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1.

OP-AMP AND OTA BASICS

(A) OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OP-AMP)

OP AMP INTRODUCTION

An operational amplifier (op amp) is a differential input, single-ended output


amplifier, as shown symbolically in Figure. This device is an amplifier intended for
use with external feedback elements, where these elements determine the resultant
function, or operation. This gives rise to the name ―operational amplifier,‖ denoting
an amplifier that, by virtue of different feedback hook-ups, can perform a variety of
operations.

Figure: The ideal op amp and its attributes

IDEAL OP AMP ATTRIBUTES

An ideal op amp has infinite gain for differential input signals. In practice, real
devices will have quite high gain (also called open-loop gain) but this gain won’t
necessarily be precisely known. In terms of specifications, gain is measured in terms
of VOUT/VIN, and is given in V/V, the dimensionless numeric gain.

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Also, an ideal op amp has zero gain for signals common to both inputs, that is,
common-mode (CM) signals. Or, stated in terms of the rejection for these common-
mode signals, an ideal op amp has infinite CM rejection (CMRR).

The ideal op amp also has zero offset voltage ( = 0), and draws zero bias current
( = 0) at both inputs.

REAL OP AMP ATTRIBUTES

Gains of 100 dB – 130 dB are common for precision op amps, while high speed
devices may have gains in the 60 dB – 70 dB range.

In practice, real op amps can have CMR specifications of up to 130 dB for precision
devices, or as low as 60 dB–70 dB for some high speed devices.

Within real devices, actual offset voltages can be as low as 1 µV or less, or as high as
several mV. Bias currents can be as low as a few fA, or as high as several µA.

STANDARD OP AMP FEEDBACK

Virtually all op amp feedback connections can be categorized into just a few basic
types.
These include the two most often used, non-inverting and inverting voltage gain
stages, plus a related differential gain stage.

The Non-inverting Op Amp Stage

The op amp non-inverting gain stage, also known as a voltage follower with gain, or
simply voltage follower, is shown below in Figure

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This op amp stage processes the input VIN by a gain of G, so a generalized expression
for gain is:

Feedback network resistances RF and RG set the stage gain of the follower. For an
ideal op amp, the gain of this stage is:

The Inverting Op Amp Stage

The op amp inverting gain stage, also known simply as the inverter, is shown in
Figure .The inverter can be viewed as similar to a follower, but with a transposition
of the input voltage . In the inverter the signal is applied to of the feedback
network, and the op amp (+) input is grounded. The feedback network resistances,
and set the stage gain of the inverter. For an ideal op amp, the gain of this stage
is:

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The inverter’s gain behaviour, due to the principles of infinite op amp gain, zero
input offset, and zero bias current, gives rise to an effective node of zero voltage at
the (−) input. The input and feedback currents sum at this point, which logically
results in the term summing point. It is also called a virtual ground, because of the
fact it will be at the same potential as the grounded reference input.

GAIN STABILITY

Variation in open-loop gain (ΔAVOL) is reduced by the factor AVOLβ,


In so far as the effect on closed-loop gain. This improvement in closed-loop gain
stability
is one of the important benefits of negative feedback.

LOOP GAIN

The product AVOLβ which occurs in the above equations is called loop gain, a well-
known term in feedback theory. The improvement in closed-loop performance due to
negative feedback is, in nearly every case, proportional to loop gain. The term "loop
gain" comes from the method of measurement. This is done by breaking the closed
feedback loop at the op amp output, and measuring the total gain around the loop.

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Approximately, closed-loop output impedance, linearity, and gain instability errors
reduce by the factor A β, with the use of negative feedback.

SLEW RATE

Slew rate is defined as an output voltage rate limit usually caused by the current
necessary to charge a capacitance.

