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AGMA 904-C96

(Revision of
AGMA 904-889)

Reaffirmed January 2017

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Metric Usage

AGMA INFORMATION SHEET


(This Information Sheet is NOT an AGMA Standard)

=·.-=
_
_ ~ · Reproduced By GLOBAL
ENGINEERING DOCUMENTS
_ffe.With The Pennission Of AGMA
=- Under Royalty Agreement
AGMA 904-C96

Contents
Page
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
1 Scope ................................................................... 1
2 SI Units ................................................................. 1
3 Multiples and Sub-multiples of SI Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4 Units Outside the International System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
5 Definitions of the SI Base Units and Dimensionless Derived Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
6 Preferred Dimensions and Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
7 Conversion - Non-metric to Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
8 Module System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
9 Multiples for Use in AGMA Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1o Gear Symbols for Use in Metric Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Figures
Figure 5-1 Angular Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Figure 7-1 Total Variation Incurred by Rounding Off .............................. 11
Tables
Table 2-1 Base Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Table 2-2 Dimensionless Derived Units ......................................... 1
Table 2-3 Examples of SI Units Derived from Base Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Table 2-4 Examples of SI Derived Units With Special Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Table 2-5 Examples of SI Units Derived From SI Units With Special Names . . . . . . . . . . 3
Table 3-1 SI Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Table 4-1 Other Units of Measurement Used with SI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Table 6-1 Preferred Metric Tolerances and their Inch Equivalent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Table 7-1 Possible Difference Due to Rounding ................................. 10
Table 7-2 Round Off Practice for Toleranced Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Table 7-3 Conversion of Other Units and Recommended Rounding Method . . . . . . . . . 13
Table 8-1 Metric Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Table 9-1 Multiples and Conversion Factors for Use in AGMA Standards . . . . . . . . . . . 15

iii
AGMA 904-C96

Foreword
[This foreword, footnotes, and appendices, if any, are provided for informational purposes only and should not
be construed as a part of American Gear Manufacturers Association Information Sheet 904-C96, Metric
Usage.]
In 1972, the AGMA Technical Division Executive Committee (TDEC) started the formation of a committee
referred to as the Metric Study Committee. The first meeting of this Metric Study Committee was on January
23, 1973. In March 1974, the AGMA Board of directors instructed its Technical Division to:
• Form a standing Metric Resource and Advisory Committee.
• Establish detailed procedures to effect a changeover, i.e., create a metric usage standard.
The first meeting of the Metric Resource and Advisory Committee was held on November 4, 1974. A proposed
AGMA Information Sheet, Guide for Use of SI (Metric) Units in Gearing, AGMA 600.XX was drafted over the
next years. On September 21, 1977, the Metric Resource and Advisory Committee changed the name of the
proposed standard 600.:XX to AGMA Standard for Metric Usage. The standard 600.01 was issued in March
1979.
On September 12, 1979, the first draft of Procedural Guidelines for Metrication of AGMA Standards was
written. This document was released on June 4, 1980 as Policy and Practice guide Number 040.17,
Procedure for the Metrication of AGMA Standards. The Guidelines for Metrication were approved by the
AGMA Board on November 2, 1977.
In 1988, the TDEC converted this revision to an Information Sheet and assigned compliance review to AGMA
Headquarters Staff. In 1996, it was uptdated and the symbols tables 10.1 and 10.2 were removed, which can
be found in AGMA 900-F96.
This Information Sheet is to be used as an editorial guide when preparing the AGMA metric standards and
information sheets. It describes the SI system of units and the multiples and sub-multiples to be used in
AGMA standards.
The guidelines for metrication are as follows:
(1} The intent of the process is conversion to SI units, not the revision of content.
(2) The purpose of these guidelines is to assure uniformity of metric terms and abbreviations.
(3) Generally, metrication will be performed by the responsible committee. Exception will be at the
discretion of the TDEC.
(4) There shall be two methods of generating metric standards, the choice of which shall be at the
discretion of the originating committee. All standards on which revision is begun after January 1, 1991 shall be
prepared in accordance with one of the two following methods.
(a) Standards may be developed in hard metric only.
(b) Parallel standards, in which both hard conversion SI and conventional inch versions of standards will
be available for the same purpose.
(5) Metrication shall conform to AGMA 904-C96 which references ANSI/IEEE 268-1982 and ISO 1000.
(6) Preparation of a hard metric document shall be approved by the TDEC prior to starting work.
(7) The documents shall be reviewed for conformance to the Information Sheet concurrently with
committee comment.
This addition, AGMA 904-C96, was approved by the TDEC on October 28, 1996.
Suggestions for the improvement of this information sheet will be welcome. They should be sent to the
American Gear Manufacturers Association, 1500 King Street, Suite 201, Alexandria, Virginia, 22314.

iv
AGMA 904-C96

PERSONNEL of the AGMA Committee for Metric Resource and Advisory


Committee (at the time of AGMA 600.01 development)

J.M. Lange, Chairman (American Pfauter)


0. Thurman, Vice Chairman (Caterpillar)

ACTIVE MEMBERS

W. A. Bradley (Consultant)
M. R. Chaplin (Contour Hardening)
P. M. Dean, Jr. (Honorary Member)
R. Green (Eaton/Transmission Division)
L. J. Smith (Invincible Gear)

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS

L. V. Campbell (Spar Aerospace)


J. T. Cook (Power Tech International, Inc.)
E. H. Diedrich (Rockwell)
C. R. Firestone (Reliance Electric/Reeves)
W. H. Heller (Peerless-Winsmith)
T. J. Krenzer (Gleason)
J. R. Kuehnel (Rockwell)
T. Meyer {Harnischfeger)
C. E. Overton (Overton Gear)
J. R. Partridge (Lufkin Industries)
A. E. Phillips (Emerson Power Transmission/Browning)
G. R. Schwartz (Power Tech International, Inc.)
H. A. Swierczynski (Fellows)
G. Sykes (Falk)
J. D. Szynkiewicz (Farrel)
J. 0. Tennies (Renold)
H. Wedler (ferry Corporation)

V
AGMA 904-C96

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vi
Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

I.Scope 2.5 Mass and Force Units. The principal departure


of SI from the previous gravimetric form of Metric
This editorial manual describes the SI system of units Engineering Units is the separate and distinct units
to be used in AGMA standards. Where necessary, for mass and force. In previous Metric Systems, the
specialized metric dimensions, tolerances and units kilogram was used as both a force and mass unit.
are used which are specifically suited to the gear Technically, units should have been labeled as
industry and may not be part of the referenced kilogram-force or kilogram-mass but it was com-
documents. mon practice to ignore such labeling, which often re-
sulted in confusion as to whether mass or force was
1.1 Historical Background. The 11th Conference
intended. The same practice was true in the non-
Generale des Poids et Mesures (1960) (CGPM), by
metricinch-pound system where the pound was also
its Resolution 12, adopted the name International
used as both a mass or force unit and rarely labeled.
System of Units, with the international abbreviation
In SI, the kilogram is restricted to the unit of mass.
SI, for this practical system of units of measurement
The newton is the unit of force and should be used in
and laid down rules for the prefixes, the derived and
place of kilogram-force. Likewise, the newton,
dimensionless derived units and other matters, thus
instead of kilogram-force, should be used in com-
establishing a comprehensive specification for units
bination units which include force.
of measurement. The expressions SI Units, SI Pre-
fixes and Dimensionless Derived Units as used in this Example:
Information Sheet, are in accordance with the metric
Pressure or Stress (N/m2 = Pa),
practices in ANSI/IEEE Std. 268-1982.
Energy (N•m = J), and Power
(N•m/s = m2kg•s-3= W).

