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STORAGE TANKS

For
LNG Peakshaving Plants

Sam Kumar
STORAGE TANKS AT LNG PEAKSHAVING PLANTS
The Concept of Peakshaving is Storage At or Near Area of Use To
Reduce CAPEX Expenses in pipeline systems and To Assure
Availability When Peak Demand Happens.

The Capacity of the Plant Depends On The Market It Serves.


Storage Capacity at any modern-day Plant Is Based on 5 to 10 Days
of Full Rate of Send-Out.

Peakshaving Plant of Today will have a liquefier that can take


commercial grade pipeline gas and liquefy it slowly over the summer
months so Winter Peak Demands can be met.

There Exist Almost 100 Peakshaving Plants in the USA, with Storage
Ranging from 0.5 bcf to 4 bcf.
Most of these Plants were built in the period 1965 – 1980.

A Peakshaving Plant is Currently Under Construction in Waterbury,


CT.
LNG STORAGE TANKS

For storage of large volumes, upwards of 10000 m3, fully refrigerated storage
in cylindrical metal tanks with a flat bottom has been the most common
method for liquefied natural gas for nearly 50 years now.
Large quantities of gas can be liquefied and stored in such a tank, provided that
the temperature of the stored product is maintained near its normal boiling
point so that the product vapor pressure is just above atmospheric pressure.

The industry norm is a design pressure inside the storage tank of somewhere
around 1 to 2 psi above atmospheric pressure.
LNG STORAGE TANKS - USA / ARGENTINA since 1980
All Tanks are Single Containm ent Double Wall Metallic Tanks
Gross Gross
Mechanical Liquid level OT Ф
Location Capacity Capacity Completed In
Contractor m m
m3 bcf
Pine Needle 92,250 2.0 1999 CBI 34.91 62.80
Pine Needle 92,250 2.0 1999 CBI 34.91 62.80
Capleville 46,100 1.0 1997 CBI 29.95 49.09
Buenos Aires 40,000 0.9 1995 PDM 33.80 43.70
Salley 42,000 0.9 1993 CBI 27.10 46.80
Indianapolis 46,000 1.0 1991 PDM 33.10 44.50
Cherokee 95,000 2.0 1988 CBI 37.00 60.10
Bentonville 46,400 1.0 1986 PDM 33.10 44.05
How ell 18,600 0.4 1984 PDM 22.59 34.90
Lovelock 46,000 1.0 1982 CBI 24.20 53.35
La Porte 92,000 2.0 1981 CBI 39.00 57.90

Note:
Under Construction in 2006 – 0ne - 1.2 bcf Tank for at Waterbury, CT.
This will be a FULL CONTAINMENT Design.
LARGE CAPACITY STORAGE TANK CONCEPTS
SELF SUPPORTING
Both Primary and Secondary Containers are Self Supporting and
structurally independent. Majority of Tanks in Operation are of this
type. The primary container is generally metallic but the secondary
containers can be metallic or in concrete.

SUPPORTED
The Primary Container is a stainless steel plate membrane supported by the
secondary container which is made of concrete.

ABOVE-GROUND or BELOW-GROUND or IN-GROUND


Though either type can be built Below-Ground or In-Ground,
Majority of Above-Ground Tanks are of the Self Supporting type, and
Majority of tanks built in-ground are of the Membrane concept.
SELF SUPPORTING CLASSIFICATION

•SINGLE CONTAINMENT
Double Wall Tank, where only the liquid container is required to store the
refrigerated product and only this primary container is required to meet low
temperature ductility requirements.