OP AMP CHARACTERIZATION

A model for a noni deal op amp that includes some of the linear, static nonidealities:

Where
= differential input resistance
= differential input capacitance
= common mode input resistance
= common mode input capacitance
= input-offset voltage
CMRR = common-mode rejection ratio (when v1=v2 an output results)
= voltage-noise spectral density (mean-square volts/Hertz)

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OP AMP CATEGORIZATION

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF TWO STAGE CMOS OP AMP

The first stage in Figure 1 consists of a p-channel differential pair M1-M2 with an n-
channel current mirror load M3-M4 and a p-channel tail current source M5. The
second stage consists of an n-channel common-source amplifier M6 with a p-channel

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current-source load M7. Because the OP-AMP inputs are connected to the gates of
MOS transistor, the input resistance is essentially infinite when the OP-AMP is used
in internal applications. For the same reason, the input resistance of the second stage
of the OP-AMP is also essentially infinite. The output resistance is the resistance
looking back into the second stage with the OP-AMP inputs connected to small
signal ground:

Where R0=output resistance and ro6 and ro7 are the internal resistance of transistor
M6 and M7 respectively. Although this output resistance is almost always much
larger than in general purpose bipolar OP-AMP, low output resistance is usually not
required when driving purely capacitive loads. Since the input resistance of the
second stage is essentially infinite, the voltage gain of the amplifier in Figure 1 can
be found by considering the two stages separately. The small signal voltage gain of
first stage (basic diff amp) is given by

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(B) OPERATIONAL TRANSCONDUCTANCE AMPLIFIER (OTA)

INTRODUCTION

An OTA is a voltage controlled current source, more specifically the term


―operational‖ comes from the fact that it takes the difference of two voltages as the
input for the current conversion.
The ideal transfer characteristic is therefore
( )
with the ideally constant transconductance gm as the proportionality factor between
the two. In reality the transconductance is also a function of the input differential
voltage and dependent on temperature.
To summarize, an ideal OTA has two voltage inputs with infinite impedance (i.e.
there is no input current). The common mode input range is also infinite, while the
differential signal between these two inputs is used to control an ideal current source
(i.e. the output current does not depend on the output voltage) that functions as an
output. The proportionality factor between output current and input differential
voltage is called transconductance.

Any real OTA will thus have circuitry to process the input voltages with low input
current over a wide common mode input range, to produce an internal representation
of the input differential voltage and to provide a current to the output that is relatively

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independent of the output voltage. Since an OTA can be used without feedback, the
maximum output current and with it the transconductance can often be adjusted.

IDEAL CHARACTERSTICS OF OTA

The adjustable gm over wide range of bias current

Bandwidth is infinite.
When =

NON IDEAL CHARACTERSTICS OF OTA

1. Input stage non-linearity at higher differential input voltages due to the


characteristics of the input stage transistors. In the early devices, such as the CA
3080, the input stage consisted of two bipolar transistors connected in the differential
amplifier configuration. The transfer characteristics of this connection are
approximately linear for differential input voltages of 20 mV or less. This is an
important limitation when the OTA is being used open loop as there is no negative
feedback to linearize the output.
2. Temperature sensitivity of transconductance.
3. Variation of input and output impedance, input bias current and input offset
voltage with the transconductance control current .

GAIN

It is the ratio between output voltage and differential input voltage. Since the output
signal is much larger than the input signal, so it is commonly called as large signal
voltage gain.

PHASE MARGIN

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This is the absolute value of the open-loop phase shift between the output and the
inverting input at the frequency at which the modulus of the open-loop amplification
is unity.

GAIN MARGIN

The reciprocal of the open-loop voltage amplification at the lowest frequency at


which the open-loop phase shift is such that the output is in phase with the inverting
input.

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF CMOS OTA

M1 and M2 transistor are used as differential input.M31 and M41 are current mirror
and M4 to M41 aspect ratio is k:1 and id is directly proportional to aspect ratio hence
current in M4 is K times current in M41 and similarly current in M5 is k times M3
and hence we get the differential output.

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COMPARISON OF OPAMP VS OTA

OP AMP OTA

High Input Impedance and low output High Input Impedance and high output
Impedance Impedance

Modelled as a voltage controlled voltage Modelled as voltage controlled current


source because of the above property. source.

