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IR/ PPC STUDY GUIDE

DISCLAIMER

As always there is, here’s a disclaimer – for no reason other than the fact that a
Disclaimer makes a document look important and gives you a feeling that there is more at stake.
The only thing at stake here is you. Yes, you’re a thing and you feel like it when you enter the
sim for your check ride. In that context, this is just an aide-de-memoir of sort and the FCOM and
other publications remain the master reference or your studies.

The references given here are true as of today, and the rate at which the publications
change, you may need to re-check and cross-check the references and changes.

Use this as a study guide and make your own additions/modifications.

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CONTENTS

Topic Page No.


1. Basic Concepts – Airbus Golden Rules 6
2. Flow Chart For Handling Abnormals 9-11
3. ECAM Handling 12
4. Use Of Summaries 13
5. Failures During Start 14-16
6. Use Of MEL 17
7. Failures during Taxy 18
8. Reject Take Off 19-20
9. Engine Failure > V1 21-22
10. Windshear 23-25
11. Reactive Windshear 26-27
12. TCAS 28
13. Hydraulics – Architecture & General Rules 29
14. Flight Controls – Architecture 30
15. Dual Hydraulic Failure (B+Y) 31
16. Dual Hydraulic Failure (G+B) 32
17. Dual Hydraulic Failure (G+Y) 33
18. Dual FCU Fault 34
19. Dual FMGC Fault 35
20. Double RA Failure 36
21. Emergency Descent 37
22. IR Failure 38
23. ADR Failure 39
24. DME Arc – how to fly it (Raw Data) 40
25. Basic flying tech – Raw Data 40-41
26. Smoke Procedure 42-44
27. Visual Circuit 44-45
28. EGPWS 46-48
29. Engine Failure in Cruise 49-51
30. Record of previous PPCs 52-53

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IR/PPC

Before All. Make sure you are carrying all the documents with you including the previous PPC
reports. Also have your flying hours since last check and total on type calculated. The latest
rules require that you carry the last three IR/PPC forms with you.

A separate folder with fresh blank forms is a good idea to put up to the instructor.

Also jot down the exercises conducted in the previous (two) IR/PPCs – a ready-reckoner for you
since the same exercises are not to be conducted in successive simulator sessions.

IMPORTANT to check who you are paired with. Bring to the notice of Pilots Training in advance
if the pairing is not good (I mean, REALLY not good – else you’ll just be crying wolf!).

The exercises are now grouped as A, B C & D. Keep a note of what you do in every PBS.

Preparation.

Chair flying is a must.

Read the logic behind actions of Abnormal Procedures

Know Memory Items – line by line (some instructors love to ask stupid things such as – do you
know how many notes are there in so and so ABN PRO/QRH)

System Knowledge

Prelims.

Be ready to do all the preliminary checks – some instructors make you do FULL cockpit
preparation, checks and taxy out. It is a basic check of your awareness of procedures.
Remember, you can use the QRH for the preliminary cockpit preparation.

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AIRBUS GOLDEN RULES
Basic Concepts

The four Golden Rules of Airbus (Yupp! Thats all – JUST FOUR GOLDEN RULES – not much to it)
apply. It is a good idea to know these and know very well what these mean. The FCOM has a
long explanation on the same. Here is an effort to translate the legalese to something more
chewable:

 FLY/ NAVIGATE /COMMUNICATE – in sequence


 USE APPROPRIATE AUTOMATION
 READ/UNDERSTAND THE FMA
 TAKE ACTION IF THINGS DON’T GO AS EXPECTED

FLY

The PRIMARY job is to fly the aircraft SAFELY – nothing can replace this priority. Hence it is the
PF job to take over control of the aircraft and stabilise it. By stabilising, I mean, you take over
control and assess as to what state the aircraft is in and does it need any special care in terms of
getting it to (or retaining) a stabilised flight path. There may be a requirement to level off , turn
(to avoid a Prohibited area probably), reduce/retain speed or a continued controlled climb (by
adjusting the ROC), to ensure a safe margin above terrain. You may need to prioritise – fly first
and handle the more critical aspects before jumping into the ECAM procedure (a mistake many
of us do) A good example would be, what if you have a TCAS RA and an ECAM? A good idea here
to ignore the ECAM for the time being till the RA has been cleared. All these form a part of the
‘FLY’ Golden Rule. And since it is the Airbus, a distant ancestor of AutoBots, it pays well to (at
the first instance) assess as to what automation is available and USE IT so that the act of flying
reduces to turning a few knobs rather than trying to hand-fly the machine and use up all your
attention and effort in that only. Get the AP on, pull HDG if required and check what altitude
you’re at and ask yourself – is it good? Or do I need to change it? If changing altitude, should I be
using VS or OPEN modes?

NAVIGATE

In an effort to identify and handle the malfunction, do not lose track of where you are and where
are you headed.

Where you are is important because it will give you a fair idea as to the distance/time from the
departure airport, the area around (terrain for example – which you would’ve covered in your
departure briefing) and consequently the kind of support available (a certain difference if
departure has been from VIDP or VERP). If you’re on an airway, are you in RVSM airspace? If
yes, then that adds further considerations for your actions from that point onwards.

So, Navigation is:

Where am I? This will tell you what is going to happen next – how far are you from the
departure/arrival airfield and how long will it take to get back and hence which is a better
choice. While these are long term decisions, short term awareness would involve knowing
adjacent airways, navaids that can be of use, headings to fly in case leaving the airway, based on
this knowledge and knowledge of terrain.

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Where to next? This decision can be taken in a progressive manner only as the full extent of the
malfunction will not be instantly visible to you. And how much time do I need to get there – this
also could be a critical deciding factor.

How to get there? Selection of navaids, and recovery methods (radar vectoring vs following a
STAR or setting up a hold) etc etc – the choice are probably infinite.

COMMUNICATE

Communicate to the Crew Member(s) and ATC, Company and Passengers at the appropriate
times. The operative word is ‘at the appropriate times’ – we will talk about this in the ECAM
handling section. Communication needs to be effective and enhance SA. Use STANDARD
PHRASEOLOGY and APPLICABLE CALLOUTS.

- Between PF and PM – Standard callouts (FCOM PRO-NOR-SOP-90)


- Between Flt Crew and ATC – Think and plan before you transmit your plan. In the
following sequence – Situation, Intention, AssitanceReq, Any Special Handling. Also do
not forget to revise your status with ATC for example, CANCEL MAYDAY.
- Between Flt Crew and Cabin Crew – Use of NITES – less words, and get a readback from
the Lead.
- Between Flt Crew and Passengers – choice of words so as not to cause a panic – “...due to
technical difficulties/weather conditions” could be appropriate phrases.
- Between Flt Crew and Grd Crew/Company – Use of ACARS if airborne

USE APPROPRIATE AUTOMATION

Automation will take a fair amount of loadoff the back of the flight crew. It would always be
preferable to use automation. Some failures, cause the automation levels to degrade or
altogether disconnect. Try and recover the automation levels.

I certain cases you might be required to REDUCE the automation levels (forcing a Direct Law or
switching off the ATHR)

The mistake we make in Sim Check is the we go be a default feeling that we will be forced to do
manual flying and hence the malfunction will involve absence of any kind of automation. Wrong.
Use maximum appropriate automation. For this you need to know what is available and what is
good enough. This will be discussed in the specific Abn Procedures in this brief.

KNOW/READ THE FMA

The FMA will give you a fair idea of the capability of the aircraft. It is the basic interface between
the flight crew and the aircraft. Very important for the “FLY/NAVIGATE” part of the golden
rules. When you do want the aircraft to do something, its confirmation will come from the FMA
– so it is essential to read what’s there. The FOUR essential steps are:

 Monitor the FMA


 Announce the FMA
 Confirm the FMA
 Understand the FMA

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Also, the FMA will tell you why certain modes are not available or what is the further course of
action (THR LK – for example) or in case of Basic Modes, how will ATHR react etc; which would
lead you to the next Golden Rule:

Don’t just wait to read whatever you see. Anticipate the changes, expect them, and act if not
seen.

TAKE ACTION IF THINGS DO NOT GO AS EXPECTED

If the aircraft does not follow the flight path you desire AND you do not have sufficient time to
analyse the situation, you must:

 Change the level of automation – it could be increasing automation or reducing the level
of automation.
 I could be going from managed to selected to manual flying if required.
 The PF must communicate with the PF and challenge his actions if necessary and if
required, TAKE OVER controls.

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FLOW CHART (EXCERPTS FROM INDIGO TRG FORMS)

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ECAM HANDLING

ECAM handling is the Airbus version of a Ballet. Not that it can’t be handled in any other
manner, but the Airbus procedure apparently ensures optimal utilisation of a 2 man crew,
obviating chances of missing out any piece of information or any action. Basically, it helps them
perpetuate the myth of an Airbus culture, which is a big part of their marketing campaign. Well,
if you can’t beat them, join them. So here goes.

