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INTRODUCTION

Gurukul System of Education was in vogue in India. The main characteristics

of Gurukul System were dedicated and knowledgeable individualized, teachers and

learner centre teaching, and self-motivated students eager to learn. This system

changed due to increase in number of students. Consequently, the number of teachers

increased. Some teachers are born but rests of them have to be given rigorous training

so as to develop required competency to become a teacher. Teachers have been

conscious about the quality of their teaching. To enhance the quality, some teachers use

teaching aids, like, charts, models- static and working, specimen, slides, etc. because

teachers are given training both in preparation and use of Audio-visual Aids (A-V Aids).

It is a known fact that majority of schools do not have appropriate teaching aids related

to the school content. So teachers have no facility to use A-V Aids during teaching. The

use of A-V Aids get further restricted due to unmotivated persons becoming teachers.

through the use of Television wherein most competent teacher teaches the topic with

the help of most appropriate teaching aids. This helped in improving the quality of

teaching in schools having no teacher to teach the subject, less competent teacher,

schools having poor or no facility of teaching aids, etc. Programmes offered through

television were produced by different State Institute of Educational Technology (SIET) in

different languages. Even the Video Instructional Materials were produced and made

available to teachers; still majority of schools did not make use of them. Some of the

reasons were no facility of TV and VCR, no electricity, TV and VCR not in working

condition, not incorporated in the time table, lack of initiation on the part of teacher and

Principal, etc. Along with A-V Aids, the print media has to go a long way in improving the

quality of teaching and learning. Format in which the textbooks were written was not

beneficial for teachers and students. Researchers started thinking and using different

Theories of Learning for developing Instructional Material. This gives birth to

Programmed Learning Material (PLM) based on Operant Conditioning Theory of

Learning. But the PLMs are no more in use because the development of PLM is tedious

as well as costly and time consuming. The format of PLM has under gone a change

1

along with name. Consequently, Modules were developed in particular format. At

present, the Print Instructional Materials used in different Programmes offered by Open

Universities are in Module format. All above mention efforts could not improve the

quality of teaching to the level of satisfaction of teachers, students, parents and other

stakeholders. Search is on for most effective tools to be used by teachers for quality

education (Sansanwal, 2009).

Use of Computer

The desire for quality is still on. This is the age of information dominated by the

Digital Technology. The Digital Technology has influenced all aspects of human life.

Education is not an exception. Now the technology is in the process of change from

Digital to Photon. Shortly Photonic Technology will be available for the use of the

society. At present majority of devices are based on Digital Technology. One such

device is Computer. The Computer is an electronic device that has the capacity to store,

retrieve & process both qualitative & quantitative information fast and accurately. The

computers were never developed for improving quality of teaching - learning process.

But researchers started using Computers for teaching purpose. It gave birth to

Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), Computer Managed Instruction (CMI), Computer

Based Instruction (CBI), etc. People started developing CAI for teaching different

subjects at School as well as Higher Education level. The developed CAIs were

compared with the Lecture Method / Traditional Method and found that the developed

CAIs were significantly superior to Lecture Method / Traditional Method in teaching

different subjects (Benson, 1989). In spite of benefit of CAI in different aspects of

learning, CAI has not entered into the Classrooms as most of the developed CAIs were

not based on sound theories of Learning. People involved in developing CAI were not

having the sound base of Instructional Design. Secondly, the courses are changing, the

schools also do not have sufficient computer facility, teachers are not trained in the use

of CAI, etc. The use of Computers was not only for teaching but also for Psychological

Testing, Evaluation; database Management, Library Management, etc.

Information Technology

Networking of computers gave birth to Information Technology (IT). UNESCO

considered Information Technology as “Scientific, technological and engineering

disciplines and management techniques used in information handling and processing,

their application, computers and their interaction with men and machines, and

2

associated social, economical and cultural matters”. According to Smith and Cambell

(1982), a mosaic of technologies, products and techniques have combined to provide

new electronic dimensions to information management. This mosaic is known by the

name of Information Technology. Sansanwal (2000) defined IT as the use of hardware

and software for efficient management of information, i.e storage, retrieval, processing,

communication, diffusion and sharing of information for social, economical and cultural

upliftment.

The Information Technology leads to development of Websites. Government,

Corporate sector, educational institutions, etc. started uploading the information on their

websites. It provides facilities for Chat, e-mail, surfing, etc. It opens up a new source of

information which increased the limitation of access to information. Prior to IT, people

were using only the print material for searching the information. It limited the search.

This limitation has been overcome by the IT.

1.1.1 Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

IT was limited only to the textual mode of transmission of information with

ease and fast. But the information not only in textual form but in audio, video or any

other media is also to be transmitted to the users. Thus, the ICT = IT + Other media. It

has opened new avenues like online learning, e-Learning, e-Coaching, e-Education, e-

Journal, etc. Third Generation Mobiles are also part of ICT. Mobile is being used in

imparting information fast and cost effective. It provides e-mail facility also. One can

access it anywhere. It will be cost effective. The ICT brings more rich material in the

classrooms and libraries for the teachers and students. It has provided opportunity for

the learner to use maximum senses to get the information. It has broken the monotony

and provided variety in the teaching - learning situation.

Twenty-first century is the age of Information and Communication Technology

(ICT). “The illiterate of the 21st century,” according to futurist Alvin Toffler, “will not be

those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn.” All

over the globe, there is a trend to use ICT in the teaching-learning process. The teacher

and learner must gain access to technology for improving learning outcomes.

Educational reform includes successful designing and implementation of ICT in the

teaching-learning process, which is the key to success. There is a rapid shift of

educational technologies and political force, so as to shape the structure of the system

of education across the globe. Efforts must be made by the educationists to change the

3

process of teaching-learning in order to prepare the students to adjust themselves to the

society which is rich in information and technology (Desh, 2007).

Teaching is becoming one of the most challenging as new concepts of learning

have evolved, teachers are expected to facilitate learning and make meaningful to the

individual learners rather than just to provide knowledge and various skills. Modern

development innovative technologies have provided new possibilities to teaching

professions, but at the same time have placed more demands on teachers to learn how

to use these new technologies in their teaching (Collis & Jung, 2003).

Today’s world is a world of information explosion. To cope with the explosion in

information, ICT is the only way out. During the past decade there has been an

exponential growth in the use of ICT, which has made pervasive impact both on society

and our daily lives. It has transformed the way people live and work, communicate,

entertain and conduct businesses (Anandan & Gopal, 2011).

Communication Technology and networking is a great liberalization force. The

new processes of liberalization and globalization have led to new ways of learning,

living and working together and, new ways of organizing educational institutions and

creating products and services that would empower people in many ways, such as

Wikipedia or blogging. With the advent of these processes, new education is visualized

to be technology mediated, learner and learning centric, innovation centric, promoting

curiosity with diversity and excellence, promoting cooperative learning, developing and

nurturing universal human values in A3 (anyone, anytime, anywhere) and L3 (life-long-

learning) scenario (Takwale, 2007).

“ICT is a scientific, technological and engineering discipline and management

technique used in handling information, its application and association with social,

economical and cultural matters.” It may be defined as the use of hardware and

software for efficient management i.e. storage, retrieval, processing, communication

and sharing information for social, economical and cultural upliftment (UNESCO, 2000).

For developing countries ICTs have the potential for increasing access to and

improving the relevance and quality of education. ICT is greatly facilitate the acquisition

and absorption of knowledge, offering developing countries unprecedented

opportunities to enhance educational systems, improve policy formulation and

execution, and widen the range of opportunities for business and the poor. One of the

greatest hardships endured by the poor, and by many others who live in the poorest

countries, is there sense of isolation. The new communications technologies promise to

4

reduce that sense of isolation, and to open access to knowledge in ways unimaginable

not long ago (World Bank, 1998).

ICT is an important instrument, which can transfer the present isolated, teacher-

centred, book-centered learning environment into a rich student-centered environment.

This new learning environment developed by the ICT is called Interactive Learning

Environment. ICT is a new paradigm of the teaching-learning process; we must accept

the new technology and use ICT as a tool of teaching-learning process. ICT aims at

transferring the old traditional paradigm of learning to the new paradigm of learning.

However, the experience of introducing ICTs in the classroom and other

educational settings all over the world over the past several decades suggests that the

full realization of the potential educational benefits of ICTs is not automatic. The

effective integration of ICTs into the educational system is a complex, multifaceted

process that involves not just technology - indeed, given enough initial capital, getting

the technology is the easiest part but also curriculum and pedagogy, institutional

readiness, teacher competencies, and long-term financing, among others.

The use of ICTs can make substantial change for education and training mainly

in two ways. Firstly, the rich representation of information changes learner’s perception

and understanding of the context. Secondly the vast distribution and easy access to

information can change relationships between educators and student teachers

(Sansanwal, 2009). ICT can also provide powerful support for educational innovations.

The ICT being latest, it can be used both at school and higher education levels in the

following areas:

Teaching

Diagnostic Testing

Remedial Teaching

Evaluation

Psychological Testing

Development of Virtual Laboratory

Online Tutoring

Development of Reasoning and Thinking

Instructional Material Development

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Use of ICT in Teaching

Teaching at School as well as Higher Education, mostly, concentrates on giving

information which is not the sole objective of Teaching. Along with giving information,

the other objectives are:

developing understanding and application of the concepts

developing proper study habits and expression power

developing reasoning and thinking power

development of judgment and decision making ability

improving comprehension, speed and vocabulary

developing self-concept and value clarification

developing tolerance and ambiguity, risk taking capacity, scientific temper, etc.

ICTs can enhance the quality of education in several ways: by increasing learner

motivation and engagement, by facilitating the acquisition of basic skills, and by

enhancing teacher training. ICTs are also transformational tools which, when used

appropriately, can promote the shift to a learner-centered environment (Haddad, 2002).

With the present infrastructure, class size, availability of teachers, quality of

teachers, training of teachers, etc., it is difficult to achieve all the objectives. Further,

most of the teachers use Lecture Method which does not have potentiality of achieving

majority of above mentioned objectives. The objectives are multi-dimensional in nature,

so for their achievement multiple methods should be used in an integrated fashion. At

present ICT may be of some use. It is a well known fact that not a single teacher is

capable of giving up to date and complete information in his own subject. The ICT can

fill this gap because it can provide access to different sources of information. It will

provide correct information as comprehensive as possible in different formats with

different examples. ICT provides online interaction facility. Students and teachers can

exchange their ideas and views, and get clarification on any topic from different experts,

practitioners, etc. It helps learners to broaden the information base.

ICT provides variety in the presentation of content which helps learners in

concentration, better understanding, and long retention of information which is not

possible otherwise. The learners can get opportunity to work on any live project with

learners and experts from other countries. The super highway and cyber space also

help in qualitative improvement of Teaching - Learning Process. ICT provides flexibility

to learners which are denied by the traditional process and method. Flexibility is a must

for mastery learning and quality learning. On internet many websites are available freely

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which may be utilized by teachers and students for understanding different concepts,

improving vocabulary, developing Reasoning & Thinking, etc. ICT can help in preparing

students for SAT, GRE, TOEFL, etc.

Use of ICT in Diagnostic Testing

The common observation is that the quality of teaching in the classroom is on

the decline. More and more students are depending on the private tutorial classes. The

private tuition also has become a business. This phenomenon is not only in India but in

other countries too. There are about 800 students from USA who have enrolled

themselves for Private tuition in mathematics. It means tuitions are also being

outsourced. This is being done through the use of ICT. There are students who fail to

understand certain concepts or retain certain information. This can be assessed by

introducing the diagnosis in the process of teaching - learning. Today, this is not being

done. The reasons might be large class size, non-availability of diagnostic tests in

different subjects, lack of training, money and desire on the part of teacher, etc. This is

the age of technology. These difficulties can be easily over come with the help of ICT.

Use of ICT in Remedial Teaching

Once the ICT is used for diagnosis purpose, the next step is to organize

Remedial Teaching Programme. The Remedial Teaching can be done by the teacher if

some common mistakes are identified. It may not be feasible to organize Remedial

Programme for individual students. At this point, the ICT can be used for giving

individual Remedial Programme. It may be Online or off line. The instructional material if

designed specifically for meeting the individual needs of students and uploaded on the

School website and then the ICT can be used for providing Remedial teaching

Programme.

Use of ICT in Evaluation

At present the paper pencil tests are conducted for evaluating the academic

performance of students. These tests are conducted in the group setting. The content

coverage is poor and students cannot use them at their own. These tests are evaluated

by the teachers and they may not give feedback immediately to each and every student.

It may be due to this that students are unable to know their weakness and do not make

any attempt to improve upon them. The ICT can be made use in the evaluation. If used

by teachers before teaching the topic, they can prepare the topic properly. Such

software can be used for internal assessment. Thus, ICT can be used to improve the

quality of pre as well as in-service teacher’s training.

7

Use of ICT in Psychological Testing

There are individual differences. Through research some correlates of

academic achievement have been studied. Rarely this information is used by school /

college teachers. Many of them even do not know about such researches. Even if they

know, they do not make use of it at the time of forming the groups for different academic

activities. One of the major reasons is that the school / college does not have a trained

psychologists who can assess the students on some of the correlates of academic

achievement. Further, the psychological testing is laborious and involves money and

time. Even the appropriate psychological tests are not available.

This is the age of digital technology. It can be used to digitalize all the

psychological tests including the scoring and evaluation. The same may be available on

the website and students and teachers can use them whenever required. Even student

can use it individually and can share the result with the teacher who can help the

student to improve his academic performance. The digitalized psychological tests will be

easy to use and economical also. Thus ICT can be used in psychological testing also.

Use of ICT in Developing Virtual Laboratory

The students understand better, if they do some practical related to the concept.

It makes learning easy and interesting. Laboratory helps in developing scientific temper.

But the fact is that practical are not done by each student in each school. There are

many schools which do not have laboratory. Sometime if laboratory is available, the

instrument is not available. The students are not given freedom to do experiments at

their own. Some good schools have laboratories all classes right from class I to XII but

in short, there are many restrictions under which the students have to work in the

laboratory. Now it is possible to have Virtual laboratory. Once the Virtual Laboratory is

developed, it can provide lots of freedom to students. The students can manipulate any

attribute or variable related to the experiment and can see how it affects the outcome.

The Virtual Laboratory can be developed using ICT. It may be made available at the

door step of each and every student by uploading it on the Website. Further each

country can think of developing science Website which should give access to Virtual

Laboratory and it must be free of cost. Such a Website will not only help Indian students

but can go a long way in helping students of Underdeveloped and developing countries.

8

The digital technology has broken the foundries between countries. Human

beings do not feel any type of restriction in communicating with people all over the

globe. The access has become easy. It is a well known fact that all students do not

understand all subjects to the same extent. Some students find subjects, like,

Mathematics, Physics, English, Chemistry, Accountancy, etc. difficult. All educational

institutions do have well equipped laboratories and qualified & competent Faculty.