Used with external feedback for creating All nodes are at low impedance except for
circuits. Used as an output buffer. the input and the output nodes.
Contains compensation capacitor in its
circuitry between the 2 stages (Miller
compensation).
Op-amp becomes unstable with larger Better frequency capabilities than op-amp.
load capacitances. As load capacitance increases the phase
margin increases and the OTA is stable.
The gain for op-amp is fixed. The gain of OTA is linearly dependent upon
amplifier bias current for hundreds of
decades, which make the OTA based circuits
tunable.

The op-amp performance degrades at The OTA has a very high bandwidth
higher frequencies.

An OTA with output buffer is an op- Generally a single stage design.


amp. For most on-chip applications as loads are
capacitive the design of op-amp is
essentially design of an OTA.

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2.OP AMP CIRCUITS AND THEIR SIMULATION

(A) MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS

1. BASIC INVERTING AMPLIFIER

The current through R is (using virtual ground concept)

2. BASIC NON INVERTING AMPLIFIER

Since Rf and R1 form potential divider, we get

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3. DIFFERENTIATOR

Using the virtual ground concept potential concept (VN=0), we get the current
through capacitor as

( )

The nodal equation at N is

4. INTEGRATOR

The nodal equation at N is given by

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∫ ∫

( ) ∫ ( ) ( )

5. BASIC LOW PASS FILTER

The voltage across capacitor in s-domain is



( ) ( )

( )
So, ( )

Hence the closed loop gain of op-amp is


( )
( )
The overall transfer function is given by
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
From this, we get frequency

6. BASIC HIGH PASS FILTER

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The basic high pass filter is similar to LPF with the capacitor and resistors
switched from their places.
Applying KCL at node X we get

Also we know that ( )

Hence
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )

7. SECOND ORDER LPF

The op-amp is connected in non-inverting model

Applying KCL at node A gives

( )

( ) … (1)

Applying KCL at node B

( )
( )

( )
…. (2)

From (1) and (2) we get,

( )
( )

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8. SECOND ORDER HPF

The transfer function of second order HPF can be derived in similar way as
second order HPF. The transfer function is given as

( )
( ) ( )

9. WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR

From the feedback network, the feedback factor is given by

⁄( )
( )
( )

( )

For , must be real. Hence the imaginary term in denominator in


above equation should vanish, giving:

The frequency of oscillation is

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(B)SIMULATION RESULTS
1. INVERTING AMPLIFIER

2. NON INVERTING AMPLIFIER

3. DIFFERENTIATOR

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4. INTEGRATOR

5. LOW PASS FILTER

6. HIGH PASS FILTER

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7. SECOND ORDER LOW PASS FILTER

8. SECOND ORDER HIGH PASS FILTER

9. WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR

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3.COVERSION OF OP-AMP CIRCUITS TO OTA BASED
CIRCUITS
The conversion for some basic fundamental Op-amp circuits to respective OTA
based circuits is done below. These fundamental circuits can then be used to replace
the fundamental blocks of circuits in op-amp based circuit.

1. INVERTING AMPLIFIER

( )

We can write R1 = gm1 and R2=gm2 , then we have

Now this is an equation for a circuit having two OTA’s and can be drawn as
follows:

2. NON INVERTING AMPLIFIER

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( )

Or we can write,

( )

3. DIFFERENTAITOR

( )
Writing gm for R , gives us

The OTA based circuit for differentiator is given as follows:

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4. INTEGRATOR

The transfer function for this integrator is

Rewriting this equation

This equation can be realised using an OTA circuit as follows:

5. LOW PASS FILTER

The transfer function for LPF shown can be writtens as

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( )


⁄ ⁄

( )
Now this equation can be implemented using the following circuit:

6. HIGH PASS FILTER

The transfer function of HPF can be written as follows:

( )

this can be rewritten as

This equation is same as

( )

Now this equation is of the form a system having feedback G(s):


( )
( )
( ) ( )

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Where ( ) and G(s) =

The system H(s) is simply the differentiator and G(s) is the inverting amplifier.
Hence the OTA base circuit is given as follows:

AN EXAMPLE OF CONVERSION:

The conversion of above circuit is done to get the OTA based circuit as follows:

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4. OTA CIRCUITS AND ITS SIMULATION

(A)MATHEMATICAL ANALYSYS

1. BASIC INVERTING AMPLIFIER

Current flowing through is

From these two we get


=
Hence

2. BASIC NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER

Current flowing through is

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From these two we get
=
Hence

3. IDEAL GROUNDED RESISTOR

=-( + + ).
=-
=-( + + ).

