0 Suka0 Tidak suka

0 tayangan41 halamanOp-amp to OTA conversion

Mar 20, 2019

© © All Rights Reserved

- ac_amp senzor
- Electronics Ch2
- Lica Feb08
- Project
- LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT - Question bank (ECE, EIE & BME)
- Opamp - Lf147 Lf347 - Natsem
- C1EC01-C1405_-_ELECTRONIC_CIRCUIT_ANALYSIS_&_DESIGN_merged
- Setup List
- rp_report_2014H123032G
- Files-3-Lesson Notes Lecture 11
- Signal Conditioning Wheatstone Resistive Bridge Sensors
- Readings.txt
- Question Bank
- Sesion 16 Ingles
- Analogue Simulation
- OP-AMP
- Ltm 1295
- btechptdc2010.pdf
- ca3140-a
- Op-Amps Ubiquitous ICs With Multiple Applications

Anda di halaman 1dari 41

OP AMP INTRODUCTION

amplifier, as shown symbolically in Figure. This device is an amplifier intended for

use with external feedback elements, where these elements determine the resultant

function, or operation. This gives rise to the name ―operational amplifier,‖ denoting

an amplifier that, by virtue of different feedback hook-ups, can perform a variety of

operations.

An ideal op amp has infinite gain for differential input signals. In practice, real

devices will have quite high gain (also called open-loop gain) but this gain won’t

necessarily be precisely known. In terms of specifications, gain is measured in terms

of VOUT/VIN, and is given in V/V, the dimensionless numeric gain.

1

Also, an ideal op amp has zero gain for signals common to both inputs, that is,

common-mode (CM) signals. Or, stated in terms of the rejection for these common-

mode signals, an ideal op amp has infinite CM rejection (CMRR).

The ideal op amp also has zero offset voltage ( = 0), and draws zero bias current

( = 0) at both inputs.

Gains of 100 dB – 130 dB are common for precision op amps, while high speed

devices may have gains in the 60 dB – 70 dB range.

In practice, real op amps can have CMR specifications of up to 130 dB for precision

devices, or as low as 60 dB–70 dB for some high speed devices.

Within real devices, actual offset voltages can be as low as 1 µV or less, or as high as

several mV. Bias currents can be as low as a few fA, or as high as several µA.

Virtually all op amp feedback connections can be categorized into just a few basic

types.

These include the two most often used, non-inverting and inverting voltage gain

stages, plus a related differential gain stage.

The op amp non-inverting gain stage, also known as a voltage follower with gain, or

simply voltage follower, is shown below in Figure

2

This op amp stage processes the input VIN by a gain of G, so a generalized expression

for gain is:

Feedback network resistances RF and RG set the stage gain of the follower. For an

ideal op amp, the gain of this stage is:

The op amp inverting gain stage, also known simply as the inverter, is shown in

Figure .The inverter can be viewed as similar to a follower, but with a transposition

of the input voltage . In the inverter the signal is applied to of the feedback

network, and the op amp (+) input is grounded. The feedback network resistances,

and set the stage gain of the inverter. For an ideal op amp, the gain of this stage

is:

3

The inverter’s gain behaviour, due to the principles of infinite op amp gain, zero

input offset, and zero bias current, gives rise to an effective node of zero voltage at

the (−) input. The input and feedback currents sum at this point, which logically

results in the term summing point. It is also called a virtual ground, because of the

fact it will be at the same potential as the grounded reference input.

GAIN STABILITY

In so far as the effect on closed-loop gain. This improvement in closed-loop gain

stability

is one of the important benefits of negative feedback.

LOOP GAIN

The product AVOLβ which occurs in the above equations is called loop gain, a well-

known term in feedback theory. The improvement in closed-loop performance due to

negative feedback is, in nearly every case, proportional to loop gain. The term "loop

gain" comes from the method of measurement. This is done by breaking the closed

feedback loop at the op amp output, and measuring the total gain around the loop.

4

Approximately, closed-loop output impedance, linearity, and gain instability errors

reduce by the factor A β, with the use of negative feedback.

SLEW RATE

Slew rate is defined as an output voltage rate limit usually caused by the current

necessary to charge a capacitance.