The faults that are not covered by ECAM would generally be found in the QRH or OEB. Once
decided to carry out ECAM actions, the flow chart is as follows:

First pilot to notice – call out MASTER WARNING/CAUTION and reset it/cancel audio. Read out
the first line. Call out the heading, only the underlined part. eg,

FLT CTRLS SPOILER 1 FAULT

“Master Warning/Caution, Flight Controls”

PF PM
Read out the first line. E.g. “Flight Controls,
Spoiler 1 Fault”.
Confirm the failure from O/H panel, Fault light.
Apply OEB or ECAM actions
“I have controls and comms. ECAM actions.” Completing ECAM actions, ask for clearing
using system name only. E.g.
“Clear Flight controls?”
Check all actions completed by PM Clear the Flight control page
“Clear Flight Controls”
Analyse each system page and carry out the following actions for each SD page
Check SD, call out available systems only. E.g.
“Gen 1 supplying entire system”
Repeat for each system.
“Status”
“Stop ECAM” Carry out any pending NORMAL C/L, system
“Any Normal checklist, Computer reset” reset, system procedure such as Engine
Relight
Once these are done/ascertained, Read status.
“Continue ECAM” Also this is the time to consider an OEB that
replaces the PROCEDURE portion of the
actions
“Remove status?”
“Remove Status” on confirmation, remove and
“ECAM actions complete”.

Now, paper checklists – QRH and if time permitting, (MEL and FCOM). Also, ENGINE RELIGHT
will be done here. Remember, engine shutdown is a paper checklist.

FCOM is mandatory in 2 cases – Dual RA (Talks of Direct law), and Dual FCU (tells you not to
enter Baro minima)

OEB can be of two types (other than RED/WHITE) – one that replaces the primary actions and
will be carried out INSTEAD of the ECAM actions and most probably will have an OEB reminder

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(OEB48 – Abnormal V Alpha Prot). Second are the kinds that replace certain procedures on the
status page/App or GA phase (OEB46 – no engagement of guidance mode) Read OEB
description in FCOM.

Further actions are discussed in detail in the next section – USE OF SUMMARIES.

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USE OF SUMMARIES

(FCOM OP-040)

Only Four failures require the use of summaries – 3 Failures in Double Hyd and Emer Elect
configuration.

There are total 12 steps to be followed in 04 phases.

A brief outline is given below. Refer the FCTM for the same.

Phase-I: Cruise, Situation Assessment

1. ECAM Actions.
2. Status Page – review the procedures, limitation and the InOp systems and their effects.
3. Read Summary from the QRH. Keep in mind the limitations imposed.
4. Ascertain Fuel Penalties. Based on the actual state of the aircraft (derived from step #2 –
status pages) from QRH (PM does it first)
5. Ascertain Landing Performance. (PM then crosscheck by PF)

These actions are primarily by the PM. Once this phase is complete, you may carry out FORD EC,
NITES – The Execution and Crosscheck will happen later.

Phase – II: Approach Preparation

6. Status Page on SD.


7. Summary – App, Ldg and GA portions
8. FMGS Preparation.

Now is the time for FORD EC

Phase – III: Approach Briefing

(refer to the following while doing this)


9. Summary – App, Ldg and GA portions, FMGS programming and EFB
10. Status page on SD. The deferred actions need to be briefed/spelt out clearly. Deferred
actions such as Landing Config etc.

Phase – IV: Approach

11. Summary – App section and later review the Ldg and GA phases also
12. Status on SD – once it pops up, check that all the procedures therein are completed.

That’s it!! Done! Simple!

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FAILURES DURING START

Actions in case of any abnormal situation on ground should follow the flow chart: ECAM
ACTIONS – QRH – COMPUTER RESETS – FCOM – MEL.

The following Malfunctions/Procedures can happen during Start or preparation to start:

 Low bleed pressure/ No bleed pressure


 Starter Valve Fault – Start with external valve control.
 Fuel Valve Fault – Check MEL. No procedure in QRH or FCOM. No dispatch.
 Hung Start – Manual start.
 EGT Exceeded – Abort start. Manual Start.
 Hot Start – Manual Abort or Auto Abort. Manual start.

Details of the above malfunctions are given in FCOM PRO ABN-70 ENG 1(2) START FAULT. In
most cases, the first action is MASTER OFF. The basic description is as follows:

Whenever you are doing an Auto Start, the FADEC will take care of the start abort and the
subsequent AUTO CRANK. Care should be taken not to shut down the Engine Master before the
process is completed. Check the ECAM for the memo of COOLING. Only after the auto-crank is
complete that you should switch the Eng Master off. For a subsequent start, a manual start is
preferred. Some points in addition to what is given in the QRH are given below:

 Fuel Leak – In case of IAE engines, there is an observation time of five minutes. If the
leak stops within this time, continue. In other engines (NEO esp) shut down the engine
and call for maintenance action.

 Crossbleed start – FCOM-PRO-SUP-70. You may be required to open power upto 40%
on the running engine – you need not ask ATC permission for this opening of power,
however you are required to check from the ground crew if the area behind is clear or
not.

 Start with external control of Starter Valve – FCOM-PRO-SUP-70. You must inform the
engineer before reading the procedure – he will need time to set it up for you (tools etc)
so once decided, inform him and then read the procedure, take clearance and proceed
with read and do.

 You could get a situation where after having started the second engine, stabilised and
you disconnect the ground staff and now the EGT begins to rise and exceeds the limits.
Action is to select the associated Eng Master OFF. Now you’re at you push back condition
and no ground assistance. Options:
o Inform ATC to call the ground staff back.
o Call on Company Freq 129.275 for the same.
o Since you would have switched off the APU, either you can restart the APU
(recommended) or carry out a crossbleed start.

 Nosewheel Steering Fault – Before asking ATC for pushback, check that the NW STRG
DISC memo is displayed on the ECAM. If not, call the ground tech and ask him if any
malfunction. Sometimes they will disconnect once you put the beacon on. In any case ask
him before ordering a push back in case the memo is not displayed. In case it goes off
during push back, stop the push back and confirm from engineer if the NW Towing pin is
in position. If yes, then do not start and engine till push back is completed otherwise the

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pressurisation of the hydraulic system will cause damage to the nosewheel steering
mechanism. Subsequently if the engineers have to electrically disconnect the NWS, there
is an Ops Procedure in MEL ITEMS – follow that. Basically aircraft is cleared for up to
three flights with NWS electrically disconnected but that is when you ALREADY have a
MEL regarding this.

 Also, in case of WHEEL NW STRG FAULT – first follow the computer reset procedure given
in the QRH (it requires you to go back to bay for trouble shooting) – A word of caution
here, there can be cases where you need to do a computer reset based on the OBSERVED
malfunction and not an ECAM – you needn’t go back to bay for that. Read the computer
reset table carefully.

 There can be another case, wherein ground staff will inform you that there is no Parking
Brake light on the box outside, but you have a ‘PARK BRK’ ECAM Memo, in addition, you
will not have a ‘NW STRG DISC’ memo. – There is an MEL regarding this.

 Engine Tail Pipe Fire. QRH 70.05A – First action is ENG MASTER – OFF Followed by dry
cranking of engine. At times, there may not be enough time to open and read the QRH
procedure, hence knowing the basic actions beforehand will help. The actions are 5 that
form a ‘double triangle’ based on the location of the switches (one should be aware of
these actions, even though you will be required to read and do)
o ENG MASTER OFF
o MAN START OFF (if doing a manual start)
o AIR BLEED ESTABLISH (APU bleed on or crossbleed)
o MODE SELECTOR – CRANK
o MAN START ON

AIR BLEED PRESSURE - ESTABLISH ❸ MAN START - OFF

❷ MAN START - ON


❶ ENGINE MASTER - OFF

MODE SELECTOR - CRANK

Having done the actions, keep a watch on the fire and consider CONTROLLED
EVACUATION with ladder in place. In this case you will not be deploying slides, but evacuating
people by the attached ramps. Also keep in mind the time available and the direction from
where you will evacuate based on which engine has the tail pipe fire going.