2. SI Units
Table2-1
2.1 Classes of Units. SI units are divided into three Base Units
classes:
(1) Base units Name of
Quantity Base SI Unit Symbol
(2) Derived units
(3) Dimensionless derived units length meter m
mass kilogram kg
2.2 Base Units. SI consists of seven base units shown time second s
with their symbols in Table 2-1. Refer to 5.1.1 electric current ampere A
through 5.1.7 for definitions of base units. thermodynamic
temperature* kelvin K
2.3 Dimensionless Derived Units. Dimensionless amount of substance mole mol
derived units are shown in Table 2-2. Refer to 5.2.1 luminous intensity candela cd
and 5.2.2 for definitions of dimensionless derived
units. * Temperature is in general expressed in degrees
Celsius ( 0 C). The unit degree Celsius is equal to the
2.4 Derived Units. Derived units are expressed alge-
unit kelvin.
braically in terms of base, or dimensionless derived
units, or both by means of the mathematical symbols Table2-2
of multiplication and division. Several derived units Dimensionless Derived Units
have been given special names and symbols which
may themselves be used to express other derived Name of
Quantity Symbol
units in a simpler way than in terms of the base units. SI Unit

Derived units may therefore be classified under plane angle radian rad
three headings. Examples of them are given in Tables solid angle steradian sr
2-3, 2-4 and 2-5.

1
AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

Table2-3
Examples of SI Units Derived from Base Units
Name of SI Symbol
Quantity Derived Unit
area square meter m2
volume cubic meter m3
speed, velocity meter per second m/S
acceleration meter per second squared m/s2
angular velocity radian per second rad/s
angular acceleration radian per second squared rad/s2
wavenumber 1 per meter m-1
density, mass density kilogram per cubic meter kg/m 3
Concentration (of amount of substance) mole per cubic meter mol/m3
activity (radioactive) 1 per second s-1
specific volume cubic meter per kilogram m3/kg
luminance candela per square meter cd/m2

Table2-4
Examples of SI Derived Units With Special Names
Special Expression in Terms Expression in Terms
Quantity Symbol of Other SI Units
Name of SI Base Units
frequency hertz Hz s-I
force newton N m•kg•s-2
pressure pascal* Pa N/m2 m-I •kg•s-2
energy, work, quantity of heat joule J N•m m 2•kg•s-2
power, radiant flux watt w J/s m2•kg•s-3
quantity of electricity,
electric charge, coulomb C A•s
electric potential, potential difference,
electromotive force volt V W/A m 2•kg•s-3•A-1
capacitance farad F CN m-2•kg-l•s4•A2
electric resistance ohm Q V/A m2•kg•s-3•A-2
conductance siemens s A/V m-2•kg-l•s3•A2
magnetic flux weber Wb V•s m2•kg•s-2•A-1
magnetic flux density tesla T Wb/m2 kg•s-2•A-l
inductance henry H Wb/A m2•kg•s-2•A-2
luminous flux lumen Im cd•sr
illuminance lux Ix m- 2•cd•sr

* Bar was formerly used to express pressure: 1 bar = lOOkPa or lCP N/m2

2
Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

Table2-5
Examples of SI Units Derived From SI Units With Special Names

SI Unit Expression in Terms


Quantity Name Symbol of SI Base Units

dynamic viscosity pascal second Pa•s m-1 •kg•s-1


moment of force newton meter N•m m2•kg•s-2
surface tension newton per meter Nim kg•s-2
heat flux density, irradiance watt per square meter Wlm2 kg•s-3
heat capacity, entropy joule per kelvin J/K m2•kg•s-2•K-1
specific heat capacity, specific entropy joule per kilogram kelvin Jl(kg•K) m2•s-2•K-1
specific energy joule per kilogram J/kg m2•s-2
thermal conductivity watt per meter kelvin W/(m•K) m•kg•s-3•K- 1
energy density joule per cubic meter Jlm3 m-l·~·s-2
electric field strength volt per meter Vim m•kg•A- 1•s-3
electric charge density coulomb per cubic meter C/m3 m-3•A•s
electric flux density coulomb per square meter C/m2 m-2•A•s
permittivity farad per meter Flm m-3.kg-l•A2•s-4
current density ampere per square meter A/m2
magnetic field strength ampere per meter Alm
permeability henry per meter Him m•kg•A- 2•s- 2
molar energy joule per mole J/mol m 2•kg•s-2•mo1- 1
molar entropy, molar heat capacity joule per mole kelvin Jl(mol•K) m 2•kg•s-2•K- 1•mol- 1
radiant intensity watt per steradian Wlsr m2•kg•s-3•sr- 1
radiance watt per square meter
steradian W/m2•sr kg•s- 3•sr- 1

2.5.1 Weight. Considerable confusion exists in the mass and to provide clarity in these uses for the
use of the term weight as quantity to mean either general public we should specify mass followed by
gravitational force or mass. In commercial and weight in parenthesis and specify the value in grams
everyday use, the term weight nearly always means or kilograms. Example: Machine mass (weight)
mass; thus, when one speaks of a person's weight, the 1 500 kilograms.
quantity referred to is mass.
2.5.2 Mass. In engineering calculations involving
In science and technology, the term weight of a body structures, vehicles, or machines on the surface of the
has usually meant the force that if applied to the body earth, the mass in kilograms is multiplied by 9.8 to
would give it an acceleration equal to the local obtain the approximate force of gravity in newtons.
acceleration of free fall. (The force of gravity acting on a mass of 1 kilogram
varies from about 9.77 newtons to 9.83 newtons in
Because of the dual use of the term weight as both a various parts of the world).
force and a mass, this term should be avoided in
technical practice. 2.6 Rules for Writing SI Symbols.
To ensure complete understanding we should use the 2.6.1 SI Symbols (see Table 9-1 for SI computer
terms mass and force in place of weight. symbols):
It should be understood that where the term weight is (1) Shall be printed in roman (upright) type re-
used in machine specifications, etc., it has meant gardless of the type used in the rest of the text

3
AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

(2) Shall be written in lower-case letters except NOTE: A dot shall not be used as the
that the first letter is written in upper case when the multiplication symbol in conjunction with
name of the unit is derived from a proper name, and numerals.
the symbol for liter is a capital L. See Tables 2-1 Example:
through 2-5. Examples: m meter, s second, A am-
pere, Wb weber
234 x 126.7, not 234•126.7
(3) Shall remain unaltered in the plural 2.7.2 Division. A slash ( oblique stroke /), a
(4) Shall be written without a final full stop (pe- horizontal line, or negative powers may be used to
riod) except at the end of a sentence express a derived unit formed from others by
(5) Shall be placed after the complete numerical division.
value in the expression for a quantity, leaving a space Example:
between the numerical value and the first letter of
the symbol
Example: 32 lm, not 321m, for 32 lumens 2.7.2.1 Use of Parenthesis and Negative Exponents.
( 6) Symbols are the same in all languages The slash must not be repeated in the same
expression. Ambiguity is avoided by parenthesis or
2.6.2 Practice. It is recommended that the symbols by the use of negative powers.
for SI units, and not written words, be used in written
Examples:
text; e.g., 16 m2, not 16 square meters. Spelled-out
unit names and prefixes are treated as common m/s2 or ms- 2, but not m/s/s;
nouns in English. Thus, the first letter of a unit name m•kg/(s3•A) or m•kg•s-3•A-1 , but not
is not capitalized except at the beginning of a m•kg/s3/A
sentence or in capitalized material such as a title. An 2.7.2.2 Use of"Per". When names of units are used,
exception to this is degree Celsius. The unit name is division is indicated by the word "per", and not the
degree and modified by the adjective Celsius and is slash.
written degree Celsius.
Example:

In text, a symbol should not be used to start a 50 kilograms per square meter,
sentence. not 50 kilograms/square meter.
2.7.3 Scalar Multiplier. The scalar multiplier dot or
2.7 Units Formed by Multiplication and Division. a slash must be used when the unit symbols m (meter)
and T (tesla) are followed by other unit symbols (ex-
2.7.1 Multiplication. The product of two or more cept kg).
units in symbolic form can be indicated by a dot. In
Examples:
the international recommendation the dot may be
dispensed with when there is no risk of confusion Volt meter second may be written V •m•s
with any other symbol. The dot may be placed on the (preferred), or Vm•s, but not V•ms, which
line if the preferred position cannot be produced as means volt millisecond;
on a computer printout, or an asterisk may be used. Volt meter per second may be written
V•m•s- 1 (preferred), Vm•s-1 or Vm/s, but
Examples: not V•ms- 1, vms-1 or V/ms, which means
volt per millisecond
for newton meter; N•m or N.m or N*m, but
not mN, the symbol for millinewton:
3. Multiples and Sub-multiples of SI Units
for meter per second; m/s or m•s-lor m•s-1,
but not ms- 1, the symbol for one per 3.1 SI Prefixes. The prefixes given in Table 3-1 and
millisecond their symbols are used to form names and symbols of

4
Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

decimal multiples and sub-multiples of the SI units. 3.1.2 Unit Symbol. The term "unit symbol" means a
Prefix symbols are shown without spacing between symbol for a base unit, a derived unit with a special
the prefix symbol and the unit symbol. The prefix name or a dimensionless derived unit. For example,
name is attached directly to the unit name. the "unit symbol" for power is W (watt); kW
(kilowatt) is not a unit symbol because it is a multiple
3.1.1 SI Prefixes Symbols. The symbol for a prefix is of the unit.
combined with the unit symbol to form a new symbol
3.1.3 Exceptions. The name of the base unit for
which can be provided with a positive or negative ex-
mass, the kilogram, is the only one containing a
ponent. The exponent indicates that the multiple or
sub-multiple of the unit is raised to the power ex- prefix. The names of the decimal multiples and
sub-multiples are the word gram and words formed
pressed by the exponent. Compound units may be
by adding the prefixes to the word gram.
expressed by combining this new symbol with other
unit symbols. Examples:

Examples: mg (milligram), not µkg (microkilogram);


Mg (megagram), not kkg (kilokilogram)
1 cm3 = 1 (cm)3 = (10-2m)3 = 10-6m3
1 µs-1 = I (µs)-1 = (lo-6s)-1 = 1a6s-1 3.2 Selection of Multiples, Prefixes and Exponents.
1 mm 2/s = 1 (mm)2/s = (10-3m)2/s = rn-6mZ.s- 1 The choice of the appropriate multiple ( decimal
multiple or sub-multiple) of an SI unit is governed
NOTE: Compound prefixes should not be used. by convenience, the multiple chosen for a particular
application being the one which will lead to
Example: numerical values within a practical range. See
Write nm (nanometer), not mµm Section 9 for multiples approved for use in AGMA
( millimicrometer) Standards.

Table3-1
SI Prefixes
SI Factor by which
Symbol
Prefixes Unit is Multiplied
exa E 1018 = 1 000 000 000 000 000 000
peta p 1015 = 1 000 000 000 000 000
tera T 1012 = 1 000 000 000 000
giga G 109 = 1 000 000 000
*mega M 1()6 = 1000000
*kilo k u>3 = 1000
hecto h 102 = 100
deka da 10 = 10
deci d 10-1 = 0.1
*centi C 10-2 = 0.01
*milli m 10-3 = 0.001
*micro µ 10-6 = 0.000 001
nano n 10-9 = 0.000 000 001
pico p 10-12 = 0.000 000 000 001
femto f 10-15 = 0.000 000 000 000 001
atto a 10-18 = 0.000 000 000 000 000 001

* preferred prefixes

5
AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

3.2.1 Selection of Multiples. The multiple can compound SI unit. The prefix should preferably be
usually be chosen so that the numerical values will be attached to the unit in the numerator except when
between 0.1 and 1 000. the base unit kilogram appears in the denominator.
Examples: Examples:
1.2 x 1<>4N can be written as 12 kN V/m, not mV/mm; MJ/kg, not kJ/g
0.003 94m can be written as 3.94 mm
can be written as 1.401 kPa
3.2.3 Selection of Submultiples and Exponents.
1401 Pa
Fewer errors will be made in calculations if prefixes
3.lx 10- 8s can be written as 31 ns
are replaced by powers of 10.
However, in a table of values for the same quantity or
in a discussion of such values within a given context, Example:
the same multiple for all items should be used, even mg•cm2/ns = (10-6kg) X (10- 4m2)/10-9s
when some of the numerical values will be outside the = 10-11cg.m2s-1
range 0.1 to 1000. For certain quantities in particular
applications, the same multiple is customarily used
even though this means exceeding the range of0.1 to 4. Units Outside the International System
1 000. For example; the millimeter is used for all
linear dimensions on Mechanical Engineering 4.1 Units Used with SI. These units are given in
Drawings; the kilopascal is used for all values of Table 4-1. The prefixes given in Table 3-1 may be
attached to many of the units given in Table 4-1.
pressure.
3.2.2 Selection of Prefix. It is recommended that Example:
only one prefix be used in forming a multiple of a milliliter, mL; megapascal, MPa

Table4-1
Other Units of Measurement Used with SI

Quantity/Name Symbol Value in SI Units

time
minute min 1 min= 60 s
hour h lh=3600s=60min
day d ld=86400s=24h
plane angle
0 1)
degree!) 1° = (n/180) rad
minute , 1)
1' = (~/10 800) rad= (1/60)°
second ,, 1)
1" = (n/648 000) rad = (1/60)'
capacity Iiter2) L 1L = 1 dm3 = 10-3m3
temperature
degree Celsius3) oc4) 5) =
an interval of 1°C 1 K
by definition 0°C = 273.15 K
mass
metric ton6) t lt=lOOOkg=lMg
pressure
pascal Pa lPa= N/m2
pressure
standard atmosphere atm 1 atm = 101.325 kPa

1) Decimal degree is preferred, but degrees, minutes, and seconds may be used where required.

