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Almost every mechanical movement that we see around us is accomplished by an electric motor. Electric
machines are a means of converting energy. Motors take electrical energy and produce mechanical energy.
Electric motors are used to power hundreds of devices we use in everyday life. Motors come in various sizes.
Huge motors that can take loads of 1000’s of Horsepower are typically used in the industry. Some examples of
large motor applications include elevators, electric trains, hoists, and heavy metal rolling mills. Examples of

small motor applications include motors used in automobiles, robots, hand power tools and food blenders.
Micro-machines are electric machines with parts the size of red blood cells, and find many applications in
medicine. Here we are using 3 DC motors one for clamping purpose i.e. for vice, second for linear movement
the pipe and the third for driving the cutter blade.


 12V DC motors with Gearbox

 3000RPM base motor
 6mm shaft diameter with internal hole
 125gm weight
 2kgcm torque
 No-load current = 60 mA(Max), Load current = 300 mA(Max)

Fig 5. DC Motor

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Geared DC motors can be defined as an extension of DC motor which already had its
Insight details demystified here. A geared DC Motor has a gear assembly attached to
the motor. The speed of motor is counted in terms of rotations of the shaft per minute
and is termed as RPM .The gear assembly helps in increasing the torque and reducing
the speed. Using the correct combination of gears in a gear motor, its speed can be
reduced to any desirable figure. This concept where gears reduce the speed of the
vehicle but increase its torque is known as gear reduction. This Insight will explore all
the minor and major details that make the gear head and hence the working of geared
DC motor.
External Structure
At the first sight, the external structure of a DC geared motor looks as a straight
expansion over the simple DC ones.

Fig. 1: External Structure of DC Geared Motor

The lateral view of the motor shows the outer protrudes of the gear head. A nut is placed
near the shaft which helps in mounting the motor to the other parts of the assembly.

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Fig. 2: Lateral View of Parts of Motor
Also, an internally threaded hole is there on the shaft to allow attachments or extensions
such as wheel to be attached to the motor.

Outer Body of Gear Head & Rear View

The outer body of the gear head is made of high density plastic but it is quite easy to
open as only screws are used to attach the outer and the inner structure. The major
reason behind this could be to lubricate gear head from time to time.
The plastic body has a threading through which nut can be easily mounted and vice
versa from the gear head.

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Fig. 3: Outer Structure of Gear Head
Rear View
The rear view of the geared motor is similar to the DC motor and it has two wires soldered
to it.

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Fig. 4: Rear View of Parts of DC Motor

Internal Structure
Internal Structure
On opening the outer plastic casing of the gear head, gear assemblies on the top as well
as on bottom part of the gear head are visible. These gear assemblies are highly
lubricated with grease so as to avoid any sort of wear and tear due to frictional forces.
Shown below is the top part of the gear head. It is connected to rotating shaft and has
one gear that allows the rotation. A strong circular imprint shows the presence of the
gear that rotates the gear at the upper portion.

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Fig. 5: Gear Assembly
Connection of the shaft with the gear is shown in the image under.

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Fig. 6: Image showing Connection of Shaft with Gear
The cap that accommodates the gear has an arc cut from its side to avoid frictional
resistance forces with the bottom gear assembly.

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Fig. 7: Shape of Cap that Accomodates Gear
The bottom houses the gear mechanism which is connected to the DC motor through
screws. This mechanism rotates the gear at the top which is connected to the rotating

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A gear motor is an all-in-one combination of a motor and gearbox. The addition of a gear head to a
motor reduces the speed while increasing the torque output. The most important parameters in regards to
gear motors are speed (rpm), torque (lb-in) and efficiency (%). In order to select the most suitable gear
motor for your application you must first compute the load, speed and torque requirements for your

Motor Selection Process

The motor selection process, at the conceptual design phase, can be challenging. The following key
points can help you determine and select the most appropriate motor or gear motor for our application.

 Design Requirements – A design assessment phase where the product development requirements,
design parameters, device functionality, and product optimization are studied.
 Design Calculations – Calculations used to determine which motor would be the best solution for
your application. Design calculations determine gear ratio, torque, rotating mass, service factor,
overhung load, and testing analysis.
 Types of DC Motors/Gearmotors – The most common electrical motors convert electrical energy to
mechanical energy. These types of motors are powered by direct current (DC).
o Brushed
o Brushless (BLDC)
o Planetary Gear Motors
o Spur Gear Motors
o Stepper
o Coreless & Coreless Brushless
o Servo
o Gear heads

 Motor Specifications – Once the design calculations are performed, and the application parameters
are defined, you can use this data to determine which motor or gear motor will best fit your
application. Some of the most common specs to consider when selecting a motor or gear motor
would be:
o Voltage

o Current

o Power

o Torque


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o Life Expectancy / Duty Cycle

o Rotation (CW or CCW)

o Shaft Diameter and Length

o Enclosure Restrictions

Gear Motor Performance Curves

A motors performance and gearbox performance are combined into one graph by displaying three
specific parameters. These three parameters are speed, torque and efficiency. These performance curves
are essential when selecting a gear motor for your application.

Speed/Revolutions (N) – (unit: rpm) indicated as a straight line that shows the relationship between the
gear motors torque and speed. This line will shift laterally depending on voltage increase or decrease.
Current (I) – (unit: A) indicated by a straight line, from no load to full motor lock. This shows the
relationship between amperage and torque.
Torque (T) – (unit: gf-cm) this is the load borne by the motor shaft, represented on the X-axis.
Efficiency (η) – (unit: %) is calculated by the input and output values, represented by the dashed line. To
maximize the gear motors potential it should be used near its peak efficiency.
Output (P) – (unit: W) is the amount of mechanical energy the gear motor puts out.