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On this, a little technical information:

Parameter IAE NEO CFM


EGT TOGA (5min) 635°C 1083°C 950°C
EGT OEI (10min) 635°C 1083°C 950°C
EGT MCT unlimited 610°C 1043°C 915°C
EGT during start (max) 635°C 1018°C 725°C
Oil Temp (min at starting) -40°C -40°C -40°C
Oil Temp (min before T/O) 50°C -10°C 52°C
Oil Temp (max) 155°C 151°C 140°C
Oil Temp (max transient 15min) 165°C -- 155°C
Oil Pressure (min) 60PSI 65PSI --
Oil Quantity 11qts +0.3/hr ≥14qts 9.5qts +0.5/hr
Min rec starter pressure for ext start
25PSI 30PSI 30PSI
Manual Engine Start procedure Max Motoring Max Motoring or Max Motoring
Master ON (min 15%) 18% N2 22% (20% min)
and 30sec
Start cycle complete 43% N2 55% N2 50% N2
No running engagement of starter N2 > 10% (G) N2 > 20% N2 > 20%
N2 > 18% (F)
Manual Start Cycle limitations given in FCOM LIM-70 (not included here as they keep
changing)

The activity cycle for malfunctions during start would be:


ECAM actions – OEBs – FCOM Procedures – MEL (in coord with engineer)

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USE OF MEL

The general steps (in specific order) to be followed in case of a malfunction on the ground are as
given below:

Apply OEB/Tech Notice or ECAM.


In case no info/action found above, refer to Computer Reset/FCOM
Still no joy, Apply MEL

The last step is application of MEL - important points to remember:

o MEL applicability is from doors close to COMMENCEMENT OF TAKE OFF RUN. This means
that you can apply MEL right down to the time you start rolling for take-off.
o CBs etc can be reset on ground in coordination with Engineer, provided that the cause of CB
tripping is known.

In the case of a Status (Maintenance) message, there is no associated checklist/ procedure. The
application of MEL in this case is only required if it is displayed before the first engine start.
MEL application is not required if it is displayed after the first engine start has begun, i.e. engine
Mode selector set to IGN/START

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DURING TAXY

There are various failures that can happen during Taxy, including Loss of Braking or NW STRG
FAULT. Follow the instructions on CB reset. Also the MEL preamble should be known. Basic
guidelines are:

NEVER reset Fuel Pump CBs


DO NOT reset EIU and EEC while engines are running.
DO NOT reset BSCU while aircraft is in motion.
Always reconfirm with the other Flt Crew while resetting the CBs.

Food for thought: what would you do if you have loss of braking during taxy? Would you still
select max reverse (say in the apron area)? Jury is out on this one and it becomes a case of ‘pilot
discretion’ to my mind. Of course the other actions of switching off NW STR & ALT BRK is
required and Parking Brakes are also to be used as per the memory item.

Loss of Braking: If you refer to the computer reset table, you will see that even an observed
malfunction such as loss of braking while taxy requires a computer reset. Must go through that
before deciding if it is a turn back situation or not.

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REJECT TAKE OFF

Two regimes of RTO – Slow Speed Reject and High Speed Reject.

Slow Speed Reject

The characteristics of a low speed reject are that, stopping of aircraft is not a problem as the
runway length available is not the limiting factor. The runway width is the limiting factor. With
typical CG, the VMCG is around 109Kts. Anything lesser than this, the rudder will not be able to
help you maintain direction. At speed <72Kts, you will not get Spoilers and hence Auto Brake.

Add to this, the fact that at the time of engine failure (if that is the case) one engine is operating
at take off thrust. This will cause a large and significant thrust asymmetry causing a large
amount of yaw resulting in direction loss and if not controlled in time, a runway excursion. The
aircraft will yaw into the dead engine.

Selection of reversers is a regulatory requirement. You cannot skip this step. Selection of full
reverser will cause a yaw into the live engine. While this will, in the initial part of the RTO,
nullify the yaw caused due to the same engine generating take off power, it will cause a
significant yaw towards the opposite side if not reduced to Rev Idle in time.

Actions (pertain to RTO due engine failure):

o Call out – STOP!!


o THR LVR – Rev MAX
o Full rudder and brake (one side only) to counter yaw
o Watch the nose of the aircraft, the moment you see the yaw stopping,
o THR LVR – Rev MIN.
o Reduce brake pressure and move rudder pedals (using NWS mainly) to maintain
direction and use both brakes to slow the aircraft down to a halt.
o Inform ATC – STOPPING
o Once aircraft comes to a halt, PARK BRK on
o PA – Attention Crew! At stations! These actions are common
o Order – ECAM ACTIONS and should be done for every RTO

High Speed Reject

Airbus lays down 100Kts as the nominal demarcation between low and high speed rejects. High
speed rejects have their own characteristics:
o You are above or close to Vmcg. Hence direction maintenance is not a critical issue. Even
though there is a large asymmetry in case of an engine failure. Therefore the critical
parameter is runway length and not the runway width.
o Spoilers are available and so is Auto BRK MAX – only if you use your heels for direction
maintenance and do not put pressure on your toes - which is a natural response
especially if you are in a habit of sitting with rudder pedals too far away – since
extending your toes becomes the only way to ensure max reach of rudder pedals.
o Take Off should be rejected in case
o Fire warning or severe damage.
o Sudden loss of engine thrust.
o Malfunctions or conditions that give unambiguous indications that the aircraft
will not fly
o safely.
o Any red ECAM warning.
o Any amber ECAM caution listed below:

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‐ F/CTL SIDESTICK FAULT
‐ ENG FAIL
‐ ENG REVERSER FAULT
‐ ENG REVERSE UNLOCKED
‐ ENG 1(2) THR LEVER FAULT

o Exceeding the EGT red line or nose gear vibration should not result in the decision to
reject takeoff above 100 kt.
o In case of tire failure between V1 minus 20 kt and V1: Unless debris from the tires has
caused serious engine anomalies, it is far better to get airborne, reduce the fuel load, and
land with a full runway length available.
o THE V1 CALL HAS PRECEDENCE OVER ANY OTHER CALL.
o Procedure as per FCOM-ABN-10 P/16

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ENGINE FAILURE >V1

In case of engine failure >V1, you will call ‘GO’ and continue with take off.

Performance theory.

Typically, the RTO/Continued take off performance calculations assume a one-second time for
recognition for an engine out condition.

V1 is the speed at which it is felt that, given the runway length available, it will be possible to
stop the aircraft within the runway+stopway

V1 depends on the following:

Weight – this dictates the momentum and consequently the Vmbe (maximum brake
energy – capacity of the brakes to dissipate energy)
OAT – affects the Vmbe and also higher ground speed for a given indicated speed in case
of a higher OAT.
RWY Length – The ASDA will dictate the maximum V1
Vmcg – V1 will need to be >Vmcg. The reason for this is that below Vmcg, the challenges
of rejecting take off aren’t just stopping the aircraft within the length but direction
maintenance as well. This usually is never a problem.

Vr – The speed at which, if the aircraft is rotated at a nominal rate of 3°/sec, you will be able to
obtain V2 at 35ft above the runway surface. Vr ≥ 1.05 Vmca

V2–the minimum climb speed that must be reached at 35ft. V2 ≥ 1.1 Vmca (1.13 Vs1g - A320)

Vmca – that speed above which, in case of an engine failure, it is possible to maintain control
and straight flight with Bank Angle≯5°

Interesting Trivia (or is it):Line up distance correction for A320 is


For a 90° entry – 10.9m (TODA) and 23.6m (ASDA)
For a 180° turnaround – 16.5m (TODA) and 29.1m (ASDA) – you need a minimum RWY
width of 28.7m to make a 180° turn

ACTIONS:

Caution: In case there is a large difference between V1 and Vr, and an engine fails at or very
close to V1, the acceleration reduces since you’re on one engine. The time elapsed suddenly feel
very large. There are cases where either PM calls ROTATE or the PF rotates because it felt too
long between V1 and Vr (and they ran out of patience) – result: Poor lift off/ possible tail strike/
Vlof lower than VMCA leading to controllability problems.

For the actions, refer to FCTM-AO-020 P 8/30. The beta target is also well described there.

Flying tips: To correct the direction loss during the engine failure on the runway, you will need
rudder application. RETAIN this rudder deflection during rotation and keep it. As the speed
increases, you will need to reduce the rudder deflection a little bit – even if you don’t reduce the
rudder deflection, this will minimise the direction loss after takeoff.
TIP: It is a good idea to peep over the nose after rotation to see if you’re travelling along the
runway (do not lower the nose in the process)

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Rotation has to be gentle, aiming to stop at 10°(to ensure it does not cross 12.5°) - usual
tendency of the nose to rise and while trimming if you’re not careful, the attitude may even rise
to 15-20° - this will make the speed drop which obviously is not healthy. If engine failure is
above THR RED ALT and below ACC ALT, consider use of TOGA.

Crossing 400RA, order ECAM actions. While the PM is waiting to discharge the agent, is a good
time to inform ATC. However, you can hold the ATC call till a point when you know that you will
be deviating from the ATC clearance. The MAYDAY call however, must be made as described
earlier (during agent discharge) because you may need an immediate turn to return back.

In case the engine is not secure and you reach the acceleration altitude, push to level of and
allow the Primary ECAM action to be completed and then stop ECAM action.

As the speed trend vector reaches the green dot speed, pull altitude to get into open climb, and
the operative thrust lever to MCT. For this the TL is always moved BACKWARDS and then
forward into the MCT/FLEX detent.