•FULL CONTAINMENT
Double Wall Tank, designed and constructed so that both inner and outer
containers are capable of independently containing the stored refrigerated
product, and additionally allowing for controlled release of product vapor resulting
from a product leakage from the primary (inner) container resulting from a
credible event.
CATASTROPHIC FAILURES OF TANKS IN OPERATION

There are only 2 recorded total catastrophes in Tanks in Operating Plants,


and Only One in a LNG Plant :

„ Cleveland OHIO 1944 :


First tank built for LNG
Design & Construction by Pittsburgh-Des Moines (PDM).
Built from 2½ % Nickel steel left over from WWII.
No codes were in existence at this time.
Resulted in Operation Cryogenics, a program to study the behavior of
certain metals.

„ Umm Said Qatar 1977 :


Single Wall Propane tank
Design & Construction by Whessoe UK.at a LPG Facility for SIPM
Designed to BS 2654
((( No official report has been published by Owner/Operator SIPM,
the understanding is a notch was left un-repaired, propagated as a crack,
after a number of operating cycles it became a through-the-thickness of
the shell plate, which then rapidly ripped the tank open in a vertical
direction like a zip fastener. Hence, the term “rip-zip”)))
Resulted in Full Containment Concepts & strict new regulations.
MOST COMMONLY USED CODES/STANDARDS/GUIDELINES
American Petroleum Institute (API)
API 620 Design & Construction Of Large Welded Low Pressure Storage Tanks
API 2000 Venting Atmospheric & Low Pressure Storage Tanks
American Society Of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
ASME Boiler And Pressure Vessel Code - Section IX Welding Qualifications

American National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)


NFPA 59A Production, Storage & Handling Of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
NFPA 59 Storage & Handling Of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG)
NFPA 15 Water Spray Fixed Systems
NFPA 17 Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems

US Federal Regulations
49CFR193 Liquefied Natural Gas - Federal Safety Standards
Worldwide Record of LNG Tanks In Service

Total in Smallest m3 Largest m3


Service

Base Load Terminals

Single Containment Tanks 144 8,000 127,000


Secondary Containment Tanks 64 55,000 160,000
Membrane Design Tanks 72 50,000 200,000

Peak Shaving Plants


Single Containment Tanks 102 5,000 100,000
SINGLE CONTAINMENT TYPE

SUSPENDED CARBON
SUSPENDED GLASSWOOL CARBONSTEEL
STEEL
DECK GLASSWOOL
DECK TANK
TANK

9%
9%Ni
NiSTEEL
STEEL
NG TANK
TANK

PERLITE
PERLITE

NG

RESILIENT
RESILIENT
NG BLANKET
BLANKET
LNG
DIKE
DIKE
-162° C

FOAMGLAS
FOAMGLAS
FULL CONTAINMENT
In Full Containment Tanks, Both the Open Top Inner Tank (Primary Container)
AND The Outer Tank are required to Contain the Stored Product.

As Before, The Outer Tank functions as a Vapor / Pressure Boundary and as an


Insulation Jacket.

However, In case of accidental leakage from the inner tank, the Outer Tank Must
Contain The LNG Product. The Low Bund Need Not Be Provided.

The Outer Tank Can Be 9% Ni steel, But Industry prefers Prestressed Concrete
Construction.

To Prevent Moisture Ingress, The Inside Face of the Concrete Outer Tank Must be
Provided with a Vapor Barrier Liner. Common Material is Carbon Steel.
FULL CONTAINMENT TYPE

SUSPENDED GLASSWOOL
SUSPENDEDDECK
DECK GLASSWOOL CARBON
CARBONSTEEL+CONCRETE
STEEL+CONCRETEROOF
ROOF

9%
9%Ni
NiSTEEL
STEEL
INNER
INNERTANK
TANK
NG

POST-TENSIONED
POST-TENSIONED
CONCRETE
CONCRETESHELL
SHELL

PERLITE
PERLITE

NG NG
LNG
RESILIENT
RESILIENT
-162° C
BLANKET
BLANKET

9%
9%Ni
NiTHERMAL
THERMAL
CORNER
CORNER
PROTECTION
PROTECTION

SECONDARY FOAMGLAS
SECONDARY9%
9%Ni
NiSTEEL
STEELBOTTOM
BOTTOM FOAMGLAS
Additional Comments:
Over The Top Piping & Tank Internal Pumps:
Codes require that Shell / Bottom Penetrations be avoided, so all piping has to
be over the top of the tank.
Withdrawal is through In-Tank Pumps located in Pump Columns.
Pump Columns Are Provided With Foot Valves.
In-Tank Pump Systems require Considerable Tank Top Piping +
Provision for Removing the Pump out of the Tank for Maintenance.