For example, let’s consider the performance curve below (figure 5) for a DC gear motor.
 Maximum operating efficiency (70%) for this motor would occur at 3.75 lb-in / 2,100 rpm.

 As torque increases the speed and efficiency decrease. The result of increased torque is poor output
performance and the device will eventually fail to function once the motor reaches its stall torque
(18 lb-in).

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Gear motor performance curves are a helpful tool when selecting a motor for your application. To get
the most out of the performance curves it’s important to thoroughly understand the applications
requirements. You can use your load and speed requirements to help determine the required torque. Most
DC motor and gear motor manufactures provide performance curves upon request.

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Plastic Gears – Lightweight and Rust-proof

Materials used in plastic gears are, in general, engineering plastics such as polyacetal
(POM) and MC Nylon which is essentially polyamid resin. In addition, U-PE and
PEEK can be used.

When there is a large temperature fluctuation in the application environment, when

the diameter is large or when there is load on its keyway, metal hub made of S45C or
stainless steel may sometimes be used. In these cases, the teeth portion and the hub
portion are attached together with screws. If it is not possible to screw together, two
parts are fused together and made into fused gears. KHK’s fused gears are designed
in such a way that the holding strength of the fused surface is stronger than the tooth

The positive characteristics of plastic gears include being lightweight, non-rusting,

quiet, injection molding enabling low cost and large production, and able to operate
without lubrication by mating with metal gears. On the other hand, low strength,
tendency to hold heat, large dimensional change including backlash compared to
metal, etc. are some of the points requiring caution. The degree of dimensional
changes that occur with plastic gears depend on the ability to resist temperature
change, moisture absorption rate and resistance to chemicals.

As far as the applications of plastic gears, they are used in varying industries such as
food production machines, consumer electronics, chemical, toy, and medical
equipment industries.

At KHK, the bending strength of plastic gears are computed with the Lewis formula.
On the other hand, the tooth surface strength calculation is based on the manufacturer
of MC Nylon and needs no consideration.

This is a simple approach to obtain a 12V and 5V DC power supply using a single circuit. The
circuit uses two ICs 7812(IC1) and 7805 (IC2) for obtaining the required voltages. The AC
mains voltage will be stepped down by the transformer T1, rectified by bridge B1 and filtered by
capacitor C1 to obtain a steady DC level .The IC1 regulates this voltage to obtain a steady 12V
DC. The output of the IC1 will be regulated by the IC2 to obtain a steady 5V DC at its output. In
this way both 12V and 5V DC are obtained.

Such a circuit is very useful in cases when we need two DC voltages for the operation of a
circuit. By varying the type number of the IC1 and IC2, various combinations of output voltages
can be obtained. If 7806 is used for IC2, we will get 6V instead of 5V.Same way if 7809 is used
for IC1 we get 9V instead of 12V.

Circuit diagram with Parts list.


 Assemble the circuit on a good quality PCB or common board.

 The transformer T1 can be a 230V primary, 15V secondary, 1A step-down transformer.
 The fuse F1 can be of 1A.
 The switch S1 can be a SPST ON/OFF switch.
 The LED D1 acts as a power ON indicator.
 If 1A bridge B1 is not available, make one using four 1N4007 diodes.
 78XX series ICs can deliver only up to 1A output current.

Almost all basic household electronic circuits need an unregulated AC to be converted to

constant DC, in order to operate the electronic device. All devices will have a certain power
supply limit and the electronic circuits inside these devices must be able to supply a constant DC
voltage within this limit. This DC supply is regulated and limited in terms of voltage and current.
But the supply provided from mains may be fluctuating and could easily break down the
electronic equipment, if not properly limited. This work of converting an unregulated alternating
current (AC) or voltage to a limited Direct current (DC) or voltage to make the output constant
regardless of the fluctuations in input, is done by a regulated power supply circuit.

All the active and passive electronic devices will have a certain DC operating point (Q-point or
Quiescent point), and this point must be achieved by the source of DC power.

The DC power supply is practically converted to each and every stage in an electronic system.
Thus a common requirement for all these phases will be the DC power supply. All low power
system can be run with a battery. But, for a long time operating devices, batteries could prove to
be costly and complicated. The best method used is in the form of an unregulated power supply –
a combination of a transformer, rectifier and a filter. The diagram is shown below.

Unregulated Power Supply – Diagram

As shown in the figure above, a small step down transformer is used to reduce the voltage level
to the devices needs. In India, a 1 Ø supply is available at 230 volts. The output of the
transformer is a pulsating sinusoidal AC voltage, which is converted to pulsating DC with the
help of a rectifier. This output is given to a filter circuit which reduces the AC ripples, and passes
the DC components. But here are certain disadvantages in using an unregulated power supply.
Disadvantages of unregulated power supply

1. Poor Regulation – When the load varies, the output does not appear constant. The output
voltage changes by a great value due to the huge change in the current drawn from the supply.
This is mainly due to the high internal resistance of the power supply (>30 Ohms).

2. AC Supply Main Variations – The maximum variations in AC supply mains is give or take
6% of its rated value. But this value may go higher in some countries (180-280 volts). When the
value is higher it’s DC voltage output will differ largely.