Consequently students do feel the need of academic support out of the school.

Therefore, students go for tuition. These days students from USA and other countries

are enrolled in private tuition classes in India. That is they are being taught Online. This

has become possible only due to ICT.

In online tutoring the student stays at his home. He logs in to his tutor through

the use of Internet and software. He can see the teacher who is in India and the teacher

can see the student who is in USA. The student asks the question and teacher replies it

by writing on soft board or using power point presentation. This interaction is normally

one to one. It has made the academic life of many students easy. This is how the

manpower available in India can be made use of other countries. All this is happening

just because of ICT.

Use of ICT in Developing Reasoning and Thinking

Web Based Instruction (WBI) can be developed with the help of ICT. The WBI

presents content in a structure format that allowing self-directed, self-paced instruction

on any topic.

The WBI was found to be effective in facilitating Reasoning Ability amongst

people belonging to different countries and age group. The WBI can be developed in

other subjects too. It will provide variety of Instructional Material to students and they

can choose that suits them best. This will improve the academic standard. This is

important in the present context as most of the Educational Institutions do not pay

attention to development of Reasoning & Thinking. They do not have any period in the

time table for Reasoning and Thinking. These abilities once develop can help individual

for solving the day-to-day problems. On the whole it will improve the quality of life. Thus,

ICT can be used for developing WBI for facilitating Reasoning and Thinking.

Use of ICT in Curriculum Development

At present some of the boards / universities are able to improve and update

their curriculum. Each board / university has its own procedure of developing

curriculum. This is quite old and too narrow. In this digitalized world, the boards /

9

universities should change some of their procedures related to curriculum development,

examination, evaluation of doctoral work etc. Each board / university must have its

website. The curriculum can be put on the website and suggestions can be invited for its

improvement. It broadens the scope of receiving the suggestions. At present in India, in

spite of efforts made by UGC as well as NCTE, many boards / universities are still not in

a position to update the syllabus. In many boards / universities micro-teaching is just for

name sake. Models of Teaching have not entered in the syllabus at all and ICT is just a

formality in these boards / universities. Even the schools that employ the trained

teachers have felt this. Thus, there is a scope to use ICT in improving the curriculum.

Use of ICT in Developing Instructional Material

At present there is a shortage of qualified and competent teachers in all most

all subjects at all levels. Not only this, even the instructional material available in the

print form is not of quality. This is because many authors have written on those topics

that they have never read and / or done research. Sometime the information given in

the books is also wrong. The book reading is not very enjoyable and does not help

students in understanding the concepts and retaining the information. There are many

teachers who are well known for the specific subject. Their lectures should be digitalized

and made available to all the users. It will enhance the quality of instruction in the

classrooms. The teacher can use them in the classrooms and can organize discussion

after it wherein the new points can be added both by the teacher as well as students. It

will make the teaching effective, participatory and enjoyable. These lectures can be

uploaded on any website and students and teachers can access any lecture they like.

Another form of digitalized lectures is e-Content. The CEC is making efforts to

develop e-Content material in different subjects for the benefit of diverse users. The

competent teachers can develop e-Content in their own areas of specialization. This

has lots of potentiality to bring quality in teacher education. The ICT can be used in

developing Instructional Material and e-Content.

How can ICTs help transform the learning environment into one that is learner-

centered?

Research has shown that the appropriate use of ICTs can catalyze the

paradigmatic shift in both content and pedagogy that is at the heart of education reform

in the 21st century (Bransford, 1999). If designed and implemented properly, ICT-

supported education can promote the acquisition of the knowledge and skills that will

empower students for lifelong learning.

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When used appropriately, ICTs-especially computers and Internet

technologies- enable new ways of teaching and learning rather than simply allow

teachers and students to do what they have done before in a better way. These new

ways of teaching and learning are underpinned by constructivist theories of learning and

constitute a shift from a teacher-centered pedagogy-in its worst form characterized by

memorization and rote learning-to one that is learner-centered.

Active learning: ICT-enhanced learning mobilizes tools for examination,

calculation and analysis of information, thus providing a platform for student

inquiry, analysis and construction of new information. Learners therefore learn as

they do and, whenever appropriate, work on real-life problems in-depth, making

learning less abstract and more relevant to the learner's life situation.

In this way, and in contrast to memorization-based or rote learning, ICT-

enhanced learning promotes increased learner engagement. ICT-enhanced

learning is also "just-in-time" learning in which learners can choose what to learn

when they need to learn it.

Collaborative learning: ICT-supported learning encourages interaction and

cooperation among students, teachers, and experts regardless of where they

are. Apart from modeling real-world interactions, ICT-supported learning provides

learners the opportunity to work with people from different cultures, thereby

helping to enhance learners' teaming and communicative skills as well as their

global awareness. It models learning done throughout the learner's lifetime by

expanding the learning space to include not just peers but also mentors and

experts from different fields.

Creative Learning: ICT-supported learning promotes the manipulation of

existing information and the creation of real-world products rather than the

regurgitation of received information.

Integrative Learning: ICT-enhanced learning promotes a thematic, integrative

approach to teaching and learning. This approach eliminates the artificial

separation between the different disciplines and between theory and practice that

characterizes the traditional classroom approach.

Evaluative Learning: ICT-enhanced learning is student-directed and diagnostic.

Unlike static, text- or print-based educational technologies, ICT-enhanced

learning recognizes that there are many different learning pathways and many

11

different articulations of knowledge. ICTs allow learners to explore and discover

rather than merely listen and remember.

Issues in the use of ICT in Education

While discussing the use of ICTs in the field of education, the following

questions must be addressed:

Which technologies?

Who will be technically competent teacher to use ICT?

Which Technologies?

By the year 1990, the choice of various technologies for education was

limited because these were expensive and also required skilled technicians to

create and use them. For use in teaching-learning process as well as in the

teacher education programmes, the tools like Radio, television, overhead

projectors and slide projector etc. were the best examples of technology at that

time. But now the scenario has changed.

It has been established that in the teaching and learning environment,

various technologies are useful. However, it is important to know that for a

particular purpose which technologies are best suited in classroom teaching, so

the need arises for training of teachers / educators in various technologies and

their use in teaching-learning process.

Digitisation of many ICTs has increases the efficiency of the system and

also made it more powerful. It has also made it possible to design, develop,

deliver, manage and assess the various learning and training process. The new

digital technologies are a combination of hardware and software, media and

delivery systems. The latest digital technologies are evolving in the system and

conveying rapidly. Few of them are as follows:

Multimedia PC, Laptop, Netbook

Virtual Reality

Computer Mediated Conferencing-Video/Audio Conferencing

Digital Video/Still Camera/ Mobile Phone

WWW (World Wide Web)

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E-mail and Chat

Digital Libraries

Various Application Software

The choice of technology is very important for a particular purpose of

teaching learning process because the latest technologies also have a capacity

develop link between the old and the new and to integrate with older technologies

and also retrieve information stored in older technologies.

competent teachers. They should have positive attitude towards ICT. They should

operate computers and should able to appreciate the potential of ICT. While

operating computers, they should use basic software for Power Point, word

processing and spreadsheets etc; evaluate educational software; create effective

multimedia-based presentations to support teaching learning; evaluate the use of

computers and related ICT tools for training and education of teachers; search on

internet for resources and use of e-mail, chat; integrate ICT tools into learning

activities throughout the curriculum; create hypertext documents and understand

about network; include new instructional principles, research and appropriate

assessment practices; demonstrate knowledge of ethics and equity issues related

to ICT; and lastly keep up-to-date as far as educational technology is concerned.

ICT in Teaching Learning Process

Our formal education system has a history of more than 5,000 year, dating

back to the progress of reading, writing, and arithmetic. Over this period of time,

educators have been faced by various problems such as:

What are effective / valuable instructional practices for helping learners’ to learn

the curriculum content?

What are different effective pre-service and in-service teacher education

programs of study that lead to students having effective teachers?

What are effective student assessment practices to sustain student learning and

school system accountability?

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It is apparent that answers to these questions change over time. Answers are

powerfully affected by increases in human knowledge. We are interested in how the

various answers are being affected by the developments that are taking place in ICT.

Thus we are led to four specific ICT in education questions:

What are effective / valuable uses of ICT for helping students to learn the non-

ICT and the ICT curriculum content?

What are different effective pre-service and in-service teacher educations

practices that show the way to effective combination of ICT into curriculum

content, instructional processes, assessment, and teacher’s overall professional

learning and work?

What are various effective uses of ICT in student assessment in non-ICT areas,

and what are other effective ways to assess student ICT knowledge and skills?

These are tough questions. Moreover, ICT continues to transform at a very rapid

pace. Thus, answers to the questions are changing and will prolong to change in the

future.

As the teacher is changing, the face of the classroom is also changing. The

teachers should get ready to sustain with the technology usefulness in the classroom.

Information and communication technology is not only a necessary tool for teachers in

their day to day work, but it also offers them opportunities for their own professional

development.

In a classroom, during the conventional teaching, the maximum time is

consumed for input-output and less time left for the process which is more significant for

the students in teaching learning process. However, in teaching with the help of ICT, the

input and output time is reduced and process time increased or in other words, process

time is greater than before. So when this process time is increased, the time of students’

discussion, activities, understanding the concept, learning, association with other

subjects, brain storming etc. will also enhance. So if the teaching is done with the help

of ICT, we get more time to the process phase which is more important in a period of 50

minutes or one hour in a classroom situation as shown below:

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Classroom Teaching Time

Conventional Teaching

Teaching through ICT

Figure 1.1

Time taken in teaching through ICT and Conventional teaching

With the emergence of ICTs, the world of teaching and learning has adopted at

once of its main innovations. The ways of knowing things and acquiring information has

changes tremendously with the use of ICTs, ICTs make it possible for the students to

access knowledge and information through Internet, T.V., Satellites, Cable network and

Digital media. Such a phenomenon results in lesser dependence of the learners on

classroom teaching based on text-book content. Under these circumstances, it

becomes even more challenging for the teachers not only to plan and organize learning

in entirely diverse situations, but also to synchronize learning mediated through multiple

delivery mechanism. Educational system all around us is under increasing pressure to

use ICT to teach students the knowledge and skills they need in the 21 st century.

ICT have changed the role and concept of educational institution. Now, there

are ample scopes to receive and update information from many other sources.

Naturally, the duties and responsibilities of the teachers should be considered on the

basis of emerging trends. In these days, teachers have to accept the demands of the

modern world and modify their old concepts, methods and instructional techniques

according the needs and they are to be trained as life-long learners.

Will ICT Replace the Teacher?

The answer is a resounding NO! In fact, with the inclusion of ICTs in the

classroom, the teacher's role in the learning process becomes even more critical.

What can and should change is the kind of role that the teacher plays. The role of

students, in turn, also expands. And since ICTs can open up the classroom to the

15

outside world, the community can also playa new role in the classroom.

As learning shifts from the “teacher-centered model” to a “learner-centered

model”; the teacher becomes less the sole voice of authority and more the

facilitator, mentor and coach-from “sage on stage” to “guide on the side”. The

teacher's primary task becomes to teach the students how to ask questions and

pose problems, formulate hypotheses, locate information and then critically assess

the information found in relation to the problems posed. And since ICT-enhanced

learning is a new experience even for the teachers, the teachers become co-

learners and discover new things along with their students.

ICT Based Teaching: Various Advantages

According to Dahiya (2004) Information and Communication Technologies

(ICTs) can help teachers/educators in the following ways:

(i) With the assist of ICTs, teachers/educators can have access to their colleagues,

institutions and various universities, centres of excellence/ expertise, rich

resources at cyber space and various Organisations like SCERT, NCERT, UGC

and NCTE etc.

(ii) Educational software and Intelligent Tutoring Systems can significantly reduce

the cost of teacher training.

(iii) ICT enable to give feedback and testing without biases, objectively and fast.

(iv) ICT enable to access on-line research, journals and libraries to enable individuals

learning.

(v) ICTs enable to develop the initial preparation by giving good teaching or training

materials; to use simulators, recording and feedback practices for teaching and

microteaching; introducing trainees with resources and support on cyber space;

and different examples of the use of technologies in the situation during

teaching/training.

(vi) ICTs enable to interact with students over a physical distance.

(v) ICTs provide lifelong and professionally developed courses at a virtual situation,

orientation and various refresher courses on-line or through video conferencing.

(vi) ICTs enable to facilitate sharing of ideas, experiences as well as collaborating on

projects, exchange materials through virtual communities.

Apart from the above mentioned, some of the other advantages of ICTs are quick

and easy way to create, update and revise course materials through low-cost, location

and time independent delivery of course materials, increased learner control through

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hypertext based presentation of information, opportunities for international, cross-

cultural and collaborative learning, ability to combine text, graphics and a limited amount

of multimedia, enabling instructional designers to prepare quality learning materials.

ICT Benefits :

(a) For the learners

The progress of ICT should help to make learning more differentiated and

modified to individual needs, and deliver a more appealing, exciting and enjoyable

learning process that encourages better learning outcomes, including greater autonomy,

emotional resilience, as well as:

personalized feedback on progress based on the use of assessment tools, and

the ability to record and share achievements with others;

increased motivation through learning that stimulates, stretches and takes into

account prior and concurrent experiences in and out of school;

flexibility to study where, when and in ways best suited to individual needs and

preferences, with smoother transitions between different phases of education;

broadened horizons with more opportunities for creative expression;

wider access to learning and participation, particularly for learners with special

educational needs and disabilities, and those unable to attend school due to

illness or disaffection with traditional learning methods; and

the ability to make sensible choices about when, when not, and how to use new

technologies to enhance, extend and enrich their learning, reflecting the

increasingly ICT-rich environment in which they live and learn.

b) For the teachers:

The development of ICT should contribute to improved professional status, help

to increase capacity and provide opportunities for career development and progression

that build on the recognition and reward of effective e-learning practice. It should also

mean:

Access to a comprehensive range of advice, guidance and support for teachers

of all subjects at all levels on how ICT can be used effectively in classroom

practice to embed ICT in teaching and learning across the curriculum;

opportunities to access a wide range of resourcesthat simplify the preparation

and enrich the delivery of lessons;

more sophisticated use of pupil data, including the matching of teaching and

learning styles and the setting and tracking of individual learning goals;

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revitalized professionalnetworks supporting communication and collaboration,

including the sharing of resources and best practice, within and between

schools;

support for workforce remodelling through the automation of routine

administrative tasks and the availability of technical support; increased

opportunities to develop innovative and creative ways of supporting students'

learning, enabling seamless links with experiences beyond the conventional

classroom and timetable.