OP AMP CHARACTERIZATION

A model for a noni deal op amp that includes some of the linear, static nonidealities:

Where

= differential input resistance

= differential input capacitance

= common mode input resistance

= common mode input capacitance

= input-offset voltage

CMRR = common-mode rejection ratio (when v1=v2 an output results)

= voltage-noise spectral density (mean-square volts/Hertz)

5

OP AMP CATEGORIZATION

The first stage in Figure 1 consists of a p-channel differential pair M1-M2 with an n-

channel current mirror load M3-M4 and a p-channel tail current source M5. The

second stage consists of an n-channel common-source amplifier M6 with a p-channel

6

current-source load M7. Because the OP-AMP inputs are connected to the gates of

MOS transistor, the input resistance is essentially infinite when the OP-AMP is used

in internal applications. For the same reason, the input resistance of the second stage

of the OP-AMP is also essentially infinite. The output resistance is the resistance

looking back into the second stage with the OP-AMP inputs connected to small

signal ground:

Where R0=output resistance and ro6 and ro7 are the internal resistance of transistor

M6 and M7 respectively. Although this output resistance is almost always much

larger than in general purpose bipolar OP-AMP, low output resistance is usually not

required when driving purely capacitive loads. Since the input resistance of the

second stage is essentially infinite, the voltage gain of the amplifier in Figure 1 can

be found by considering the two stages separately. The small signal voltage gain of

first stage (basic diff amp) is given by

7

(B) OPERATIONAL TRANSCONDUCTANCE AMPLIFIER (OTA)

INTRODUCTION

―operational‖ comes from the fact that it takes the difference of two voltages as the

input for the current conversion.

The ideal transfer characteristic is therefore

( )

with the ideally constant transconductance gm as the proportionality factor between

the two. In reality the transconductance is also a function of the input differential

voltage and dependent on temperature.

To summarize, an ideal OTA has two voltage inputs with infinite impedance (i.e.

there is no input current). The common mode input range is also infinite, while the

differential signal between these two inputs is used to control an ideal current source

(i.e. the output current does not depend on the output voltage) that functions as an

output. The proportionality factor between output current and input differential

voltage is called transconductance.

Any real OTA will thus have circuitry to process the input voltages with low input

current over a wide common mode input range, to produce an internal representation

of the input differential voltage and to provide a current to the output that is relatively

8

independent of the output voltage. Since an OTA can be used without feedback, the

maximum output current and with it the transconductance can often be adjusted.

Bandwidth is infinite.

When =

characteristics of the input stage transistors. In the early devices, such as the CA

3080, the input stage consisted of two bipolar transistors connected in the differential

amplifier configuration. The transfer characteristics of this connection are

approximately linear for differential input voltages of 20 mV or less. This is an

important limitation when the OTA is being used open loop as there is no negative

feedback to linearize the output.

2. Temperature sensitivity of transconductance.

3. Variation of input and output impedance, input bias current and input offset

voltage with the transconductance control current .

GAIN

It is the ratio between output voltage and differential input voltage. Since the output

signal is much larger than the input signal, so it is commonly called as large signal

voltage gain.

PHASE MARGIN

9

This is the absolute value of the open-loop phase shift between the output and the

inverting input at the frequency at which the modulus of the open-loop amplification

is unity.

GAIN MARGIN

which the open-loop phase shift is such that the output is in phase with the inverting

input.

M1 and M2 transistor are used as differential input.M31 and M41 are current mirror

and M4 to M41 aspect ratio is k:1 and id is directly proportional to aspect ratio hence

current in M4 is K times current in M41 and similarly current in M5 is k times M3

and hence we get the differential output.

10

COMPARISON OF OPAMP VS OTA

OP AMP OTA

High Input Impedance and low output High Input Impedance and high output

Impedance Impedance

source because of the above property. source.

Used with external feedback for creating All nodes are at low impedance except for

circuits. Used as an output buffer. the input and the output nodes.

Contains compensation capacitor in its

circuitry between the 2 stages (Miller

compensation).

Op-amp becomes unstable with larger Better frequency capabilities than op-amp.

load capacitances. As load capacitance increases the phase

margin increases and the OTA is stable.

The gain for op-amp is fixed. The gain of OTA is linearly dependent upon

amplifier bias current for hundreds of

decades, which make the OTA based circuits

tunable.

The op-amp performance degrades at The OTA has a very high bandwidth

higher frequencies.

amp. For most on-chip applications as loads are

capacitive the design of op-amp is

essentially design of an OTA.