3. Temperature Variation – The use of semiconductor devices in electronic devices may cause
variation in temperature.

These variations in dc output voltage may cause an inaccurate or erratic operation or even
malfunctioning of many electronic circuits. For instance, in oscillators the frequency will shift, in
transmitters output will get distorted, and in amplifiers, the operating point will shift causing bias

All the above-listed problems are overcome with the help of a voltage regulator which is
employed in conjunction with an unregulated power supply. Thus, the ripple voltage is largely
reduced. Thus, the supply becomes a regulated power supply.

The internal circuitry of a regulated power supply also contains certain current limiting circuits
which help the supply circuit from getting fried from inadvertent circuits. Nowadays, all the
power supplies use IC’s to reduce ripples, enhance voltage regulation and for widened control
options. Programmable power supplies are also available to allow remote operation that is useful
in many settings.


Regulated power supply is an electronic circuit that is designed to provide a constant dc voltage
of predetermined value across load terminals irrespective of ac mains fluctuations or load
Regulated Power Supply – Block Diagram

A regulated power supply essentially consists of an ordinary power supply and a voltage
regulating device, as illustrated in the figure. The output from an ordinary power supply is fed to
the voltage regulating device that provides the final output. The output voltage remains constant
irrespective of variations in the ac input voltage or variations in output (or load) current.

Figure given below shows the complete circuit of a regulated power supply with a transistor
series regulator as a regulating device. Each part of the circuit is explained in detail.


A step down transformer is used to step down the voltage from the input AC to the required
voltage of the electronic device. This output voltage of the transformer is customized by
changing the turns ratio of the transformer according the electronic device specs. The input of the
transformer being 230 Volts AC mains, the output is provided to a full bridge rectifier circuit.

Know More: Transformers

Full Wave Rectifier Circuit

The FWR consists of 4 diodes which rectifies the output AC voltage or current from the
transistor to its equivalent DC quantity. As the name implies the FWR rectifies both half’s of the
AC input. The rectified DC output is given as input to the filter circuit.

Know More: Full Wave Rectifier & Half Wave Rectifier

Filter Circuit

The filter circuit is used to convert the high rippled DC output of the FWR to ripple free DC
content. A ∏ filter is used to make the waveforms ripple free.

Know More: Filter Circuits

In Short

The ac voltage, typically 230 Vrms is connected to a transformer which transforms that ac voltage
to the level for the desired dc output. A bridge rectifier then provides a full-wave rectified
voltage that is initially filtered by a ∏ (or C-L-C) filter to produce a dc voltage. The resulting dc
voltage usually has some ripple or ac voltage variation. A regulating circuit use this dc input to
provide a dc voltage that not only has much less ripple voltage but also remains constant even if
the input dc voltage varies somewhat or the load connected to the output dc voltage changes. The
regulated dc supply is available across a voltage divider.

Regulated Power Supply – Diagram

Often more than one dc voltage is required for the operation of electronic circuits. A single
power supply can provide as many as voltages as are required by using a voltage (or potential)
divider, as illustrated in the figure. As illustrated in the figure, a potential divider is a single
tapped resistor connected across the output terminals of the supply. The tapped resistor may
consist of two or three resistors connected in series across the supply. In fact, a bleeder resistor
may also be employed as a potential divider.

Power Supply Characteristics

There are various factors that determine the quality of the power supply like the load voltage,
load current, voltage regulation, source regulation, output impedance, ripple rejection, and so on.
Some of the characteristics are briefly explained below:

1. Load Regulation – The load regulation or load effect is the change in regulated output
voltage when the load current changes from minimum to maximum value.

Load regulation = Vno-load - Vfull-load

Vno-load refers to the Load Voltage at no load

Vfull-load refers to the Load voltage at full load.

From the above equation we can understand that when Vno-load occurs the load resistance is
infinite, that is, the out terminals are open circuited. Vfull-load occurs when the load resistance is
of the minimum value where voltage regulation is lost.

% Load Regulation = [(Vno-load - Vfull-load)/Vfull-load] * 100

2. Minimum Load Resistance – The load resistance at which a power supply delivers its full-
load rated current at rated voltage is referred to as minimum load resistance.
Minimum Load Resistance = Vfull-load/Ifull-load

The value of Ifull-load, full load current should never increase than that mentioned in the
datasheet of the power supply.

3. Source/Line Regulation – In the block diagram, the input line voltage has a nominal value of
230 Volts but in practice, here are considerable variations in ac supply mains voltage. Since this
ac supply mains voltage is the input to the ordinary power supply, the filtered output of the
bridge rectifier is almost directly proportional to the ac mains voltage.

The source regulation is defined as the change in regulated output voltage for a specified rage of
lie voltage.

4. Output Impedance – A regulated power supply is a very stiff dc voltage source. This means
that the output resistance is very small. Even though the external load resistance is varied, almost
no change is seen in the load voltage. An ideal voltage source has an output impedance of zero.

5. Ripple Rejection – Voltage regulators stabilize the output voltage against variations in input
voltage. Ripple is equivalent to a periodic variation in the input voltage. Thus,a voltage regulator
attenuates the ripple that comes in with the unregulated input voltage. Since a voltage regulator
uses negative feedback, the distortion is reduced by the same factor as the gain.
PCB Manufacturing Process — A Step-by-Step Guide

Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) form the backbone of all major electronics. These miraculous

inventions pop up in nearly all computational electronics, including simpler devices like digital clocks,

calculators etc. For the uninitiated, a PCB routes electrical signals through electronics, which

satisfies the device's electrical and mechanical circuit requirements. In short, PCBs tell the electricity

where to go, bringing your electronics to life.

PCBs direct current around their surface through a network of copper pathways. The complex

system of copper routes determines the unique role of each piece of printed circuit board.
Before PCB design, circuit designers are recommended to get a tour of a PC board shop and

communicate with fabricators face to face over their PCB manufacturing demands. It helps prevent

designers making any unnecessary errors from getting transmitted during the design stage.

