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# EE3244

## CIRCUITS & SIGNALS

Chapter 1 : Introduction to Signals

Contents:
• Definition and Classification of Signals
• Mathematical Model of Ideal Signals
• Discrete-time Signals

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1.1 Definition and Classification of Signals
What is a signal?
• A function of one or more variables and it carries qualitative
as well as quantitative information of a physical event.
• Single variable function: most common is the time variable, t
(continuous-time) or n (discrete-time) -> mathematically
denoted by f(t) or f[n] respectively.

Classifications:
i. Continuous & Discrete-Time Signals
ii. Even & Odd Signals
iii. Deterministic & Stochastic Signals
iv. Energy & Power Signals
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Continuous & Discrete Time Signals
Continuous-time Signal
• Signal is defined for all time instants
• Occurs naturally in any physical process
• Single variable : f(t), f( )
• Example : voice signal

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Continuous & Discrete Time Signals
Discrete-time Signal
• Signal is defined only at discrete values of time
variable
• Single variable : f [n], f [k]
• Example : sampled voice signal

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Discrete-time signals can be obtained from continuous-time signals
by sampling operation, mathematically given as:
f [n] = f [nT], n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ….. where T is the sampling period.

## Continuous-time signal, f(t) Sampling at T = 1

For instance, let T = 1
Then:
n = -1; f[-1] = f(-1)
n = 0; f[0] = f(0)
n = 1; f[1] = f(1)
n = 2; f[2] = f(2)
n = 3; f[3] = f(3)
Discrete-time signal, f[t] 6
EVEN & ODD Signals
EVEN signals:
• Signals that are symmetric with respect to the vertical axis.
Mathematically, f(t) = f(-t)
ODD signals:
• Signals that are anti-symmetric with respect to the origin.
Mathematically, f(t) = - f(-t)
f(1) = -f(-1)

f(1) = f(-1)

## Even (symmetric) signal Odd (anti-symmetric) signal

f (t ) = f (-t ) for all t f (t ) = -f (-t ) for all t 7
Even & Odd Signals
Any arbitrary signal, f(t) can be expressed as a sum
of even and odd components:

f (t )  f e (t )  f o (t )

f e (t )   f (t )  f (t )
1
2
where
f o (t )   f (t )  f (t )
1
2

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Example 1.1:
• Find the odd and even components of a continuous-
time signal,
f (t )  t  4t  6t
2 3 5

Solution:

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Example 1.2:
Find the odd and even components of the signal f(t).

Even
3 3
  t , 2  t  2 ½[(f(t)+f(-t)]
f (t )   2 4

 0, elsewhere
=1.5

Odd
½[(f(t)-f(-t)]

=(3/4)t
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Example 1.3:
Find the odd and even components of the following signal.

f(t)

1 1, 0  t  3
f (t )  
t 0, elsewhere
-3 3
0

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EVEN & ODD SIGNALS
• Any arbitrary signals can be expressed as sum of odd
and even components. The main signal f(t) itself is
neither even nor odd but when decomposed, has odd
fo(t) and even fe(t) parts.
• If the signal f(t) itself is already an even signal, then its
even part is exactly the same as itself, f(t)=fe(t), the odd
part being zero.
• If the signal f(t) itself is already an odd signal, f(t)=fo(t),
then its odd part is exactly the same as itself, the even
part being zero.
Thus, a signal can be purely even, purely
odd or neither even nor odd.
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Example 1.4:
a) Is Asin(t) an odd or even signal?
Let f(t) = Asin(t)
Asin(t) = - Asin(-t) for all t
f(t) = - f(-t)
 It is an odd signal.

## b) Is Bcos(t) an odd or even signal?

Let f(t) = Bcos(t)
Bcos(t) = Bcos(-t) for all t
f(t) = f(-t)
 It is an even signal.
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c) Is sin(t + (/6)) an odd or even signal?