Initiative in India for use of ICT in Education

The landmark policy on Computer Based Education and use of ICT was laid by

the National Task Force on Information Technology and Software Development (IT Task

Force) – constituted by the Prime Minister – in july, 1998. Recognising Information

Technology to be frontier area of knowledge and also a critical tool for assimilating,

processing and producing all other spheres of knowledge, the IT Task Force

recommended that the Government should launch an ‘Operational Knowledge’

campaign to universalise computer literacy and also to spread the use of computers and

IT in education (Educational Leadership, 2005).

It made four major recommendations on IT Education- which were accepted by the

Government and are given below:

The Govt. shall soon launch three schemes- Vidyarathi Computer Scheme,

Shikshak Computer Scheme and School Computer Scheme to enable students,

teachers and schools respectively, desirous of buying computers to do so under

attractive packeges.

Computers and internet shall be made accessible to schools, polytechnics,

colleges and public hospitals in the country by the year 2003.

The concept of SMART schools where the emphasis is not only on Information

Technology in schools, but also on the use of skill and values that will be

important in the next millennium shall be started on a pilot demonstrative basis in

each state of India.

A pilot project shall be launched in some lead districts, which have already

attained universal literacy with the aim of achieving universal literacy in all the

secondary schools in these districts. These pilot projects will be joint initiatives of

the local educational institutions, representative State Govt. and the Centre.

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Recommendation of the Working Group

The working group on Elementary Education for the Tenth Five Year Plan has

recommended that one or two schools in every cluster in the country should have

facilities for computer based learning that could be used by the children in the adjoining

schools. Networking of institutions in the form of school complexes would help in

promoting the sharing the infrastructure and expertise. The group has proposed Rs.

1000 crore for Computer Based Education during the Tenth Plan (2002-2007) – Rs. 2

lakh per cluster or Rs. 15-20 lakh per block or about Rs. 2 crore per district for 5 years.

The Working Group has also recommended establishing cells in SCERTs for defining

the curriculum for computer education, teacher training and ensuring quality besides up-

gradation of computer facilities in DIETs. In the component for “Education of Teacher

Educators”, computer literacy for teacher educators can also be ensured.

Most of the countries in the world have felt the need to incorporate the

Computer Education and the use of ICT in education. The developed world has a strong

network, facility and curricula for computer education in their schools even at primary

levels. In the United States of America, all the public (Government) schools are well

equipped with computers. Teachers encourage their pupils for computer projects by

using e-learning material and also using information available on Internet. This not only

makes the learning interesting and joyful but also incorporates innovativeness in

thinking and approach of the children and enhances their imaginative power. Now-a-

days students learn apart from their teachers, from different sources. ICT has changed

the learning system and styles of learning and the influence is significantly high in

education system. ICT in education is a powerful tool that may be used effectively and

efficiently within the classrooms to create more exciting learning environment and

deliver a higher level of educational expertise to students.

In short, it could be said that the technology has tremendous potential to make

learning easy and interesting. That’s why one educationist asked “If technologies have

the potential to significantly improve the teaching / learning process and revolutionize

the education enterprise, in the same manner that they revolutionized business and

entertainment, how come we have not experienced such drastic efforts in education? IT

has not made even its barest appearance in most Government schools in many

countries in the Asian region". Therefore, it is high time for involving computers and

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technology in education at elementary level too, in spite of the difficulties in mobilizing

resources.

Importance of Mathematics in Every Day Life

Mathematics is one of those human activities that man has created to gratify

certain human needs and desires. Disinterested curiosity of the man has been the

greatest motive power of the mathematics research. Mathematics is valued not only

because of its practical advantages it brings with it but also to train the minds of the

student.

Mathematics takes its place side by side with other subjects as an essential

element of one’s education; it is a part of the equipment and preparation for life, which

we expect the school to give to its pupils so that they may play their part in the

community as intellectual citizens. It affords knowledge of certain facts and laws.

Teaching of mathematics provides training in heuristic attitude, which is very valuable,

and at the same time is transferable to other situations in life. Besides its inclusion in the

school curriculum is justified on the ground that it satisfies intellectual, utilitarian,

vocational, cultural, moral and aesthetic values. The place of mathematics in our daily

life need not be emphasized. We are living in an age of science, technology and

computers. Right from the cradle to the grave, all our activities are controlled and

fashioned by mathematics. Mathematics has entered in our life and daily activities so

much that our existence would become impossible without it. Its achievement in almost

all spheres is marvelous. This subject is very much connected in the prosperity of

human race. Thus in this world of today, nobody can live without mathematics for a

single day. Mathematics will continue to occupy a prominent place in man’s life in almost

all the countries of the world.

Conventional Strategies of teaching Mathematics

It is very discouraging and an admitted fact that present day teaching of

mathematics in India- a subject which has got a very important place in the curriculum

and necessary for the study of the other disciplines and in our daily life, is far from

satisfactory. The teaching of mathematics in our schools in India is in a chaotic state

today. The conventional / traditional strategies of teaching mathematics aim at imparting

the dead-material to the pupils without offering them the opportunities to sharpen their

intellect and form insight and concepts of numerous mathematical computations.

Teachers are either trained in old methods and have never cared to look for something

better in new techniques or there are those who receive but never apply their

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knowledge and remain satisfied with routine methods. There is spoon-feeding and daily

dose of mental work is much more than the students can comfortably swallow and

digest. There are no emphasis on thought, understanding, initiative, judicious study and

power. So by the use of these methods, the power of reasoning, thinking, understanding

and retention are not developed in the students.

Teacher while teaching with traditional strategies in the class forgets that all

the students do not have same amount of capacity, taste, aptitude and the same

grasping power. They ignored the need of the learner and can hardly come down to

their level. Teacher neglect child centred approach. Child is adjusted to the subject

rather than the subject to the child. Hence, due to bad teaching, the subject loses its

appeal as it is taught in a dry and uninteresting manner. Students think that this subject

is dull, boring, difficult and useless and that is why they do not take interest in this

subject resulting into high dropout, wastage and stagnation and the fear and hatred for

the subject of mathematics. As the mathematics holds great practical values in this

world of scientific and technological development and in this age of computer, therefore

its teaching should be made effective at school level. If mathematics is to be taught in

our schools it must be taught well and for that purpose the existing conditions /

strategies under which it is being taught must be changed rather revolutionised.

ICT usage in Teaching and Learning Mathematics

ICT is just another, albeit very powerful, resource which now drastically brings

out substantial changes in teaching and learning subjects especially mathematics.

Parents, students and teachers have a right to expect that teaching of all subjects in the

curriculum should make the best possible use of ICT resources, and that means that the

selection and development of ICT resources should be made to fit the needs of the

subject - and not the reverse. ICT: an Aid in-

(a) Mathematical Concept and Skill Development:

Enhanced power to deal with multiple representations via ICT. (e.g. symbolic,

numerical and graphical representations of functions in algebra)

Enhanced ability to visualize via ICT (e.g. manipulations via software packages

of 3 – dimensional objects)

group investigation using technology (e.g. discovery of geometric properties via

geometry software )

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Enhanced opportunity for individualized and customized diagnosis, remediation

and evaluation (e.g. computer-aided instructions for algebra students having

difficulty with factoring

(b) Mathematical Problem Solving:

computational aspect. (e.g. calculus students using a computer algebra system)

contrived problems having ‘nice’ solutions. (e.g. algebra students solving a

problem whose model is a cubic equation via the aid of graphing calculator)

associated mathematical subjects matter much earlier than before possible. (e.g.

student solving optimization problems via computer generated graphs or

estimating probabilities via computer simulations)

Enhanced ability to gather data in order to form conjectures and apply inductive

reasoning (e.g. use of computers by students to find number patterns)

computer to perform a desired task

(d) Mathematical Communication:

a desired task (e.g. algebra students programming a computer to estimate the

probability)

writing (e.g. use of word processors to write reports which include mathematical

symbols, tables, graphs and use of multimedia presentation programs to

communicate mathematical ideas)

1.1.2 Electronic-Content (e-Content)

Wide varieties of digital materials which are of educational significance are

available online. Some of the quality materials which are available free of cost or with

minimum restrictions can be used, re-used and modified by teachers and students for

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their teaching and learning. As textbooks are too expensive, the students are switching

from textbooks to digital course materials. These materials provide both teachers and

students a greater interactivity and social collaboration. One of the materials which can

be designed and developed used, re-used and distributed is e-Content. e-Content is

becoming popular because of its flexibility of time, place and pace of learning. e-Content

includes all kinds of content created and delivered through various electronic media. e-

Content is available in many subjects and almost all levels of education. It can be used

by wide variety learners with diverse needs, different backgrounds, and previous

experience and skill levels. It can be shared and transmitted easily and promptly among

unlimited number of users around the world. Teachers, students and others get

benefited by the use of well designed and developed e-Content. It is advantageous to

the educational organizations to make their program accessible to their teachers and

students on campus, home and other community learning or resource centers. It has a

significant implications for open and distance learning institutions.

When we think more about Electronic Content (e-Content) then various questions arises

in our mind. These are:

What is the History of e-Content

What will be the features of e-Content?

What is the difference between Printed Content and e-Content?

How much e-Content does a school need?

Where will we store e-Content?

Is working with e-Contents need more than ICT skills?

What will be e-Content contribution to teaching and learning?

What is the History of e-Content

In the early 1960, Stanford University Psychology Professor Suppes (1960)

experimented with using computers to teach mathematics and reading to young children

in elementary schools at California. Early e-Content systems, based on Computer-

Based Content / Training often attempt to replicate autocratic teaching styles whereby

the role of the e-Content system was assumed to be for transferring knowledge.

Graziadei (1993) described an online computer-delivered lecture, tutorial and

assessment project using electronic mail. In 1997, he published an article which

described developing an overall strategy for technology-based course development and

management for an educational system. He said that products had to be easy to use

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and maintain, portable, replicable, scanable and immediately affordable, and they had

to have a high probability of success with long-term cost-effectiveness.

After the publication of article, Graziadei further described a process at the

State University of New York of evaluating products and developing an overall strategy

for technology-based course development and management in teaching-Content. Today

many technologies can be, and are, used in e-Content, from blogs to collaborative

software, e-Portfolios, and virtual classrooms etc. Most e-Content situations use

combinations of these techniques.

What will be the features of e-Content?

In recent time, one of the important systems of communication of knowledge

has been through the web cast and its delivery through Internet or at present it is likely

to be provided through broadband. One is able to see on the website whatever is

hosted by information provider. However it is very hard to ascertain the authenticity and

correction of information. In case of print media there is a system of review by the peer

groups and publication of the same in journals and newspapers. But in the case of

websites no system seems to have been evolved so far. The system assumes greater

significance when one is web casting of educational materials. The correction and the

quality of the material have to be essentially assumed so as to provide information to

learners, teacher and general reader.

Bonime & Pohlmann (1998) and Rawlins (1991) provided a comparison of paper

book and electronic book features. According to them, e-Content benefit from:

hyperlinking - contents can be linked to other pages inside and outside the book;

non-linearity - i.e. the order of access can be determined by users;

addition of multimedia - i.e. content presentation is enhanced by mixing

information type (i.e. audio, video and so on);

data density - storage capacity is decreased while at the same time increasing

portability;

searching - the usefulness of the content is enhanced by the ability of the users

to locate any piece of information, or to access any section instantly.

What is the difference between Printed-Content (p-Content) and e-Content:

While comparing p-Content with e-Content, we find that e-Content is much more

flexible and conducive for teaching learning across the curriculum. For updating the

content, storing the content without any hustle, for easy and random multiple access,

customization as per the taste and demand, effective pictorial presentation, effective

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sound quality and easily reproducible, e-Content has a clear edge over the printed

content. Instance search facility, animation and interactivity are also some of the main

features of e-Content which we does not meet in the printed-Content.

In modern urban world where space is very little and limited, e-Content will

always be a preferable mode than the space consuming and perishable p-Content.

How much e-Content does a school need?

Potentially, any school subject where learners work with information lends

themselves to being improved using Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

as the medium for learning. An e-learning ideal would be the goal of being able to

choose any lesson that had been already planned and to be able to teach it more

effectively in an ICT room. To do this, one would need to have all the curriculum

materials, source materials for research in the topic, pupil assignments etc. needed for

that lesson available in electronic form. The answer to the question of sufficiency must

therefore be that we might aim to acquire e-Content to match every topic in the school

curriculum. It is clear that the development of e-Content, and with it the aim of

improving professional practice in the use of ICT, will be a big issue in schools for the

next few years.

Where will we store e-Content?

An issue to consider in developing e-Content is where to put it. An important

principle will be to avoid using broadband connections to keep downloading the same

resource more than once. This will slow the system down (even at 2 Megabits per

second). Frequently used electronic sources should be stored locally. The broadband

connection should take priority for learning activities that can't be cached, like

videoconferencing. Materials to support planned lessons could be conveniently sited on

the school's ICT system. Content for managed learning programmes would probably be

sited in a 'Content Delivery System' - a special server provided. Materials to support

research activities into non-predictable topics will stay out on the Internet.

Is working with e-Content needs more than ICT skills?

The growth and development of ICT in various schools has been a series of

journeys to the next horizon, only to find that when we get there and look over it, there is

still more to do.

Unsurprisingly, over the next horizon, beyond developing e-Content, will be the

need to help students to use e-Content effectively in teaching learning situations.

Present concerns over learners cutting and pasting information as a substitute for

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learning are an indicator that we need to do additional work on this. For the answer to

this particular difficulty we can turn to the rules of research. One rule for the students -

identifies your sources and do not claim them as your own work. And one rule for the

teacher - don't mark sources! Only mark the new knowledge demonstrated by the pupil

in making use of the source information.

When learners are working at the highest levels with Information and

Communication Technology within any knowledge-based subject they will probably be

undertaking some form of enquiry. To undertake an enquiry independently they will need

to possess the skills associated with each stage in the enquiry.

The question for schools is "Where in your school's curriculum do learners

acquire the individual enquiry skills that support the development of attainment?"

e-Learning is not about delivering e-Content. It will be about developing the abilities

of the brain of the learner, through using the medium of ICT, to research, process,

synthesize and publish.

What will be e-Content Contribution to Teaching and Learning?

e-Content have a major contribution to all aspects of teaching and learning:

e-Content can provide opportunities to engage and motivate children and young

people and meet their individual learning needs;

e-Content can make a significant contribution to teaching and learning across all

subjects and ages, inside and outside the curriculum;

e-Content can enable schools to share information and good practice in

networked learning communities;

e-Content can help link school and home by providing access to teaching and

learning materials, and to assessment and attendance data, from home;

Integrated curriculum and management information systems can help schools

monitor individual students' progress for assessment for learning and

administrative purposes;

Use of shared drives in schools to bank lesson plans and other resources can

produce vast savings in time and effort for teachers; and

Intelligent information management systems within schools can support school

leadership.