However, as more companies outsourcing their PCB manufacturing inquiries to overseas suppliers,

this becomes unpractical. On this account, we present this article in order to provide a proper

understanding of PCB manufacturing steps. Hopefully it gives circuit designers and those new to

PCB Industry a clear view on how printed circuit boards are manufactured, and avoid making those

unnecessary errors.

PCB Manufacturing Process Steps

Step 1: Design and Output

circuit boards should be rigorously compatible with, the designer creates a PCB layout using PCB

design software. Commonly-used PCB design software includes Altium Designer, OrCAD, Pads,

KiCad, Eagle etc. NOTE: Before PCB fabrication, designers should inform their contract

manufacturer about the PCB design software version used to design the circuit, it helps avoid issues

caused by discrepancies.
Once the PCB design is approved for production, designers export the design into format their

manufacturers support. The most frequently used program is called extended Gerber. The 1980's

baby food ad campaign sought beautiful babies, and this software creates some beautifully designed

offspring. Gerber also goes by the name IX274X.

The PCB industry birthed extended Gerber as the perfect output format. Different PCB design

software possibly calls for different Gerber file generation steps, they all encode comprehensive vital

information including copper tracking layers, drill drawing, apertures, component notations and other

options. All aspects of the PCB design undergo checks at this point. The software performs

oversight algorithms on the design to ensure that no errors go undetected. Designers also examines

the plan with regard to elements relating to track width, board edge spacing, trace and hole spacing

and hole size.

After a thorough examination, designers forward PCB file to PC Board Houses for production. To

ensure the design fulfills requirements for the minimum tolerances during manufacturing process,

almost all PCB Fab Houses run Design for Manufacture (DFM) check before circuit boards


Step 2: From File to Film

PCB printing begins after designers output the PCB schematic files and manufacturers conduct a

DFM check. Manufacturers use a special printer called a plotter, which makes photo films of the

PCBs, to print circuit boards. Manufacturers will use the films to image the PCBs. Although it's a
laser printer, it isn't a standard laser jet printer. Plotters use incredibly precise printing technology to

provide a highly detailed film of the PCB design.

The final product results in a plastic sheet with a photo negative of the PCB in black ink. For the

inner layers of PCB, black ink represents the conductive copper parts of the PCB. The remaining

clear portion of the image denotes the areas of non-conductive material. The outer layers follow the

opposite pattern: clear for copper, but black refers to the area that'll be etched away. The plotter

automatically develops the film, and the film is securely stored to prevent any unwanted contact.

Each layer of PCB and solder mask receives its own clear and black film sheet. In total, a two-layer

PCB needs four sheets: two for the layers and two for the solder mask. Significantly, all the films

have to correspond perfectly to each other. When used in harmony, they map out the PCB


To achieve perfect alignment of all films, registration holes should be punched through all films. The

exactness of the hole occurs by adjusting the table on which the film sits. When the tiny calibrations
of the table lead to an optimal match, the hole is punched. The holes will fit into the registration pins

in the next step of the imaging process.

Step 3: Printing the Inner layers: Where Will the Copper Go?

The creation of films in previous step aims to map out a figure of copper path. Now it's time to print

the figure on the film onto a copper foil.

This step in PCB manufacturing prepares to make actual PCB. The basic form of PCB comprises a

laminate board whose core material is epoxy resin and glass fiber that are also called substrate

material. Laminate serves as an ideal body for receiving the copper that structures the PCB.

Substrate material provides a sturdy and dust-resistant starting point for the PCB. Copper is pre-

bonded on both sides. The process involves whittling away the copper to reveal the design from the


In PCB construction, cleanliness does matter. The copper-sided laminate is cleaned and passed into

a decontaminated environment. During this stage, it's vital that no dust particles settle on the

laminate. An errant speck of dirt might otherwise cause a circuit to be short or remain open.
Next, the clean panel receives a layer of photo-sensitive film called photo resist. The photo resist

comprises a layer of photo reactive chemicals that harden after exposure to ultra violet light. This

ensures an exact match from the photo films to the photo resist. The films fit onto pins that hold them

in place over the laminate panel.

The film and board line up and receive a blast of UV light. The light passes through the clear parts of

the film, hardening the photo resist on the copper underneath. The black ink from the plotter

prevents the light from reaching the areas not meant to harden, and they are slated for removal.

After the board becomes prepared, it is washed with an alkaline solution that removes any photo

resist left unhardened. A final pressure wash removes anything else left on the surface. The board is

then dried.

The product emerges with resist properly covering the copper areas meant to remain in the final

form. A technician examines the boards to ensure that no errors occur during this stage. All the

resist present at this point denotes the copper that will emerge in the finished PCB.

This step only applies to boards with more than two layers. Simple two-layer boards skip ahead to

drilling. Multiple-layer boards require more steps.

Step 4: Removing the Unwanted Copper

With the photo resist removed and the hardened resist covering the copper we wish to keep, the

board proceeds to the next stage: unwanted copper removal. Just as the alkaline solution removed

the resist, a more powerful chemical preparation eats away the excess copper. The copper solvent

solution bath removes all of the exposed copper. Meanwhile, the desired copper remains fully

protected beneath the hardened layer of photo resist.

Not all copper boards are created equal. Some heavier boards require larger amounts of copper

solvent and varying lengths of exposure. As a side note, heavier copper boards require additional

attention for track spacing. Most standard PCBs rely on similar specification.