In case continuing take off with engine fire, remember NOT TO select lever climb once it
flashes on the FMA. This is because once you start ECAM actions, you will switch off the affected
engine. Now, Climb thrust will not be sufficient for SE. In case you go back to Flex/détente after
going to climb once, this is now MCT and not Flex setting. MCT being lower than Flex, even this
will not be sufficient, and you will finally go to TOGA after having spoilt your climb and losing
speed maybe.

21 | P P C / D e n n i s
WINDSHEAR

Preventive Windshear - some tech speak:

On T/O roll till 100kts:

During the takeoff roll, up to 100 kt, both


warnings and cautions are available within a
range of 3 NM

>50 ft RA:

During final approach, the visual and aural warning alerts are downgraded to caution alerts
between370 ft AGL and 50 ft AGL, and range between 1.5 NM and 0.5 NM

Winshear Alert inhibition:

At takeoff, alerts are inhibited above 100 kt and up to 50 ft.


During landing, alerts are inhibited below 50 ft.

The aural alerts of the Predictive WindShear system (PWS):


‐ Have priority over TCAS, GPWS, and other FWC aural warnings
‐ Are inhibited by reactive windshear detection and aural messages of stall warnings

22 | P P C / D e n n i s
Warnings and alerts:

In case bad weather and thunderstorms are reported in the vicinity of the airfield, then you will
need to do some briefing before take-off on the following lines:

Cover indications of windshear – rapid indicated speed reversals/ erratic speed indications
during takeoff roll (since PWS is inhibited >100Kts).

Depending on the runway characteristics – define the actions for the PM. By runway
characteristics I mean RWY Length – VIDP28 will definitely have different considerations than
VIDP27. PM must call out WINDSHEAR in case he sees indication on the speed indications (even
the wind speed and direction on ND is live >100Kts) – this you will brief the PM properly as to
what indications and when to call WINDSHEAR. At this time, if you feel sufficient RWY is
available, REJECT TAKE OFF. This case could be possible only if the V1 is well above 100Kts
(140Kts or so)

Above V1, with the speed indications erratic or rapid speed reversals being there, you will not
get to know the true VR. So when will you rotate? Here you need to be aware of the T/O
performance calculations on the EFB and may be a reference to the GS indicated on the ND as
well. In any case, you will need to rotate and get airborne – you may take reference of remaining
runway length available. As a ballpark when you see alternating runway lights, PM may call
ROTATE and PF will rotate to get airborne. This is just a suggestion/example – but a good point
of discussion during the pre-sim briefing.

In case you encounter windshear after the AP comes on, keep the autopilot on, pulling back if
the aircraft tends to sink. If the aircraft continues to climb, there is no requirement to
disconnect AP.

23 | P P C / D e n n i s
MEM ITEM

24 | P P C / D e n n i s
REACTIVE WINDSHEAR

Tech-Speak (FCOM – FLT AUGMENTATION DSC-22_40-40)

Detection

The windshear detection function is provided by the Flight Augmentation Computer (FAC) in
takeoffand approach phase in the following conditions:
‐ At takeoff, 3 s after liftoff, up to 1 300 ft RA
‐ At landing, from 1 300 ft RA to 50 ft RA
‐ With at least CONF 1 selected.

The warning consists of:


‐ A visual “WINDSHEAR” red message displayed on both PFDs for a minimum of 15 s.
‐ An aural synthetic voice announcing “WINDSHEAR” three times.

Principle

The FACs generate the windshear warning whenever the predicted energy level for the aircraft
falls below a predetermined threshold. In computing this energy level prediction, the FACs use
data from different sources. From ADIRS comes data such as vertical speed, air and ground
speeds and slope ; from other sources come such derived parameters as total slope, longitudinal
wind gradient, and vertical wind.
The FACs express this energy level as an angle of attack and compare it with an angle-of-attack
threshold above which windshear conditions are most likely and pilot action is required.

ACTIONS
Immediately select TOGA. Keep autopilot on unless, you feel that with the autopilot on, the
aircraft is maintaining below the desired flight path or descending – in which case, disconnect
autopilot and stick fully back/pitch 17.5°

Once out of windshear, inform ATC of windshear and be careful, since you are in TOGA power,
the aircraft accelerates quickly, clean up the aircraft promptly to avoid exceedence. Autopilot
should come on quickly. you may consider pulling speed in case the build up is rapid and you
feel an exceedence will occur.

25 | P P C / D e n n i s
MEM ITEM

26 | P P C / D e n n i s
TCAS

Tech Speak

Coverage in some systems is just


30-40nm – depends on the MSNs

TA RA Thresholds

System selections
ABOVE - displayed +9900ft to -2700ft
BELOW - displayed +2700ft to -9900ft
ALL - all traffic displayed±2700ft
THREAT - proximate and other intruders displayed only if TA or RA is present ±2700ft

ACTIONS

On getting traffic advisory, reduce the scale (some systems will prompt you for the same) FO
may look out for the traffic. Signs ON.

On getting RA, disconnect autopilot, FDs OFF (gets thrust into speed mode) and follow the green
zone on the VSI (regulatory reaction time is 5 seconds). The system usually restricts the VS to
1500 fpm for initial RA and 2000 fpm for follow up RA. Altitude change is limited as far as
possible to <1000 ft.

On getting CLEAR OF CONFLICT, select FD ON, AP on and pull the original altitude/clearance.
Inform ATC. Std Call: IFLY 123, CLEAROF CONFLICT RETURNING TO... (FL or original clearance)

27 | P P C / D e n n i s
HYDRAULIC ARCHITECTURE
Not for MSN earlier than 2208 (incl)

Hydraulic failures can be because of the following reasons:

o Loss of Fluid. Nothing can be done about this. You cannot use the PTU also. System lost.

o Pump Malfunction:
o Overheat: Switch off the pump and then switch on when the overheat disappears
or prior to landing.
o Pump Failure: Recover pressure by using PTU.
o In case the Blue Pump is affected, you can take RAT.
o In case of Yellow EDP failure, Elec Pump is available as a backup.

o Accumulator (LO AIR PR):


o Use other system to pressurise through PTU
o In case of low air pressure, descending to a lower level might help recover some
pressure.

General Rules:

GREEN: Largest system. With G avble, very less reduction in performance. Least LD.
YELLOW: Medium System: With Y avble the performance is somewhere between the max and
min. However, loss of ailerons has its challenges.
BLUE: Smallest system. With B avble, the longest LD and most number of systems are lost.

28 | P P C / D e n n i s
FLIGHT CONTROLS ARCHITECTURE contd...

29 | P P C / D e n n i s
DUAL HYDRAULIC FAILURE
B+Y (G available)

SERVICE AVBL EFFECT/CONSIDERATIONS


FLAPS slow Both available thru full range but at a slower rate – hence anticipate
SLATS slow the configuration changes and do them in time. You have a choice of
landing in CONFIG 3 or FULL.
Only Cat 1 approach capability is available.
AIL 1/1 Sluggish control; though assisted by spoilers.
SPLR 2/2 Increased landing distance.
ELEV 1 Sluggish control
THS 1
RDR 1
YD 1
GEAR normal Even though Gear lowering is available, still lower it on gravity system
because lowering of gear takes quite a lot of fluid and this might cause
you to lose control momentarily. Same is mentioned in the Summary –
to maintain the integrity of the G system, lower on gravity. It is part of
the B+Y summary. No need to turn pages and look for it in the QRH

Also Gear cannot be retracted after GA. In this case, there will be a fuel
penalty for flight subsequent to the GA – 180% (Gear); 195%
(Gear+Doors)
BRK normal
NWS X differential braking may be used to clear off runway
REV #1 Irrespective, still use both reversers. On landing, standard callout is
NO REVERSE ON #2 ENGINE (refer FCOM standard callouts)

Fly a normal pattern. You have a choice of Config3 or Config Full landing. Since Flaps/Slats are
slow, due anticipation for configuration will be required. Obviously it will have to be an early
stabilised approach.

Alternate Law. Normal Pitch Trim is available.

Flare control will have to be smoother since only one elevator is available.

