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Judul Asli: 1 Basic AC Theory

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1

RLC AC Circuits

1. Demonstrate the response of a resistor, an inductor, and a

capacitor to the application of a sinusoidal voltage or current

2. Solve the real power to resistive elements and the reactive

power to inductive and capacitive elements.

3. Explain the phasor diagrams of resistive, inductive and

capacitive circuits.

RLC AC Circuits

In Faraday’s Law we learned that changing magnetic flux can induce an emf. If

a coil rotates in the presence of a magnetic field, the induced emf varies

sinusoidally with time and leads to an alternating current (AC) and provides a

source of AC power. The symbol for an AC voltage source is shown in Fig. 1.

Shaik, A. (n.d.). Alternating Current (AC). Retrieved September, 2018, from

http://www.physics-and-radio-electronics.com/blog/alternating-current-ac/

An example of an AC source is

𝐸𝑞 1: 𝑉(𝑡) = 𝑉𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜔𝑡

wherein the maximum value V0 is called the amplitude. The voltage varies

between –Vm and Vm since a sine function varies between +1 and −1. The figure

below shows a graph of voltage as a function of time.

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Figure 2. Sinusoidal Voltage Source

The sine function is periodic in time which means that the value of the voltage

at time t will be exactly the same at a later time t′ = t + T where T is the period

and the frequency, f, defined as f = 1/T, has the unit of inverse seconds (s−1), or

hertz (Hz). The angular frequency is defined to be ω = 2πf.

The energy is provided to compensate the energy dissipation in the resistor,

and the oscillations will no longer damp out when a voltage source is

connected to an RLC circuit. The oscillations of charge, current and potential

difference are called driven or forced oscillations.

An AC current will flow in the circuit as a response to the driving voltage source

after an initial “transient time”. The current can be written as

𝐸𝑞 2: 𝐼(𝑡) = 𝐼𝑚 sin(ω𝑡 − Φ)

the same frequency as the voltage source, with an amplitude I0 and phase φ

that depends on the driving frequency.

Simple AC Circuits

Resistive Elements

For the purely resistive circuit shown in the Fig. 3, v and i are in phase,

and by KVL we can say that:

𝐸𝑞 3: 𝑉𝑚 = 𝐼𝑚 𝑅

Boylestad, R. L. (2015). Introductory Circuit Analysis (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, US:

Pearson Prentice Hall

Electrical Circuits Theory II

3

RLC AC Circuits

V ∠0° V

𝐸𝑞 4: 𝐼 = = ∠0°

R ∠𝜃𝑅 R

Since i and v are in phase, the angle associated with I also must be 0°. To

satisfy this condition, θR = 0°. We use the fact that θR = 0° in the following

polar format to ensure the proper phase relationship between the

voltage and current of a resistor.

𝐸𝑞 5: 𝒁𝑹 = 𝑹∠𝟎°

Inductive Reactance

For a purely inductive circuit as shown in Fig. 4, the voltage leads the

current by 90° and that the reactance of the circuit of the coil is given

as:

𝐸𝑞 6: 𝑿𝑳 = 𝝎𝑳

Boylestad, R. L. (2015). Introductory Circuit Analysis (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, US:

Pearson Prentice Hall

By Ohm’s Law,

V ∠0° V∠0° V

𝐸𝑞 7: 𝐼 = = = ∠ − 90°

𝑋𝐿 ∠𝜃𝐿 𝑋𝐿 ∠90° 𝑋𝐿

Since v leads i by 90°, I must have an angle of -90° associated with it. To

satisfy this condition, θL must equal +90°. We use the fact that θL = 90°

in the following polar format for inductive reactance to ensure the

proper phase relationship between the voltage and current of an

inductor:

𝐸𝑞 8: 𝒁𝑳 = 𝑿𝑳 ∠𝟗𝟎°

Capacitive Reactance

For a purely capacitive circuit as shown in Fig. 5, the current leads the

voltage by 90° and that the reactance of the capacitor is given as:

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𝟏

𝐸𝑞 9: 𝑿𝑪 =

𝝎𝑪

Boylestad, R. L. (2015). Introductory Circuit Analysis (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, US:

Pearson Prentice Hall

By Ohm’s Law,

V ∠0° V∠0° V

𝐸𝑞 10: 𝐼 = = = ∠90°

𝑋𝐶 ∠𝜃𝐶 𝑋𝐶 ∠ − 90° 𝑋𝐶

Since i leads v by 90°, I must have an angle of +90° associated with it. To

satisfy this condition, θC must equal -90°. We use the fact that θC = 90° in

the following polar format for inductive reactance to ensure the proper

phase relationship between the voltage and current of an inductor:

𝐸𝑞 11: 𝒁𝑪 = 𝑿𝑪 ∠ − 𝟗𝟎°

Before discussing the RLC circuit, let’s focus first on the simple cases

where only one circuit element (a resistor, an inductor or a capacitor)

is connected to a sinusoidal voltage source.

connected in an AC generator. (As we shall see, a purely resistive

Electrical Circuits Theory II

5

RLC AC Circuits

inductance L = 0.). The alternating current and voltage both

move forward as well as backwards in both direction of the

circuit.

Figure 6. Purely Resistive Circuit

“What Is a Pure Resistive Circuit? - Phasor Diagram and Waveform.” Circuit Globe, 10 Apr.

2017, circuitglobe.com/what-is-pure-resistive-ac-circuit.html.

Applying KVL, V(t) - VR(t) = V(t)- IR(t)R = 0, where VR(t) = IR(t)R is the

instantaneous voltage drop across the resistor. The instantaneous

current in the resistor is given by

𝑉𝑅 (𝑡) 𝑉𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡

𝐸𝑞 12: 𝐼𝑅 (𝑡) = = = 𝐼𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡

𝑅 𝑅

The value of current will be at maximum at angle 90° or sin ωt is equal

to 1. The phase angle difference is θ = 0° for purely resistive circuits,

and IR(t) and VR(t) are in phase with each other, meaning that they

reach their maximum or minimum values at the same time.

Fig. 7 shows the time dependence of the current and the voltage across

the resistor.

The average value of current over one period can be obtained with

integration as:

1 𝑇 1 𝑇 𝐼𝑚 𝑇 2𝜋𝑡

𝐸𝑞 13: 𝐼𝑅 (𝑡) = ∫ 𝐼𝑅 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 = ∫ 𝐼𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = ∫ sin 𝑑𝑡

𝑇 0 𝑇 0 𝑇 0 𝑇

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This average vanishes because

1 𝑇

𝐸𝑞 14: sin 𝜔𝑡 = ∫ sin 𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = 0

𝑇 0

Likewise, one may find the following relations useful when averaging

over one period:

1 𝑇

𝒄𝑜𝑠 𝜔𝑡 = ∫ cos 𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = 0

𝑇 0

1 𝑇

𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜔𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜔𝑡 = ∫ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜔𝑡 cos 𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = 0

𝑇 0

𝑇

1 1 𝑇 2𝜋𝑡 1

𝑠𝑖𝑛 2 𝜔𝑡 = ∫ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 2 𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = ∫ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 2 𝑑𝑡 =

𝑇 0 𝑇 0 𝑇 2

𝑇 𝑇

1 1 2𝜋𝑡 1

𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜔𝑡 = ∫ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = ∫ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝑑𝑡 =

𝑇 0 𝑇 0 𝑇 2

From the above equations we see that the average of the square of

the current is non-vanishing:

2 (𝑡)

1 𝑇 2 1 𝑇 2 1 𝑇 2𝜋𝑡

𝐼𝑅 = ∫ 𝐼𝑅 (𝑡) 𝑑𝑡 = ∫ 𝐼𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = 𝐼𝑚 ∫ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 2

2 2

𝑑𝑡

𝑇 0 𝑇 0 𝑇 0 𝑇

1 2

𝐼𝑅2 (𝑡) = 𝐼

2 𝑚

It is convenient to define the root-mean-square (rms) current as we

have discussed from the previous lecture:

𝐼𝑚

𝐼𝑟𝑚𝑠 = √𝐼𝑅2 (𝑡) =

√2

And the rms voltage is be defined as

𝑉𝑚

𝑉𝑟𝑚𝑠 = √𝑉𝑅2 (𝑡) =

√2

The power dissipated in the resistor is given as

𝐸𝑞 15: 𝑃𝑅 (𝑡) = 𝐼𝑅2 (𝑡)𝑅

In terms of current and resistance. We can also consider it in terms of

instantaneous voltage and current and is given as:

𝐸𝑞 16: 𝑃𝑅 (𝑡) = 𝑉𝑅 (𝑡)𝐼𝑅 (𝑡)

𝑃𝑅 (𝑡) = (𝑉𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡)(𝐼𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡)

𝑉𝑚 𝐼𝑚

𝑃𝑅 (𝑡) = 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜔𝑡

2

𝑉𝑚 𝐼𝑚

𝑃𝑅 (𝑡) = (1 − cos 2𝜔𝑡)

√2 √2

𝑉𝑚 𝐼𝑚 𝑉𝑚 𝐼𝑚

𝑃𝑅 (𝑡) = − cos 2𝜔𝑡

√2 √2 √2 √2

Electrical Circuits Theory II

7

RLC AC Circuits

1 2

𝐸𝑞 17: 𝑃𝑅 (𝑡) = 𝐼𝑅2 (𝑡)𝑅 = 2

𝐼 𝑅 = 𝐼𝑟𝑚𝑠 𝑅

2 𝑚

or

2

𝑉𝑟𝑚𝑠

𝑃𝑅 (𝑡) = 𝐼𝑟𝑚𝑠 𝑉𝑟𝑚𝑠 =

𝑅

In Fig. 8, The behavior of IR(t) and VR(t) can also be represented with a

phasor diagram. A phasor is a rotating vector having the following

properties:

Figure 8. Phasor Diagram Resistive Circuit

“AC Resistance and Impedance in an AC Circuit.” Basic Electronics Tutorials, 24 Apr. 2018,

www.electronics-tutorials.ws/accircuits/ac-resistance.html.

(ii) Angular speed: the vector rotates counterclockwise with an

angular speed ω.

(iii) Projection: the projection of the vector along the vertical axis

corresponds to the value of the alternating quantity at time t.

Consider now a purely inductive circuit with an inductor connected to

an AC generator, as shown in the figure below. An inductor is a type of

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coil which reserves electrical energy in the magnetic field when the

current flow through it. The inductance is measured in Henry.

Figure 9. Purely Inductive Circuit

“What Is a Pure Inductive Circuit? - Phasor Diagram & Waveform.” Circuit Globe, 18 Nov. 2017,

circuitglobe.com/what-is-pure-inductive-circuit.html.

zero resistance R = 0. Applying the modified Kirchhoff’s rule for

inductors, the circuit equation reads

𝑑𝐼𝐿

𝐸𝑞 18: 𝑉(𝑡) − 𝑉𝐿 (𝑡) = 𝑉(𝑡) − 𝐿 =0

𝑑𝑡

which implies

𝑑𝐼𝐿 𝑉(𝑡) 𝑉𝑚

𝐸𝑞 19: = = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜔𝑡

𝑑𝑡 𝐿 𝐿

𝑉𝑚 𝑉𝑚

𝐸𝑞 20: 𝐼𝐿 (𝑡) ∫ 𝑑𝐼𝐿 = ∫ sin 𝜔𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = − ( ) 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜔𝑡

𝐿 𝜔𝐿

used the trigonometric identity

𝜋

− 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜔𝑡 = sin (𝜔𝑡 − )

2

𝑉𝑚 𝜋

𝐸𝑞 21: 𝐼𝐿 (𝑡) = ∫ 𝑑𝐼𝐿 = ( ) sin (𝜔𝑡 − )

𝜔𝐿 2

for rewriting the last expression. We can see that the amplitude of the

current through the inductor is

𝑉𝑚 𝑉𝑚

𝐸𝑞 22: 𝐼𝑚 = =

𝜔𝐿 𝑋𝐿

and we know that

𝐸𝑞 23: 𝑋𝐿 = 𝜔𝐿

which is called the inductive reactance and has an SI units of ohms (Ω),

just like resistance. But unlike resistance, XL depends linearly on the

angular frequency ω. Thus, the resistance to current flow increases

with frequency. This is due to the fact that at higher frequencies the

current changes more rapidly than it does at lower frequencies. On the

other hand, the inductive reactance vanishes as ω approaches zero.