11

2.OP AMP CIRCUITS AND THEIR SIMULATION

12

3. DIFFERENTIATOR

Using the virtual ground concept potential concept (VN=0), we get the current

through capacitor as

( )

4. INTEGRATOR

13

∫ ∫

( ) ∫ ( ) ( )

⁄

( ) ( )

⁄

( )

So, ( )

( )

( )

The overall transfer function is given by

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

From this, we get frequency

14

The basic high pass filter is similar to LPF with the capacitor and resistors

switched from their places.

Applying KCL at node X we get

Hence

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

( ) … (1)

( )

( )

( )

…. (2)

( )

( )

15

8. SECOND ORDER HPF

The transfer function of second order HPF can be derived in similar way as

second order HPF. The transfer function is given as

( )

( ) ( )

⁄( )

( )

( )

( )

above equation should vanish, giving:

16

(B)SIMULATION RESULTS

1. INVERTING AMPLIFIER

3. DIFFERENTIATOR

17

4. INTEGRATOR

18

7. SECOND ORDER LOW PASS FILTER

19

3.COVERSION OF OP-AMP CIRCUITS TO OTA BASED

CIRCUITS

The conversion for some basic fundamental Op-amp circuits to respective OTA

based circuits is done below. These fundamental circuits can then be used to replace

the fundamental blocks of circuits in op-amp based circuit.

1. INVERTING AMPLIFIER

( )

Now this is an equation for a circuit having two OTA’s and can be drawn as

follows:

20

( )

Or we can write,

( )

3. DIFFERENTAITOR

( )

Writing gm for R , gives us

21

4. INTEGRATOR

22

( )

⁄

⁄ ⁄

( )

Now this equation can be implemented using the following circuit:

( )

( )

( )

( )

( ) ( )

23

Where ( ) and G(s) =

The system H(s) is simply the differentiator and G(s) is the inverting amplifier.

Hence the OTA base circuit is given as follows:

AN EXAMPLE OF CONVERSION:

The conversion of above circuit is done to get the OTA based circuit as follows:

24

4. OTA CIRCUITS AND ITS SIMULATION

(A)MATHEMATICAL ANALYSYS

=

Hence

25

From these two we get

=

Hence

=-( + + ).

=-

=-( + + ).

= =

= and =

= =

, = =0

= =

( )

And

26

( )

( )

hence

So, R= 1/

= .

=( )sC

. =( )sC

( )

27

6. LOW PASS FILTER

⁄

( )

⁄

( )

( )

⁄

Where,

28

8. ALL PASS FILTER

( )

( )

9. BI-QUAD FILTER

( )

( )

( )

The realization conditions are

29

V1=V2=0, V3=Vi, g2 = 2 g1

The eqn. (1) becomes

( )

( )

which represents a high pass filter

The realization conditions are

V1=V3=0, V2=Vi, g2 = 2 g1

The eqn. (1) becomes

( )

( )

All-pass filter

The realization conditions are

V2=0, V2=V3= Vi, g2 =2 g1

The eqn. (1) becomes

( )

( )

30

When and

The resistors in above circuit are replaced by OTA and redrawn as follows:

Hence,

With and

31

(B)SIMULATION RESULTS

The simulation result for various circuits for which mathematical analysis is done is

presented below.

1. RESISTOR

32

3. LOW PASS FILTER

33

5. BIQUAD FILTER

34

(C)HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION

35

4.SUMMARY

The study of both OTA and Op-amp basics was carried out and it was found that

there are certain advantages of OTA over the op-amp. The main advantages are

higher bandwidth and controllable variable gain, in case of OTA.

These advantages of OTA can be put to great use and result in a more interesting

class of circuits called electronically tunable circuits. The ability to control gain in

the OTA according to the relation:

The method of realising a resistor and inductor have been discussed which provide

the fundamental blocks for tunable circuits.

The method of converting Op-amp circuits to OTA circuits was also shown. The

conversion method for basic circuits viz. inverting, non-inverting, differentiator,

integrator, LPF and HPF were illustrated.

Using the above two concepts any given op-amp based circuit can be converted to

OTA based circuit and this also achieves the primary objective of this project.

The simulation for both op-amp and OTA based circuits was performed, using

MultiSim software tool, and the results have been illustrated. It was observed that the

performance for both OTA and Op-amp based circuits was comparable with OTA

based circuits having the advantage of tunability and greater bandwidth.