Anchors:
Single Containment Tanks need to be anchored to the foundation to resist
uplifting loads due to tank internal pressure.
This may not be necessary in Full Containment Tanks, due to the weight of
the concrete wall.
This Must be reviewed in high seismic locations.
CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCES
Crawler crane

Main activity : Roof structure erection


Concrete Wall Construction in progress
Main activity : Suspended deck erection in progress
Bottom annular Plate erection in progress
Wall lifts completed
dP

Main activity : Roof « air raising », then welding to Compression ring


Erection of outer concrete wall liner
Main activity : Bottom insulation in progress
Roof concrete pour - two layers
Inner tank shell erection under progress
Main activity : Inner tank: Hydrotest
Roof Platform and External Pipe work in progress
Main activity : Tank dewatering / Close of Temporary Openings
Erection of equipments in progress
Main activity : Tank drying
Glass fiber blanket wrapping
Main activity : Perlite Insulation Work
Completion of tank external works
N2

Main activity : Purge with Nitorgen & Cool-Down Ready to Receive LNG
Some Trends & Innovations
• US industry is moving to Full Containment tank construction post 9-11.

• UT inspection of the 9% Ni tank welds welding instead of Radiography.

• Industry JIP on Concrete Containment Tanks to get around rising costs of


steel.

• Minor innovations are coming up like Cryolite which is supposed to be lighter


perlite but with same thermal properties; possible use of Nanogels as
insulation.

In general LNG Storage Tank Design & Construction have reached a state of
maturity with not a lot of areas for innovation to reduce cost & schedule.
IHI/IPC

Vertical Perlite Insulation Tank


At LNG Satellite Plant

Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industry Co.,Ltd.


Ishikawajima Plant Construction Co.,Ltd.
Introduction
Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industry Co.,Ltd. (IHI) has developed a system
offering broad LNG cryogenic technology ranging from the integrated
engineering of LNG plants and storage tanks to the production of machinery
and equipment.
Ishikawajima-Plant Construction Co.,Ltd. (IPC) is the family company of IHI
and has engaged in advanced construction and engineering technology of the
plants and storage tanks.
IPC developed ultra-low temperature,vertical perlite insulation tank for LNG
satellite plants in 1990 and since then, IPC holds the largest share (over 75 %)
in Japan. (200KL~2600KL:site erection type)

Ishikawajima
Ishikawajima--Harima
Harima Heavy
Heavy Industries
Industries Co.,Ltd.
Co.,Ltd.
Ishikawajima
Ishikawajima Plant
Plant Construction
Construction Co,.
Co,. Ltd.
Ltd.
LNG Flow from Receiving Terminal to Satellite Plant

Receiving Terminal Satellite Plants

LNG Tank LNG Truck LNG Truck LNG Tank

LNG Pump

Delivering Transportation Receiving

Ishikawajima
Ishikawajima--Harima
Harima Heavy
Heavy Industries
Industries Co.,Ltd.
Co.,Ltd.
Ishikawajima
Ishikawajima Plant
Plant Construction
Construction Co,.
Co,. Ltd.
Ltd.
Typical LNG Flow sheet for Satellite Plant

Vent Stack

BOG Heater by Air

Vaporizer by Air
Vaporizer Natural Gas
for
・Boiler
Pressurizing
LNG Tank NG Heater by Hot water ・Gas Engine
・CNG