The phase constant is given by

𝜋

𝐸𝑞 24: 𝜃 =

2

The current and voltage plots and the corresponding phasor diagram

are shown in the Fig. 10 & Fig. 11.

Electrical Circuits Theory II

9

RLC AC Circuits

“What Is a Pure Inductive Circuit? - Phasor Diagram & Waveform.” Circuit Globe, 18 Nov. 2017,

circuitglobe.com/what-is-pure-inductive-circuit.html.

When the value of voltage and current are at its peak as positive value,

the power is also positive and similarly, when the voltage and current

give negative waveform the power will also become negative. This is

because of the phase difference between voltage and current.

“AC Inductance and Inductive Reactance in an AC Circuit.” Basic Electronics Tutorials, 24 Apr.

2018, www.electronics-tutorials.ws/accircuits/ac-inductance.html.

the figure above; it reaches its maximum value after does by one

quarter of a cycle. Thus, we say that

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𝑃𝑅 (𝑡) = 𝑉𝐿 (𝑡)𝐼𝐿 (𝑡)

𝜋

𝑃𝑅 (𝑡) = (𝑉𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡)(𝐼𝑚 sin(𝜔𝑡 + ))

2

𝑃𝑅 (𝑡) = 𝑉𝑚 𝐼𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡 cos 𝜔𝑡

𝑉𝑚 𝐼𝑚

𝑃𝑅 (𝑡) = sin 𝜔𝑡 cos 𝜔𝑡

2

𝑉𝑚 𝐼𝑚

𝑃𝑅 (𝑡) = sin 2𝜔𝑡

√2 √2

𝐸𝑞 25: 𝑃𝑅 (𝑡) = 0

The average power consumed in a purely inductive circuit is zero.

During the first quarter cycle, the power supplied by the source, is

stored in the magnetic field set up around the coil. In the next quarter

cycle, the magnetic field diminishes and the power that was stored in

the first quarter cycle is returned to the source. This process continues

in every cycle, and thus, no power is consumed in the circuit.

In the purely capacitive case, both resistance R and inductance L are

zero. The circuit diagram is shown in Fig. 12. The capacitors stores

electrical power in the electric field. There effect is known as

Figure 12. Purely Capacitive Circuit

“What Is a Pure Capacitor Circuit? - Phasor Diagram & Waveform.” Circuit Globe, 9 Feb. 2017,

circuitglobe.com/what-is-pure-capacitor-circuit.html.

By KVL,

𝑄(𝑡)

𝐸𝑞 26: 𝑉(𝑡) − 𝑉𝐶 (𝑡) = 𝑉(𝑡) − =0

𝐶

which yields

𝑄(𝑡) = 𝐶𝑉(𝑡) = 𝐶𝑉𝐶 (𝑡) = 𝐶𝑉𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡

Electrical Circuits Theory II

11

RLC AC Circuits

the current is

𝑑𝑄 𝜋

𝐸𝑞 27: 𝐼𝐶 (𝑡) = + = 𝜔𝐶𝑉𝑚 cos 𝜔𝑡 = 𝜔𝐶𝑉𝑚 sin (𝜔𝑡 + )

𝑑𝑡 2

used the trigonometric identity

𝜋

𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜔𝑡 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (𝜔𝑡 + )

2

The above equation indicates that the maximum value of the current

is

𝑉𝑚

𝐼𝐶0 = 𝜔𝐶𝑉𝑚 =

𝑋𝐶

1

𝑋𝐶 =

𝜔𝐶

is called the capacitance reactance and also has an SI units of ohms and

represents the effective resistance for a purely capacitive circuit. Note

that XC is inversely proportional to both C and ω , and diverges as ω

approaches zero. The phase constant is given by

𝜋

𝐸𝑞 28: 𝜃 = −

2

The current and voltage plots and the corresponding phasor diagram

are shown in the Fig.13 and Fig. 14.

“What Is a Pure Capacitor Circuit? - Phasor Diagram & Waveform.” Circuit Globe, 9 Feb. 2017,

circuitglobe.com/what-is-pure-capacitor-circuit.html.

When the voltage is increased, the capacitor gets charged and reaches

or attains its maximum value and, therefore, a positive half cycle is

Course Module

obtained and when the voltage level decreases the capacitor gets

discharged, and the negative half cycle is formed.