## sin(t+(/6)) = sin(/6)cos(t) + cos(/6)sin(t)

= 0.5cos(t) + 0.866sin(t)

##  sin(t + (/6)) is neither an even nor an odd signal.

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DETERMINISTIC & STOCHASTIC
DETERMINISTIC SIGNALS:
Signals whose characteristics are well known and completely specified for all
instants of time. Example: sine wave f(t)=sin(t), linear function f(t)=mt+c

STOCHASTIC SIGNALS:
Signals whose characteristics are not fully known before its occurrence (random
signals). Example: throwing of die, noise generated in an electronic circuit,
unwanted disturbances in the atmosphere, etc.
sin(t)
# on a die thrown
4
3 Value at T4?
Deterministic
2
Stochastic
t
T1 T2 T3 T4 t
T1 T2 T3 T4
Value=Random between 1 to 6
All values at t are well defined
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• Deterministic

Totally predictable

• Stochastic
(Random Signal)

Unpredictable

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ENERGY & POWER
Continuous-Time Discrete-Time
Signal f(t) f[n]
T N 1

Total
Energy, E E  lim 
2
f (t )dt E  lim 2
f [ n]
T  N 
T n  N

Average T N 1
1 1
Power, P P  lim
T  2T  f 2 (t )dt P  lim
N  2 N

n  N
f 2
[ n]
T

## • Energy Signal if: 0 < E <  (finite positive value)

• Power Signal if: 0 < P <  (finite positive value)
Note: We will limit our study of energy and power signals to only
continuous-time signals 17
Example 1.5:
 A signal f(t) is defined as f (t )  sin( t ) ;    t  .
Determine whether f(t) is an energy or power signal.
T T
E  lim  f (t )dt  lim  sin (t )dt
2 2
T  T 
T T

1  sin(2t ) 
T T
1
 lim  [1  cos(2t )]dt  lim t  
T 
T
2 T  2
 2  T
1 2sin(2T ) 
 lim  2T   
T  2
 2 

## E= (the value is indefinite).

.
Hence, f(t) is not an energy signal.
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T T
1 1
P  lim  f (t )dt  lim  sin (t )dt
2 2
T  2T T  2T
T T
T
1 1
 lim
T  2T T 2 [1  cos(2t )]dt
1  2 sin( 2T ) 
 lim 2T  
T  4T 2
 1 2 sin( 2T )  1
 lim    

T  2 8T  2

## P=1/2 (the value is definite and positive).

Hence, f(t) is a power signal.
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Example 1.6:
Determine whether f(t) is an energy signal or a power signal or
neither, where   0.
0 for t  0
f (t )   t
e for t  0

Energy, E: T T

 f (t )dt  lim  e dt 2 t
E  lim 2
T  T 
T 0
T
1 2 t 1 2T
 lim e  lim e  1
T  2 T  2
0

## If  is negative, E = -1/2  f(t) is an energy signal.

If  is positive, E =   f(t) is not an energy signal.
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Power, P: T T
1 1
 
2 t
P  lim f (t )dt  lim
2
e dt
T  2T T  2T
T 0
T
1  1 2 t  1 2 T
 lim  2 e  lim 
 T  4T  e  1
T  2T
 0
If  is negative, P = 0  f(t) is not a power signal.
If  is positive, P =   f(t) is not a power signal.

f (t )  et u(t )

t t
Negative   Energy signal Positive   Neither energy
signal nor power signal 21
Example 1.6a:
Determine whether f(t) is an energy signal or a power signal or
neither, where T is a positive constant.
 0 for t  0
f (t )   t / T
e for t  0

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Example 1.6b:
Determine whether f(t) is an energy signal or a power signal or
neither.

sin 2t 0  t  2
f (t )  
 0 otherwise

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ENERGY & POWER
– Bounded periodic signals are power signals (Example 1.5).

## – Unbounded growing signals are neither energy nor power

signals (Example 1.6).