1.1.3 Achievement Motivation

Achievement Motivation, as put forward by a leading researcher in achievement

motivation, McClelland (1953), is a factor that relates to one’s aptitude for success.

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Achievement Motivation typically refers to an individual’s competence at striving to

achieve goals. It is also sometimes viewed as someone’s ability to select challenging

yet attainable goals and then accomplish them. McClelland viewed need for

achievement as a prominent factor in determining one’s success at selecting and

completing tasks in general. He also believed that households in which parents hold

exceptional expectations tend to produce achievement-motivated children.

McClelland found that individuals with high achievement motivation differ from

people who have low achievement motivation. Individuals high in achievement

motivation will usually earn faster promotions, earn higher grades in school and have

higher success running their own business than people with low achievement

motivation. Achievement motivation is the desire to excel at tasks. This means that

individuals with high achievement motivation tend to set goals that are neither too easy

nor extremely difficult. Easy tasks do not present a challenge and are of no interest.

Extremely difficult goals increase the risk of failure. A person with high achievement

motivation gains great satisfaction from completing a challenging goal. This reward is

more important than praise, recognition or monetary compensation.

According to McClelland's research, achievement-motivated people have certain

characteristics in common, including;

the capacity to set high ('stretching') personal but obtainable goals,

the concern for personal achievement rather than the rewards of success, and

the desire for job-relevant feedback (how well am I doing?) rather than for

attitudinal feedback (how well do you like me?).

Atkinson’s (1964) conception of motivation concentrates primarily upon

achievement related behavior in which there is competition with a standard of

excellence. He conceives achievement oriented behavior as a resultant of approach-

avoidance conflict. The relative dominance of approach or avoidance tendency is

determined by individuals different from none another in particular motive strengthens.

Panda & Jena (2000) defined achievement motivation as an urge to improve or

as a psychological factor which provides internal impetus to excellence. Achievement

motivation is the tendency to maintain and increase the individual’s proficiency in one’s

area of work. It is an urge to improve and implies dissatisfaction with the present state

of affairs. Achievement oriented person is the one who sincerely tries to improve the

condition of life for himself.

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According to Narayana et al. (2007), achievement motivation is an essential

element which affects the behavior of all individual and is an acquired tendency of all

individuals which implies action to aspire, strive and achieve in completion with other,

with a standard of excellence. Such behavior is achievement motivation behavior

oriented.

Achievement motivation is thus a learned motive to complete and strive. As

almost any activity from gardening to managing an industrial organization can be

viewed in terms of competition and success versus failure. In Good’s (1973) opinion,

achievement motivation is a combination of psychological forces which initiates, directs

and sustain behavior towards successful attainment of goal which provides a sense of

significance.

1.1.4 Learning Styles

Learning styles are simply various approaches or ways of learning.

Felder (1996) defined a student’s learning style by the answers to four questions:

What type of information does the student prefer: sensory (sights, sounds, and

physical sensations), or intuitive (memories, ideas, and insights)?

How is information received; visual (pictures, diagrams, graphs, and

demonstrations), or verbal (sounds, written and spoken words, and formulas)?

How do they process information: activity (through engagement in physical

activity of discussion) or reflectively (through introspection)?

How does the student progress toward understanding: sequentially (in a logical

progression of small incremental steps), or globally (in large jumps, absorbing

material randomly)?

It is important to understand that the dimensions of this model are a matter of

degree and not either/or categories. A student’s preference for the different styles may

be strong, moderate, or mild. It may also change with time, and may vary from one

subject or learning environment to another. The most commonly used categories of

learning styles are based on sensory preferences. Wooldridge (1995) describes

learners with the visual, auditory and kinaesthetic preferences and the others fall in to

sub categories of these:

i) Visual Learners (learn through seeing): These learners need to see the teacher's

body language and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson. They

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may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including: diagrams, illustrated

text books, overhead transparencies, videos, flipcharts and hand-outs

ii) Auditory Learners (learn through listening): They learn best through verbal

lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say.

Auditory learners interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to tone

of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances.

iii) Kinesthetic Learners (learn through moving, doing and touching):

Tactile/Kinesthetic persons learn best through a hands-on approach, actively exploring

the physical world around them. They may find it hard to sit still for long periods and

may become distracted by their need for activity and exploration.

Grasha (1996) has defined learning styles as, "personal qualities that influence a

student's ability to acquire information, to interact with peers and the teacher, and

otherwise participate in learning experiences". One of the first things educators can do

to aid the learning process is to simply be aware that there are diverse learning styles in

the student population: there are probably as many ways to "teach" as there are to

learn. Perhaps the most important thing is to be aware that people do not all see the

world in the same way. They may have very different preferences than you for how,

when, where and how often to learn.

Rita & Kenneth (1978) provide various ways in which learning style theory can

take effect in the classroom. They give a background of how learners are affected by

elements of the classroom and follow it with recommendations of how to accommodate

students’ learning strengths. They write that “learners are affected by their: (1)

immediate environment (sound, light, temperature, and design); (2) own emotionality

(motivation, persistence, responsibility, and need for structure or flexibility); (3)

sociological needs (self, pair, peers, team, adult, or varied); and (4) physical needs

(perceptual strengths, intake, time, and mobility)”. They analyze other research and

make the claim that not only can students identify their preferred learning styles, but that

students also score higher on tests, have better attitudes, and are more efficient if they

are taught in ways to which they can more easily relate. Therefore, it is to the educator’s

advantage to teach and test students in their preferred styles.

The development of the constructivist view of learning led to a change of

emphasis towards a focus on understanding the individual student. In particular

attention is now paid to the way that students acquire data and relate it to existing

knowledge, the ways in which students process the knowledge to gain understanding,

29

and finally how the students demonstrate the quality of what they have learned. These

developments have meant that great importance is now placed upon the recognition of

individual differences in learners (Biggs, 1993).

1.1.5 Self-Confidence

According to the Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (2001), Self-confidence is

one’s belief in self and in one’s powers and abilities. So self means a composite of a

person’s thought and feelings, striving and hopes, fears and fantasies, his views of what

he is what he has been, what he might be and his attitude pertaining to his worth.

Self-confidence is an attitude which allows individuals to have positive yet

realistic views of themselves and their situations. Self-confident people trust their own

abilities, have a general sense of control in their own lives, and believe that, within

reason, they will be able to do what they wish, plan, and expect. Self-confidence is an

aspect of self concept, refers to an individual’s perceived ability to act affectively in a

situation to overcome obstacles and to get things go all right. A man is reality owes a

great deal to friends who express belief to win (Basavanna, 1975).

Self-confident people have expectations that are realistic. Even when some of

their expectations are not met, they continue to be positive and to accept themselves.

Having self-confidence does not mean that individuals will be able to do everything.

Self-confident people are willing to risk the disapproval of others because they generally

trust their own abilities. Most of the time, they tend to accept themselves; they don't feel

they have to conform in order to be accepted.

Self-confidence is not necessarily a general characteristic which pervades all aspects of

a person's life. Typically, individuals will have some areas of their lives where they feel

quite confident, e.g. academics, athletics, while at the same time they do not feel at all

confident in other areas, e.g., personal appearance, social relationships.

Azmitia (2002) defined that positive Self-confidence is overall self appraisal of

one’s worth which is significant for healthy personality development. Youth friendships

are associated with Self-confidence and contribute to forming self-image and are related

to social competence.

1.2 NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

In the age of cyberspace in the twenty-first century, calculation, composition and

communication on paper alone is a fractional, impoverished and increasingly outdated

concept and practice for thinking and communication. To build on the accomplishments

of paper technology, a digital infrastructure must be in place.

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At present, e-Content is entering into almost all subjects in the field of education.

It is supposed to be used as a tool where and when considered useful. By integrating e-

Content into standard learning material, by offering e-Content module cases and by

integrating the use of e-Content in the different subject areas, different types of actions

are taken or planned, to make sure that e-Content will be real part of the curriculum by

supporting software development.

If we are to cope with the various challenges of the swiftly changing

society/environment and make use of new opportunities offered by e-Content, plans

have to be realized giving learners, teachers and educators access to necessary

equipments. The most important competence building in this field is the development of

pedagogical methods. That can happen only when long-standing competence

programmes can work along with real-life experience, where educators, teachers and

learners are using e-Content in their day to day life and daily learning experiences.

Use of e-Content encourages self-expression and discovery by means of its

interactive non-linear access of information. Students will be more motivated to learn

since a multimedia lesson can provide near-reality information through its variety of

available media elements (text, audio, video and animation). The learners may learn by

using their multiple senses, which provides innovative, new and enriched experiences.

The learning process will be an active one, leaving the learners to learn by their own.

Any learning is based on processing of information in children’s mind. Optimum

level of Information Processing depends only on readiness of the learner. How can we

get the readiness of the learner ensured? The Information Processing Approach applied

to study of human perceptual and cognitive activities is useful in imaging how we

recognize objects and understand concepts.

In elementary education at VII standard level, the students felt very difficult to

understand the concepts in mathematics subject because the abstract content matters

are boring to the learners and induce disinterest. Abstract learning needs more sensory

integration to fix up in the long term memory. So attention needs to be focussed on the

integrative efforts of information processing approach, transformation between short

term memory and long term memory and accelerating cognitive strategies. The use of

e-Content in teaching of mathematics produces more integrated sensory output in

learning mathematics subject.

Integration of e-Content in the field of education is still far-away from desired.

The use of multimedia in teaching learning process and their integration in the

31

classroom has remained nearly completely unexplored. Only a small number of studies

have been conducted in this direction that too in limited disciplines. Many correlated

questions and issues have remained unanswered. Thus a lot of research / studies need

to be attempted in this direction to answer such questions/problems and it is due to this

reason that the investigator has selected e-Content as his area of research.

EFFECTIVENESS OF e-CONTENT STRATEGY ON ACHIEVEMENT IN

MATHEMATICS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To construct and standardize achievement test in mathematics for seventh grade

elementary school students.

To study the achievement of elementary school students in mathematics at pre

and post test stages of the e-Content group.

To compare the adjusted mean scores on mathematics achievement of the

elementary school students in the e-Content group and conventional strategy

group by considering pre mathematics achievement as covariate.

To study the effect of treatment, Gender and their interaction on mathematics

achievement of elementary school students by considering pre mathematics

achievement as covariate.

To study the effect of treatment, achievement motivation and their interaction on

mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre

mathematics achievement as covariate.

To study the effect of treatment, learning style and their interaction on

mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre

mathematics achievement as covariate.

To study the effect of treatment, self confidence and their interaction on

mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre

mathematics achievement as covariate.

1.5 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS USED

e-Content Strategy:

e-Content Strategy of teaching is the Strategy in which the digital contents are

presented to the learners in the integrated form of text, graphics, animation, audio,

video and also provide interactivity while in Conventional Strategy of teaching, the

32

teacher is the only active participant in the teaching learning process and the students

are the passive listener.

Achievement in Mathematics:

Achievement in mathematics refers to accomplishment of proficiency of

performance in the subject of mathematics. It signifies successfully carried out

performance by an individual or a group assessed after the completion of a task. Here

in this study, mathematics achievement will be considered in terms of marks obtained

by the students in mathematics achievement Test at pre and post test stages of

experiment.

Elementary School Students:

Elementary school students refers to the students studying in the class 1 st to 8th.

Here in this study, class 7th students will be considered as elementary school students.

1.6 DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

1. The study will be delimited to the VII class only.

2. The study will be delimited to the subject of mathematics only.

3. The study will be delimited to one Government school of UT Chandigarh only.

4. The content of class VII mathematics will be taken from the text book of NCERT

only.

33

CHAPTER - II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

investigation. Such a review helps to understand the status of research of and also point

out the gaps in the area of research. The investigator can be sure that his problem does

not exist in vacuum and that considerable work has already been done on problems

which are directly related to his or her problem. The success of his efforts will depend in

no small measure on the extent to which the capitalized on the advances both empirical

and theoretical mode by previous studies. Every investigator must know what sources

are available in the field of enquiry, which of them he or she is likely to use and where

and how to find them. The survey of related literature is a crucial aspect in the planning

of a new study.

Related studies proves as light house which shows up the right path so that we

may not be gripped in the dark and waste our energy. Familiarity with literature in any

problem helps the investigator to discover what is already known, what others have tried

to find out, what methods of attack have been used successfully and what problems

remained to be solved. A step towards unknown can only be taken after a thorough

review of the related literature and researches conducted in that area. Any research

without such a review of related literature is likely to be a building without any

foundation. The review of related literature provides a clear picture of the study to be

taken as a pre-requisite to the proper planning of the problem and conducting the

research. The review of the past investigations in a particular field serves as a guide to

the investigator as it helps him to avoid duplication of the work already done in that

area. The knowledge that what has already been done in the area of researches

regarding the methods used for data gathering and the results of their analysis, keeps

the investigator systematic in his own endeavour.

found in books and libraries. Unlike other animals that must start a new with each

generation, man builds upon the accumulated and recorded knowledge of the past. His

constant adding to the vast store of knowledge makes possible progress in all area of

human endeavour.”

34

According to Borg (1996), “The literature in any field forms the foundation upon

which all future work will be built. If we fail to build the foundation of knowledge

provided by the review of literature our work is likely to be shallow and naive and will

often duplicate work that has already being done better by someone else.”

In the present study, the investigator examined the fact of two strategies of teaching on

achievement of VII class students in mathematics. There are very few researches

conducted related to these strategies and also the dependent variable i.e. achievement.

As the present study is concerned with two strategies namely e-Content Strategy and

Conventional Strategy, the investigator reviewed the researches related to these

strategies. In the present study, the researcher has used various books, dissertations,

handbooks, articles, journals, thesis, web sites as reference material. So, the

investigator viewed the studies, which one directly or indirectly related to the problem

area and has presented them in the chronological order.