6
Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

Table 4-1 Notes (cont)


2) The CGPM in October 1979 approved Land I as alternative symbols for the liter. Since the letter symbol I
can easily be confused with the numeral 1, only the symbol Lis recommended for USA use. Use of the script,
t as a symbol for liter is discouraged.
3 The Celsius temperature scale (previously called centigrade, but renamed to avoid confusion with
"centigrade" associated with angular measure) is the commonly used scale except for certain scientific and
technological purposes where the thermodynamic temperature scale is preferred Note the use of upper
case C for Celsius.
4) No space is left between these symbols and the last digit of a number.
5) °C is the symbol for degree Celsius (not 0 ) . For example 38-54°C not 38°-54°C.
6) Metric ton is the common name for the SI unit megagram (Mg) also called tonne (t). Due to possible
confusion between the written and spoken word "tonne" versus "ton" meaning 2 000 pounds, the term
"metric ton" is recommended for general use and consistency.

5. Definitions of the SI Base Units and of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple
Dimensionless Derived Units point of water. [13th CGPM (1967), Resolution 4]
The 13th CGPM (1967, Resolution 3) also decided
5.1 Base Units. that the unit kelvin and its symbol K should be used to
5.1.1 Meter (m). The meter is the length equal to express an interval or a difference of temperature.
1650763.73 wavelengths in vacuum of the radiation In addition to the thermodynamic temperature
corresponding to the transition between the levels (symbol T) expressed in kelvins, use is also made of
2p10 and 5d5 of the krypton-86 atom [adopted by Celsius temperature (symbol t) defined, by the
11th CGPM 1960, Resolution 6]. equation t = T-To wl:!ere To = 273.15 K (freezing
5.1.2 Kilogram (kg). The kilogram is the unit of point of water, absolute). The Celsius temperature is
mass; it is equal to the mass of the international in general expressed in degrees Celsius (symbol °C).
prototype of the kilogram. [1st CGPM (1889) and The unit "degree Celsius" is thus equal to the unit
3rd CGPM (1901)] "kelvin" and is used in place of the kelvin for
expressing temperature intervals.
5.1.3 Second (s). The second is the duration of
9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding 5.1.6 Mole (mol). The mole is the amount of
to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of substance of a system which contains as many
the ground state of the cesium-133 atom. [13th elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012
CGPM (1967), Resolution 1] kilogram of carbon 12. When the mole is used, the
elementary entities must be specified and may be
5.1.4 Ampere (A). The ampere is that constant atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or
electric current which, if maintained in two straight specified groups of such particles. [14th CGPM
parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible (1971 ), Resolution 3]
circular cross-section, and placed 1 meter apart in
5.1.7 Candela (cct). The candela is the luminous
vacuum, would produce between these conductors a
intensity in the perpendicular direction, of a surface
force equal to 2x10-7 newton per meter of length.
of 1/600 000 square meter of a black body at the
[9th CGPM (1948), Resolution 2)
temperature of freezing platinum under a pressure
5.1.5 Kelvin (K). The kelvin is a unit of of 101 325 newtons per square meter. [13th CGPM
thermodynamic temperature and is equal to 1/273.16 (1967), Resolution 5]

7
AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

5.2 Dimensionless Derived Units. 6.2 Tolerances. Table 6-1 lists tolerance values to be
specified in conjunction with new millimeter dimen-
5.2.1 Radian (rad). The radian is the plane angle sions. The table shows the inch equivalent
between two radii of a circle which cut off on the
circumference an arc equal in length to the radius. '!able 6-1
See Fig 5-1. [ISO Recommendation R 31, Part 1, Preferred Metric Tolerances and their
Second Edition, December 1965] Inch Equivalent
5.2.2 Steradian (sr). The steradian is the solid angle Inch Inch
which, having its vertex in the center of a sphere, cuts mm * Equivalent mm * Equivalent
off an area of the surface of the sphere equal to that 0.003 0 0.00012 0.2 0.008
of a square with sides oflength equal to the radius of 0.005 0 0.00020 0.25 0.010
the sphere. See Fig 5-1. [ISO Recommendation R 0.008 0 0.00031 0.3 0.012
31, Part 1, Second Edition, December 1965] 0.010 0.0004 0.4 0.016
0.013 0.0005 0.5 0.020
QUANTITY NAME PRONUNCIATION SYMBOL 0.015 0.000 6 0.6 0.024
PLANE radian 'rade an rad 0.020 0.000 8 0.8 0.031
ANGLE 0.025 0.0010 1 0.039
0.030 0.0012 1.3 0.051
0.035 0.0014 1.5 0.059
0.040 0.0016 2 0.079
0.045 0.0018 2.5 0.098
0.05 0.002 3 0.118
SOLID steradian Sta ra' de an sr 0.08 0.003 3.5 0.138
ANGLE
0.1 0.004 4 0.157
0.13 0.005 5 0.197
0.15 0.006 6 0.236

* If it is necessary to specify a tolerance that is not


listed, be sure to show enough decimal places so
that the rounded inch equivalent reflects the
required accuracy. For example 0.07 mm should
Fig 5-1 Angular Units not be used because it converts to 0.003 inch the
same as 0.08 mm. However 0.070 converts to
0.0028 inch.
6. Preferred Dimensions and Tolerances 6.3 Non-millimeter Units. Preferred increments of
10, 5, or 1 can usually be used. Large calculated
6.1 Basic Millimeter Dimensions. Select new or quantities generally do not require specification of
unique millimeter dimensions using increments in more than 3 significant digits.
the order listed.
Example:
1st Choice - Ten millimeter increments Rounded to3
Calculated Value Significant Figures
2nd Choice - Five millimeter increments
3rd Choice - Whole millimeter increments 452.61 453
4th Choice - Half millimeter increments 4526.1 4530
(smallest division on shop scales) 45261 45300
5th Choice - Select as required to express It must be remembered that these are guides and
precision fits or established inch sizes some applications may require greater accuracy than
NOTE: Commercial items available as the general recommendation.
established stock sizes may dictate other basic 6.3.1 Kilopascal (kPa). A unit used for measure-
dimensions. ment of pressure. A kilopascal is a small unit and

8
Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

pressure values in this unit can normally be rounded 6.3.S Newton and kilonewton (N and kN). The units
more than most other non-millimeter units. used to measure force. Values can generally be
rounded as follows:
kPa Values Specify to
N or kN Values Specify to
over incl nearest
over incl nearest
0 500 5 0 50 1
500 1000 10 50 250 5
250 500 10
1000 5000 50 500 1000 50
5000 10000 100
10000 50000 500 6.3.6 Newton-meter (N•m). The unit used to
50000 100 000 1000 measure torque. Values can generally be rounded as
follows:
6.3.2 Megapascal (MPa). A unit used to measure N•m Values Specify to
material stress. Recommended rounding for values over incl nearest
are listed below: 0 5 0.2
5 10 0.5
MPa Values Specify to 10 30 1
over incl nearest 30 60 2
60 125 5
0 5 0.05 125 250 10
5 10 0.1 250 500 20
10 50 0.5 500 1400 50
50 100 1 1400 and up 100
100 500 5 6.3.7 Liter (L). The unit to measure volumes.
500 1000 10 Values can generally be rounded as indicated below:
1000 5 000 50
L Values Specify to
6.3.3 Degree Celsius ( 0 C). A unit used to measure over incl nearest
temperature. Values can generally be rounded 0 10 0.1
according to the table below. The symbol for 10 50 1
identifying degrees Celsius is O C. When specifying a 50 250 5
temperature and a tolerance, show 20°C±2°C, not 250 and up 10
20° ±2°C. 6.3.8 Cubic centimeter (cm3). The unit used to
°CValues Specify to measure small volumes. Values can generally be
over incl nearest rounded as follows:
cm3 Values Specify to
50 1 over incl nearest
50 100 5
100 and up 10 0 100 1
100 500 5
6.3.4 Kilogram and Megagram (kg and Mg). The
500 and up 10
units used to measure mass. Values can usually be
rounded according to the following table: 6.3.9 Kilowatt (kW). The unit used to measure
power. Values can generally be rounded as indicated
kg or Mg Values Specify to below:
over incl nearest
kW Values Specify to
0 3 0.25 over incl nearest
3 5 0.5
5 50 1 0 50 1
50 250 5 50 150 5
250 500 10 150 500 10
500 and up 50 500 and up 50