Landing Performance:
Since only 2 SPLR/ 1 REV are available, the landing distance is greater.
For 66t/ISA+10/1000ft elev

Vapp = Vls+6Kts
FLD = ~1450m (Config 3) ~1550m (Config Full)

30 | P P C / D e n n i s
DUAL HYDRAULIC FAILURE
G+B (Y available)

SERVICE AVBL EFFECT/CONSIDERATIONS


FLAPS slow In the absence of slats, the AoA will reach near stall figures quickly,
SLATS X triggering a stall warning. Secondly, the airflow on top of the wing is
no longer energised – this coupled with the fact that only spoilers are
being used for roll control (AIL N/A), will cause oscillations in pitch
and as a consequence ATHR variations. Remedy is to force aircraft into
direct law for better control and also ATHR OFF
AIL X Only spoilers are being used for roll control. This might contribute to
pitch oscillations and/or stall warning trigger during mano.
SPLR 2/2
ELEV 1
THS 1
RDR 1
YD 1
GEAR X Gravity lowering of gear. There is a paper checklist for lowering of
gear on emergency in the QRH. The procedure is a part of the B+Y
summary.
Also Gear cannot be retracted after GA. In this case, there will be a fuel
penalty for flight subsequent to the GA – 180% (Gear); 195%
(Gear+Doors)
Lowering of gear will be done at 200Kts to force Direct Law.
Config sequence 1-G-2-3
USE MAN PITCH TRIM will be displayed on PFD
BRK alternate
NWS avble
REV #2 Irrespective, still use both reversers. On landing, standard callout is
NO REVERSE ON #1 ENGINE (refer FCOM standard callouts)
Try and recover at least B pressure by using RAT.

Do not use speed brakes, in case you do, the increased Vls will trigger a stall warning and also
give some control difficulties.With slats N/A, there is a likelihood that stall warning will get
triggered whenlowering gear. To avoid this:

Select Vfe-5 for Config 1, take config1, Further select 185kts. Feed into a gentle descent and
lower gear in a descent while passing 200Kts – this brings up the VLS rapidly and as long as you
are <190Kts, quickly select flaps2. Alternate Law is lost on lowering gear. Vls increases rapidly
onlowering gear, hence the need to be in a descent and it also helps in maintaining speed.

** Know the difference between speed to fly and speed to configure. Speed to configure is
Vfe(next)-5 once configured, you must fly at Vmax-10. For example Flaps1 → Flaps2 Configure
at 195Kts. Once configured, fly at 190Kts. On final App, slow down to Vapp. Config 3 landing.

For 66t/ISA+10/1000ft elev


Vapp = Vls+25Kts
FLD = ~1935m (Config 3)

GA: Gear cannot be retracted. Flaps may be retracted.

Fuel Penalties: 180% (gear) + 15% (doors) + 15% (system failure) = 210%

31 | P P C / D e n n i s
DUAL HYDRAULIC FAILURE
G+Y (B available)

SERVICE AVBL EFFECT/CONSIDERATIONS


FLAPS X Higher attitude during approach. Hence there will be illusions on
SLATS slow approach, a tendency to lower the nose prematurely on approach. Risk
of tail strike if flare not handled correctly.
AIL 1/1 Reduced roll control. Anticipate.
SPLR 1/1 Increased landing distance.
ELEV 1/1 Reduced pitch control.
THS X This will freeze once the aircraft gets into direct law. The elevator will
assume the current position (at the time of activation of direct law) as
the neutral/datum position. Hence, the elevator control will be about
this datum position. To avoid running out of elevator control, you will
need to lower gear once stabilised on the approach path. The
configuration sequence will be 1-2-3-G. MAN PITCH TRIM is available
till gear is lowered.
RDR 1
YD X
GEAR X Gravity lowering of gear. The procedure is a part of the B+Y summary.
Also Gear cannot be retracted after GA. In this case, there will be a fuel
penalty for flight subsequent to the GA – 180% (Gear); 195%
(Gear+Doors)
Lowering of gear will be done once stabilised on the approach path at
Vapp. This will trigger Direct Law. Also the elevator will freeze at the
current position.
Config sequence 1-2-3-G
MAN PITCH is not available after lowering of gear. You will need to fly
the pressures.
BRK X You have only the accumulator pressure. Ensure brake pressure ≯
1000PSI. 7 applications are available.
NWS X No directional control. Use differential brake modulation to control
direction. Switch off on the runway.
REV X Increased landing distance.
Try and recover Y pressure by Elec Pump.

Even though flaps are not available, keep moving the flap lever as per the speed/config profile.
This will give you a lower Vls.

On final App or localiser, slow down to Vapp. Config3 landing. Lower gear once stabilised at
Vapp in Config3. This need not be on glideslope, you can do it in a level segment once Vapp is
achieved.

For 66t/ISA+10/1000ft elev


Vapp = Vls+25Kts
FLD = ~3100m (Config 3)

GA: Gear cannot be retracted. Slats may be retracted.

Fuel Penalties: 180% (gear) + 15% (doors) + 10% (system failure) = 205%

32 | P P C / D e n n i s
DOUBLE FCU FAILURE

Description:AUTO FLT FCU 1+2 FAULT

All the controls/indications associated with the FCU are lost. Which means, going from left to
right on the glareshield,
- Baro Setting – goes to standard
- ND Range – goes to 80
- ND Mode – goes to Rose/ Nav
- VOR/ADF selections – Needle1 is on VOR1 and Needle2 is on ADF1 (since in our aircraft,
ADF 2 is not installed)
- FDs go off
- ILS will be displayed on the PFD
- A/THR goes off
- AP will disconnect (this is what will first draw your attention to the failure)
- Bird will appear
- There is NO FMA
- No radar image (if available then disregard it)

Actions:

Firstly, no callouts will be available on approach. The PM needs to give the callouts as per
standard phraseology. Above transition altitude there is not much problem as the altitude
indicated in FL. Below T/ALT, select QNH on standby altimeter and then you must compare
these altimeter readings (PFD/Sby) and callout the difference. As a help you can tell the PF what
altitude to level out on the PFD by applying the necessary corrections.

You are not RVSM capable at this point (you need ONE FCU to be RVSM capable – FCOM PRO-
SPO-50). The flight may be continued outside RVSM airspace – but in case you were planned for
a higher level and you continue at <FL290, consider fuel penalties and then take a decision,
there may be a case that you may not be able to land at destination with the MDF fuel figure.

You are RNAV10 capable but not RNAV1 (one FD in NAV mode) capable (FCOM PRO-SPO-51).
This means that you can fly the airway but not the SID/STAR. You need radar vectoring for
approach and landing.

Flying is manual, there is no track bug (blue line) available. It is a good idea for the PM to call
out “30° to go” for roll out and also similarly give altitude alerts. ILS is also flown manually,
don’t forget to select LS on the standby altimeter (ISIS). In case of a VOR approach, you will not
have the necessary scale on the ND to be able to make out the pattern. However, the XTK is
visible on the ND. You do not have the ROSE VOR display also, hence you will have to tune the
VOR1 on the MCDU and feed in the VOR ident on the PROG page and take distance cues from
that as well (VOR1 is available on the ND) since this will give a cross check too. The approach
will be flown with reference to the VOR1 needle on the ND and fly radials. PM has an important
role in calling out corrections etc. The simple rule of – when heading towards the VOR turn to
the same side by twice the amount to capture radial. For example if the radial required is 090
(which requires a course of 270) and depicted is 080, (or best use the tail end of the needle, in
this case it will be showing 260) turn left by 20° and keep reducing this correction as the radial
closes in. Remember, the closer you are to the facility, the quicker is the change in radial as the
radials converge towards the facility. You can select the VOR on the PROG page and keep ot
displayed.

33 | P P C / D e n n i s
DOUBLE FMGC FAILURE

There are no ECAM indications to tell you that both FMGS have failed. The first indication is the
ATHR and AP will disengage.

Try to recover the AP (this should be done in all situation where AP trips) and also the ATHR. If
not, select TRK/FPA and FD off (you will have the FD flag in red on the PFD)

Flying is not a problem as the aircraft is not in direct law.

While you fly, the PM will need to tune radio through the RMP. See FCOM-DSC-23-10-30 for
tuning the RMP.

You will need to activate the BACK UP NAVIGATION mode. A full description of the same is given
in FCOM-DSC-22_10-30. Basically the BACK UP NAV provides:

- Flight Planning
- AC position using onside IRS, IR3 or GPIRS position.
- F-PLN display on ND
- No AP/FD NAV mode
- Limited lateral revision
- F-PLN auto sequencing

You need to remember, points once sequenced are not available in the MCDU/Database. Hence,
the need to correctly program the MCDU. Cheating tip: good idea to feed in the destination
approach without STAR early enough as soon as the app is known - so that in case you go to
BACK UP NAV, the landing dumbbell is available in the system. If done, Dir To CI or CF can be
selected (can not be inserted after failure if you don’t have it already in the FMGS) Remember, it
is the MCDU now that has the waypoints in its memory and not the FMGS – hence once
sequenced, it is gone.

App and landing will be radar vectored, raw data. In case flying ILS, tune it in the RMP – Once
you feed in the frequency and transfer it on to the left window, wait till it gets validated and
then 2-3 seconds later the right window shows the course – modify it as required. LS button is
active as it has nothing to do with FMGS (FMGS only auto tunes)

Since FMGS is not available to do the calculations, you will need to do the IFLD, Vapp
calculations and fly selected speed manually. Needless to say, it’s a fully stabilised approach.
Usually in dual failures, the app is flown in Config3, here you may use Flaps full as well.