Now that the solvent removed the unwanted copper, the hardened resist protecting the preferred

copper needs washing off. Another solvent accomplishes this task. The board now glistens with only

the copper substrate necessary for the PCB.

Step 5: Layer Alignment and Optical Inspection

With all the layers clean and ready, the layers require alignment punches to ensure they all line up.

The registration holes align the inner layers to the outer ones. The technician places the layers into a

machine called the optical punch, which permits an exact correspondence so the registration holes

are accurately punched.

Once the layers are placed together, it's impossible to correct any errors occurring on the inner

layers. Another machine performs an automatic optical inspection of the panels to confirm a total

absence of defects. The original design from Gerber, which the manufacturer received, serves as

the model. The machine scans the layers using a laser sensor and proceeds to electronically

compare the digital image with the original Gerber file.

If the machine finds inconsistency, the comparison is displayed on a monitor for the technician to

assess. Once the layer passes inspection, it moves to the final stages of PCB production.

Step 6: Layer-up and Bond

In this stage, the circuit board takes shape. All the separate layers await their union. With the layers

ready and confirmed, they simply need to fuse together. Outer layers must join with the substrate.

The process happens in two steps: layer-up and bonding.

The outer layer material consists of sheets of fiber glass, pre-impregnated with epoxy resin. The

shorthand for this is called prepreg. A thin copper foil also covers the top and bottom of the original

substrate, which contains the copper trace etchings. Now, it's time to sandwich them together.

The bonding occurs on a heavy steel table with metal clamps. The layers securely fit into pins

attached to the table. Everything must fit snugly to prevent shifting during the alignment.

A technician begins by placing a prepreg layer over alignment basin. The substrate layer fits over the

prepreg before the copper sheet is placed. Further sheets of prepreg sit on top of the copper layer.

Finally, an aluminum foil and copper press plate complete the stack. Now it's prepped for pressing.

The entire operation undergoes an automatic routine run by the bonding press computer. The

computer orchestrates the process of heating up the stack, the point in which to apply pressure, and

when to allow the stack to cool at a controlled rate.

Next, a certain amount of unpacking occurs. With all the layers molded together in a super sandwich

of PCB glory, the technician simply unpacks the multi-layer PCB product. It's a simple matter of

removing the restraining pins and discarding the top pressure plate. The PCB goodness emerges

victorious from within its shell of aluminum press plates. The copper foil, included in the process,

remains to comprise the outer layers of the PCB.

Step 7: Drill

Finally, holes are bored into the stack board. All components slated to come later, such as copper-

linking via holes and leaded aspects, rely on the exactness of precision drill holes. The holes are

drilled to a hairs-width - the drill achieves 100 microns in diameter, while hair averages at 150


To find the location of the drill targets, an x-ray locator identifies the proper drill target spots. Then,

proper registration holes are bored to secure the stack for the series of more specific holes.

Before drilling, the technician places a board of buffer material beneath the drill target to ensure a

clean bore is enacted. The exit-material prevents any unnecessary tearing upon the drill's exits.
A computer controls every micro-movement of the drill - it's only natural that a product that

determines the behavior of machines would rely on computers. The computer-driven machine uses

the drilling file from the original design to identify the proper spots to bore.

The drills use air-driven spindles that turn at 150,000 rpm. At this speed, you might think that drilling

happens in a flash, but there are many holes to bore. An average PCB contains well over one

hundred bore intact points. During drilling, each needs its own special moment with the drill, so it

takes time. The holes later house the vias and mechanical mounting holes for the PCB. The final

affixation of these parts occurs later, after plating.

After the drilling completes itself, the additional copper that lines the edges of the production panel

undergoes removal by a profiling tool.

Step 8: Plating and Copper Deposition

After drilling, the panel moves onto plating. The process fuses the different layers together using

chemical deposition. After a thorough cleaning, the panel undergoes a series of chemical baths.

During the baths, a chemical deposition process deposits a thin layer - about one micron thick - of

copper over the surface of the panel. The copper goes into the recently drilled holes.
Prior to this step, the interior surface of the holes simply exposes the fiber glass material that

comprises the interior of the panel. The copper baths completely cover, or plate, the walls of the

holes. Incidentally, the entire panel receives a new layer of copper. Most importantly, the new holes

are covered. Computers control the entire process of dipping, removal and procession.

Step 9: Outer Layer Imaging

In Step 3, we applied photo resist to the panel. In this step, we do it again - except this time, we

image the outer layers of the panel with PCB design. We begin with the layers in a sterile room to

prevent any contaminants from sticking to the layer surface, then apply a layer of photo resist to the

panel. The prepped panel passes into the yellow room. UV lights affect photo resist. Yellow light

wavelengths don't carry UV levels sufficient to affect the photo resist.

Black ink transparencies are secured by pins to prevent misalignment with the panel. With panel and

stencil in contact, a generator blasts them with high UV light, which hardens the photo resist. The

panel then passes into a machine that removes the unhardened resist, protected by the black ink


The process stands as an inversion to that of the inner layers. Finally, the outer plates undergo

inspection to ensure all of the undesired photo resist was removed during the previous stage.

Step 10: Plating

We return to the plating room. As we did in Step 8, we electroplate the panel with a thin layer of

copper. The exposed sections of the panel from the outer layer photo resist stage receive the copper

electro-plating. Following the initial copper plating baths, the panel usually receives tin plating, which

permits the removal of all the copper left on the board slated for removal. The tin guards the section

of the panel meant to remain covered with copper during the next etching stage. Etching removes

the unwanted copper foil from the panel.