= =

= and =

= =

, = =0

= =

4. IDEAL FLOATING RESISTOR

( )
And

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( )
 ( )
hence

So, R= 1/

5. IDEAL GROUNDED INDUCTOR

= .

=( )sC
. =( )sC

( )

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6. LOW PASS FILTER


( )

( )

7. HIGH PASS FILTER

( )

Where,

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8. ALL PASS FILTER

( )

( )

9. BI-QUAD FILTER

The voltage transfer functions of the proposed circuit is given by

( )
( )
( )

High pass filter


The realization conditions are

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V1=V2=0, V3=Vi, g2 = 2 g1
The eqn. (1) becomes

( )
( )
which represents a high pass filter

Band pass filter


The realization conditions are
V1=V3=0, V2=Vi, g2 = 2 g1
The eqn. (1) becomes

( )
( )

which represents a band-pass filter

All-pass filter
The realization conditions are
V2=0, V2=V3= Vi, g2 =2 g1
The eqn. (1) becomes

( )
( )

which represents an all pass filter

10. WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR

Condition and frequency of oscillation for the above conventional circuit

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When and

The frequency is given as

OTA BASED OSCILLATOR


The resistors in above circuit are replaced by OTA and redrawn as follows:

Condition and frequency of oscillation is as follows:

Hence,

With and

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(B)SIMULATION RESULTS

The simulation result for various circuits for which mathematical analysis is done is
presented below.

1. RESISTOR

2. HIGH PASS FILTER

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3. LOW PASS FILTER

4. ALL PASS FILTER

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5. BIQUAD FILTER

6. WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR

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(C)HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION

(A) BASICS OF OTA

(B) WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR

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4.SUMMARY

The study of both OTA and Op-amp basics was carried out and it was found that
there are certain advantages of OTA over the op-amp. The main advantages are
higher bandwidth and controllable variable gain, in case of OTA.
These advantages of OTA can be put to great use and result in a more interesting
class of circuits called electronically tunable circuits. The ability to control gain in
the OTA according to the relation:

This helps in making the circuits tunable.


The method of realising a resistor and inductor have been discussed which provide
the fundamental blocks for tunable circuits.
The method of converting Op-amp circuits to OTA circuits was also shown. The
conversion method for basic circuits viz. inverting, non-inverting, differentiator,
integrator, LPF and HPF were illustrated.
Using the above two concepts any given op-amp based circuit can be converted to
OTA based circuit and this also achieves the primary objective of this project.
The simulation for both op-amp and OTA based circuits was performed, using
MultiSim software tool, and the results have been illustrated. It was observed that the
performance for both OTA and Op-amp based circuits was comparable with OTA
based circuits having the advantage of tunability and greater bandwidth.
Apart from the simulation, hardware realization of Wien Bridge Oscillator was also
achieved and results were studied.
This concludes the gist of the project work.

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A1. THE LM13600 IC

The LM13700 series consists of two current controlled transconductance amplifiers,


each with differential inputs and a push-pull output. The two amplifiers share
common supplies but otherwise operate independently. Linearizing diodes are
provided at the inputs to reduce distortion and allow higher input levels. The result is
a 10 dB signal-to-noise improvement referenced to 0.5 percent THD. High
impedance buffers are provided which are especially designed to complement the
dynamic range of the amplifiers. The output buffers of the LM13700 differ from
those of the LM13600 in that their input bias currents (and hence their output DC
levels) are independent of IABC. This may result in performance superior to that of
the LM13600 in audio applications.
FEATURES
• Adjustable over 6 Decades
• Excellent Linearity
• Excellent Matching between Amplifiers
• Linearizing Diodes
• High Impedance Buffers
• High Output Signal-to-Noise Ratio
APPLICATIONS
• Current-Controlled Amplifiers
• Current-Controlled Impedances
• Current-Controlled Filters
• Current-Controlled Oscillators
• Multiplexers
• Timers
• Sample-and-Hold circuits