9
AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

7. Conversion - Non-metric to Metric 7.3.2 Round Off Accura~ When the millimeter
value is rounded off, a small difference may exist
7.1 Application. This Section provides guidance for
between the millimeter value and the inch value
converting dimensions and tolerances in standards
which was converted, depending on the number of
from non-metric units to metric units in accordance
decimal places retained. Table 7-1 shows the
with SI.
maximum difference that can occur. The difference
7.2 lnterchangeabili~ Conversions of non-critical in the maximum or minimum limit of a bilateral or
dimensions may be rounded to ideal metric units as
unilateral dimension is twice that possible for the
long as functional interchangeability is retained.
maximum or minimum limit of a limit dimension
Good judgment is required in this area and consider-
because both the dimension and tolerance are
ation must also be given to the round off effect on
existing tooling, gauging, patterns, and dies. converted individually and each may have a rounding
difference. The maximum difference rarely occurs in
Example:
both the dimension and tolerance at the same time
(1) Use standard metric hole sizes de- and in many cases the differences in the conversions
fined in Metric Standards rather than direct of the dimension and tolerance are in opposite
conversions of inch sizes. Consideration of directions and cancel out.
existing tooling and part interchangeability
may require direct conversion in a few 7.4. Conversion - Inch to Millimeter Dimensions.
instances.
Table 7-1
(2) Dimensions that are normally mea-
Possible Difference Due to Rounding
sured with shop scales are rounded to whole
and half millimeter. For dimensions such as Maximum Difference mm (inch)
hole and thread depths, use the practical di- No. of Decimal Bilateral or
mensions shown in metric standards instead Places in Unilateral Limit
Rounded mm Toleranced Dimensions
of direct conversions if functional inter- Dimensions Dimensions
changeability is not affected
4 0.0001 0.00005
(3) Specify metric material sizes when the (0.000 004) (0.000 002)
design permits.
3 0.001 0.000 5
(4) Round non-critical dimensions such (0.000 04) (0.000 02)
as casting and forging outline to whole and
half millimeters. 2 0.01 0.005
(0.000 4) (0.000 2)
7.3 Round Off Practice.
7.3.1 Practice. Round all decimal values as shown 1 0.1 0.05
below: (0.004) (0.002)

When first digit The last digit


dropped is: retained is: Examples
7.4.1 Toleranced Dimensions. The total tolerance
5 or less unchanged 1.500 49-1.500 applied to an inch dimension shall be the basis for
morethan5 increased by 1 1.500 61-1.501 rounding the converted millimeter values of the
dimension and tolerance. The number of decimal
5 followed unchanged 1.502 50-1.502
places to be retained in the conversion based on total
only if even
tolerance is shown in Table 7- 2. Total tolerance is
by zeros increased 1.501 50-1.502 the difference between the maximum and minimum
by 1 if odd limits of size.

10
Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

Examples: (1) 5.344 inches x 25.4 mm/inch =


135.7376mm
Tolerance Specified Inch Total
(2) +0.012 inches x 25.4 mm/inch
Method Dimension Tolerance
= +0.3048mm
Bilateral 6.235 ± 0.005 0.010 (3) -0.003 inches x 25.4 mm/inch =
Unilateral 0.750 +0.000 0.005
-0.005 -0.0762mm
Limit dim. 0.626 5 0.0005 (4) Combining 1,2, and 3
0.626 0 = 135.737 6 +0.3048 mm
-0.0762
(5) Rounding off on the basis of 0.015 inch
Table7-2 total tolerance and Table 7-2.
Round Off Practice for Toleranced = 135.74 +0.30 mm
Dimensions -0.08

Total Tolerance in Inches


Converted Value in DIFFERENCE 0.000 008 7 inch
At Least Less Than Millimeters shall 0.00022 mm
be rounded to !
,----,
0.000 00
0.000 4
0.004
0.0004
0.004
0.04
4 dee. places (0.000 1)
3 dee. places (0.001)
2 dee. places (0.01)
0.0015
inch
'
+0.038
mm

0.04 and over 1 dee. place (0.1)


' 282.809
mm dim.

O.OOl 5 DIFFERENCE -0.038


inch 0.000 012 6 inch mm
7.4.2 Conversion Examples. 0.00032 mm

7.4.2.1 Bilateral Tolerance Conversion. Fig 7-1


illustrates graphically the total variation or
difference which can occur by this method.
Y---
DIFFERENCE 0.000 016 5 inch
0.00042 mm
+

Example:
To convert 11.134 2 ± 0.001 5 inches to Fig 7-1 Total Variation Incurred by
millimeters: Rounding Off
(1) 11.134 2 inches x 25.4 mm/inch
= 282.808 68 mm
(2) 0.001 5 inches x 25.4 mm/inch 7.4.2.3 Unilateral Tolerance Conversion. Unilateral
= ± 0.0381mm tolerance shall be rounded according to the magni-
(3) Combining 1 and 2 tude of the sum of the tolerance values.
282.808 68 ± 0.038 1 mm Example:
( 4) Rounding off, considering a total To convert 12.072 2 +0.0015 inches to milli-
tolerance of 0.003 inches and rounding -0.0000
according to Table 7- 2, the metric meters:
equivalent is 282.809 ± 0.038 mm. (1) 12.072 2 inches x 25.4 mm/inch
7.4.2.2 Unequal Bilateral Tolerance Conversion.
= 306.633 88 mm
(2) +0.001 5 inches x 25.4 mm/inch
Unequal bilateral tolerancing shall be rounded
according to the magnitude of the sum of the
= +0.0381mm
(3) Combining 1 and 2
tolerance values.
306.633 88 +0.0381 mm
Example: -0.0000
To convert 5.344 +0.012 inches to millimeters: ( 4) Rounding off, consider total tolerance
+0.003 of 0.0015 inches and then round according to

11
AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

Table 7-2. The metric equivalent is 306.634 7.5.4 Surface Texture. Convert microinch values to
+0.038 mm micrometer values.
-0.000
7.5.5 Hole Sizes. Convert in accordance with Metric
7.4.3 Limit Dimensions. Convert each limit Standards. There are some exceptions where existing
dimension and round off on the basis of the tooling cannot be economically changed.
difference of the two limit dimensions and Table
7-2. 7.5.6 Welding. Specify values in accordance with
metric welding standards.
7.4.4 Fractional Inch Dimensions. Conversions
shall be based on the decimal inch equivalent. 7.6 Conversion - Other Units.
Example: 7.6.1 Dimensions. These dimensions are normally
To convert 9/16 inches to millimeters: less critical and do not require the precise round off
9/16 = 0.562 5 accuracy associated with linear dimensions. They
0.562 5 X 25.4 = 14.287 5 mm describe things such as tank capacities, test
Rounding off millimeter value is based on tolerance pressures, material stress, heat treat temperatures,
and Table 7-2. tightening torques, and balancing, see Table 7-3.

