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Introduction

Centrifugal pumps are a sub-class of dynamic axis symmetric work-absorbing turbo machinery.
Centrifugal pumps are used to transport fluids by the conversion of rotational kinetic energy to
the hydrodynamic energy of the fluid flow. The rotational energy typically comes from an engine
or electric motor. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is
accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber (casing),
from where it exits. Common uses include water, sewage, petroleum and petrochemical
pumping. The reverse function of the centrifugal pump is a water turbine converting potential
energy of water pressure into mechanical rotational energy

Theory

Make increase in the pressure by transfer the mechanical energy from the motor to the fluid by
the rotating impeller the flow enter to the impeller center and then increase in the pressure and
out along its blades and the centrifugal force make increase in the velocity of the fluid and we
can called this type as( continuous flow pumps ). This also classification according to the
impeller and the path of the flow.

Like most pumps, a centrifugal pump converts mechanical energy from a motor to
energy of a moving fluid. A portion of the energy goes into kinetic energy of the fluid. Fluid
enters axially through eye of the casing, is caught up in the impeller blades, and is whirled
tangentially and radially outward until it leaves through all circumferential parts of the impeller
into the diffuser part of the casing. The fluid gains both velocity and pressure while passing
through the impeller. The doughnut-shaped diffuser, orscroll, section of the casing decelerates
the flow and further increase the pressure.

 Classification of centrifugal pump :

1. Radial flow pumps.

2. Mixed flow pumps.

3. Axial flow pumps.


 The pump head rise can be expressed using the energy equation as

 Typically the differences in elevations and velocities (between inlet and outlet) are so
small so that,

 The power gained by the fluid is given by the equation

 The pump overall efficiency is the ratio of power actually gained by the fluid to the shaft
power supplied as given equation

 Where the shaft power is the product of the torque applied to the shaft and the angular
velocity,

The component of centrifugal pump:


Figure 3: component of centrifugal pump

Impeller: the blades of rotating impeller transfer energy to the liquid by increasing velocity and
pressure, the fluid enter to the impeller by the impeller eye and out through the blades paths
between shroud and hub.

Types of impeller:

1. Open impeller.

2. Semi open impeller.

3. Closed impeller.
Figure 4: Typical Performance Curve characteristic of an axial centrifugal pumps