LNG Truck LNG Tank


Vaporizer by Hot water

Ishikawajima
Ishikawajima--Harima
Harima Heavy
Heavy Industries
Industries Co.,Ltd.
Co.,Ltd.
Ishikawajima
Ishikawajima Plant
Plant Construction
Construction Co,.
Co,. Ltd.
Ltd.
Standard Specifications of Vertical Perlite Insulation Tank
Model Geometric Filling Outer Skirt Height
Capacity Volume Diameter Diameter
No KL KL mm mm mm

VPI-
VPI-200 200 180 7,000 4,600 16,470
Specifications
VPI-
VPI-300 300 270 7,200 4,800 21,050
Model : Vertical perlite insulation tank VPI-
VPI-400 400 360 7,800 5,400 22,040
Design Temp. : -164℃ ~ -196℃ VPI-
VPI-500 500 450 8,000 5,600 24,900
Design Press. : 0.20 MPa~ 0.99 MPa VPI-
VPI-600 600 540 8,600 6,200 24,570
Capacity : 200KL ~ 2600KL VPI-
VPI-800 800 720 9,600 7,200 24,560
Contents : LNG, LN2, LOX VPI-
VPI-1000 1,000 900 10,400 8,000 24,930
Insulation : Perlite powder + N2 gas VPI-
VPI-1200 1,200 1,080 11,000 8,600 25,800
VPI-
VPI-1400 1,400 1,260 11,600 9,200 26,250
VPI-
VPI-1600 1,600 1,440 12,000 9,600 27,360
VPI-
VPI-1800 1,800 1,620 12,600 10,200 27,380
VPI-
VPI-2000 2,000 1,800 13,000 10,600 28,140
VPI-
VPI-2200 2,200 1,980 13,400 11,000 28,620
VPI-
VPI-2400 2,400 2,160 13,800 11,400 29,060
VPI-
VPI-2600 2,600 2,340 14,200 11,800 29,380

Ishikawajima
Ishikawajima--Harima
Harima Heavy
Heavy Industries
Industries Co.,Ltd.
Co.,Ltd.
Ishikawajima
Ishikawajima Plant
Plant Construction
Construction Co,.
Co,. Ltd.
Ltd.
Experience of LNG Satellite Plants by IHI/IPC
Design Design Completion
Client Contents Capacity Material Q uantity
Pressure Temperature Year
SH O WA DENKO Co. LN2 2131 KL 2.50 ( kg/cm2 ) -196 ℃ SU S304 1 1991
O SAKA G AS ENG INEER ING Co. LN2 1500 KL 1.50 ( kg/cm2 ) -196 ℃ SU S304 1 1992
SH O WA DENKO K.K. LO X 460 TO N 2.50 ( kg/cm2 ) -184 ℃ SU S304 1 1993
IWATANI PLANTECH LN2 2000 KL 2.50 ( kg/cm2 ) -196 ℃ SU S304 1 1993
IWATANI PLANTECH LO X 482 KL 2.50 ( kg/cm2 ) -184 ℃ SU S304 1 1993
TO BU G AS LNG 400 KL 0.99 ( MPa) -164 ℃ SU S304 2 1999
H IR O SH IMA G AS Co.,Ltd LNG 600 KL 0.30 ( MPa) -164 ℃ SU S304 2 1999
CYU BU G AS Co.,Ltd LNG 250 KL 0.70 ( MPa) -196 ℃ SU S304 2 2001
ASAH IKAWA G AS Co.,Ltd LNG 800 KL 0.70 ( MPa) -164 ℃ SU S304 3 2002
TO TTO R I G AS Co.,Ltd LNG 600 KL 0.89 ( MPa) -164 ℃ SU S304 1 2003
MATU ESH I G AS Co. LNG 450 KL 0.99 ( MPa) -196 ℃ SU S304 1 2003
TU R U O KA G AS Co. LNG 300 KL 0.80 ( MPa) -164 ℃ SU S304 1 2004
KYU U SYU G AS Co. LNG 400 KL 0.99 ( MPa) -164 ℃ SU S304 2 2004
BR IDG ESTO NE Co. LNG 900 KL 0.50 ( MPa) -162 ℃ SU S304 1 2004
CYU BU G AS Co.,Ltd LNG 500 KL 0.30 ( MPa) -196 ℃ SU S304 1 2004
KASH IMA DO R YO KU Co. LNG 1000 KL 0.40 ( MPa) -196 ℃ SU S304 1 2005
KU R AR AY CO .,Ltd LNG 1100 KL 0.30 ( MPa) -196 ℃ SU S304 1 2005
KU SH IR O G AS Co.,Ltd LNG 800 KL 0.30 ( MPa) -196 ℃ SU S304 3 2005