7.4.5 Dimensions Without Tolerance. Basic, refer- 7.6.2 Rounding Off Methods. Most units can be
ence, gauge, minimum, and maximum dimensions rounded according to one of the four methods de-
shall be rounded off on the basis of intended preci- scribed below. The recommended method for com-
sion in accordance with good engineering judgment. monly used units and the conversion factors are
The maximum difference created by rounding off shown in Table 7-3.
must also be considered. Refer to Table 7-1.
Method 1. Round off to three significant digits.
7.4.5.1 Rounding Off Method. Round off the Examples with varied decimal point locations:
millimeter dimension to one less decimal place than 0.003 486 4 rounds to 0.003 49
the number of places required in inches to express
0.348 64 · rounds to 0.349
the required precision. Non-significant zeros may
3.486 4 rounds to 3.49
be omitted where the number of decimal places
34864 rounds to 34 900
retained would be two or less.
Method 2. Round off to one decimal place but retain
7.5 Dimensions of Specific Features. a maximum of 3 significant digits. Use zeros as
7.5.1 Thread Designations. The designation of a required. Examples with varied decimal point
thread is considered a name or nominal size and is locations:
recognized internationally. Use the same basic 0.003 486 4 rounds to 0.0
thread designation on all drawings, both inch and 0.348 64 rounds to 0.3
metric. Specify tap drill size, major diameter, and 3.486 4 rounds to 3.5
pitch diameter in millimeters using values from met- 34864 rounds to 34 900
ric standards as applicable.
Method 3. Round off to whole number but retain a
7.5.2 Angular Dimensions. No conversion is
maximum of 3 significant digits. Use zeros as
required.
required Examples with varied decimal point
7.5.3 Taper. Express taper. as a ratio by specifying the locations:
rate of taper on diameter to one unit of length. The 0.003 486 4 rounds to 0
diameter change for any length taper is easily found 0.348 64 rounds to 0
by multiplying the length times the rate of taper. For 3.486 4 rounds to 3
example, the common taper in customary units on an 34 864 rounds to 34 900
NPTF pipe thread is a 0.75 "inches on diameter per
foot". To specify as a ratio, divide 12 by 0.75 and Method 4. Round off according to the appropriate
specify as 1:16 taper on diameter. figure in Section 6.

12
Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

Table 7-3
Conversion of Other Units and Recommended Rounding Method

Non-Metric Multiplied Equals Rounding


Unit by Metric Unit Method
psi (pressure) 6.895 kPa (kilopascal) 4
psi (stress) 0.006 895 MPa (megapascal) 4
~F (fahrenheit) (°F-32)(5/9) °C (Celsius) 4
°F (tolerance) 5/9 °C (tolerance) 4
lb (force) 4.448 N (newton) 4
oz (force) 0.278 N(newton) 2*
lb ft (torque) 1.356 N•m (newton meter) 4
lb in (torque) 0.113 N•m 4
oz in (balance) 0.7201 g•m (gram meter) 1
sq in 645.2 mm2 1
6.452 cm2 1
cu in 0.000016 39 m3 4
cuyd 0.764 6 m3 1
cu in 16.39 cm3 4
qt (quart) 0.946 3 L (liter) 4
gal (gallon) 3.785 L (liter) 4
lb (mass) 0.453 6 kg (kilogram) 4
oz (mass) 28.35 g (gram) 3
oz (liquid) 29.57 mL 2
lb (force)/in 0.1751 N/mm 2

* For values less than 1 N round to 2 places

8. Module System 8.3 Recommended Modules. Where module is used


in AGMA Standards, it shall mean metric module.
8.1 Metric Module. The metric module of a gear is a Modules 1 and above as listed in ISO 54 are shown in
number which designates the millimeters of pitch Table 8-1.
diameter per tooth.
8.4 Modules < 1. Modules with a value less than 1
8.2 Diametral Pitch. The diametral pitch of a gear is are listed in Table 8-1.
the number of gear teeth per unit of pitch diameter. 8.5 Conversion. Conversion from inch diametral
The inch diametral pitch of a gear is the number of pitch to metric module: Module = 25.4/(Inch
gear teeth per 25.4 millimeters of pitch diameter. Diametral Pitch).

13
AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

Table 8-1 Preference should be given to modules shown in


Metric Modules Column I. The three modules shown in Column III
should be avoided if possible.
Modules> 1
{ISO 54)
9. Multiples for Use in AGMA Standards
Modules
<l I II III
Table 9-1 includes multiples and derived units which
0.05 1 should be used in AGMA Standards. The Metric
1.125 Resource and Advisory Committee should be
0.06 1.25 advised of any terms which should be added to this
1.375 list, or revisions that should be made.
0.08 1.5
1.75
0.10 2
2.25
0.12 2.5
2.75
0.16 3 (3.25)
3.5
0.20 4 (3.75)
4.5
0.25 5
5.5
0.3 6 (6.5)
7
0.4 8
9
0.5 10
11
0.6 12
14
0.7 16
18
0.8 20
22
0.9 25
28
32
36
40
45
50

14
Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

Table9-1
Multiples and Conversion Factors for Use in AGMA Standards
MULTIPLY: BY TO GET BY: TO GET:
OR
MULTIPLY
SI or Conversion Conversion SI or Computer
Application Non-metric
Other Unit Factor Factor Other Unit Symbol§
Unit

ANGULAR
Standard unit use degree ( 0 ) in both systems of measurement DEG
crank angle use radian (rad) in both systems of measurement RAD

AREA
Standard unit square tnillimeter(mrn2) X 0.001 550 00 = sqin X 645.160 = mm 2 MM2
clutch and square centimeter(crn2) X 0.155 000 = sqin X 6.45160 = cm2 CM2
brake lining
surface contact square centimeter(crn2) X 0.155 000 = sqin X 6.45160 =cm2 CM2
radiator area square meter (m2) X 10.763 9 = sqft X 0.092 903 0 =m2 M2

BENDING MOMENT OR TORQUE


standard unit newton meter (N•m) X 0.737 562 = lbft X 1.355 82 = N•m N.M
standard unit newton meter (N•m) X 8.850 75 =!bin X 0.112985 =N•m N.M
balance gram meter (g•m) X 1.388 74 =ozin X 0.720078 = g•m G.M
small springs millinewton meter X 0.141612 =ozin X 7.06155 = mN•m MN.M
(mN•m)

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM


battery rating use minute (min) in both systems of measurement
(reserve capacity)
dielectric volt per millimeter X 0.0254000 = V/mil X 39.3701 =V/mm V/MM
strength (V/mm)
electrical use microfarad (µF) in both systems of measurement UF
capacitance
electric current use ampere (A) in both systems of measurement A
electrical charge use coulomb (C) in both systems of measurement C
stored
electrical use henry (H) in both systems of measurement H
inductance
electrical use ohm (Q) in both systems of measurement OHM
resistance
electrical use volt (V) in both systems of measurement V
potential
electrical system use volt(V) in both systems of measurement V
resistance
linear electrical ohm per meter(Q/m) X 0.304800 = Q/ft X 3.28084 =Q/m OHM/M
radio frequency use decibel (dB) in both systems of measurement DB
(interference suppression)

