modulus millimeter3 (mm3) xo.ooo 061023 7 = in3 X 16 387.1 =mm3 MM3

17

AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

Multiples and Conversion Factors for Use in AGMA Standards

OR

MULTIPLY

SI or Conversion Conversion SI or Computer

Application Non-metric

Other Unit Factor Factor Other Unit Symbol§

Unit

MECHANICS (cont)

spring newton second X 5.71015 =lbs/in X 0.175127 = N•s/mm N.S/MM

dampening per millimeter

(linear) (N•s/mm)

spring newton meter X 0.737562 = lb ft•s/rad X 1.355 82

=N•m• N.M.S/

dampening second per radian s/rad RAD

(torsional) (N•m•s/rad)

strain micrometer per X 1.00000 = µin/in X 1.00000 = µm/m UM/M

meter (µm/m)

POWERt

standard unit kilowatt (kW) X 1.34102 =HP X 0.745 700 =kW KW

power per piston kilowatt per square X 865.174 = HP/sq in X 0.001 155 84 = kW/mm2 KW/MM2

(area) millimeter (kW/mm2)

power per unit kilowatt per cubic X 21.975 4 = HP/cu in X 0.0455054 = kW/cm 3 KW/CM3

(displacement) centimeter ( kW/cm3)

power per unit kilowatt per liter (kW/L) X 0.021975 4 = HP/cu in X 45.5054 =kW/L kW/L

(displacement)

power per unit kilowatt per cubic meter X 0.037973 5 = HP/cu ft X 26.3341 = kW/m 3 KW/M3

volume) (kW/m3)

standard unit kilopascal (kPa):j: X 0.145 038 =psi X 6.894 76 = kPa KPA

(pressure)

standard unit megapascal x145.038 =psi X 0.006 894 76 =MPa MAPA

(stress) (MPa):j:

barometric kilopascal (kPa) X 0.296134 =in Hg X 3.37685 = kPa KPA

pressure (60°F)

fan static kilopascal (kPa) X4.018 6 = in water X 0.24884 = kPa KPA

pressure (60"F)

rubber firmness megapascal (MPa) Xl45.038 = (psi) X 0.006 894 76 =MPa MPA

sound pressure use decibel (dB) in both systems of measurement DB

level

vacuum kilopascal (kPa) X 0.296134 =in Hg X 3.376 85 =kPa KPA

(60°F)

vacuum kilopascal (kPa) X 4.018 6 = in water X 0.24884 =kPa KPA

(60"F)

TEMPERATURE

used in use kelvin (K) in both systems of measurement K

thermodynamics

other degree Celsius ( 0 q X 1.8 + 32 = "F -32/1.8 ="C DEGC

applications

18

Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

Multiples and Conversion Factors for Use in AGMA Standards

MULTIPLY: BY TOGET BY: TOGET:

OR

MULTIPLY

SI or Conversion Conversion SI or Computer

Application Non-metric

Other Unit Factor Factor Other Unit Symbol§

Unit

THERMODYNAMICS*

coefficient of per degree Celsius (I° C) X 0.555556 = per op X 1.8 =/ec /DEGC

expansion

fuel heat value kilojoule per liter (kJ/L) X 26.839 2 = Btu/cu ft X 0.0372590 = kJ/L KJ/L

(gaseous)

fuel heat value kilojoule per gram (kJ/g) X 429.923 = Btu/lb X 0.002 326 00 = kJ/g KJ/G

(liquid)

heat flux kilowatt per square meter X 316.998 = Btu/sq ft•h X 0.003 154 59 = kW/m 2 KW/M2