Go around will be manual – brief this properly as to the task sharing and speed to be flown
during your approach briefing. Check if Missed Approach is available in the flight plan, if not, fly
it manually.

34 | P P C / D e n n i s
DOUBLE RA FAILURE

Description. NAV RA 1 AND 2 FAULT

The aircraft uses RA for various things and transitions, more important ones being the EGPWS,
PWS, TCAS RA inhibit and most important are LOW ENERGY AURAL and the transition from
Normal Law to Flare Law as well as the command to ATHR for APPR THR settings. During
approach, the RAs are used to judge the minimas.

In absence of the RAs, the aircraft cannot ascertain its ht above terrain and consequently the
minimums are also not available or measured. Hence, to avoid a pilot error where you may
intercept glideslope and in bad weather, keep waiting for an RA Minimums callout and land up
in an unwanted situation, the GS capture on ILS is inhibited. Only LOC is available.

As an obvious consequence, the landing capability is Cat I, and you will have to fly a laterally
managed and vertically selected approach. Therefore, you will fly on TRK/FPA (with FD – till
you disconnect AP) It is advisable to fly Raw Data since the AP gains are not modified as we
come closer to the ground.

Since the control laws revert to Direct Law on lowering of landing gear, it is a good idea
(brilliant, in fact) to fly an early stabilised approach and lower gear as close to Vapp as possible.

So, fly an early stabilised approach, once gear is down you will be in Direct Law (Flare Law as
per FCTM – which to me means a nose down pitch over a period of 8 seconds, hence the need to
be early stabilised). There will be no MINIMUMS call or RETARD call. This is the job of the PM.

Touchdown and decel is normal.

35 | P P C / D e n n i s
EMERGENCY DESCENT

Read the brief in FCOM and FCTM first and learn the memory items.

Some considerations:

- You will need to get off the airway as soon as possible when flying in RVSM airspace.
Once out of the airway (XTK≥10nm) then you may resume towards the direction you
wish to.
- Another consideration is the adjacent airways; you don’t want to turn in a direction that
will take you into another airway.
- Terrain. Turn away from terrain. It shouldn’t happen that your MEA or Grid MORA is
higher than the desired FL100. In our subcontinent such conditions are very less –
primarily in the northern sector (Jammu-Srinagar or Delhi-Kathmandu, for example)
- Aircraft structural damage or not. If there is damage then you are not to increase speed
but maintain the speed at which the failure occurred. Remember, it is the RATE OF
DESCENT that we are interested in – least exposure to high altitudes, hence with
damage you may not get the necessary ROD. You will need to devise other methods of
increasing ROD (one such being that when you are settled in descent, take AP OFF and
full speedbrakes, or Gear Down at spd< 260kts)
- Availability of Breathing Oxygen. During an emergency descent, with O2 selected to
normal, 13min of oxygen is available, this time is 22min for NEO (two oxygen bottles),
depending on the malfunction, you will either select 100% (smoke etc) or normal. In the
worst case scenario, you will have oxygen for ~6-7 minutes only (consider
hyperventilation during the emergency as well)
- Keeping the above point in mind and our usual MAX REC ALT of around FL390, you will
need a ROD of ≥5000fpm to make it to FL100 before the oxygen runs out. (cutting it too
fine). As per FCTM, descent from FL390 to FL100 at max speed, spd brakes out should
take 04min/40nm.
- Decision whether to do an emergency descent or not when a failure occurs, can be based
on the following:
o < FL100 – No problem
o < FL160 – Normal descent (see CAB PR EXCESS CAB ALT)
o > FL160 – Emergency descent
o ≥ FL290 – RVSM issues and time becomes critical

36 | P P C / D e n n i s
IR FAILURE

Description: NAV IR 1+2 (1+3) (2+3) FAULT

IN CASE OF SIMULTANEOUS IR & ADR FAULT, APPLY THE ADR FAULT PROCEDURE FIRST

In case of a single IR fault, especially IR3 fault, there is no action. In that case, redundancy is lost.
In case of any other failure (IR1 or IR2), use the switching panel to get IR3 on line for the failed
side.

In case two IRs fail,


- IR 1+2 – ATT HDG SWTG – CAPT3
- IR 1+3 or 2+3 – leave the ATT HDG SWTG to normal - the associated attitude
information on the lost side will be lost (1+3 – Capt side is lost, 2+3 – FO side is lost)
- RNAV, RVSM is lost (FCOM-PRO-SPO-50,51)

SBY ISIS is available on DC ESS BUS/HOT BUS1 and takes its feed from ILS1/MMR1, ADIRU1 &
3, SBY Pitot and Static probes.

AP, A/THR is not available. TCAS not available in case IR1 is lost.

Flight Controls are available in ALTN LAW (PROT LOST) maneuver protections are available.
This means:
- PITCH – ALTN LAW with reduced protections
- ROLL – DIRECT LAW
- YAW – DIRECT LAW – recoverable

Landing will be in direct law and Config3. Appr Speed Vref+10kts

Bonus: NAV IR DISAGREE

In case this comes up, compare the three displays – 2 PFDs and SBY, ascertain which PFD is
faulty, switch off that IR.

You will need to reset the ELACs

Config3 landing – direct law when gear down. Alternate law otherwise as covered above.

37 | P P C / D e n n i s
ADR FAILURE

Description: NAV ADR 1+2 (1+3)(2+3) FAULT

With a single ADR fault, not much of a problem as you can use ADR3 through the SWTG panel, if
ADR fails, there is no redundancy left – that is all.

In the above case, remember to reselect the ATC SYS to the side that ADR is available. ATC SYS1
takes feed from ADR1 and SYS2 takes feed from ADR2.

Switch off the affected ADR from the ADR p/b.

In case of Dual failure, again use the SWTG panel to bring ADR3 online, if it is available, however
in case of 1+3, 2+3 failure, the associated side air data will be lost.
- FLT CTRL – ALTN LAW (prot lost)
- EGPWS functions are lost and hence you will get GPWS TERR FAULT as well, switch off
the GPWS TERR
- RVSM, RNAV is lost (FCOM PRO-SPO-50,51)

ADR 1+3: Ldg Gear retraction is lost and lowering is through Gravity Extn.

App is in Config3 and Vapp=Vref+10kts

ALL ADR FAULT procedure has some memory items to recover one ADR at least. This is an
exhaustive procedure and has to be read and do. BUSS equipped aircraft will display BUSS and
in that case fly the green.

Cabin pressure will be controlled manually.

The indication on the BUSS is taken directly from the AoA and the position of Flaps and Slats.
Hence, is not steady, do not chase it. Make small corrections in power and all changes in config
to be done wings level and level flight. Any time any manoeuvre is initiated, you will see the
BUSS riding up.

Power corrections also need to be small inputs.

The rudder travel limiter will freeze its position at the time of failure. Full travel is recovered at
the time of Slats selection.

Since ADRs are lost, the SFCC will give 1+F when
you move lever to position 1 (it will skip the
slats only position)

During approach, settle down at an RPM, do not


chase the BUSS unless safety is threatened. Due
to gustiness, the BUSS will be unsteady,
however a steady RPM selection helps. The
yellow bug indicates the Vapp.

38 | P P C / D e n n i s
DME ARC
(rarely flown in sim as assumed as a familiar procedure)

Flying with different pilots, you would have seen different procedures. Suggest ask to fly an arc
in selected mode, to get a better idea when and how to descend, turn, etc. You would also have
found different pilots using different constraints.

Speed 210/180 at the point commencing turn for arc – Will look good in a check. However, this
is a throwback to the days when this had to be done manually and a constant speed ensured a
constant turn. The FMGS will ensure interception even at 250 kts (you won’t normally be higher
than this).

Speed 180 in arc – perhaps mandatory for check. The arc is to be flown at 180 with Config 1.
However, the system caters for this depending on the segment of the arc. For a long arc, you will
find system drops speed only at the decel point. For short segments, it starts reducing speed
from arc intercept point onwards. However, it will get you to FAF at 180kts unless you have
changed it. For rough estimate of distance flown in the arc, 57 degrees on the arc is equal to the
arc radius. E.g., flying from radial 010 to radial 067 on a 10 DME arc, you would fly 10 NM. For
ease of calculation, use 60 instead of 57. The error will be on the conservative side.

Descent point – For a gently carried out descent, when the Capt is sure he will cross the Lead
radial at the higher alt for the arc, he may sometimes select the table altitude once in the arc.
However, you are NOT to select the table altitude until cleared as per the pattern, which is
almost always at the lead radial. So, let’s say the arc is to be flown at 3500’ and the table altitude
is 2500’. The way you are descending, you know you will be 3700’ crossing lead radial. There
will be no violation if you select 2500 in the arc. But NOT to be selected till on the lead radial.