Apart from the simulation, hardware realization of Wien Bridge Oscillator was also

achieved and results were studied.

This concludes the gist of the project work.

36

A1. THE LM13600 IC

each with differential inputs and a push-pull output. The two amplifiers share

common supplies but otherwise operate independently. Linearizing diodes are

provided at the inputs to reduce distortion and allow higher input levels. The result is

a 10 dB signal-to-noise improvement referenced to 0.5 percent THD. High

impedance buffers are provided which are especially designed to complement the

dynamic range of the amplifiers. The output buffers of the LM13700 differ from

those of the LM13600 in that their input bias currents (and hence their output DC

levels) are independent of IABC. This may result in performance superior to that of

the LM13600 in audio applications.

FEATURES

• Adjustable over 6 Decades

• Excellent Linearity

• Excellent Matching between Amplifiers

• Linearizing Diodes

• High Impedance Buffers

• High Output Signal-to-Noise Ratio

APPLICATIONS

• Current-Controlled Amplifiers

• Current-Controlled Impedances

• Current-Controlled Filters

• Current-Controlled Oscillators

• Multiplexers

• Timers

• Sample-and-Hold circuits

37

The LM13700 improves upon the CA3080 by adding linearization to the OTA

inputs. While this improves the linear input range greatly, it lowers input impedance

and changes the distortion properties. It uses a Wilson mirror also for the tail current.

Since a Wilson mirror needs more voltage headroom, the common mode voltage

range is reduced on the negative rail and the potential for the tail current input is

increased in comparison with the CA3080, which may become important in certain

applications.

The LM13600 and the LM1370

0 differ only in the way the bias current for the buffer (which is not shown here) is

produced. The LM13700 uses a constant bias current according to the datasheet,

while in the LM13600 the bias is a mirrored copy of the tail current. This can lead to

CV feedthrough to the output when the tail current is changed rapidly.

38

39

A2. ABOUT MULTISIM

program which is part of a suite of circuit design programs, along with NI Ultiboard.

Multisim is one of the few circuit design programs to employ the

original BerkeleySPICE based software simulation. Multisim was originally created

by a company named Electronics Workbench, which is now a division of National

Instruments. Multisim includes microcontroller simulation (formerly known as

MultiMCU), as well as integrated import and export features to the Printed Circuit

Board layout software in the suite, NI Ultiboard.

Multisim is widely used in academia and industry for circuits education, electronic

schematic design and SPICE simulation.

the cornerstone of the NI circuits teaching solution to build expertise through

practical application in designing, prototyping, and testing electrical circuits. The

Multisim design approach helps you save prototype iterations and optimize printed

circuit board (PCB) designs earlier in the process.National Instruments Circuit

Design Suite is a suite of EDA (Electronics Design Automation) tools that assists you

in carrying out the major steps in the circuit design flow.

Multisim is the schematic capture and simulation program designed for schematic

entry, simulation, and feeding to downstage steps, such as PCB layout. It also

includes mixed analog/digital simulation capability, and microcontroller co-

simulation.

40

REFERENCES

Tahira Parveen, IK International, 2009

[3] Design of OTA-C Active Low Pass Filter using multiple OTA’s,Rajeshwari S.

Mathad,M. M.Mutsaddi, S. V. Halse , IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSRJAP)

ISSN – 2278-4861 Volume 1, Issue 4 (July-Aug. 2012)

Edgar Sanchez-Sinencio, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS,

VOL. 35, NO. 8, AUGUST 1988

Bernabé Linares-Barranco, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND

SYSTEMS—I: REGULAR PAPERS, VOL. 51, NO. 4, APRIL 2004

[6] CMOS OTA-C High-Frequency Sinusoidal Oscillators, Bernab Linares-Barranco,

IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 26, NO. 2, FEBRUARY

1991

Applications in 0.18μm Technology NEERAJ SHRIVASTAVA, International

Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622

www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 1,Jan-Feb 2012

[8] Design and Simulation of Two Stage OTA Using 0.18μm and 0.35μm

Technology Hitesh Modi, Nilesh D. Patel , International Journal of Engineering and

Advanced Technology (IJEAT) ISSN: 2249 – 8958, Volume-2, Issue-3, February

2013 .