## Bounded: the amplitude of the signals has definite upper and

lower limits. If one limit is indefinite, it is unbounded.
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1.2 MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF
IDEAL SIGNALS
• We will discuss the mathematical model of the
following signals:
a) Sinusoidal Signal
b) Exponential Signal
c) Unit Step Function
d) Unit Pulse Function
e) Unit Impulse Function

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SINUSOIDAL SIGNAL
 2t 
f (t )  A sin   
 T 
 A sin 2ft   
 A sin t   
f1(t
)
f2(t A  signal amplitude
)
where T  period
  phase angle

## f(t) = 5 sin (t)

f1(t) = 5 sin (t + /2)
f2(t) = 5 sin (t - /2)
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EXPONENTIAL SIGNAL
A V initial = A

V final = A

V final = 0
V initial = 0

## Decaying Exponential Signal Growing Exponential Signal

f (t )  Ae t /

f (t )  A 1  e t /

Arbitrary Exponential Signal: f (t )  V final  (Vinitial  V final )e t /
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Example 1.7:
Draw the exponential signals described by:
 t /
i) f (t )  5e
t / 
ii) f (t )  5(1  e )

5e t / 5(1  e t / )

Approaches 5
5 5
3.16
1.84 Approaches 0
t t
0 t= 0 t=
(i) Decaying (ii) Growing
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UNIT STEP FUNCTION

## Unit Step Shifted Unit Step

1 t  0 1 t  T
u (t )   u (t  T )  
0 t  0 0 t  T
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Example 1.8:
Sketch the waveform of f (t )  u(t )  u(t  2)

+ =

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Example 1.9:
Draw the exponential signals described by:
i) f (t )  5e t / u (t )
ii) f (t )  5(1  e t / )u (t )

5e t /
u (t ) 5(1  e t / )u(t )

Approaches 5
5 5
3.16

Approaches 0
1.84
t t
0 t= 0 t=
(ii)
(i)
Note that the functions are
now zero for t < 0. 31
UNIT PULSE FUNCTION

## Unit Pulse Shifted Unit Pulse

0 t    / 2 0 t  (T   / 2)
 
P (t )  1   / 2  t   / 2 P (t  T )  1 (T   / 2)  t  (T   / 2)
0 t   / 2 0 t  (T   / 2)
 
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UNIT PULSE FROM UNIT STEPS

## Construction of unit pulse from step signals

P (t )  u(t   / 2)  u(t   / 2)

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UNIT IMPULSE FUNCTION

let  approach 0

P (t )
lim   (t )
0 
Unit Impulse

Area = 1/ =1  (t )  0 t  0

Since impulse function is the derivative of Area    (t )dt  1
step function, thus the step function must 

## be the integral of the impulse function.

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1.3 DISCRETE-TIME SIGNALS
• Some basic sequences
– Unit step: u[n]={…0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1…}

## The arrow indicates the origin, n = 0

1, n0
or u[n]  
0, n0

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DISCRETE-TIME SIGNALS
– Unit sample/impulse: [n]={…0 1 0…}

## The arrow indicates the origin, n = 0

or 1, n0
 [ n]  
0, n0

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DISCRETE-TIME SIGNALS
• Both discrete-time functions can also be used
without arrows to indicate the origin:
– Unit step: u[n]={…0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1…}
– Unit sample/impulse: [n]={…0 1 0…}

## • In such a case, the first nonzero value at the

left hand side of the sequence denotes the
position of the origin.

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Manipulating Sequences
 Shifted unit step

1, n 1
u[n  1]  
0, n 1

##  Shifted unit sample/impulse

1, n  1
 [n  1]  
0, n  1

1, n  2
 [n  2]  
0, n  2
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 Unit sample/impulse using unit step

1, n  0
u[n]  
0, n  0

1, n  1
u[n  1]  
0, n  1

##  [n]  u[n]  u[n 1]

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 Unit step as sum of unit sample/impulse

u[n]   [n]   [n  1]   [n  2]   [n  3]  ...   [n  i ]
i 0
 Sample/impulse of arbitrary amplitude

x0 x2

x1

x-1

x[n]  ...  x1 [n  1]  x0 [n]  x1 [n  1]  x2 [n  2]  ...   x  [n  i ]
i  
i
Example 1.10:
Discrete Sequences

##  Express the following signals graphically:

(i) x[n]  u[n]  u[n  5]

## (iv) x[n]   [n]  2 [n  2]   [n  3]

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 Solution:
(i) x[n]  u[n]  u[n  5]

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 Solution:

## (iii) x[n]={…0 0 5 0…}

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(iv) x[n]   [n]  2 [n  2]   [n  3]

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