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The LM13700 improves upon the CA3080 by adding linearization to the OTA
inputs. While this improves the linear input range greatly, it lowers input impedance
and changes the distortion properties. It uses a Wilson mirror also for the tail current.
Since a Wilson mirror needs more voltage headroom, the common mode voltage
range is reduced on the negative rail and the potential for the tail current input is
increased in comparison with the CA3080, which may become important in certain
applications.
The LM13600 and the LM1370
0 differ only in the way the bias current for the buffer (which is not shown here) is
produced. The LM13700 uses a constant bias current according to the datasheet,
while in the LM13600 the bias is a mirrored copy of the tail current. This can lead to
CV feedthrough to the output when the tail current is changed rapidly.

The datasheet for LM13700 is presented next.

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A2. ABOUT MULTISIM

NI Multisim (formerly MultiSIM) is an electronic schematic capture and simulation


program which is part of a suite of circuit design programs, along with NI Ultiboard.
Multisim is one of the few circuit design programs to employ the
original BerkeleySPICE based software simulation. Multisim was originally created
by a company named Electronics Workbench, which is now a division of National
Instruments. Multisim includes microcontroller simulation (formerly known as
MultiMCU), as well as integrated import and export features to the Printed Circuit
Board layout software in the suite, NI Ultiboard.

Multisim is widely used in academia and industry for circuits education, electronic
schematic design and SPICE simulation.

Multisim is an industry-standard, best-in-class SPICE simulation environment. It is


the cornerstone of the NI circuits teaching solution to build expertise through
practical application in designing, prototyping, and testing electrical circuits. The
Multisim design approach helps you save prototype iterations and optimize printed
circuit board (PCB) designs earlier in the process.National Instruments Circuit
Design Suite is a suite of EDA (Electronics Design Automation) tools that assists you
in carrying out the major steps in the circuit design flow.
Multisim is the schematic capture and simulation program designed for schematic
entry, simulation, and feeding to downstage steps, such as PCB layout. It also
includes mixed analog/digital simulation capability, and microcontroller co-
simulation.

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REFERENCES

[1] Operational Transcunductance Amplifier and Analog Integrated Circuits,


Tahira Parveen, IK International, 2009

[2] Linear Integrated circuits, D Roy Choudhary,2nd Edition, NewAge International

[3] Design of OTA-C Active Low Pass Filter using multiple OTA’s,Rajeshwari S.
Mathad,M. M.Mutsaddi, S. V. Halse , IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSRJAP)
ISSN – 2278-4861 Volume 1, Issue 4 (July-Aug. 2012)

[4] Generation of Continuous-Time Two Integrator Loop OTA Filter Structures,


Edgar Sanchez-Sinencio, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS,
VOL. 35, NO. 8, AUGUST 1988

[5] A Precise 90 Quadrature OTA-C Oscillator Tunable in the 50–130-MHz Range,


Bernabé Linares-Barranco, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND
SYSTEMS—I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 51, NO. 4, APRIL 2004
[6] CMOS OTA-C High-Frequency Sinusoidal Oscillators, Bernab Linares-Barranco,
IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 26, NO. 2, FEBRUARY
1991

[7] Design of Operational Transconductance Amplifier for Biquad Filter


Applications in 0.18μm Technology NEERAJ SHRIVASTAVA, International
Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622
www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 1,Jan-Feb 2012

[8] Design and Simulation of Two Stage OTA Using 0.18μm and 0.35μm
Technology Hitesh Modi, Nilesh D. Patel , International Journal of Engineering and
Advanced Technology (IJEAT) ISSN: 2249 – 8958, Volume-2, Issue-3, February
2013 .

[9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operational_transconductance_amplifier
[10] http://mysite.du.edu/~etuttle/electron/elect22.htm

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