(kW/m2)

heat rejection kilowatt (kW) X 56.869 0 = Btu/min X 0.017 584 3 =kW KW

rate

heat transfer watt per square meter X 0.176110 = Btu/h•sq ft°F X 5.678 26 = W/(M 2.K) W/(M2.K)

kelvin W/(m2-K) (m2•K)

specific enthalpy joule per gram (J/g) X 0.429 923 = Btu/lb X 2.32600 = Jig J/G

specific entropy joule per gram X 0.238846 = Btu/lb°F X 4.18680 = J/(g•K) J/(G.K)

kelvin J/(g•K)

specific heat joule per kilogram X 0.000 238 846 = Btu/lb°F X 4186.80 = J/(kg•K) J/(KG.K)

kelvin J/(kg•K )

specific heat express as a ratio of heat x42.4072 = Btu/HP min X 0.0235809 = kW/kW KW/KW

rejection rejection to engine power

(kW/kW)

thermal square millimeter X 0.0387501 = sq ft/h X 25.806 4 = mm 2/s MM2/S

diffusivity per sec ( mm2/s)

thermal watt per meter kelvin X 6.933 47 = Btu/h•sq ft°F X 0.144 228 = W/(m•K) W/(M.K)

conductivity W/(m•K)

TORQUE

standard unit newton meter (N•m) X 0.737 562 = lbft X 1.355 82 = N•m N.M

standard unit newton meter (N•m) X 8.85075 = !bin X 0.112 985 = N•m N.M

small springs millinewton meter X 0.141612 = ozin X 7.06155 =mN•m MN.M

(mN•m)

standard unit meter per second squared X 3.28084 = ftls2 X 0.304800 = m1s2 M/S2

(acceleration) (mls2)

standard unit meter per second (mis) X 196.850 = ft/min X 0.005 080 00 =mis MIS

(velocity)

centrifuge meter per second squared X 0.101972 =g X 9.80665 = mls2 M/S2

(mls2)

power take off use revolution per minute (rpm) in both systems of measurement- - RPM

(velocity)

revolving use revolution per minute (rpm) in both systems of measurement - - RPM

unit drive velocity use revolution per minute (rpm) in both systems of measurement - - RPM

vehicle velocity kilometer per hour X 0.621371 =mph X 1.609 34 =km/h KM/HR

(km/h)

19

AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

Multiples and Conversion Factors for Use in AGMA Standards

MULTIPLY: BY TOGET BY: TO GET:

OR

MULTIPLY Conversion Computer

SI or Conversion SI or

Application Non-metric

Other Unit Factor Factor Other Unit Symbol§

Unit

VOLUME

standard unit cubic metet (m3) X 35.3147 = cuft X 0.0283168 =m3 M3

pump cubic centimeter (cm3) X 0.0610237 =cuin X 16.3871 =cm3 CM3

displacement

liquid (general) liter (L) X 0.264172 = gal X 3.78541 =L L

liter (L) X 1.05669 = quart X 0.946353 =L L

liter (L) X 2.11338 = pint X 0.473176 =L L

milliliter (mL) X 0.033814 =ozliq X 29.5735 =mL ML

+ Conversion factors based on 1 HP = 550 lb ft/s

:j: 1 Pa = 1 N/m2; 1 kPa = 1000 N/m2; 1 MPa = 106 N/m2 or 1 N/mm2; bar was formerly used to express pressure, I bar = I OOkPa or 1os

N/m2 (within IS0/TC60 the units ofN/mm2 are preferred over MPa)

§ These symbols are to be used where only limited character sets (such as "caps" only) are possible as on line printers

•• Kg•m2 is another unit which is also used for mass moment of inertia However, it is believed that with time (N•m•s2) will become the

preferred unit for moment of inertia

Standards 10.2 Metric Gear Performance and Application

10.1 Metric Gear Geometry Symbols. Clause E.l of Symbols. Clauses E.2 and E.3 of AGMA 900-F96

AGMA 90,0-F96 lists gear geometry symbols lists gear performance and application symbols

typically used in metric standards such as ISO 701. which shall be used in new AGMA hard metric stan-

These symbols shall be used in new AGMA hard dards.

20

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

1500 KING STREET, ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA 22314

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