If selected or manual
Approaching IAF, have cabin crew seated (reducing workload for later), announce distance to
commence turn, course to roll out on (90° to present track), and height to descend to. Rolling
out, announce lead radial and course to intercept app track (30°). Maintain ROSE VOR to
maintain correct DME distance. Do not forget to keep an eye out for the winds, or you may find
yourself drifting in and out of the arc.

RAW DATA FLYING

The aircraft is auto trimmed and hence stable. IF you’ve been watching how the autopilot flies,
use similar techniques. Fly on TRK/FPA. Get back to basics.

Use C-CHAT technique. Once a control input has been given, you don’t need to hold it as in
conventional aircraft. For example, if you put on 10° bank, having achieved that return the stick
to neutral position. On that account, make small inputs and return the stick to neutral.

C-CHAT:
- CHANGE the attitude, using the BLACK SQUARE (box) on the attitude and NOT the bird.
Change it in increments of 2° or so. For banking, give only lateral inputs.
- CHECK – stop your input and check if the bird settles down where you want it to –
confirm through the ROD and speed.
- HOLD – for a while to allow the aircraft to settle down on the new flight path, re-confirm
through ROD, Speed and A/THR response.
- ADJUST – to make finer corrections, in increments of half a ‘box’ ht.

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- TRIM – the aircraft does that to you – however, if in DIRECT LAW, trim the aircraft using
the handwheel, till you feel you do not need to give any inputs to keep the aircraft on the
desired flight path.

Typically, for LOC capture, come in at 30° and the moment LOC is live, turn with 25° bank, by the
time the LOC is at half deflection (or 0.5 XTE), start reducing bank to 10°-15°. Similar technique
for turns.

To level out, by 200ft to go, reduce ROC/ROD to 500ft/min. Remember our IF days, better to
level out higher by 50ft than to bust the given altitude.

The various pitch/power are given in the Unreliable Speed procedure in QRH34.01A

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SMOKE PROCEDURE
Decision/ identification table

ELECT/
SOURCE AVIONICS AIR COND LAVATORY CARGO CAB EQPT LITHIUM BATT
UNDETERMINED
ECAM PILOT OBS ECAM ECAM CC OBS PILOT OBS PILOT OBS
IDENTIFICATION
PILOT OBS CREW OBS CREW OBS OH PANEL PAX OBS CREW OBS
BY
OH PANEL PAX OBS PAX OBS PAX OBS
YES/ NO YES/ NO YES/ NO YES/ NO YES/ NO
NO through Auto Ext 2 bottles of Portable FIREX “SAFETY TO
NO
managing packs Portable FIREX ExtMax COCKPIT”
EXTINGUISHABLE
and associated protection follow given
procedure 205min proc
if not extinguished follow the flow chart below

LAND ASAP
REMOVAL OF TROUBLE CONSIDER
in sequence  DIVERT DESC <FL100 EVACUATION?
DECLARE SMOKE SHOOTING EMER ELEC
MAYDAY

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SMOKE PROCEDURE
(QRH 26.01A-C; 26.02A-B; 26.03A)

LAND ASAP –this is the first line and action, hence you need to be thinking of landing ASAP, ascertain suitable/adequate airfields around you in
terms of time because time is critical. Declare MAYDAY.

If PERCEPTIBLE SMOKE, apply the immediate actions:


The IMMEDIATE ACTIONS ensure that the ventilation is driven
to SMOKE CONFIG and the AC air is vented through avionics
bay and then thrown overboard. CAB FANS off stops the
circulation of the air. GALY & CAB off ensures all supply to galley
eqpt is cut off. Establish communication between pilots and crew.
Isolate the equipment Is the smoke source immediately obvious? Initiate Diversion
Might require fire extinguishing too YES Descend to FL100 or MEA
NO

AIR CON CABIN EQPT SMOKE LITHIUM BATTERY 26.03A UNDETERMINED


Here, you isolate APU bleed, Eng Since it is cabin smoke, crew and “SAFETY TO COCKPIT” SMOKE REMOVAL
bleed. passengers may not be able to see, Follow QRH proc. Remember, use
Blower and Extract AUTO because EMER EXIT LT should be put on. HALON ext or water. If not working, If it appears to be an electrical fire,
with these in OVRD and one PACK Cut off Elec supply to CAB/GALY remove device to Cabin. The crew consider EMER ELEC config
off, you will not be able to maintain eqpt. will continue with the proc.
CABIN ALT. If unsuccessful, return If unsuccessful, return switches to
switches to earlier posn. earlier posn.

At any time if SMOKE becomes the GREATEST THREAT – SMOKE procedure


At any time SITUATION becomes UNMANAGEABLE – LAND AT THE NEAREST
AIRFIELD

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REMOVAL OF SMOKE/FUMES
26.02A

 Get EMER EXIT LT on so that in case of emergency the path to the exits is discernible.
 In case you smell fuel vapours, could be from engine lines, hence, PACKS off and CAB FANS on to circulate (reduces the intensity of fuel
vapours)
 If not, then PACK FLOW HI will ensure more outside air keeps coming in.
 LDG ELEV 10000/MEA – mainly to reduce the ΔP – because in case you have to open RAM AIR, there is a need for ΔP to be ≤ 1.0PSI.
 Once at 10000/MEA, APU master on ensures batteries connected for 3 minutes – for the Out Flow Valve etc to operate.

ELEC EMER CONFIG


26.01C

 EMER ELEC GEN 1 LINE OFF – ensures that #1 fuel pump in wing tanks keeps running.
 Do not reset GEN – mainly the idea has been to cut off electrical supply
 Get GEN2 online just before landing to get certain services online – will make the approach and landing easier.

**************************************************************************************************************************

VISUAL CIRCUIT

For direct DW, a good pointer is the radius of turn that would be about 2 NM at those speeds. So, for turning 90°onto DW, turn at 4.5 DME from RW,
so as to roll out 2.5 DME.

Another point is lack of a standardised brief for a Vis cct, which basically keeps the PM guessing as to what the PF intends. This renders him almost
useless.

Brief (example) – I intend to be at 1500 AGL by 5NM from AF. My speed will be 180. Config one. After rolling out on DW, I will disconnect AP. Please
put FDs off, bird ON and give me DW track, which is 999°, at end of baseleg select RWY TRK of 999°. Cover the fact that stabilisation is at 500ft.

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VISUAL CIRCUIT

FIX INFO
LDG DB +/- 90°
This line will help
AP OFF you time out
ACT APP PHASE TK FPA
CONFIG 1+F SET DW TK TIME OUT
3”/100ft 40 SEC TURN
‘S’ SPEED SPD MANAGED
±1” for 1kt FLAPS 2 20°-25° BANK
PROG PAGE: LDG DB ATHR ON
HWC/TWC ~300 ft/min
CCT HT 1500ft LS ON ISIS 2.5nm
GEAR DOWN
~200kts av GS 45”
Used for calculating
the cct pattern
FLAPS 3
DISPLACEMENT 
2.5nm 3.4nm X TKE 0.9
VISUAL WITH RWY FLAPS FULL
ND on NAV/10 TURN FOR FINALS

800 ft

ROD on finals can be assessed by [GS/2]x10 rounded off to higher 100


Eg. For a GS of 132 (from ND), required ROD will be 700 ft/min

3° GS intercept can be assessed by HT÷3 (you lose 319ft per nm)


Hence you would intercept the GS at 5nm (4.7nm ) from cct ht. But you start a shallow descent during the turn,
Hence, ROD may be brought to final ROD on lowering Full Flaps

Turn onto finals should be commenced late/early from the datum of 0.9nm depending on winds on baseleg

Keeping this in mind, try and choose a cct pattern where winds are from the runway side on DW
This means you will get headwinds on baseleg

44 | P P C / D e n n i s
EGPWS

Tech Speak: (FCOM-DSC-34-SURV-40)

The GPWS is a part of the T2CAS (or in some MSNs, EGPWS). The altitude used is geometric
altitude, calculated by means of a specific algorithm that uses: Pressure Alt, GPS Alt, Radio Alt
and data from terrain database.
The cockpit speakers, even if turned off, will broadcast the warning audio. The GPWS
recognises non-compatible airfields and modifies its response to avoid nuisance warnings.