Step 11: Final Etching

The tin protects the desired copper during this stage. The unwanted exposed copper and copper

beneath the remaining resist layer undergo removal. Again, chemical solutions are applied to

remove the excess copper. Meanwhile, the tin protects the valued copper during this stage.

The conducting areas and connections are now properly established.

Step 12: Solder Mask Application

Before the solder mask is applied to both sides of the board, the panels are cleaned and covered

with an epoxy solder mask ink. The boards receive a blast of UV light, which passes through a

solder mask photo film. The covered portions remain unhardened and will undergo removal.

Finally, the board passes into an oven to cure the solder mask.

Step 13: Surface Finish

To add extra solder-ability to the PCB, we chemically plate them with gold or silver. Some PCBs also

receive hot air-leveled pads during this stage. The hot air leveling results in uniform pads. That

process leads to the generation of surface finish. PCBCart can process multiple types of surface

finish according to customers' specific demands.

Step 14: Silkscreen

The nearly completed board receives ink-jet writing on its surface, used to indicate all vital

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Step 16: Profiling and V-Scoring

Now we've come to the last step: cutting. Different boards are cut from the original panel. The

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• A Brief Introduction about PCBCart

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• Get an Instant PCB Fabrication Price of Your Project

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• How to Evaluate A PCB Manufacturer or A PCB Assembler

16x2 LCD Module

30 August 2017 - 0 Comments
16x2 LCD Module

16x2 LCD Module Pinout

[Click the image to enlarge it]

Pin Configuration

Pin No: Pin Name: Description

1 Vss (Ground) Ground pin connected to system ground

2 Vdd (+5 Volt) Powers the LCD with +5V (4.7V – 5.3V)

3 VE (Contrast V) Decides the contrast level of display. Grounded to get maximum contra

4 Register Select Connected to Microcontroller to shit between command/data register

5 Read/Write Used to read or write data. Normally grounded to write data to LCD

6 Enable Connected to Microcontroller Pin and toggled between 1 and 0 fo


7 Data Pin 0

8 Data Pin 1 Data pins 0 to 7 forms a 8-bit data line. They can be connec
Microcontroller to send 8-bit data.
9 Data Pin 2 These LCD’s can also operate on 4-bit mode in such case Data pin 4,5,6
will be left free.

10 Data Pin 3

11 Data Pin 4

12 Data Pin 5

13 Data Pin 6

14 Data Pin 7
15 LED Positive Backlight LED pin positive terminal

16 LED Negative Backlight LED pin negative terminal

Features of 16×2 LCD module

 Operating Voltage is 4.7V to 5.3V

 Current consumption is 1mA without backlight
 Alphanumeric LCD display module, meaning can display alphabets and numbers
 Consists of two rows and each row can print 16 characters.
 Each character is build by a 5×8 pixel box
 Can work on both 8-bit and 4-bit mode
 It can also display any custom generated characters
 Available in Green and Blue Backlight

16x2 Display Equivalents

Dot Matrix LED Display, 7-Segment LED Display, OLED Display, TFT LCD Screen Display

Brief Description on LCD modules

LCD modules are vey commonly used in most embedded projects, the reason being its cheap price, availability
and programmer friendly. Most of us would have come across these displays in our day to day life, either at
PCO’s or calculators. The appearance and the pinouts have already been visualized above now let us get a bit
16×2 LCD is named so because; it has 16 Columns and 2 Rows. There are a lot of combinations available like,
8×1, 8×2, 10×2, 16×1, etc. but the most used one is the 16×2 LCD. So, it will have (16×2=32) 32 characters in
total and each character will be made of 5×8 Pixel Dots. A Single character with all its Pixels is shown in the
below picture.

Now, we know that each character has (5×8=40) 40 Pixels and for 32 Characters we will have (32×40) 1280
Pixels. Further, the LCD should also be instructed about the Position of the Pixels. Hence it will be a hectic task
to handle everything with the help of MCU, hence an Interface IC like HD44780is used, which is mounted on
the backside of the LCD Module itself. The function of this IC is to get the Commands and Data from the MCU
and process them to display meaningful information onto our LCD Screen. You can learn how to interface an
LCD using the above mentioned links. If you are an advanced programmer and would like to create your own
library for interfacing your Microcontroller with this LCD module then you have to understand the HD44780 IC
is working and commands which can be found its datasheet.

2D model of 16×2 LCD module

A gripper is a device which enables the holding of an object to be manipulated. The easier way
to describe a gripper is to think of the human hand. Just like a hand, a gripper enables holding,
tightening, handling and releasing of an object. A gripper is just one component of an
automated system. A gripper can be attached to a robot or it can be part of a fixed automation
system. Many styles and sizes of grippers exist so that the correct model can be selected for
the application.


Compressed air is supplied to the cylinder of the gripper body forcing the piston up and down,
which through a mechanical linkage, forces the gripper jaws open and closed. There are 3
primary motions of the gripper jaws; parallel, angular and toggle. These operating principals
refer to the motion of the gripper jaws in relation to the gripper body.

Parallel Gripper
The gripper jaws move in a parallel motion in relation to the gripper body. Used in a majority of
applications, parallel grippers are typically more accurate than other style grippers.

Angular Gripper
The gripper jaws are opened and closed around a central pivot point, moving in a sweeping or
arcing motion. Angular grippers are often used when limited space is available or when the jaws
need to move up and out of the way. Toggle Gripper The pivot point jaw movement acts as an
over-center toggle lock, providing a high grip force to weight ratio. This mechanism will remain
locked even if air pressure is lost.


