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PROCEEDINGS

2018 International Conference on


Applied Science and Technology
for Engineering Science
(iCAST-ES)

October 26-27, 2018


Manado, Indonesia

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PROCEEDINGS
2018 International Conference on
Applied Science and Technology
for Engineering Science
(iCAST-ES)

APPLIED INTELLIGENCE TECHNOLOGY FOR


SUPPORTING 4.0 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND
ITS IMPACT ON SUSTAINABLE SOCIAL AND
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Manado State Polytechnic


Manado, Indonesia, October 26-27, 2018

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2018 International Conference
on Applied Science and Technology
for Engineering Science
(iCAST-ES)
October 26-27, 2018
Manado, Indonesia

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republication permission, email to IEEE Copyrights Manager at pubs-
permissions@ieee.org. All rights reserved. Copyright©2018 by IEEE.

IEEE Catalog Number CFP18CAT-USB


ISBN 978-1-5386-7547-2

Editor : Anang Tjahjono, Dimas Okky Anggriawan, Ida Anisah


Publisher : IEEE
Secretariat : Kampus Politeknik Negeri Manado Ds. Buha 95252,
Indonesia
Email : icast2018@polimdo.ac.id

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Preface

The collaboration of Indonesian Polytechnics will proudly organize the first


International Conference on Applied Science and Technology (iCAST) 2018. This
prestigious conference is aimed at bringing together researchers and experts in
intelligent technology from educational institutions, R & D, industry, government and
the community to exchange and share ideas, knowledge through a discussion of a
wide range of issues related to industrial revolution: potential, roles, needs,
opportunities and challenges as well.
Research findings and results on latest technology are welcomed to be presented in
this conference. A side event on exhibition of technology products as the outcomes of
joint research between students and lecturers will also be displayed around the
conference areas. All full paper submissions will be peer reviewed and evaluated
based on originality, technical and/or research content/depth, correctness, relevance
to conference issues, contributions, and readability. Papers in the technical program
have to expose authenticity and high-quality end. The full paper submissions will be
chosen based on technical merit, interest, applicability, and how well they are adapted
and balanced with the prevailing technical program.
We invite and welcome you to attend the iCAST 2018 from october 26-27, 2018, while
enjoying the beauty of Bunaken National Park, a well-known marine park in North
Sulawesi, Indonesia. The park is located near the center of the Coral Triangle Area,
providing habitat to 390 species of coral as well as many fishes, mollusks, reptiles and
marine mammals. The Park is the representative of Indonesian tropical water
ecosystems, consisting of seagrass plain, coral reef, and coastal ecosystems.

Official Website
http://icast.politeknik.or.id
http://icast2018.polimdo.ac.id

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2018 International Conference on Applied Science and Technology (ICAST)

Analysis of Irrigation Water Needs With Changes


on Planting Patterns in Mentayan Rice Fields
Oni Febriani Dedi Enda Juli Ardita Pribadi
Civil Engineering Department Civil Engineering Department Civil Engineering Department
Politeknik of Bengkalis Politeknik of Bengkalis Politeknik of Bengkalis
Bengkalis, Indonesia Bengkalis, Indonesia Bengkalis, Indonesia
onifebri@yahoo.com dedienda05@gmail.com juliardita@polbeng.ac.id