ENERGY*
work joule (J) X 0.737 562 = ftlb X 1.355 82 =J J
heat joule (J) X 0.000 947 817 =Btu X 1055.06 =J J
heat radiation watt per square meter X 0.316998 = Btu/sq ft•h X 3.15459 =W/m2 W/M2

15
AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

Tobie 9-1 (cont)


Multiples and Conversion Factors for Use in AGMA Standards
MULTIPLY: BY TOGET BY: TO GET:
OR
MULTIPLY
SI or Conversion Conversion SI or Computer
Application Non-metric
Other Unit Factor Factor Other Unit Symbol§
Unit
FLOW-CONSUMPTION
air flow cubic meter per minute X 35.3147 = cuft/min X 0.028 316 8 = rn3/min M3/MIN
(rn3/min)
airflow kilogram per minute X 2.20462 = lb/min X 0.453 592 = kg/min KG/MIN
(kg/min)
engine air flow kilogram per hour X 2.20462 = lb/h X 0.453592 = kg/h KG/HR
(kg/h)
fan air flow cubic meter per minute X 35.314 7 = cu ft/min X 0.028 3168 = m 3/min M3/MIN
(m3/min)
oil flow liter per minute (Umin) X 0.264172 = gal/min X 3.785 41 = L/min L/MIN
oil flow kilogram per minute X 2.20462 = lb/min X 0.453592 = kg/min KG/MIN
(kg/min)
pump flow liter per minute (L/min) X 0.264172 = gal/min X 3.78541 = L/min UMIN
capacity
pump or motor cubic centimeter per rev X 0.061023 7 = cu in/rev X 16.3871 = cm3/rev CM3/REV
displacement (cm3/rev)
specific oil gram per kilowatt hour X 0.001 643 99 = lb/hp•h X 608.277 = g/(kW•h) G/(KW.HR)
consumption g/(kW•h)
water flow liter per minute (Umin) X 0.264172 = gal/min X 3.785 41 = L/min L/MIN
water flow kilogram per minute X 2.20462 = lb/min X 0.453 592 = kg/min KG/MIN
(kg/min)

FORCE
standard unit newton (N) X 0.224809 =lb X 4.448 22 =N N
or newton (N) X 0.101972 = kilopond(kp) X 9.80665 =N N
beam load newton per meter (N/m) X 0.068 5218 = lb/ft X 14.593 9 = Nim NIM
per length
beam load per newton per meter (N/m) X 0.005 710 15 = lbfm X 175. 127 = N/m NIM
length
bearing load dekanewton (daN) X 2.248 09 = lb X 0.444 822 = daN DAN
spring rate linear newton per millimeter X 5.71015 = lb/in X 0.175127 =N/mm N/MM
(N/mm)
spring rate newton meter per rad X 0.737 562 = lb ft/rad X 1.355 82 = N•m/rad N.M/RAD
(torsional) (N•m/rad)
total piston kilonewton (kN) X 224.809 = lb X 0.004 448 22 =kN KN

FREQUENCY
sound frequency hertz(Hz) X 1.00000 =cps X 1.00000 =Hz HZ
system vibration hertz (Hz) X 1.00000 = cps X 1.00000 =Hz HZ
HARDNESS - - use the same units in both
systems of measurement

LENGTH
standard unit millimeter (mm) X 0.0393701 =in X 25.4000 =mm MM
altitude meter (m) x3.28084 = ft X 0.304800 =m M
distance kilometer (km) x0.621371 =mile X 1.609344 =km KM
filter rating micrometer (µm) X 1.00000 = micron X 1.00000 =µm UM
paint & coating micrometer (µm) X 0.0393701 =mil X 25.4000 =µm UM
thickness

.,
16
Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

Tobie 9-1 (cont)


Multiples and Conversion Factors for Use in AGMA Standards
MULTIPLY: BY TO GET BY: TO GET:
OR
MULTIPLY
Application SI or Conversion Non-metric Conversion SI or Computer
Other Unit Factor Unit Factor Other Unit Symbol§

LENGTH (cont)
shipping meter (m) x3.28084 = ft X 0.304800 =m M
dimensions
surface texture micrometer (µm) X 39.3701 = µin X 0.0254000 =µm UM
vibration millimeter (mm) X 0.0393701 =in X 25.4000 =mm MM
amplitude

MASS AND DENSITY


(see paragraph 2.5)
standard unit kilogram (kg) X 2.20462 = lb X 0.453 592 =kg KG
(mass)
standard unit kilogram per cubic meter X 0.0624280 = lb/cu ft X 16.018 5 = kg/m 3 KG/M3
(density) (kgtm3)
standard unit kilogram per cubic meter xo.ooo 036 1213 = lb/cu in X 27 679.9 = kgtm3 KG/M3
(density) (kg/m3)
coating for kilogram per X 0.001 422 33 = lb/sq in X 703.070 =( kg/m 2) KG/M2
insulation square meter kg/m2
(protection & sound dampening)
dust grams per cubic meter X 0.028 316 8 = g/cu ft X 35.314 7 = g/m3 G/M3
concentration (gtm3)
specific mass of kilogram per kilowatt X 1.643 99 = lb/hp X 0.608 277 = kg/kW KG/KW
engine or (kg/kW)
vehicle truck rating metric ton (t) X 1.10231 = ton X 0.907 = kg TNE
vehicle mass kilogram (kg) X 2.20462 =lb X 0.453 592 = kg KG
(weight)

MECHANICS
dynamic millipascal second X 1.000 00 =cP X 1.00000 = mPa•s MPA.S
viscosity (mPa•s)
kinematic square millimeter X 1.00000 = cSt X 1.00000 = mm 2/s MM2/S
viscosity per second (mm2/s)
absolute millipascal second X 0.145 038 = microreyn X 6.894 76 = mPa•s MPA.S
viscosity (mPa•s)
gears module (mod) MOD
see para. 8
impact strength joule (J) X 0.737562 = ftlb X 1.355 82 =j J
modulus of megapascal (MPa) X 145.038 = psi X 0.006 894 76 =MPa MAPA
elasticity
moment of newton meter second X 8.85075 = lb in•s2 X 0.112985 = N•m•s2 N.M.S2
inertia** squared (N•m•s2)
moment of meter4 (m4) X 2402510. = in4 x0.000000416231= m4 M4
section
moment of centimeter" (cm4) X 0.024 025 10 = in4 X 41.6231 =cm4 CM4
section
moment of millimeter" (mm4) X 0.000 002 402 = in4 x416231. =mm4 MM4
510
section
section modulus millimeter3 (mm3) xo.ooo 061023 7 = in3 X 16 387.1 =mm3 MM3

17
AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

Tobie 9-1 (cont)


Multiples and Conversion Factors for Use in AGMA Standards

MULTIPLY: BY TOGET BY: TO GET:


OR
MULTIPLY
SI or Conversion Conversion SI or Computer
Application Non-metric
Other Unit Factor Factor Other Unit Symbol§
Unit

MECHANICS (cont)
spring newton second X 5.71015 =lbs/in X 0.175127 = N•s/mm N.S/MM
dampening per millimeter
(linear) (N•s/mm)
spring newton meter X 0.737562 = lb ft•s/rad X 1.355 82
=N•m• N.M.S/
dampening second per radian s/rad RAD
(torsional) (N•m•s/rad)
strain micrometer per X 1.00000 = µin/in X 1.00000 = µm/m UM/M
meter (µm/m)

