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Consonants

Letter Letter Name Roman Translation When it is used


ㄱ 기역 Giyeok K sound in beginning
of sentences and G
sound in middle of
sentences

ㄲ 쌍기역 Ssang Giyeok Pushed K sound no


matter where the
placement

ㄴ 니은 Nieun N sound no matter


where the placement

ㄷ 디귿 Digeut T sound in beginning


of sentences and D
sound in middle of
sentences

ㄸ 쌍디귿 Ssang Digeut Pushed T sound no


matter where the
placement

ㄹ 리을 Rieul Rolled R sound or L


sound

ㅁ 미음 Mieum M sound

ㅂ 비읍 Bieub P sound in beginning


of sentences and B
sound in middle of
sentences

ㅃ 쌍비읍 Ssang Bieup Pushed P sound no


matter where the
placement

ㅅ 시옷 Siot S sound if first letter


of a syllable, T sound
if last letter of a
syllable

ㅆ 쌍시옷 Ssang Siot Pushed S sound


regardless of syllable
placement

ㅇ 이응 Ieung Silent when first


letter of a syllable,
Ng sound if last letter
of a syllable

ㅈ 지읏 Jieut Ch sound in
beginning of
sentences, J sound in
middle of sentences

ㅉ 쌍지읒 Ssang Jieut Ch sound no matter


where the placement

ㅊ 치읓 Chieut Ch sound when first


letter of syllable, T
sound when last letter
of syllable

ㅋ 키읔 Kieuk K sound no matter


the placement

ㅌ 티읕 Tieut T sound no matter the


placement

ㅍ 피읖 Pieup P sound no matter the


placement

ㅎ 히읗 Hieut H sound if first letter


of syllable, silent if
last letter of syllable.

Vowels

For vowels, unlike consonants, do not have any special placements. The only rule for
vowels is that ​they must always accompany a consonant, they must never be left alone.

Letter Roman Translation

ㅏ Ah
ㅐ Ae

ㅑ Ya

ㅒ Yae

ㅓ Eo (sounds like uh)

ㅔ Eh

ㅕ Yeo

ㅖ Yeh

ㅗ O
와 Wa

왜 Wae

외 Oe

ㅛ Yo

ㅜ U (pronounced oo)

워 Weo

웨 Weh

위 Wi (pronounced we)

ㅠ Yu (pronounced yoo)

ㅡ Eu (almost pronounced eugh)

의 Eui

ㅣ I (pronounced ee)