The crux of the various studies, views and comments related with two strategies

namely e-Content Strategy and Conventional Strategy are as follows:

2.1 STUDIES RELATED TO EFFECTIVENESS OF E-CONTENT

STRATEGY

Basu (1981) conducted a study on “Effectiveness of Multimedia Programmed

Materials in the Teaching of Physics,” The main purpose of the study was to make an

appraisal of the relative effectiveness of multimedia programmed instruction and

programmed class-teaching on the criteria of immediate achievement and retention of a

group of subjects at three levels of ability. The specific objectives of the study were (i)

To develop instructional materials for the strategy of programmed class-teaching and to

study its effectiveness; (ii) to develop the programme learning materials on light in

school physics in four different styles-semi programme, linear programme, branching

programme, and hybrid programme; (iii) to develop a multimedia programme package

using each style of programme in conjunction with audio-visual media; (iv) to compare

the relative effectiveness of different strategies of instruction employing multimedia

programmed material and programmed class teaching on the criteria of immediate

achievement, retention and delayed retention; and (v) to study the interaction effects of

instructional strategies, abilities and occasions. The following were the findings of the

study: (i) There was a significant difference among the different strategies means on the

criteria of overall achievement. It was found that on the criterion of overall achievement,

35

the multimedia semi-programmed instruction was better than the strategy of

programmed teaching; the multimedia linear programmed instruction was better than

the multimedia semi-programmed instruction; the multimedia branching programmed

instruction was better than the multimedia linear programmed instruction; (ii) the

strategies of multimedia programmed instruction enabled learners’ to reach the level of

mastery learning; (iii) it was found that a significant difference existed in the

achievement through the different strategies due to differences in ability.

Golani (1982) conducted a study “The Use of Audio-visual Aids in the Secondary

Schools of District Thane.” The objectives of the study were (i) To create awareness

among teachers and headmasters of secondary schools about the importance of

audiovisual aids; (ii) to help in raising the academic standard in secondary schools of

Thane district; (iii) to know the existing situation regarding audiovisual materials in the

secondary schools of Thane district; (iv) to elicit the opinion of the headmasters and

concerned teachers about the measures for providing better and improvised materials

on audiovisual education; (v) to elicit the opinion of the headmasters and concerned

teachers about the measures for providing better and improvised materials on

audiovisual education; and (vi) to present the above measures in the form of concrete

proposals and their implications for secondary schools as well as for the professional

courses in training of teachers and preparing materials for audiovisual aids in education.

Some of the important findings of the study were: (i) Schools that were situated in urban

areas and the ones which were conducted by rich societies possessed audiovisual aids;

(ii) only a few teachers used audiovisual aids in teaching; (iii) teachers who were trained

in the use of audiovisual aids were inadequate in number; (iv) at many places the

audiovisual aids were in a broken down condition and awaited repairs; (v) at many

places the hardware was purchased. However, it was not used as proper software was

not available; (vi) audiovisual aids were useful in teaching; (vii) audiovisual aids were

not used due to lack of properly trained personnel and lack of accommodation in the

schools; (viii) there were no incentives to teachers who used audiovisual aids.

Mohini (1982) conducted a study entitled “The effect of Sex, Intelligence, School

Achievement and Self Confidence on Development of Piagetion operational

comprehension among the school Adolescent.” She concluded that students who were

highly intelligent and self-confident will not necessary score high on operative

comprehension test. So intelligence and self-confidence are not significantly related to

operational comprehension thinking.

36

Krishan (1983) conducted a study “Development of Multimedia Package for

Teaching a Course on Audiovisual Education.” The major objectives of the study were:

(i) To develop a multimedia package for teaching a course on audiovisual education for

the instructor training programme; (ii) to find the effectiveness of the multimedia

package in terms of achievement of trainees and change in attitude of the instructor

trainees towards the multimedia package; and (iii) to study the feasibility of the

multimedia package in terms of time and cost for the instructor training programme. The

major findings of the study were: (i) Ninety-eight percent of the trainees obtained more

than 80 percent of the marks on the final post-test; (ii) the mean percentages of the

post-test scores varied from 81.41 to 90.46; (iii) the mean gain in the total scores for all

the modules was found to be significant; (iv) the mean gain scores of knowledge,

comprehension and higher mental abilities were found to be significant; (v) the mean

attitude change was found to be significant; (vi) the achievement of trainees and their

language ability were found to be positively related; (vii) the feasibility of the multimedia

package was established in terms of cost involved in reproduction of the various

resource materials and the time scheduling in an actual institutional set-up.

Rajput (1984) has found that intelligence and achievement motivation affects the

achievement of students in mathematics significantly at all the three levels i.e. high,

average and low level. The t-test showed the superiority of the group of high intelligence

and achievement motivation over the average and low group of students in their

achievement in mathematics. It also showed that the students of average intelligence

and achievement motivation were better achievers in mathematics than the students of

low intelligence and achievement motivation.

Rao (1984) concluded that- (i) The position of the audio-visual equipment in the

schools was poor. (ii) there was a significant relationship between the availability of the

equipment and the type of the management of the school. (iii) there was association

between the availability of the equipment in the schools and their locality. (iv) there was

a relationship between the availability of the audio-visual equipment with age the age

and type of the school. (v) there was no positive association between the availability of

audio-visual equipment and the strength of the schools. (vi) there was no positive

association between the effective or ineffective use of audio-visual equipment in

classroom teaching and the type of management. (vii) there was no significant

relationship between the effective use of audio-visual equipment in classroom teaching

and the locality of the schools. (viii) there was no relationship between the effective use

37

of audio-visual equipment in classroom teaching and the strength of the schools. The

other factor hindering the effective use of audio-visual equipment and material, given in

order of importance, were: ‘Heavy work load on the part of the teacher’, ‘Lack of

accomodation’, ‘Lack of funds’. ‘Lack of trained personal’, ‘Lack of time for the teacher’

and ‘Very expensive’.

Grove (1987) studied, however, no significant difference in academic

performance of students enrolled in an Audio-Visual Tutorial Instruction in mathematics

course at the introductory college level as compared to those students enrolled in

traditional lecture method course. There is no significant difference in attitudes towards

mathematics between students who received their instruction in Audio-Visual Tutorial

mode or students who received their instruction in a traditional mode.

Dutt Sunil (1988) found in his study “The effect of problem solving strategies in

problem solving ability in science of high school students in relation to anxiety level,

cognitive style and self-confidence”, that effect significantly in problem solving abilities

of the students.

Kohli (1988) studies that the two levels of self-confidence viz. high group and low

group differ significantly with respect to scores of religious attitude. It may, further, be

specified that the students belonging to high self-confidence group possess more

religious attitude than that of the students falling in low self-confidence group.

Pillay & Anandan (1990) in their study “An Analysis of the Educational Video

Productions Made in India” attempts to analyse educational video productions made in

India. The objectives of the study were: (i) To find the distribution of educational videos

produced by different centres and in different years; (ii) to analyse the content of the

educational videos produced in different subjects; and (iii) to make suitable suggestions

for improvement. The major findings were: (i) The total number of educational video

productions in India in 1983 was just 17. The number increased to 285 in 1987; (ii)

among the EMRC’s, the Poona Centre produced the highest percentage (42.57) of

educational videos during the period 1983-88; (iii) among the AVRC’s, the Calcutta

centre has produced the highest percentage (35.36) of educational video cassettes

during the period 1983-88; (iv) subjects like education, economics, management and

sociology received much attention. But the subjects like political science and geography

had only a very limited number of productions - four and five productions respectively;

(v) out of the 1007 videos produced, more than half of them were for a time duration of

less than 20 minutes, while 84 productions were very small and were of less than 10

38

minutes; (vi) among the agricultural video productions, the latest technology used for

increasing productivity received more attention; (vii) educational videos produced in

economics gave importance to the economic development under development and

planning activities; (viii) in the medical science, the distribution of the educational videos

produced seemed to be more or less equal among different classifications like diseases,

new methods of surgical treatment, health care of different organs like eye, kidney etc.;

(ix) out of the 101 videos produced in Physics, 50 videos (49.5%) were on different

theories and principles of classical mechanics and the cyclotron and its major

subsystems in nuclear resources. Others were on the functions and operations of

various circuits, items of equipment etc.; (x) not many video cassettes were produced

like archaeology, law, anthropology, culture, film appreciation, home science, political

science and veterinary science.

Reddy & Sujatha (1990) conducted a comparative study of some educational

variables of students of private and government schools. The sample comprised of

1340 students, the number from government schools being 709 and from private

schools being 631 from three districts of Karnataka. The results of the study reported

that achievement motivation had no significant relationship with academic achievement.

Wong & Mihaly (1990) explored the effect of personality and the quality of

experience on motivation and academic achievement. A sample of 170 high school

students consisting 68 male and 102 female students completed the personality

research forum and their experiences were recorded through experience sampling

method. The results indicated that intrinsic motivation had positive relationship with

academic achievement.

Idayavani (1991) conducted a study on “Developing a Video Programme on

Weathering and Work of Rivers in Physical Geography for Higher Secondary Students”

to investigate whether students in the higher secondary schools who were taught

certain concepts in Geography by the video method achieved more than those who

were taught by the traditional method. The objectives of the study were: (i) To prepare a

video programme on ‘Weathering’ and ‘Work for Rivers’ for instructional use for higher

secondary students; (ii) to find out whether the video method is not effective than the

traditional lecture method in teaching the concepts on ‘Weathering’ and ‘Work of the

Rivers’; (iii) to find out whether the higher secondary students improve their

achievement after viewing the video programme. She found that the higher secondary

students improved their learning of the concepts on ‘weathering’ and ‘work of the rivers’

39

after viewing the video programme; the higher secondary students taught by the video

method performed better than the students taught by the traditional lecture method.

Jayamani (1991), conducted a study, “Effectiveness of the simulation model of

teaching through Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)” to check the effectiveness of the

simulation model in teaching physics to Standard XI students through Computer

Assisted Instruction (CAI). The main objective of the study were : (i) To find out the

effectiveness of the simulation model of teaching as compared to the traditional method;

and (ii) to utilize the growing use of computers in education. The major findings of the

study were: (i) The experimental group obtained a higher mean than the control group;

(ii) the sex-wise comparison proved to be insignificant; (iii) there was no significant

difference in learning level between Tamil medium and English-medium students; and

(iv) the experimental group performed significantly better than the control group.

Kalimuthu (1991) conducted a study on “Developing a video programme on

environmental pollution in biology for higher secondary students” to investigate whether

students in higher secondary schools who are taught certain concepts in biology by the

video method achieve more than those who are taught by the traditional method. The

objectives of the study were: (i) To prepare a video programme in environmental

pollution for instructional use for higher secondary students; and (ii) to find out whether

the video method is more effective than the traditional lecture method in teaching the

concepts of environmental pollution. He found that the higher secondary students taught

through the video programme learnt more of the concepts on environmental pollution

than those who were taught by the lecturer method; the higher secondary students

improved their achievement on environment pollution after viewing the video

programme.

Sinnathambi (1991) in his study, “Developing a Video Programme on Energetic in

Chemistry for Higher Secondary Students” attempted to study whether students in

higher secondary schools who are taught certain concepts in chemistry by video

methods achieve more that those who are taught by the traditional method. The major

objectives of the study were: (i) To prepare a video programme on energetics for

instructional use for higher secondary students; (ii) to find out experimentally whether

the video method is more effective than the traditional lecture method in teaching

concepts on ‘energetics’; (iii) to find out whether the higher secondary students improve

their achievement after viewing the video programme on ‘energetics’. The major

findings of the study were: (i) The students who were taught by the video method

40

learned more concepts on energetics than those who were taught by the lecture

method; (ii) the students improved their achievement on ‘energetics’ after viewing the

video programme.

Batra (1992) concluded that two levels of achievement motivation viz. high group

and low group, differ significantly with respect to scores of conjunctive concept

formation. It may further be specified that the students belonging to high achievement

motivation group developed better conjunctive concept formation than that of students

falling in low achievement motivation group.

Bal (1992) concluded that audio-visual instruction and verbalization proved to be

the most effective method for teaching concepts in the subject of social studies at the

concrete operation stage and formal operation stage.

Passi & Paul (1992) conducted a study, “Preparation of a Multimedia Instructional

Module for Developing the Skill of Observing Classroom Behaviour through Flander’s

Interaction Analysis Category Systems (FIACS)” to investigate the affect of multimedia

instructional module for developing the skill of observing classroom behaviour through

Flander’s Interaction Analysis Category Systems (FIACS). The major objectives of the

study were: (i) To prepare instructional material for developing skills of observing

classroom behaviour through the FIACS; and (ii) to study the effectiveness of

instructional materials in terms of the achievement of trainees on the criterion test and

favourable opinion of trainees on different materials. They found that: (i) The

experimental group studying through instructional material obtained a significantly

higher mean score on the criterion test than the control group; (ii) the treatment was

found effective in developing classroom observation skills through the FIACS; (iii) the

reactions gathered during the study indicated a favourable opinion by the trainees on all

its aspects, namely, objectives, examples, contents, language, learning exercise,

glossary, utility, general appearance and cartoons.

Rose & Stella (1992) conducted a study “Effectiveness of Computer Assisted

Instruction with Special Reference to Underachievers” which throws light on the

application of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) and the Teacher Support System

(TSS) for the optimum development of Under Achievers (UA). The objectives of the

study were: (i) To develop CAI software, (ii) to find out the effectiveness of CAI with TSS

and CAI without TSS with reference to the learner variables, viz. sex, locale, IQ and

achievement level; and (iii) to find out the interaction of the learner variables and the

treatment on the achievement scores. They found that: (i) Both the CAI strategies were

41

superior to the traditional method of instruction and CAI with TSS was more effective

than CAI without TSS for underachievers (UA); (ii) except achievement level, all the

other learner variables combined with the treatment had no interaction effect on the

achievement score; and (iii) there was no relationship between the post treatment

scores and the variables ‘sex’, ‘locale’ and ‘achievement level;’ of the experimental

group. In the case of variables IQ, ‘study habits’ and ‘math study attitude’, the positive

relationship between those variables and achievement at the pre-treatment level was

found to be cancelled at the post-test. Similar results were obtained for UA.

Ginsburg & Bronstein (1993) studied family factors related to children’s intrinsic

and extrinsic motivational orientation and academic performance. Data were collected

from 93 fifth grade students and their parents from Florida. Achievement scores were

obtained from school records. Extrinsic rewards and over-and under controlling family

styles were found to be related with extrinsic motivation and lower academic

achievement of the students. On the other hand parental encouragement was

associated with intrinsic motivation of the students.

Triptimandal (1994) found that one type of audio-visual material affect the

acquisition of mathematical concepts. Sex plays a significant role in acquisition of

mathematical concept. There is an interaction effect of audio-visual material and sex.