2-Jaw Gripper: The most popular style of gripper, all 2 Jaw grippers (angular, parallel and
toggle) provide 2 mounting locations for the fingers that come in contact with the part to be
grasped. The jaws move in a synchronous motion opening and closing toward the central axis
of the gripper body
3-Jaw Gripper: A more specialized style of gripper, all 3 Jaw grippers (parallel and toggle)
provide 3 mounting locations for the fingers that come in contact with the part to be grasped.
The jaws move in a synchronous motion opening and closing toward the central axis of the
gripper body. 3 Jaws provide more contact with the part to be grasped and more accurate
centering than 2 jaw models.


Grippers are used in two different holding options, External and Internal. The option used is
determined by the geometry of the part to be grasped, the process to be performed, orientation
of the parts to be grasped and the physical space available.

This parameter is the maximum mass that can be attached or supported by
the wrist of the robot arm (J6 axis for Fanuc, T axis for Motoman, etc.). A
payload is usually expressed as a weight unit (kilograms [kg] or pounds [lbs]).
This parameter will include the mass of the end-effector and its bracket and
will also include the mass of the object that must be moved by the robotic
arm. Robotic welding applications should also consider the payload as a
parameter for robot selection. For example, an arc welding torch is lighter than
a spot welding gun, which will result in a different payload total. Therefore, the
robot selection might be different for these two applications. Generally, the
payload is given by the robot manufacturer. Make sure you consider every
single part that can be attached to the wrist of the robot arm in your
calculations. It is also a good idea to add a supplementary security factor to
ensure that the total mass that must be moved is slightly lighter than the
maximum payload. Notice that an end effector can also have a recommended
payload, which should guide you in selecting this tool.

Grip Force
Gripping force is the maximum effort applicable by the end-effector. As robot
grippers are not all alike, different terms exist. Grip force is normally used for
claw-grippers, representing the force that the “fingers’’ can apply on a part. In
other cases, magnetic or suction force can be used for applications requiring
pneumatic or magnetic end-effectors. This parameter is normally expressed
as a force unit (Newtons [N] or pound force [lbf]). The grip force is usually
given by the robot gripper manufacturer. At this point, the difference between
payload and grip force should be noted. In fact, a robot arm cannot have a
gripping force, it is the robot gripper itself that is applying a force on the object
to retain it from slipping, especially during movement.
How to Calculate the Minimal
Gripping Force
The calculation of the minimal gripping force that the robot gripper must apply
will include the mass of the part that must be moved, the friction coefficient
between the finger material and the part material and the gravitational
acceleration constant. Here is a short presentation of the calculation
(expressed in metric units) that can be made to approximate the gripping force
needed for an application. Notice that the gripping force is the sum of all the
fingers’ force.
F: Gripping force [N]
u: Coefficient of static friction
m: Mass of the part [kg]
g: Gravitational acceleration [9.81 m/s^2]
a: Acceleration (if it is significant)
To make sure the part doesn’t slip during static prehension, the gripping force
should be higher than the weight of the part itself.
F > m(g+a)/u *(safety factor)
Since each application has its own friction coefficient, the safety factor should
be enhanced respectively for a low friction or high friction use. The safety
factor should likewise be enhanced if the robot has a strong
acceleration/deceleration or the possibility of impact during movement.

2 More Tips about How to

Calculate the Minimal Gripping
 By improving the coefficient for static friction between the part and the robotic
gripper's fingers you can reduce the gripping force needed on an object.
 By using a robot gripper that can encompass a part - such as the Robotiq end
effector - you can lift more than the sum of the above formula (but keep in
mind you still need to respect the payload of the end effector and the robot).

With these few tips you should now be able to differentiate between payload
and grip force. Calculating each of these parameters correctly can also be
crucial in the selection of the robot that you are considering for implantation in
your workshop. Making the right tool choice is always important and should
help you save time and money at the end of the day.

H-Bridge Motor Control Circuit Using

L293d Motor Driver IC

Common DC gear head motors need current above 250mA. There are many integrated
circuits like ATmega16 Microcontroller, 555 timer IC. But, IC 74 series cannot supply this
amount of current. When the motor is directly connected to the o/p of the above ICs then,
they might damaged. To overcome this problem, a motor control circuit is required, which
can act as a bridge between the above motors and ICs (integrated circuits). There are
various ways of making H-bridge motor control circuit such as using transistor, relays and
using L293D/L298.

H Bridge Motor Control Circuit

Using L293d IC

H-Bridge Circuit

A H bridge is an electronic circuit that allows a voltage to be applied across a load in any
direction. H-bridge circuits are frequently used in robotics and many other applications to
allow DC motors to run forward & backward. These motor control circuits are mostly used
in different converters like DC-DC, DC-AC, AC-AC converters and many other types
of power electronic converters. In specific, a bipolar stepper motor is always driven by a
motor controller having two H-bridges

H-Bridge Circuit

A H-bridge is fabricated with four switches like S1, S2, S3 and S4. When the S1 and S4
switches are closed, then a +ve voltage will be applied across the motor. By opening the
switches S1 and S4 and closing the switches S2 and S3, this voltage is inverted, allowing
invert operation of the motor.
Generally, the H-bridge motor driver circuit is used to reverse the direction of the motor
and also to break the motor. When the motor comes to a sudden stop, as the terminals
of the motor are shorted. Or let the motor run free to a stop, when the motor is detached
from the circuit. The table below gives the different operations with the four switches
corresponding to the above circuit.