When the voltage attains its maximum value the current is zero that

means there is no flow of current at that time. When the value of

voltage is decreased and reaches to a value of π, the value of voltage

starts getting negative, and the current attains its peak value. As a

result the capacitor starts discharging.

“AC Capacitance and Capacitive Reactance in AC Circuit.” Basic Electronics Tutorials, 31 May

2018, www.electronics-tutorials.ws/accircuits/ac-capacitance.html

Notice that at t = 0, the voltage across the capacitor is zero while the

current in the circuit is at a maximum. In fact, IC(t) reaches its

maximum before VC(t) by one quarter of a cycle (ɸ = π/2 ). Thus, we

say that

𝑃𝑅 (𝑡) = 𝑉𝐶 (𝑡)𝐼𝐶 (𝑡)

𝜋

𝑃𝑅 (𝑡) = (𝑉𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡)(𝐼𝑚 sin(𝜔𝑡 + ))

2

𝑃𝑅 (𝑡) = 𝑉𝑚 𝐼𝑚 sin 𝜔𝑡 cos 𝜔𝑡

𝑉𝑚 𝐼𝑚

𝑃𝑅 (𝑡) = sin 2𝜔𝑡

√2 √2

𝐸𝑞 25: 𝑃𝑅 (𝑡) = 0

The average power in a half cycle is zero as the positive and negative

loop area in the waveform shown are same. In the first quarter cycle,

the power which is supplied by the source is stored in the electric field

set up between the capacitor plates. In the next quarter cycle, the

electric field diminishes, and thus the power stored in the field is

returned to the source. This process is repeated continuously and,

therefore, no power is consumed by the Capacitor circuit.

Electrical Circuits Theory II

13

RLC AC Circuits

Books and Journals

1. Boylestad, R. L. (2015). Introductory Circuit Analysis (13th ed.). Upper

Saddle River, US: Pearson Prentice Hall

2. Nilsson, J. W., & Riedel, S. A. (2018). Electric Circuits, Hardcover (11th

ed.). Pearson Education

1. Basic Electronics Tutorials and Revision. (n.d.). Retrieved August, 2018,

from https://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/

2. R., & A. (2018, August 23). Latest Free Electronics Projects and Circuits.

Retrieved August, 2018, from https://www.electronicshub.org/

3. “What Is a Pure Resistive Circuit? - Phasor Diagram and Waveform.”

Circuit Globe, 10 Apr. 2017, circuitglobe.com/what-is-pure-resistive-ac-

circuit.html.

4. “What Is a Pure Inductive Circuit? - Phasor Diagram & Waveform.”

Circuit Globe, 18 Nov. 2017, circuitglobe.com/what-is-pure-inductive-

circuit.html.

5. “What Is a Pure Capacitor Circuit? - Phasor Diagram & Waveform.”

Circuit Globe, 9 Feb. 2017, circuitglobe.com/what-is-pure-capacitor-

circuit.html.

1. AC Circuits Basics, Impedance, Resonant Frequency, RL RC RLC LC

Circuit Explained, Physics Problems. (2017, February 28). Retrieved

September, 2018, from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C8o2UpqzuKI

2. B. (2016, August 15). RLC Circuits (1 of 14), Calculating Capacitve

Reactance. Retrieved September, 2018, from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mqECFI_dCvg

3. B. (2016, August 15). RLC Circuits (2 of 14), Calculating Inductive

Reactance. Retrieved September, 2018, from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4hIYg-U3X9k

4. B. (2016, July 20). RLC Circuits (3 of 14) Resistance; Phase Shift, Phasor

Diagrams, Impedance, An Explanation. Retrieved September, 2018,

from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iDju1jKOTMc

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5. B. (2016, July 20). RLC Circuits (4 of 14) Capacitive Reactance; Phase

Shift, Phasor Diagrams, Frequency, An Explanation. Retrieved

September, 2018, from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SGel5QNSkIQ

6. B. (2016, July 20). RLC Circuits (5 of 14) Inductive Reactance; Phase

Shift, Phasor Diagrams, Frequency, An Explanation. Retrieved

September, 2018, from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qEjBHmXDBqo

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