Prabhakar (1995) conducted a study, “Development of Software for Computer

Aided Instruction and its Comparison with Traditional Method for Teaching Physics at +2

level.” The objectives of study were: (i) To develop computer software for computer

aided instruction for teaching selected topics in physics; (ii) to study the effectiveness of

CAI material in terms of achievement and reaction towards CAI material; (iii) to compare

the achievement of (a) class XII students taught through CAI with those taught through

traditional method, (b) class XII students with those of class XI students both taught

through CAI, and (c) male students with female students of class XI taught through CAI

by considering intelligence, Pre-test, attitude towards science, adjustment, personality

and study habits separately as covariates; (iv) to compare the reaction towards CAI

material (a) of class XII students with those of class XI students both taught through

CAI, (b) of male students with those female students of XI both taught through CAI, and

(c) of male students with those of female students of class XII both taught through CAI

by considering intelligence, achievement, attitude towards science, adjustment,

personality and study habits separately as covariates; (v) to study the effect of

treatment, adjustment with its various dimension and interaction on achievement

42

separately; (vi) to study the effect of treatment, attitude towards science and their

interaction on achievement; (vii) to study the effect of treatment, study habits and their

interaction on achievement. The findings of study were: (i) The CAI material was found

to be effective in terms of achievement and reaction towards CAI material of both class

XI and XII students; (ii) the CAI was found to be significantly superior to traditional

method in terms of achievement of class XII students when moderate variables were

considered as covariates separately; (iii) the class XII students achieved significantly

higher than class XI students both taught through CAI when moderate variables were

taken as covariates separately; (iv) CAI was found to be equally beneficial to both males

and females of class XI in terms of achievement when moderate variables were

considered as covariates separately; (v) CAI was found to be equally beneficial to both

males and females of class XII in terms of achievement when moderate variables were

considered as covariates separately; (vi) class XI students were found to be have

significantly more favorable reaction towards CAI material than class XII students when

moderate variables were considered as covariates separately; (vii) class XI and class

XII males as well as females were found to have equally favorable reaction towards CAI

material when moderate variables were considered as covariates separately; (viii) the

CAI was found to be significantly superior to traditional method in terms of achievement

of students; (ix) the achievement was found to be independent of personality as well as

interaction between treatment and personality; (x) the achievement was found to be

independent of personality, adjustment, emotional adjustment, social adjustment,

educational adjustment, attitude towards science, and their interaction with treatment

separately. The CAI was found to benefit both students with poor as well as good

educational adjustment; (xi) the study habits as well as interaction between treatment

and study habits were not found to influence significantly the achievement of students.

Proctor & Richardson (1995) conducted a study, “Evaluating the effectiveness of

multimedia computer modules as enrichment exercises for introductory human

geography.” The objectives were to determine overall effectiveness of computer

modules as well as the kinds of students and kinds of geographical knowledge and

skills they best served. The results were presented of a careful experimental evaluation

of two multimedia computer modules used as enrichment devices for an introductory

human geography course at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The rather

disappointing results in respect of all three of these areas tend to corroborate one

published allegation that quantitative evaluation of multimedia effectiveness is itself

43

ineffective, due primarily to the inherent complexity of learning. The conclusion of the

study was that an array of quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods will better

serve the important objective of improving multimedia use at the university level.

Sandhu (1995) concluded Audio-Visual instruction with verbalization was found

to be superior strategy of teaching in teaching Punjabi to the students of Class VII,

Intelligence was found to be a redundant factor for achievement in Punjabi.

Bose (1996) conducted a study on “Studying the effectiveness of Computer

Programmes as Remedial Strategies for overcoming specific Learning Disabilities”. The

objectives were: (i) To study the effectiveness of the remedial strategies using computer

based learning material and methods and traditional materials-cum-methods for

overcoming specific learning disabilities; (ii) to study the relative difference in the

outcome of two remedial strategies, namely, the computer based materials and the

traditional materials when applied on the learning disabled children. The findings were:

(i) The experimental group gained more than the control group in Maths by five percent;

(ii) the experimental group gained more than the control group in English by seven per

cent; (iii) the gains made by the sub groups of the experimental group were noticeably

more than those made by the control group. This was true both for mathematics and

English.

Swatantra & Devi (1996) found that- (i) The control group and the experimental

group were different significantly in their academic achievement at the post-test level.

The video group performed better than the control group; (ii) the academic achievement

of the girls in the experimental group was better than that of the same group at the post-

test level. This may be due to the interest of the girls on the exposure of T.V. than that of

boys; (iii) the performance of the urban students in the experimental group was better

than that of the rural students in the same group at the post-test level. It may be due of

frequent exposure of T.V. by the urban students.

Rangaraj (1997) conducted a study on “Effectiveness of Computer Assisted

Instruction in teaching Physics at higher secondary stage.” The objectives of the study

were: (i) To establish the relative effectiveness among different instructional strategies,

viz., conventional lecture method, CAI as individualized lecture method, CAI as support

system to teachers’ classroom instruction in teaching-learning Physics at higher

secondary level; (ii) to find out whether there was significant difference among different

instructional strategies, viz., conventional lecture methods, CAI as individualized

instructional strategy and CAI as support system to teachers’ classroom instruction in

44

terms of their effectiveness in modifying the cognition among higher secondary students

in Physics at different levels viz. Knowledge, Understanding and Application; (iii) to

develop syllabus based computer software packages in teaching Physics at higher

secondary level; (iv) to develop a computer managed testing software for assessing the

academic achievement of the pupils in Physics through computer before and after the

experimentation; (v) to evaluate the developed computer software packages from

technical and pedagogical point of view by experts, educationists and practicing

teachers; (vi) to find out whether there was any significant difference among different

instructional strategies viz. conventional lecture method, CAI as individualized

instructional strategy and CAI as support system to teachers’ classroom instruction in

their effectiveness in terms of their retention power as revealed by the learners’

performance in the retention test; (vii) to develop criterion referenced tests in the

content areas taught through different instructional strategies in the present study. The

findings of the study were: (i) There were significant differences between the means of

pre and post-test in Physics among one control and two experimental groups at all the

levels of cognition in favour of the Post-test; (ii) there was significant difference between

the means of CAI-SS and CAI as individualized instruction and conventional lecture

methods by the post-test. The mean of CAI-SS was found to be greater than the CAI as

individualized instruction and conventional lecture method; (iii) there was significant

difference between the means scores of the pupils at all levels of cognition as measured

by the retention test between lecture method and CAI as individualized instruction and

CAI as SS, and also between CAI as individualized instruction and CAI as SS; (iv) there

was no significant difference between the means of the high range and low range

scores classified based on different psychological variables with regard to their

academic achievement in Physics for the groups of CAI as individualized instruction and

CAI as SS; (v) there was no significant difference between the means of the groups of

CAI as individualized instruction and CAI as support system on the scores of the pupils

on psychological variables as measured by the post-test.

Ahmed (1998) conducted a study on achievement motivation differences among

adolescent boys and girls of various ordinal positions. The sample was comprised of

120 students of the age group of 13-18 years of Mumbai city. Data was collected by

Shafi’s achievement motivation scale. The results revealed that there was no significant

difference in achievement motivation of the boys and girls.

45

Das (1998) conducted a study entitled, “Exploring effectiveness of computer

assisted learning material on Rhymes in different modes.” The objectives were: (i) To

develop a computer software on rhymes in text, graphics text, text-music, graphics text

music, and graphics-text-music recital modes; (ii) to study the effectiveness of CALM

prepared in different modes for learning the Rhymes in terms of word meaning (lexicon),

analytical understanding, comprehensive understanding, writing ability, recitation ability

and LSRW ability. The major findings of the study were: (i) composite modes of

presentation may not ensure higher cognitive language learning; (ii) intelligibility of a

message is a function of sender, message, medium, mode, receiver, and the

environment.

Deryn et al. (1998) conducted a study on “Researching the Use of

Communication Technology in Teacher Education” to explore the reality of

communications between teacher trainers in the university and their co-tutor partners in

schools. The objective of the study was that what effect does the establishment of e-

mail and conferencing facilities have upon the initiation, content and range of

communication, and indeed the pedagogy of teacher education. The trial involves three

college lectures, six of their teacher tutor colleagues in schools and their PGCE

students. According to findings preliminary results indicate that identifying and getting

operational suitable means of communication are fraught with difficulties. Impoverished

and differential resourcing is a major inhibitor to schools going ‘on line’. Teacher

educators, whether in universities or schools appear ICT, with a complex set of

perceptions that may be at odds with reality. The staff of university computer networks

fail to understand users’ needs of distributed and distance networks. But most

significantly it is clear that the existing partnership relationships between trainers in

college and schools is out of balance, operating in parallel rather than together, and

based upon substantial misconceptions.

Kumar (1998) conducted a “Study of the Relative Effectiveness of Three Methods

of Instruction - Exposition Method, Programmed Learning Method, and Multimedia

Method in Science.” The Findings of the investigation were: (i) The multimedia method

was more effective than either the programmed learning method or the expository

method; (ii) the programmed learning method was more effective than the expository

method; (iii) retention in learning by the multimedia method was higher than by the

other two methods; (iv) retention in learning by the programmed learning group and the

46

expository group was equal; (v) there was no interaction between the three methods of

instruction and the levels of intelligence.

Nalayini (1998) conducted a study on “Development and Validation of Computer

Assisted Instruction in Physics for High School Students.” The objectives of the study

were: (i) To develop suitable software on the selected topic “Electricity” for class IX and

validate it; (ii) to study the effect of computer assisted instruction on learning the

concepts in the topic “Electricity” in physics; (iii) to analyze the variation among the

students in the acquisition of various cognitive skills by learning through computer

assisted instruction; (iv) to study the relationship between achievements in physics

learnt through computer assisted instruction and achievement motivation of the

students; (v) to find out the relation between students’ attitude towards science and their

achievement in learning through computer assisted instruction. The findings of the study

were: (i) The achievement in the post-test of the experimental group is higher as

compared to control group; (ii) the experimental group differs significantly when

compared to control group. Hence learning through computers helped in achieving

better than the control group; (iii) there is significant difference in the achievement of the

students who learnt through computer assisted instruction than the achievement of the

students learnt through traditional method; (iv) the attainment of the cognitive factor

“Application and skill” is lower for the students who learn through traditional method

when compared to the students who learn through computer; (v) for the students’

understanding of the units nature of changes (unit 1) and electric potential (unit 2) are

found to be difficult when they learn through traditional method, but it has been found

that students found it easier when they learn the same concept through computer; (vi)

there is no significant relationship between achievements of students learning through

computer assisted instruction and their achievement motivation; and (vii) there is no

significant difference between the attitude towards science that learns through computer

assisted instruction and through traditional method.

Hajzainuddin (1999) conducted “A study of learning styles and hypermedia’s

organizational structures in a Web-based instructional programme designed for trainee

teachers at the international Islamic University, Malaysia.” He has found no significant

relationship between the information-processing characteristics of learning style and

performance. In addition, he found no significant interaction among the factors of

learning style, hypermedia’s organizational structure and attitude.

47

Kadhiravan (1999) in his study, “Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction in

Relation to Students Use of Self-regulated Learning Strategies.” The main objectives of

the study were : (i) To find out whether there is any difference among the three

instructional strategies viz. Lecturer Method (LM), Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)

as individualised strategy and Computer-assisted Instruction with Peer Interaction

(CAIPI) in terms of their effectiveness in improving the performance in physics among

the higher secondary students with different levels of cognition, viz. knowledge,

understanding application; (ii) to develop syllabus based computer software packages

for the selected units in physics at higher secondary level; (iii) to evaluate the developed

computer software packages from technical and pedagogical points of view; (iv) to find

out whether any difference among different instructional strategies; (v) to construct

criterion-referenced test (CRT) based on the content areas taught through different

instructional strategies in the present study; (vi) to find out whether there exists any

relationships between the students’ performance in physics as measured by the post-

test and their use of self-regulated learning strategies; and (viii) to find out whether there

is any relationships existing between the students performance in physics as measured

by the post test and their use of self regulated learning strategies. The major findings of

the study were: (i) Among the instructional strategies viz. LM, CAI and CAIPI, CAIPI

was the most effective instructional strategy in terms of realizing the instructional

objectives in physics at higher secondary state; (ii) among the three instructional

strategies, CAIPI is the most effective one in terms of its effectiveness in realizing the

instructional objectives in the context of contents with low difficulty level; (iii) there was a

significant difference among different instructional strategies, viz. LM, CAI and CAIPI in

enhancing the students’ use of SRL strategies; (iv) CAI and CAIPI had some influence

on students’ use of SRL strategies while lecture method had not; (v) there was

significant difference among the instructional strategies, viz. LM, CAI, and CAIPI in

terms of their effectiveness in enhancing the retention of what was already learnt in

physics; (6) there was a differential effect on the cognitive development of the students

in Physics due to their use of self-regulated learning strategies.

Khirwadkar (1999) conducted a study, “Developing a computer software for

learning chemistry at Standard IX.” The objectives of the study were: (i) To develop CAI

package in subject of Chemistry for standard XI Science Students studying GSTB

syllabus; (ii) to study the effectiveness of the developed software in terms of

instructional time and achievement of students; (iii) to study the effect of software

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package on students’ intelligence level, achievement motivation level, and attitude

towards the package; and (iv) to study the attitude of the students the teachers

regarding the effectiveness of the CAI package with respect to contents, presentation,

examples, illustrations, graphs and figures, evaluation items, utility of software and

instructions given in the instructional manual. The major findings of the study were: (i)

The developed software package was effective in terms of academic achievement of

the students; (ii) the students and teachers were found to have favourable opinion

towards the software package; and (iii) there was an interaction effect of IQ,

achievement motivation and opinion of students on their academic achievement.

National Council of Educational Research and Training (1999) conducted a study

focused on the difference between achievement of SC/ST and non SC/ST students in

the subjects of mathematics and language. Study shows school level factors are

attributable to these differences. Students were taken from class IV/V and results shows

SC/ST have lower achievement than non SC/ST students. Education of father

contributed for better achievement of SC/ST students.

Zyoud (1999) conducted a study, “Development of Computer Assisted English

Language Teaching for VII Standard Students.” The study revealed that when the computer

is used to its full potential, it can help the students achieve more in learning vocabulary,

grammar and comprehension to the learners with different IQ, achievement motivation and

attitude. It helps the students learn better because it provides them with a lot of freedom

and responsibility to learn at their own pace. The students were found to have positive

attitude towards Computer Assisted English Language instruction.

Assefa & Gupta (2000) concluded that- (i) Internally controlled and externally

controlled adolescents from urban area shows a significant difference at .01 level of

significance in respect of their intelligence and Learning styles. Where as in respect of

well-being no significant difference was shown between internally controlled and

externally controlled adolescents; and (ii) internally controlled and externally controlled

sector area out of school adolescents did not show any significant difference in respect

of their intelligence and Learning styles. They showed difference at .01 level of

significance in respect of well-being.

Busato et al. (2000) investigated intellectual ability, learning style, personality and

achievement motivation as a predictor of academic success in higher education. In the

sample 409 first- year psychology students of Netherlands were included for the

49

purpose. The analyses of the study confirmed that achievement motivation was

associated positively with academic success of the students.