Operation of the H-
L293D Motor Driver IC
L293D IC is a typical Motor Driver IC which allows the DC motor to drive on any direction.
This IC consists of 16-pins which are used to control a set of two DC motors
instantaneously in any direction. It means, by using a L293D IC we can control two DC
motors. As well, this IC can drive small and quiet big motors.
This L293D IC works on the basic principle of H-bridge, this motor control circuit allows
the voltage to be flowing in any direction. As we know that the voltage must be change
the direction of being able to rotate the DC motor in both the directions. Hence, H-bridge
circuit using L293D ICs are perfect for driving a motor. Single L293D IC consists of two
H-bridge circuits inside which can rotate two DC motors separately. Generally, these
circuits are used in robotics due to its size for controlling DC motors.
Pin Diagram of a L293D Motor Driver IC Controller

L293D IC Pin Configuration

 Pin-1 (Enable 1-2): When the enable pin is high, then the left part of the IC will work otherwise it won’t
work. This pin is also called as a master control pin.
 Pin-2 (Input-1): When the input pin is high, then the flow of current will be through output 1
 Pin-3 (Output-1): This output-1 pin must be connected to one of the terminals of the motor
 Pin4 &5: These pins are ground pins
 Pin-6 (Output-2): This pin must be connected to one of the terminals of the motor.
 Pin-7 (Input-2): When this pin is HIGH then the flow of current will be though output 2
 Pin-8 (Vcc2): This is the voltage pin which is used to supply the voltage to the motor.
 Pin-16 (Vss): This pin is the power source to the integrated circuit.
 Pin-15 (Input-4): When this pin is high, then the flow of current will be through output-4.
 Pin-14 (Output-4): This pin must be connected to one of the terminals of the motor
 Pin-12 & 13: These pins are ground pins
 Pin-11 (Output-3): This pin must be connected to one of the terminals of the motor.
 Pin-10 (Input-3): When this pin is high, then the flow of current will through output-3
 Pin-9 (Enable3-4): When this pin is high, then the right part of the IC will work & when it is low the
right part of the IC won’t work. This pin is also called as a master control pin for the right part of the
H Bridge Motor Control Circuit Using L293d IC
The IC LM293D consists of 4-i/p pins where, pin2 and 7 on the left side of the IC and Pin
10 and 15 on the right side of the IC. Left input pins on the IC will control the rotation of a
motor. Here, the motor is connected across side and right i/p for the motor on the right
hand side. This motor rotates based on the i/ps we provided across the input pins as
Logic 0 and Logic 1.

H-bridge Motor Circuit with

L293D IC

Let’s consider, when a motor is connected to the o/p pins 3 and 6 on the left side of the
IC. For rotating of the motor in clockwise direction, then the i/p pins have to be provided
with Logic 0 and Logic 1.

When Pin-2= logic 1 & pin-7 = logic 0, then it rotates in clockwise direction.
Pin-2=logic 0 & Pin7=logic 1, then it rotates in anti clock direction
Pin-2= logic 0 & Pin7=logic 0, then it is idle (high impedance state)
Pin-2= logic 1 & Pin7=logic 1, then it is idle
In a similar way the motor can also operate across input pin-15 and pin-10 for the motor
on the right hand side.

The L4293D motor driver IC deals with huge currents, due to this reason, this circuit uses
a heat sink to decrease the heat. Therefore, there are 4-ground pins on the L293D IC.
When we solder these pins on the PCB (printed circuit board), then we can get a huge
metallic area between the ground pins where the heat can be produced.

This is all about H Bridge Motor Control Circuit Using L293d IC. These ICs are generally
used in robotics. We hope that you have got a better understanding about the concept of
H-bridge. Furthermore, any queries regarding H bridge motor driver IC l293d or electrical
and electronic projects, please give your feedback in the comment section below. Here is a
question for you, what is the purpose of moor driver IC?

How TCS230 Color Sensor Works

The TCS230 senses color light with the help of an 8 x 8 array of photodiodes. Then
using a Current-to-Frequency Converter the readings from the photodiodes are
converted into a square wave with a frequency directly proportional to the light intensity.
Finally, using the Arduino Board we can read the square wave output and get the
results for the color.
If we take a closer look at the sensor we can see how it detects various colors. The
photodiodes have three different color filters. Sixteen of them have red filters, another
16 have green filters, another 16 have blue filters and the other 16 photodiodes are
clear with no filters.

Each 16 photodiodes are connected in parallel, so using the two control pins S2 and S3
we can select which of them will be read. So for example, if we want to detect red color,
we can just use the 16 red filtered photodiodes by setting the two pins to low logic level
according to the table.
The sensor has two more control pins, S0 and S1 which are used for scaling the output
frequency. The frequency can be scaled to three different preset values of 100 %, 20 %
or 2%. This frequency-scaling function allows the output of the sensor to be optimized
for various frequency counters or microcontrollers.

Now we are ready to move on and connect the TCS230 sensor to the Arduino board.
Here’s the circuit schematics.
You can get the components needed for this Arduino tutorial from the links below:

TCS230 Color Sensor Source Code

Description: First we need to define the pins to which the sensor is connected and
define a variable for reading the frequency. In the setup section we need to define the
four control pins as outputs and the sensor output as an Arduino input. Here we also
need to set the frequency-scaling, for this example I will set it to 20%, and start the
serial communication for displaying the results in the Serial Monitor.

In the loop section, we will start with reading the red filtered photodiodes. For that
purpose we will set the two control pins S2 and S3 to low logic level. Then using the
“pulseIn()” function we will read the output frequency and put it into the variable
“frequency”. Using the Serial.print() function we will print the result on the serial monitor.
The same procedure goes for the two other colors, we just need to adjust the control
pins for the appropriate color.