POWERt
standard unit kilowatt (kW) X 1.34102 =HP X 0.745 700 =kW KW
power per piston kilowatt per square X 865.174 = HP/sq in X 0.001 155 84 = kW/mm2 KW/MM2
(area) millimeter (kW/mm2)
power per unit kilowatt per cubic X 21.975 4 = HP/cu in X 0.0455054 = kW/cm 3 KW/CM3
(displacement) centimeter ( kW/cm3)
power per unit kilowatt per liter (kW/L) X 0.021975 4 = HP/cu in X 45.5054 =kW/L kW/L
(displacement)
power per unit kilowatt per cubic meter X 0.037973 5 = HP/cu ft X 26.3341 = kW/m 3 KW/M3
volume) (kW/m3)

PRESSURE AND STRESS


standard unit kilopascal (kPa):j: X 0.145 038 =psi X 6.894 76 = kPa KPA
(pressure)
standard unit megapascal x145.038 =psi X 0.006 894 76 =MPa MAPA
(stress) (MPa):j:
barometric kilopascal (kPa) X 0.296134 =in Hg X 3.37685 = kPa KPA
pressure (60°F)
fan static kilopascal (kPa) X4.018 6 = in water X 0.24884 = kPa KPA
pressure (60"F)
rubber firmness megapascal (MPa) Xl45.038 = (psi) X 0.006 894 76 =MPa MPA
sound pressure use decibel (dB) in both systems of measurement DB
level
vacuum kilopascal (kPa) X 0.296134 =in Hg X 3.376 85 =kPa KPA
(60°F)
vacuum kilopascal (kPa) X 4.018 6 = in water X 0.24884 =kPa KPA
(60"F)

TEMPERATURE
used in use kelvin (K) in both systems of measurement K
thermodynamics
other degree Celsius ( 0 q X 1.8 + 32 = "F -32/1.8 ="C DEGC
applications

18
Metric Usage AGMA 904-C96

Table 9-1 (cont)


Multiples and Conversion Factors for Use in AGMA Standards
MULTIPLY: BY TOGET BY: TOGET:
OR
MULTIPLY
SI or Conversion Conversion SI or Computer
Application Non-metric
Other Unit Factor Factor Other Unit Symbol§
Unit

THERMODYNAMICS*
coefficient of per degree Celsius (I° C) X 0.555556 = per op X 1.8 =/ec /DEGC
expansion
fuel heat value kilojoule per liter (kJ/L) X 26.839 2 = Btu/cu ft X 0.0372590 = kJ/L KJ/L
(gaseous)
fuel heat value kilojoule per gram (kJ/g) X 429.923 = Btu/lb X 0.002 326 00 = kJ/g KJ/G
(liquid)
heat flux kilowatt per square meter X 316.998 = Btu/sq ft•h X 0.003 154 59 = kW/m 2 KW/M2
(kW/m2)
heat rejection kilowatt (kW) X 56.869 0 = Btu/min X 0.017 584 3 =kW KW
rate
heat transfer watt per square meter X 0.176110 = Btu/h•sq ft°F X 5.678 26 = W/(M 2.K) W/(M2.K)
kelvin W/(m2-K) (m2•K)
specific enthalpy joule per gram (J/g) X 0.429 923 = Btu/lb X 2.32600 = Jig J/G
specific entropy joule per gram X 0.238846 = Btu/lb°F X 4.18680 = J/(g•K) J/(G.K)
kelvin J/(g•K)
specific heat joule per kilogram X 0.000 238 846 = Btu/lb°F X 4186.80 = J/(kg•K) J/(KG.K)
kelvin J/(kg•K )
specific heat express as a ratio of heat x42.4072 = Btu/HP min X 0.0235809 = kW/kW KW/KW
rejection rejection to engine power
(kW/kW)
thermal square millimeter X 0.0387501 = sq ft/h X 25.806 4 = mm 2/s MM2/S
diffusivity per sec ( mm2/s)
thermal watt per meter kelvin X 6.933 47 = Btu/h•sq ft°F X 0.144 228 = W/(m•K) W/(M.K)
conductivity W/(m•K)

TORQUE
standard unit newton meter (N•m) X 0.737 562 = lbft X 1.355 82 = N•m N.M
standard unit newton meter (N•m) X 8.85075 = !bin X 0.112 985 = N•m N.M
small springs millinewton meter X 0.141612 = ozin X 7.06155 =mN•m MN.M
(mN•m)

VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION


standard unit meter per second squared X 3.28084 = ftls2 X 0.304800 = m1s2 M/S2
(acceleration) (mls2)
standard unit meter per second (mis) X 196.850 = ft/min X 0.005 080 00 =mis MIS
(velocity)
centrifuge meter per second squared X 0.101972 =g X 9.80665 = mls2 M/S2
(mls2)
power take off use revolution per minute (rpm) in both systems of measurement- - RPM
(velocity)
revolving use revolution per minute (rpm) in both systems of measurement - - RPM
unit drive velocity use revolution per minute (rpm) in both systems of measurement - - RPM
vehicle velocity kilometer per hour X 0.621371 =mph X 1.609 34 =km/h KM/HR
(km/h)

VISCOSITY see mechanics

19
AGMA 904-C96 Metric Usage

Table 9-1 (cont)


Multiples and Conversion Factors for Use in AGMA Standards
MULTIPLY: BY TOGET BY: TO GET:
OR
MULTIPLY Conversion Computer
SI or Conversion SI or
Application Non-metric
Other Unit Factor Factor Other Unit Symbol§
Unit

VOLUME
standard unit cubic metet (m3) X 35.3147 = cuft X 0.0283168 =m3 M3
pump cubic centimeter (cm3) X 0.0610237 =cuin X 16.3871 =cm3 CM3
displacement
liquid (general) liter (L) X 0.264172 = gal X 3.78541 =L L
liter (L) X 1.05669 = quart X 0.946353 =L L
liter (L) X 2.11338 = pint X 0.473176 =L L
milliliter (mL) X 0.033814 =ozliq X 29.5735 =mL ML

• Conversion factors based on international table: 1 Btu x 1055.056 J


+ Conversion factors based on 1 HP = 550 lb ft/s
:j: 1 Pa = 1 N/m2; 1 kPa = 1000 N/m2; 1 MPa = 106 N/m2 or 1 N/mm2; bar was formerly used to express pressure, I bar = I OOkPa or 1os
N/m2 (within IS0/TC60 the units ofN/mm2 are preferred over MPa)
§ These symbols are to be used where only limited character sets (such as "caps" only) are possible as on line printers
•• Kg•m2 is another unit which is also used for mass moment of inertia However, it is believed that with time (N•m•s2) will become the
preferred unit for moment of inertia

10. Gear Symbols for Use in Metric metric standards.


Standards 10.2 Metric Gear Performance and Application
10.1 Metric Gear Geometry Symbols. Clause E.l of Symbols. Clauses E.2 and E.3 of AGMA 900-F96
AGMA 90,0-F96 lists gear geometry symbols lists gear performance and application symbols
typically used in metric standards such as ISO 701. which shall be used in new AGMA hard metric stan-
These symbols shall be used in new AGMA hard dards.

20
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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION
1500 KING STREET, ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA 22314