Abstract—The rice fields in Mentayan village is one of the study focuses on the area of rice field A with an area of 71
granaries Bantan District, Bengkalis Regency, Riau, that have Ha, was conducted by two alternative models of planting
a problem is the lack of irrigation water source availability so pattern. From the results of analyzing the two models, the
that the process of rice cultivation can only be done once in a most water availability will be selected and discussed. By
year (rainy season). It is necessary to analyze the irrigation this analysis, it can be known the lack of irrigation water due
water demand due to changes in the planting pattern. This to changes in planting pattern.
study focuses on the analysis of irrigation water needed to
irrigate the area of rice field A with an area of 71 Ha. From the
two alternative models of planting pattern by using the II. HYDROLOGY ANALYSIS
calculation of debt mainstay of F.J. Mock balance method, the Some hydrological parameters that must be considered
alternative cropping pattern I selected because it has a to meet the needs of irrigation water are:
percentage of water demand is met greater than the alternative
planting pattern II. A. Evapotranspiration
The factors affecting potential evapotranspiration are air
Keywords—hydrological analysis, discharge of required,
temperature, wind speed, air humidity, and solar irradiation.
discharge mainstay
Potential evapotranspiration was calculated using the
modified Penman formula [3] as follows:
I. INTRODUCTION
Eto = c [w . Rn (1 - w) . f(u) . (ea - ed) (1)
Water is the main resource for driving the wheels of
agricultural enterprises so that the amount of agricultural
B. Effective Rain
production is also determined by the water availability. A
number of engineering efforts have been done by the parties Effective rain is the rainfall in irrigation area that can be
involved in agriculture to increase the capacity and quality of directly utilized to meet the water needs for plants. For rice
the water. There is not all of the land agriculture had field irrigation, the effective monthly rainfall is 70% of the
adequate water availability as well as in the area of farming minimum monthly rainfall with a five year return period. The
in Mentayan village. effective price of rice crops are [4]:
Re = 70% . R80 (2)
R80 = (n/5) + 1 (3)

C. Percolation
Percolation is the downward water movement of the
unsaturated zone that lies between the surface to the surface
of the ground water (saturated zone). The rate of percolation
depends on the properties of the soil. Percolation rate can
reach 1 - 3 mm / day [4].

D. Planting Pattern
Planting pattern is a system for determining the types of
the plants or for the rotation of plants production adapted to
the water supply.

Figure. 1. Location of Mentayan Village Rice Field E. Water Requirements for Soil Processing
Mentayan village rice field is one of the granaries of The irrigation water requirement is the required water
Bantan sub-district, Bengkalis Regency, Riau, that has an requirement from the soil to the harvest time to determine the
area of 240 Ha of rice fields. It is divided into three zones. amount of water required by using the method developed by
Currently, the problems in Mentayan rice field was sourced Van de Goor and Zijlstra [4]:
from the lack of irrigation water sources availability so that
the process of rice cultivation can only be done once a year IR = M. ek / (ek – 1) (4)
in the rainy season. M = E0 + P (5)
To overcome this problem, needed the analysis of E0 = 1,1 Et0 (6)
irrigation water needs due to changes in planting pattern, this
k = MT / S (7)

978-1-5386-7548-9/18/$31.00 ©2018 IEEE 113


The time required for the preparation of the land usually
ranged from 30 to 45 days. The amount of water required for
land preparation is based on the table in KP -01.

F. Consumptive Use (Crop Water Requirement)


Consumptive use is the amount of water needed to
replace the water lost through evaporation. Usage
consumptive is [4]:
Etc = Kc . Eto (8)

TABLE I. THE VALUE OF PLANT COEFFICIENT


Rice (FAO)
Mid-month
OrdinaryVarieties Superior Variety
period
1 1.10 1.10
2 1.10 1.10
3 1.10 1.05
4 1.10 1.05
5 1.10 0.95
6 1.05 0.00
7 0.95
8 0.00

G. Needs Water in the fields


The water requirement for plant growth depends on the
age of the plant and consists of consumptive use, percolation,
effective rainfall and the need to replace the water layer.
Needs of water in the fields are [4]: Figure. 2. Research Flow Chart

NFR = Eto + P – Re + WLR (9)


V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
H. Irrigation Efficiency A potential evapotranspiration analysis (Et0) is required
in the calculation of water availability and irrigation water
Irrigation Efficiency is the ratio of the amount of water
requirements. The highest Et0 value occurred in March while
used for the needs of the plant with the amount of water
the lowest occurred in June. The full value of Et0 can be seen
coming out of the gate. The magnitude of irrigation
in Table II.
efficiency due to water loss is 90% [4].
The calculation of effective rainfall and the twelve-years
I. Discharge of required rainfall data was sorted from the smallest to the largest. So, it
From the calculation of water needs of plants and will get the 4th sequence as the basis of effective rainfall
planting patterns, it can be calculated that the amount of calculations. The next rainfall data is divided into two
discharge required in each planting pattern is [4]: periods. Period 15 daily I is 1 to 15 and period 15 daily II is
15 to 30 so that it obtained the effective rainfall as in Tables
Q = (A . NFR)/Eff (10) III and IV.
The calculation of percolation is used percolation rate 1
III. DISCHARGE MAINSTAY mm, with planting pattern applied is Padi-Padi-Bera. The
Discharge mainstay is the minimum discharge that can be calculation of water needs based on planting pattern Padi-
used to meet the needs of crop water. It was calculated using Padi-Bera and start planting period for land preparation. The
the FJ Mock's balance sheet method [5]: alternative planting period I: February (2nd period and the
alternative planting period II: April (period I), using Rice
Q = (Dr +BF)A (11) Variates Unggul.