Panda & Chaudhury (2000) conducted a study, “Effect of Computer Assisted

Learning (CAL) in Achieving Higher Cognitive Skills.” The major objectives of the study

were: (i) To determine the degree of attainment of cognitive skills through computer

assisted learning (CAL) compared to traditional approach to teaching; and (ii) to

compare the effect of CAL on the learning achievement of boys and girls. The major

findings of the study were: (i) Computer assisted learning (CAL) resulted in greater

learning achievements in all hierarchies of cognitive domain (ii) male students were

found to be superior to female students in learning physics.

Stark et al. (2000) conducted a study, “The impact of information and

communications technology initiatives” to assess the impact of a variety of ICT

initiatives on pupils' skills and knowledge. Researchers have found that ICT improved

motivations, enhanced learning and teaching, improved communication and access to

information, and improved efficiency and feelings of independence. Teachers perceived

ICT to be useful for streamlining current teaching procedures, gaining access to new

professional opportunities and new exciting teaching opportunities.

Vashisht (2000) concluded- (i) Intelligence was found to have a significant effect

on the learning of some concepts of economics; (ii) intelligence and achievement

motivation did not interact significantly to produce any difference in achievement of

economics concepts; and (iii) the variables namely intelligence, achievement motivation

and teaching strategies did not interact significantly to produce differential achievement.

Yadav (2000) conducted a study, “A study of effectiveness of the computer

software for students of standard I” and found a significant gain in terms of mean

achievement on the software on Alphabets and Animals. Most of the students were

found to have positive reactions towards the software. Teachers welcomed the media

integrated approach towards learning.

Gill (2001) in her study “self-confidence as related to use teaching aids in

teaching geography” found that- (i) The co-relation between self-confidence and post-

experiment test score of 9th class students had been calculated to be 280 which was

significant at .05 level. (ii) the correlation between pre- experiment test score and post

experiment test score of 9 th class students had been calculated to be .437 which was

significant both at .05 level and .01 level.

50

Lohumi (2001) conducted a study, “Media and Adult Education in Himachal

Pradesh.” The major objectives of the study were: (i) Quality and content of information

about adult education and literacy disseminated through the media and the manner in

which it was done; (ii) to analyse coverage of adult education and literacy in print media

on the basis of material supplied to media persons; (iii) to device mechanism to elicit

active support of media for popularizing literacy and education. Findings of the study

were: (i) The coverage of the programme in the print media was satisfactory as

compared to efforts put in by the organizers but there had been no sustained effort to

motivate media persons to take initiative in this regard; (ii) the efforts of the organizers

at the state and districts levels to seek media support were not adequate and effective

as the officials entrusted with the task did not have a clear perception about the strategy

to be evolved for creating awareness about the programme and give it wide publicity;

(iii) the media persons were associated with the programme right from its launching but

the organizers lacked initiative for maintaining a close rapport with the media persons

and providing them necessary information on a regular basis; (iv) in the districts, the

organizers mainly depended on official channel of DPRO for supplying information to

the press; (v) the organizers offered a wide range of suggestions for seeking effective

media support such as range of suggestions for seeking effective media support such

as holding of regular press conference, producing high quality video films and audio-

cassettes, providing sufficient material to press, about the activities of the programme,

organizing the publicity campaign, giving advertisements in newspapers, and actively

involving the teachers; and (vi) the administrators and NGOs were of the view that the

literacy rate would increase from 63.54 percent in 1991 to nearly 90 percent in 2001

census.

Patel (2001) conducted a study, “Learning through CALM in relation to selected

production variables and contiguity.” The objectives of the study were: (i) To analyses

CALM in relation to production variables and continuity; (ii) to study the effectiveness of

CALM in terms of mean achievement of students; and (iii) to study the learning through

various message items in relation to production variables and contiguity. The major

findings of the study were: (i) There has been found significant gain through interaction

with CALM on Solar System and Magnet; (ii) the status of CALM in terms of production

variables and contiguity vis-à-vis achievement has been found quite high except on a

few teaching points where there was need to improve upon graphics, mode of

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presentation, spatial contiguity of text and animation, and temporal contiguity of

animation and narration.

Pulist (2001) conducted a study on, “Transition to Internet-Based Learning in

IGNOU: A Learner’s Perspective.” The objectives of the study were: (i) To analyse the

method and procedures adopted by IGNOU to provide support services to the Internet

learners; (ii) to study the problems faced by the learners who initially opted for Internet

mode; (iii) to analyse the operational difficulties of the University in accomplishing the

task of providing support services to the Internet learners; and (iv) to highlight various

uncontrollable variables which affected the operations of the University. The major

findings of the study: (i) The programme was directly managed and run by the School of

Computer and Information Science. Other outlets (Regional Centres and Study Centres)

were not involved in the programme delivery; other wings of the University were not

able to give the core information pertaining to Internet programmes to the learners.

However, utilization of the University network throughout country could have helped in

removing misgivings of aspirant learners about the programme; (ii) the Internet Access

Points empanelled by the University did not come up to the expectations of learners

and became the major source of problem generation not only for the students but for the

University as well. Many Internet Access Providers (IAPs) were not providing the quality

services for which they were, in fact, empanelled. Since, the learners were utilizing

Internet as their study Centre for all intents and purposes, the extent of dependence of

the learners on these IAPs was very high; (iii) the University Website needs to be

managed professionally in order to enhance its performance level and outside agency

could be engaged for the purpose in case in-house expertise is not available.

Balasubramanian & Meera (2002) conducted a study, “Relative Effectiveness of

Different Modes of Computer - Based Instruction in Teaching Biology.” The major

objectives of the study were: (i) To find out whether there is any significant difference

among the different modes of Computer Assisted Instructional strategy viz. Tutorial, Drill

and Practice in realizing and instructional objectives in Biology at Standard XI; (ii) to

develop a Criterion Referenced Test in the content areas being instructed to subjects of

control and experimental groups; (iii) to develop syllabus based Computer Based

instructional packages in different modes viz. Tutorial, Drill and Practice and Simulation

for the selected content areas. The major findings of the study were: (i) CAI in Drill and

Practice is more effective than the Tutorial and Simulation modes in teaching Biology at

Standard XI; (ii) more software packages can be developed for the whole syllabus

52

which will help the students to learn at their own pace; (iii) the CAI packages in Biology

should be planned, developed, evaluated and implemented with the help of a team of

experts constituting curriculum planners, educational technologists, computer experts

and biology teachers. It will be helpful in the development of quality packages in the

teaching and learning of Biology.

Dilek & Sevil (2002) conducted a study, “Effectiveness of multimedia-based

instruction that emphasizes molecular representations on students' understanding of

chemical change.” The present study made use of the capabilities of computerized

environments to enable simultaneous display of molecular representations that

correspond to observations at the macroscopic level. This study questioned the

immediate and long-term effects of using a multimedia instructional unit that integrates

the macroscopic, symbolic, and molecular representations of chemical phenomena.

Forty-nine eighth graders received either multimedia-based instruction that emphasized

molecular representations (n = 16), or regular instruction (n = 33). Students who

received multimedia-based instruction that emphasized the molecular state of chemicals

outperformed students from the regular instruction group in terms of the resulting test

scores and the ease with which they could represent matter at the molecular level.

However, results relating to the long-term effects suggested that the effectiveness of a

multimedia-based environment can be improved if instruction includes additional

prompting that requires students to attend to the correspondence between different

representations of the same phenomena.

Sharma & Sansanwal (2002) conducted a study, “Comparison among Video-

based Instructional Strategies for Teaching Science at Class IX Level in Terms of

Achievement.” The study aims to compare the mean scores of achievement of student

in Science belonging to different video-based instructional strategies for teaching

science at Class IX level. The findings of the study were: (i) The treatment had

significant effect on achievement in science of students belonging to different video-

based instructional strategies for teaching science; (ii) the video viewing followed by

lecture as well as video viewing followed by discussion were significantly higher than

those of video viewing only; and (iii) the mean scores of science achievement of video

viewing followed by lecture was found to be significantly superior to video viewing

followed by discussion.

Shinde (2002) conducted a study, “Effectiveness of Multimedia CAI Package with

Reference to Levels of Interactivity and Learning Style.” The objectives of study were: (i)

53

To prepare multi-media CAI packages with two levels of interactivity viz. high and low;

(ii) to test effectiveness of the prepared CAI packages; (iii) to find out the extent to which

scholastic achievement of the learner is affected by the levels of interactivity; (iv) to find

out the extent to which scholastic achievement of the learners is affected by the learning

style in two different environments (learning through CAI with high level of interactivity

(HCAI) and learning through CAI with low level of interactivity (LCAI). The findings of

study were: (i) HCAI was effective in terms of achievement; (ii) LCAI can also bring

significant increase in the achievement scores; (iii) the two sample groups were not

significantly different and were selected from the same population; (iv) the interactivity

plays major role in enhancing the achievement of the learners learning through CAI; (v-

a) diverges and converges show significantly higher performance than Assimilators

while learning through HCAI. Accommodators were also found performing better than

Assimilators through not significantly; (v-b) the diverges and Accommodators found to

learn with non-interactive mode; (vi) most of the learners appreciated multimedia inputs

in the CAI packages; and (vii) CAI mode was considered to be an effective and efficient

mode of learning. The preference for this mode was higher in case of HCAI than LCAI.

Vekaria (2002) conducted a study, “An exploration in the teaching of science for

standard VIII on the unit of agriculture through a video instruction programme.” The

major findings of the study were : (i) The research found that the video instructional

programme developed was effective in the urban as well as rural areas of Saurashtra,

Central Gujarat and South Gujarat; (ii) the video instructional programme was found

equally effective on rural and urban areas of entire Gujarat; (iii) the effectiveness of the

programme was found directly proportional to the level of achievement in all the three

areas; (iv) The learning styles of standard VIII students plays significant role in

achievement on rural and urban areas of entire Gujarat; and (v) the students and

teachers were found to have positive reaction towards the video instructional

programme.

Farkas (2003) investigated the effect of teaching styles on two groups of

seventh-grade students. Students in the experimental group preferred similar learning

styles and were taught according to their preferences, while the control group was

taught with a conventional teaching style. In this study, the students in the experimental

group, who received a teaching style that matched their preferred learning styles,

outperformed the control group academically. The experimental group also showed

54

more positive attitudes toward learning, more understanding of people’s feelings, and

an increased ability to transfer what they had learned from one area to another.

Goldberg et al. (2003) conducted a study, “The effect of computers on student

writing: A meta-analysis of studies from 1992-2002.” In this study, the researcher has

performed a meta-analysis of 26 studies conducted between 1992-2002 that focused on

the comparison between pupils' writing with computers vs. paper-and-pencil. This

analysis found significant mean effect sizes in favour of computers in relation to the

quantity as well as the quality of the writing. The researchers has also found that the

writing process was more collaborative, iterative and social in computer classrooms as

compared to paper-and-pencil environments, and they concluded that pupils who use

computers when learning to write were not only more engaged and motivated in their

writing but also produce written work that was of greater length and higher quality.

Tavani & Losh (2003) examined motivation, self-confidence and expectations

as predictors of academic performance among high school students. The sample

consisted of 4012 students of Florida State. From the findings a significant positive

relationship was found between self-confidence and academic achievement. Parental

education had also positive relationship with self-confidence of the students. The results

indicated that self-confidence was significant predictors of educational achievement.

Trimble (2003) concluded in the study entitled “Works to Improve Students

Achievements” found that school leadership, holistic approach of teaching, parental

involvement and community support are factors which promotes achievement of

students.

Vasanthi & Hema (2003) in their study “Effectiveness of Teaching Chemistry for

First Year B.E. Students through Computer Assisted Instructions”, the major objectives

of the study were: (i) To study the effectiveness of teaching chemistry through Computer

Assisted Instruction over the Traditional Teaching Method; (ii) to study the effectiveness

of the Computer Assisted Instruction over the Traditional Teaching Method in pre-test

scores and post-test scores. The major findings were: (i) There is significant difference

between the mean gain score of the control group taught through TTM and the

experimental group administered by the CAI in all unit put together; (ii) there is no

significant difference between the mean scores of the pre-test of control group taught

through TTM and experimental group administered by CAI in all units put together

(Electro Chemistry and Banding); (iii) there is significant difference between the mean

55

scores of post-test of control group taught through TTM and experimental group

administered by CAI in all units put together.

Vij (2003) conducted a study, “A comparative study of the Effectiveness of

Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) and Computer Managed Instruction (CMI) on

Pupil’s Achievement in Science, their Self-concept and Study Involvement.” The

objectives of the study were: (i) To design and develop instructional plan for Teaching

selected unit in Science amongst the prescribed course of study at class VII stage

based on Computer Aided Instructions (CAI) and Computer Managed Instructions

(CMI); (ii) to construct and standardize achievement test in selected units of Science for

class VII; (iii) to study individual effectiveness of CAI on Self-concept; study

involvement; and Academic Achievement; (iv) to study individual effectiveness of CMI

on Self-concept; study involvement; and Academic Achievement; (v) to compare the

effectiveness of CAI and CMI instructions on Self-concept of students; (vi) to compare

the effectiveness of CAI and CMI instructions on study involvement of students; and (vii)

to compare the effectiveness of CAI and CMI instructions on Academic Achievement of

students. The findings of the study were: (i) At the end of the experiment, it was found

that the group of Pupils taught science through Computer Assisted Instructions was

effective in raising the Self-concept of the Pupils; (ii) the post-test mean scores of the

Pupils taught science through Computer Assisted Instructions increased significantly

which indicates that Computer Assisted Instructions enhanced study involvement of the

Pupils; (iii) the group of Pupils taught Science through Computer Assisted Instructions

showed significantly higher post-test mean score on Achievement in science in

comparison to pre-test mean Achievement score; (iv) at the completion of experiment, it

was found that the group of Pupils taught science through Computer Managed

Instructions was effective in raising the study involvement of the Pupils; (v) the post-test

mean score of the Pupils taught science through Computer Assisted Instructions was

found to be significantly higher on increasing the study involvement in comparison to

pre-test score; (vi) the group of Pupils taught science through Computer Managed

Instructions showed significantly higher post-test mean scores on Achievement in

science in comparison to pre-test score; (vii) the group of Pupils taught science through

Computer Managed Instructions achieved significantly higher mean score on the test of

Self-concept than the Pupils taught science through Computer Assisted Instructions;

(viii) at the post-test mean score of the group of Pupils taught science through

Computer Managed Instructions was significantly higher on the test of Self-concept than

56

the group of Pupils taught science through traditional method; (ix) there was no

significant difference in Self-concept between the group of Pupils taught science

through Computer Assisted Instructions and the group of Pupils taught science through

traditional method; (x) the mean gain score of the group of Pupils taught science

through Computer Managed Instructions was found to be significantly higher on the test

of Self-concept, than the group of Pupils taught science through Computer Assisted

Instructions; (xi) the group of Pupils taught science through Computer Managed

Instructions showed significantly higher mean gain score on the test of Self-concept

than the group of Pupils taught science through traditional method; (xii) there was no

significant difference between the group of Pupils taught science through Computer

Assisted Instructions and the group of Pupils taught science through traditional method

on the mean gain score of Self-concept; (xiii) the post-test mean score of study

involvement of the group of Pupils taught science through Computer Assisted

Instructions was significantly higher than the group of Pupils taught science through

Traditional Method; (xiv) the group of Pupils taught science through Computer Managed

Instructions achieved higher mean score on study involvement than the group of Pupils

taught science through Traditional Method; (xv) there was no significant difference in the

post-test mean score of study involvement between the group of Pupils taught science

through Computer Managed Instructions and the group of Pupils taught science through

Computer Assisted Instructions; (xvi) the group of Pupils taught science through

Computer Assisted Instructions showed significantly higher mean gain score on study

involvement than the group of Pupils taught science through traditional method; (xvii)

the mean gain score on study involvement of the group of Pupils taught science through

Computer Managed Instructions was found to be significantly higher than the group of

Pupils taught science through traditional method.