[9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operational_transconductance_amplifier

[10] http://mysite.du.edu/~etuttle/electron/elect22.htm

41

- ac_amp senzorDiunggah olehSteveAbonyi
- Electronics Ch2Diunggah olehAnupam Shakya
- Lica Feb08Diunggah olehskssush
- ProjectDiunggah olehNahugirsh Zoz
- LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT - Question bank (ECE, EIE & BME)Diunggah olehMATHANKUMAR.S
- Opamp - Lf147 Lf347 - NatsemDiunggah olehLudwig Schmidt
- C1EC01-C1405_-_ELECTRONIC_CIRCUIT_ANALYSIS_&_DESIGN_mergedDiunggah olehchini_nani
- Setup ListDiunggah oleh100treta
- rp_report_2014H123032GDiunggah olehRahul Jaiswal
- Files-3-Lesson Notes Lecture 11Diunggah olehRekhyttolemy
- Signal Conditioning Wheatstone Resistive Bridge SensorsDiunggah olehFabian Eduardo Florez
- Readings.txtDiunggah olehVeljko Maric
- Question BankDiunggah olehAkash Aku
- Sesion 16 InglesDiunggah olehDaniFox
- Analogue SimulationDiunggah olehSyed Mairaj Ul Haq
- OP-AMPDiunggah olehMahmoud Eldabah
- Ltm 1295Diunggah olehNegru P. Plantatie
- btechptdc2010.pdfDiunggah olehKeerthana Remesh
- ca3140-aDiunggah olehdavidcen
- Op-Amps Ubiquitous ICs With Multiple ApplicationsDiunggah olehMuhammad Yasir Javed
- Chapter 2 Op AmpDiunggah olehMuhammad Ummair
- ADA4807!1!4807-2 4807-4 SiGe XFCB-3 Video Opamp Low NoiseDiunggah olehsrescia
- Www Robotroom Com ReversedLEDDiunggah olehrozeh
- L13700Diunggah olehIndra Perkasa
- 30kWDiunggah olehSameera Sri Viduranga
- Ee16 ElectronicsDiunggah olehAndrew Kim
- ee101_opamp_1Diunggah olehAnkur Singh
- ucc28070.pdfDiunggah olehaniindia
- Technical Interview QuestionsDiunggah olehrahul.ril1660
- GDP GROUP 40 REPORTDiunggah olehAzizul Elmey

- Sx38p2 ProDiunggah olehnonameviking
- 7Diunggah olehNithin Rb
- Experiment 02Diunggah olehZeynal Abidin Şabaş
- lab3Diunggah olehTom
- 7PG1903 B3 Catalogue Sheet.pdfDiunggah olehAhmed Hussain
- IO 111 Signal Converter Module - Converts Sensor Signals - For Pumps _ GrundfosDiunggah olehhafezasad
- Spec Series One SP-FloCoDiunggah olehsina_84
- [S3-4]APAN_NRW2013Diunggah olehRizki Firmansyah
- NWD-134139-01E_genDiunggah olehBwai
- Led Products Catalog_2011novDiunggah olehTember Mula Sitompul
- PSMR1 ManualDiunggah olehJawad Amjad
- Ads 7841Diunggah olehAtep Praja
- Serial FileDiunggah olehsandip0389
- SampleDiunggah olehUsman Shehryar
- Led Cinema Display 24Diunggah olehPeter Lay
- Scherer-Evolution-ASNE-2011[1].pdfDiunggah olehio75
- preislisteDiunggah olehcyberalex
- 816-3217-10Diunggah olehMichael Kosarev
- RB112.pdfDiunggah olehArfizar Zulkarnaen
- WiresDiunggah olehsarveshgupta1
- Samsung Un55d8000yfxza Fast Track GuideDiunggah olehtecnicomicro
- F&P DD605 DIagnostic ManualDiunggah olehScotty Bailey
- User Guide Imeon 9 12 EnDiunggah olehlucas
- EdeP11-AB03-On Semic-A 800 W Bridgeless PFC StageDiunggah olehSeba Zubiaurre
- A Dynamic Pspice Model for High-frequency Fluorescent...(Tao F., Etc.)Diunggah oleha7eevee
- Analog Input TSXAEY414Diunggah olehSAndrey85
- Micro CodeDiunggah olehalexutza_alli3830
- Encoder based on PICDiunggah olehAntonnio Savio Leite
- ETAP1600 User Guide.pdfDiunggah olehorlyboy
- RTN 900 V100R006C00 Configuration Guide 04Diunggah olehmaximusand

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.