IV. METHODS
The study began with the identification of problems in
the field and literature studies, then data collection was
carried out. After the data has been collected, the calculation
of the hydrological analysis and discharge mainstay is done
using the FJ balance method. Mock, where hydrological
analysis is carried out on two alternative models of planting
pattern. From the hydrological analysis and discharge
mainstay, the percentage of water demand will be obtained
from two alternative models of larger planting pattern as
recommendations. For more details, the research flowchart
can be seen in Figure 2.

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TABLE II. THE CALCULATION OF POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (ET0)

TABLE III. THE EFFECTIVE RAINFALL CALCULATION OF THE PERIOD I

TABLE IV. THE EFFECTIVE RAINFALL CALCULATION OF THE PERIOD II

TABLE V. THE CALCULATION DISCHARGE OF REQUIRED ON THE RICE FIELD (ALTERNATIVE I)

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TABLE VI. THE CALCULATION DISCHARGE OF REQUIRED ON THE RICE FIELD (ALTERNATIVE II)

TABLE VII. THE CALCULATION DISCHARGE MAINSTAY

TABLE VIII. THE CALCULATION DISCHARGE MAINSTAY

Figure. 3. Comparison of discharge mainstay and discharge of required for alternative models I and II

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Figure. 4. Percentage of fulfilled discharge of required for alternative models I and II

From table VII, figure 3 and figure 4, the calculation of [4] Departemen Pekerjaan Umum, Standar Perencanaan Irigasi KP-01,
the discharge mainstay, the minimum water availability Direktorat Jenderal Pengairan, Jakarta : Departemen Pekerjaan
Umum, 2010.
obtained is 0.010 m3/sec on February while maximum
[5] B. Triatmodjo, Hidrologi Terapan, Beta Offset, Yogyakarta, 2008.
discharge mainstay is 0.027 m3/sec on October. Water
shortages occur from April to November if using alternative
planting pattern I, whereas if using alternative II planting
pattern, the period of non-fulfillment of water needs occurs
from February to May and July to October, if an alternative
comparison of planting pattern is based on planting time who
need water, then the alternative planting pattern I has a
fulfilled percentage value greater than alternative II, so that
in this study determined using alternative planting pattern I
With the application of alternative planting pattern I,
there is the water shortage. The authors recommend that the
shortage of water needs is overcome by the building of long
storage by utilizing the existing ditch around the rice field
area due to the consideration in land acquisition.

VI. CONCLUSION
• The availability of water in the form of discharge
mainstay of Mentayan rice field by using FJ Mock's
balance sheet method, the minimum water availability is
0,010 m3 / sec in February while maximum debit is 0,027
m3 / sec in October.
• From the two alternative models of planting pattern, the
alternative I was chosen based on the percentage of the
fulfilled water requirement that greater than the
alternative planting pattern II

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We would like to thank all parties involved in this research
specifically to P3M Bengkalis State Polytechnic who has
supported this research through funding scheme of research
proposal Lecturer of PNBP Polbeng Fund.
REFERENCES
[1] Direktorat Prasarana dan Sarana Pertanian, Pedoman Teknis
Pengembangan Embung/Dam Parit/Long Storage 2015, Jakarta, 2015
[2] A. Y. Imawan, M. A. Faozan, Suharyanto, and P. Nugroho,
“Perencanaan Long Storage pada Bendung Cipero Kabupaten Tegal,”
Jurnal Karya Teknik Sipil, vol. 4, pp. 155–163, 2015.
[3] Sudjarwai, Pengantar Teknik Irigasi, Yogyakarta, Universitas Gajah
Mada, 1979.

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