Modes:
MODE 1 high ROD, based on RA and active in all phases of flight
CAUTION WARNING REMARKS
AURAL ALERT SINK RATE, SINK RATE PULL UP
VISUAL ALERT GPWS red light GPWS red light
MODE 2A/B flaps not in ldg config + L/G up (2A)
AURAL ALERT TERRAIN, TERRAIN PULL UP TERRAIN
VISUAL ALERT GPWS red light GPWS red light GPWS red light
MODE 2B Flaps Dn + L/G up (2B)
AURAL ALERT TERRAIN
VISUAL ALERT GPWS red light
MODE 3 Altitude loss after take off (also during GA with gear/flaps not in ldg config)
AURAL ALERT DON’T SINK, DON’T SINK
VISUAL ALERT GPWS amber light
MODE 4 A, B, C Unsafe terrain clearance when not in landing configuration. Modes A, B and C
A – Landing Gear Up
B – Flaps not in landing position + Ldg gear down (A,B active in cruise and approach)
C – Flaps not in landing position OR Ldg gear up (C active during take off)
AURAL ALERT All - TOO LOW TERRAIN
A - TOO LOW GEAR
B - TOO LOW FLAPS
VISUAL ALERT GPWS amber light
MODE 5 When aircraft descends below glideslope
AURAL ALERT GLIDESLOPE
VISUAL ALERT G/S amber light

Terrain Awareness and Display (TAD)

The TAD computes a caution and warning envelope infront of the aircraft depending on the
following:

- Aircraft altitude
- Nearest runway altitude
- Distance to nearest runway
- Ground speed
- Turn rate

It has the terrain database stored in the memory. Whenever there is a conflict with an obstacle
stored in the database, it triggers the relevant warning or caution.

With TERRAIN on, weather is not available. On sensing a terrain conflict and alert generation,
the terrain automatically comes on ND and TERR pb lights up. Since this uses GPS/FMS-1

45 | P P C / D e n n i s
position, in case of NAV ACCU LOW, terrain should be switched off, using the TERR pb on the
overhead GPWS panel. 5 GPWS modes are still available.

The colour coded terrain generation is as follows:

Alerts: The following table gives the warnings/cautions for ALL msns in a summary form. All
the aural alerts are not available in every MSN. Check FCOM for relevant aircraft.

Alert Level Aural Warning ND Local Warning


Automatic terrain display
TERRAIN AHEAD, PULL UP
Solid RED areas
TERRAIN TERRAIN, PULL UP
TERR AHEAD (red)
Warning
OBSTACLE AHEAD, PULL UP Automatic terrain display
OBSTACLE OBSTACLE, PULL UP Solid RED areas
AVOID TERRAIN OBST AHEAD (red) Push button on each
Automatic terrain display pilots instrument panel
TERRAIN AHEAD
Solid YELLOW areas lights up
CAUTION TERRAIN
TERR AHEAD (amber)
Caution Automatic terrain display
OBSTACLE AHEAD
Solid YELLO areas
CAUTION OBSTACLE
OBST AHEAD (amber)
TOO LOW TERRAIN NIL

Excerpt from FCOM-34-SURV is given below for understanding. Please refer to the latest
documents.

VERTICAL ENVELOPE:

46 | P P C / D e n n i s
Caution Envelope
The caution envelope extends along the flight path, from a distance of 20 s in front of the
aircraft, to a constructed climb path, at a distance of 132 s in front of the aircraft.
If there is a conflict between the terrain caution envelope and the terrain data stored in the
database, one of the following cautions is triggered:
‐ A “TERRAIN AHEAD” caution, if the terrain conflict is ahead of the aircraft.
‐ A “TOO LOW TERRAIN” caution, if the terrain conflict is below the aircraft, instead of ahead
of the aircraft.

Warning Envelope
The warning envelope extends along the flight path, from a distance of 8 s in front of the aircraft,
to a constructed climb path, at a distance of 120 s in front of the aircraft.
In a Mountainous Approach Area (MAA: Existence of terrain more than 2 000 ft above the
runway and within 6 NM of this runway), this distance is linearly reduced to 30 s, to prevent
nuisance alerts during low altitude maneuvers.
If there is a conflict between the terrain warning envelope ahead of the aircraft, and the terrain
data stored in the database, one of the following warnings is triggered:
‐ A “TERRAIN AHEAD-PULL UP” warning, if the aircraft can climb over the terrain.
‐ An “AVOID TERRAIN” warning, if the aircraft cannot climb over the terrain with sufficient
safety margin.

HORIZONTAL ENVELOPE

During turns, the sensor opens up into turns to determine if there are possible terrain conflicts
(up
to 90 °).

47 | P P C / D e n n i s
MEMORY ITEMS

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ENGINE FAILURE DURING CRUISE

An Engine Failure during cruise will be accompanied by a MASTER CAUTION.

Imm Actions:
- Thrust Lever MCT
- AutoThrust OFF – to freeze the thrust.
- Pull SPEED – so you don’t start slowing down/descending.
- Turn off the airway (90° is preferable) – the direction of turn will be dictated by Terrain,
Adjacent airways, Location of Alternate

PAN-PAN-PAN call would be given by the PM. If you are in touch with ATC (which is usually the
case within on almost all the routes we fly), you will receive assistance from ATC including
diverting traffic away from your flight path. If not (rare case – international routes), follow the
contingency procedure of turning away by 10nm and descending.

DESCENT – Speed strategy. It would be a good idea to allow the speed to reduce to GD Spd, as
the aircraft will slow down in MCT on one engine.
- Select lower altitude
- Speed 0.78M
- Open Descent

EO alt is available on the PROG page and also on PERF page. Do not clear EO as it cannot be
recovered. Carry out ECAM ACTIONS. (Bonus – What are the FMA indications after you do
these actions?)

Initially maintain GD, then 0.78M/300Kts till VS reduces to 500 ft/min (500 ft/min is a
regulatory requirement). Typically you hit 300Kts at 0.78M around FL300 and you get 500
ft/min at ~FL230. When VS is 500 ft/min, select A/THR on – now you will be in SPEED mode.

ENG RELIGHT (QRH 70.06A) – Remember, FADEC doesn’t monitor the start sequence, manual
monitoring is required.

General description of the RELIGHT ENVELOPE (QRH 70.06B) – refer to individual engine types
– this is for IAE engines.

- Max altitude is FL300

- There are 3 zones within the graph


o Starter assisted with N2≤18%
 FL300 – 200-260 Kts
 Increasing to 135-260 Kts at FL150 in steps

o Windmilling quick relight with N2≥18%


 From FL200 to Ground – 220-260 Kts

o Stabilised windmilling relight


 FL300 – 260-310 Kts
 FL240 to Ground – 260-350 Kts

Interpretation: When applying Standard Strategy, with speed 0.78M, >260 Kts, we are in
STABILISED WINDMILLING region throughout. However it is possible, depending on cruise FL,
that the speed could be < 260Kts – then it is conditional – which means:

51 | P P C / D e n n i s
- If N2 > 18% then windmilling start
- If N2 ≤ 18% then starter assisted

OEI Ceilings differ from engine type to engine type. Generally, if you read QRH PER-E 1/4, the
IAE engines have the lowest OEI Ceilings. Also, with increase in ISA, the ceilings are lower. The
following table gives a rough comparison of the OEI Ceilings for the three engines at 65t and 60t
(ISA+15). Cross check the same as this table is just an indicative performance comparison.

Engine Type LRC (ISA+15) GD (ISA+15)


65t 60t 65t 60t
IAE FL190 FL208 FL215 FL243
CFM FL233 FL250 FL248 FL256
NEO FL245 FL255 FL253 FL270

Choice of destination will depend on NOTAMS, Runway Characteristics, Weather, Distance, Tech
Support at Destination, Company presence etc.

CALCULATIONS. Calculations for OEI require a reference to QRH and the FCOM. These are a 3
STEP PROCESS:

- Step 1 – Descent to Ceiling


- Step 2 – Cruise at OEI Ceiling
- Step 3 – Descent from OEI Ceiling to landing

Step 1

QRH PER-E 2/6 gives descent only at GD speed. So, in case you want to employ the Standard
Strategy, go to

- FCOM-PER-OEI-DES-10 (STD STR) or


- FCOM-PER-OEI-DES-15 (OBSTACLE STR)
- The ISA corrections for the tables are given at the bottom of the table.

Reduce this FUEL/DIST from the starting WT and DIST to get the new Weight and Distance left.

Step 2

Cruise at LRC. Tables are available in

- QRH PER-E 3/4 or


- FCOM-PER-OEI-CRT (ISA & ISA+20)

Tables are given from FL100-FL260

Step 3

Gross Flight path to Landing. Available in

- QRH PER-E 4/4 or


- FCOM-PER-OEI-ICQ-20

Subtract ❸ from TOTAL DISTANCE and then ascertain ❷ FCOM has a chapter that gives
sample calculations – go through them.

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For landing, there is a one line reference in the QRH (80.01A) for Straight-in App with OEI

 Bonus:

blank OP DES HDG blank 1FD2

53 | P P C / D e n n i s
RECORD OF PREVIOUS PROFICIENCY CHECKS

DATE INSTR/EXAMINER EXERCISES FLOWN PAIRED WITH

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DATE INSTR/EXAMINER EXERCISES FLOWN PAIRED WITH

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DATE INSTR/EXAMINER EXERCISES FLOWN PAIRED WITH

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