Ishikawajima
Ishikawajima--Harima
Harima Heavy
Heavy Industries
Industries Co.,Ltd.
Co.,Ltd.
Ishikawajima
Ishikawajima Plant
Plant Construction
Construction Co,.
Co,. Ltd.
Ltd.
LNG Satellite Plants

400KL LNG
Vertical Pelite Insulation Tank
& LNG Satellite Plant

600KL LNG
Vertical Pelite Insulation Tank
& LNG Satellite Plant

Ishikawajima
Ishikawajima--Harima
Harima Heavy
Heavy Industries
Industries Co.,Ltd.
Co.,Ltd.
Ishikawajima
Ishikawajima Plant
Plant Construction
Construction Co,.
Co,. Ltd.
Ltd.
Merits of Perlite Insulation Storage Tank
1. Flexible Design by Constructed Tanks at Site

2. Larger Capacity than Fabricated Tanks at Shop (V-I)


Compact
3. Cut down Number of Tanks
plant

4. Cut down Area for Tanks

Cut down Construction Schedule


5. Cut down Piping

6. Cut down Instruments


Cost down
Ishikawajima
Ishikawajima--Harima
Harima Heavy
Heavy Industries
Industries Co.,Ltd.
Co.,Ltd.
Ishikawajima
Ishikawajima Plant
Plant Construction
Construction Co,.
Co,. Ltd.
Ltd.
Costs & Schedules
Tank Selection Guidelines

• Below 200 m3 – Use Shop Fabricated V-I tanks

• Between 200 m3 – 3000 m3, Use Field Erected


Perlite Insulated Bullets.

• Between 3000 m3 – 8000 m3, consider Multiple


Tanks or Double Wall Sphere or Flat Bottom Tanks.

• Larger than 10,000 m3, Use Flat Bottom API 620


Double Wall Tanks.
Selection of Storage Tank
Shop Fabrication Site Construction

Spherical Tank

1.0
Design Pressure(MPa)

Approx.3000KL
Approx.150KL
Vertical Vacuum Vertical Perlite
Insulated Tank Insulated Tank
0.1

Flat bottom, Double wall Tank

0 10 100 1000 10000


Tank Volume(KL)
Ishikawajima
Ishikawajima--Harima
Harima Heavy
Heavy Industries
Industries Co.,Ltd.
Co.,Ltd.
Ishikawajima
Ishikawajima Plant
Plant Construction
Construction Co,.
Co,. Ltd.
Ltd.
Economical Cost Comparison
for Vacuum Insulated Tank and Perlite Insulated Tank

Ishikawajima
Ishikawajima--Harima
Harima Heavy
Heavy Industries
Industries Co.,Ltd.
Co.,Ltd.
Ishikawajima
Ishikawajima Plant
Plant Construction
Construction Co,.
Co,. Ltd.
Ltd.
V – I Tanks =

Perlite Insulated Tanks = $5,000 - $4,000 / m3

FB DW Tanks 150000 m3 = $ 600 – 700 / m3

Cost of FBT’s have risen dramatically in last 3, 4


years.
Unprecedented Number of Projects causing Acute
Shortage of Materials & Skilled Workers.
END
LNG