Chang (2004) conducted a study, “The role and effectiveness of e-learning: Key

issues in an Industrial context.” The purpose of the study was identify the role and

effectiveness of e-learning and key issues related to its implementation in an industrial

context. The above study revealed interesting findings about differences between

industrialists and academics regarding factor influencing effectives and ineffective e-

learning implementation. Both groups have close ideas in identifying factors influencing

effective implementations but have some variations in identifying factors influencing

ineffective implementations. There is a significant difference between their rationales.

57

Industrialist’s rationale emphasizes practical applications; in contrast academics’

rationale emphasizes the literature review and research findings.

Cox et al. (2004) conducted a study, “A review of the research literature relating

to ICT and attainment.” The study has found positive effects of ICT on pupils'

attainment in almost all the National Curriculum subjects, particularly regarding

mathematics and English at all key stages. This study further has suggested that a

crucial component in the use of ICT within education is the teacher and their

pedagogical approaches. The impact on attainment was greatest for those ICT

resources that have been integrated in teachers' practices for a long time. The authors

concluded that ICT has a positive impact on pupils' learning when the use of ICT was

closely related to learning objectives and when the choice of how to use ICT was

relevant to the teaching and learning purposes.

Desai (2004) carried out “A comparative study of the efficacy of teaching through

the Traditional Method and the Multimedia Approach in the Subject of Home Science.”

The findings of the study were: (i) The mean achievement of the experimental group

was found significantly higher than that of the control group; (ii) From post-test to

retention test almost equal reduction in performance was found in both the groups; (iii)

the students were found to have favourable opinions towards the multimedia approach;

(iv) the study has found the relative efficacy of teaching through the traditional method

and multimedia approach in the subject of Home Science, particularly proteins.

Galanouli et al. (2004) conducted a study, “Teachers perceptions of the

effectiveness of ICT-competence training.” The aim of the study was to analyse training

programmes initialised by a national initiative in the U.K., designed to raise ICT

competence development of all U.K. primary and secondary teachers and to foster their

positive attitudes to computers. The analysis presented in the study has focused on the

teachers’ perspective and called into question the extent to which teachers have made

significant progress as a result of the so-called NOF (New Opportunities Fund) training.

The findings of the study have shown that the NOF completed group expressed more

confidence, but exhibited no significant differences for the pairings of gender, age or

school type. A comparison between the means of the subgroups that expressed positive

and negative attitudes to NOF training in their free responses showed a significant

difference concerning the importance of computers. The negative views expressed by

teachers in the free, response items concerned the nature, level and delivery of the

58

training, lack of time, the exploitation of teachers’ own time and expense and the lack of

technical and social support and good equipment.

Jones & Scrimshaw (2004) conducted a study, “A review of the research

literature on the barriers and enables to the uptake of ICT by teachers” to identity the

factors that prevent and facilitate the uptake of ICT by teachers. The study on the

barriers has found that: (i) The uptake of ICT is most commonly prevented by lack of

confidence, recurring technical faults, and resistance to change; (ii) the uptake of ICT is

most frequently facilitated by leadership and planning, sharing of resources, technical

support, and schools working with each other and with the local community.

Jothiokani & Thiagarajan (2004) in their study, “Effectiveness of Computer

Assisted Instructions in mathematics among B.Sc. Degree Student”, the major

objectives of the study, (i) To analyse the efficiency of teaching B.Sc. Degree

(Mathematics) students through CAI over conventional method for knowledge,

comprehension and application objectives; (ii) to compare the effectiveness of teaching

mathematics through CAI to B.Sc. Degree (Mathematics) students over conventional

method in terms of the levels of achievement; and (iii) to study the effectiveness of

teaching mathematics through CAI to B.Sc. Degree (Mathematics) students over

conventional methods in terms of objectives of teaching mathematics and their level of

achievement. The major findings were: (i) There was no significant difference between

the mean scores of pre-test for control groups and the experimental groups in all six

units with reference to the objectives such as knowledge, Comprehension and

Application and their level of achievement such as Low, Average and High Achievers;

(ii) the mean scores of post-test of control group were significantly higher than that of

the experimental group in all six units with reference to the objectives and their level of

achievement in both the years 1999-2000 and 2001-02; (iii) the mean gain scores of

the control group were significantly greater than that of experimental group in all six

units with reference to the objectives and their level of achievement in both the years

1999-2000 and 2001-02. Hence, it is concluded that the conventional method is more

effective and efficient than CAI method.

Joy & Shaiju (2004) conducted a study, “Development of Computer Assisted

Teaching Material in History at Higher Secondary Level and its Effectiveness.” The

major objectives of the study were: (i) To develop computer assisted lesson on the topic

– UNO in History at higher secondary level; (ii) to test the effectiveness of the computer

assisted teaching and lecture method in the lesson on the topic, UNO in History and

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Higher Secondary level; and (iii) to verify the impact of gender, domicile and type of

school on the effectiveness of computer assisted teaching method. The findings of the

study were: (i) While both the methods led effective learning, the CAT method was

found superior to that of the lecture method; (ii) it is interesting to note that there is no

gender difference on the scores obtained.

Kaur (2004) compared achievement motivation of students. The sample was

comprised of 200 boys and girls of eleventh class of the residents of urban and rural

areas of Ludhiana District. Results showed that there was a significant difference

between achievement motivation of boys and girls and there was also a significant

difference between achievement motivation of rural and urban students.

Kumar (2004) conducted a study “Impact of using teaching aids on academic

achievement in relation to achievement motivation and rigidity of +1 students” and

concluded that there exist significant difference in achievement scores of +1 students

before and after teaching them chemistry with teaching aids.

Ludwig & Daniel (2004) conducted a study, “Using Multimedia In Classroom

Presentations: Best Principles.” The purpose of the study goes to identify some of the

best practices in computer-enhanced classroom instructions. The findings of the study

had shown that if done well, multimedia content organized with a slideware tool can

generate productive and stimulating presentations that lead to greater retention,

application to new situations, and performance on assessments. If not done well, they

can be a distraction from learning and ultimately unproductive.

Macwana (2004) conducted a study, “A Study of Development and Effectiveness

of Computer Assisted Learning Material for Class IX Students.” The study focused on

the development of Computer Assisted Learning Material (CALM) on optics for Standard

IX Gujarati medium students and to find out is effectiveness in terms of the achievement

of students and Reactions of the students and teachers. The study revealed that CALM

was effective in terms of achievement and reaction.

Tuzlukova (2004) in his study “Some cultural and social aspects of educational

discourse in E-Medium” reported on some impressions of Russian English Language

teachers who took an e-learning course: Integrating Internet into the classroom. The

main purpose of the study was to identify socio-cultural factors and personal attributes

that influence the decision of Russian learners to take an on-line course and stay

enrolled in the programme. The findings showed that the percentage of those who have

not started any e-course in the last 3 years is great (74 percent). Nevertheless the

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dropout percent is low (4 percent). Most of those who started e-learning courses

completed them (21 percent). These findings indicate that e-learning programmes have

not replaced even partially traditional classroom practices in Russian universities. Most

of the respondents answered that their universities were quite new in e-learning

programmes. Some started educational programmes with electronic means in 2001,

others in 2003 and try to their best to organize them well.

Barot (2005) conducted a study of “The effectiveness of CAI in Sanskrit for VIII

Standard Students. The study was conducted to develop CAI in Sanskrit for Std. VIII

students and to study its effectiveness in terms of mean achievement of students in

Sanskrit and to study the reactions of the standard VIII students regarding the

effectiveness of the developed CAI package. 86 students of Std. VIII of Shree Ambe

Vidyalaya School constituted the sample for this study. A single group Pre-test and Post-

test design was employed for the study. Achievement test and reaction scale was

constructed by the investigator. Flash MX, Corel Draw 11 and Front Page were used for

the development of software. ‘t’ value, frequencies and percentage responses were

used for data analysis. The developed CAI in Sanskrit was found effective in teaching

Sanskrit to VIII standard students. The reactions of the students towards the developed

CAI in Sanskrit were found positive.

Kohli (2005) conducted a study, “Efficacy of Computer Assisted, Concept

Attainment Models on Students’ Achievement in Environmental Science, Self-concept

and Emotional Intelligence.” The objective was to compare the mean gain achievement

scores, self-concept scores and emotional intelligence scores with the help of Computer

Assisted Model and Concept Attainment Model before and after the experimental

treatment. The findings were: (i) Computer Assisted Model and Concept Attainment

Model were found to be effective in improving the achievement level of students; (ii)

learning with Computer Assisted Model and Concept Attainment Model changed the

aptitude and interest of the students. Unlike conventional method, students got

feedback and remedial teaching which automatically improved their achievement and

promoted their self-concept; (iii) Computer Assisted Model and Concept Attainment

Model was shown to be very effective in enhancing the emotional intelligence of the

students.

Pardeshi (2005) conducted a study, “The relative effectiveness of CAI an CAIPI

in learning Trigonometry by English medium students of Standard IX of Baroda City.”

The objectives of the study were to develop the CAI and study its effectives in mono,

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diad and triad settings and its relative effectiveness in the three settings and through

reactions of the students. The findings of the study were: (i) No significant difference

has been found in the mean achievement scores of the experimental group in mono

diad, triad and control groups, respectively; (ii) significant difference has been found in

the mean achievement scores of the experimental group in triad and control group; and

(iii) the students were found to have positive reactions towards the developed CAI.

Pareek (2005) conducted a study on “Computer Curriculum in Teacher Education

Program: An Analytical Study.” The objectives were: To study the computer programme

running at different Teacher Training Colleges in Rajasthan for (a) Teacher Trainee,

Teacher and Principals attitude towards computer programme, (b) Units of Programme,

(c) Evaluation Process, and (d) Usage of Learning Experiences. The findings were: (i)

Teacher trainees, teacher and principals keep a positive attitude towards computer

programme; (ii) different colleges of different university of Rajasthan have similar units

of computer programme as their syllabus; (iii) the evaluation procedure of different

teacher training colleges were different though their objectives remained the same; (iv)

the usage of computer related learning was not carried out for different educational

activities.

Sarupria (2005) conducted a study on “Status, Issues and Future Perspective of

Computer Education in Senior Secondary Schools.” The main objectives of her study

were: (i) To study the status of Computer Education Programme (CEP) in schools in

terms of physical facilities, financial provisions, human resources, curriculum and its

execution; (ii) to compare the status of CEP on the basis of demographic variables like

situation of school (rural and urban) and the type of school management (government

and private); (iii) to identify issues related to CEP in schools effective and futuristic; (iv)

to perceive the future of CEP in schools (2012 AD); (v) to suggest a model for making

CEP in schools effective and futuristic. Descriptive field survey was used to study the

status and issues, whereas the Delphi Technique was used to perceive the future of

CEP. The major findings of the study were: (i) CEP started in a majority of schools in

Rajasthan after the class project in 1986 and was being run on the contract basis in

two-third of the schools; (ii) most of the schools had computer laboratories with basic

computer facilities, but there were certain issues that need immediate attention like;

status of contract computer teachers in terms of salaries, teaching experience,

permanent appointment of staff and in-service training; budget for CEP; dissatisfaction

of students towards the quality of study materials; lack of correlation between theory

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and practice; guidance given by teachers during practical classes; and the ICT policy of

the state of Rajasthan for implementing CEP in schools; (iii) the status of CEP was

particularly poor in government and rural schools, when compared with private schools

and urban schools respectively; (iv) students possessed high level of interest in CEP

and an average awareness towards Internet; (v) most of the experts predicted a

promising future of CEP in schools by 2012 AD in all respects except hardware

maintenance and availability of computers for all students; and (vi) experts did not

foresee any substantial improvement in the status of CEP in rural government schools.

Sidhu & Parminder (2005) carried out a comparative study of concept attainment

model, advance organiser model and conventional method in teaching of physics in

relation to intelligence and achievement motivation of ninth class students. Data were

collected by using achievement motivation test by Pratibha Deo and Asha Mohan from

240 students of Sangrur district in Punjab. The results indicated that there was no

statistically significant effect of achievement motivation on scholastic achievement of the

students. The results also revealed that there was no relationship between intelligence

and achievement motivation.

Singh (2005) Conducted a study on “Effectiveness of computer Assisted

instruction for Teaching Biology”. The objective of the study is to compare the

effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) as compared to lecture method on

the topics tissues and cell. Experimental method was used for conducting this study.

Pre-test, Post-test, Experimental group and Control group design was used for this

study. The sample selected 28 students (14 in Control group and 14 in Experimental

group) of class IX by random sampling from the students studying in Ramanujan Public

School. The findings of the study were while Lecture method was more effective than

CAI for teaching cell, CAI was more effective than Lecture method for teaching tissues.

The gain score of the Experimental group were higher than the gains recorded by the

Control group.

Bansal et al. (2006) explored the relationship between quality of home

environment, locus of control and achievement motivation among high achiever urban

female adolescents. The data were collected from 100, eleventh grade high achievers

from 10 senior secondary schools of Ludhiana city, by using Bhargava achievement

motivation scale and Mishra‟s home environment inventory scale. The results indicated

that good quality of home environment had significant positive relationship with high

level of achievement motivation and high level of academic achievement.

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Jayaraman (2006) carried out “A study of the relative effectiveness of computer

based Multimedia Learning Packages on performance and behavioural outcomes of

students of different age groups.” Various findings of the study were: (i) The CBMMLP

prepared specifically for the particular concepts are significantly effective for all the age

group of students. There has been found a higher usage by higher age group students;

(ii) the relative effectiveness of the CBMMLP is significant for all the age groups of

students, who are studying Class V, Class VIII and Class XI. The performance of the

students who have learned through CBMMLP is higher than the performance of the

students who have not learned through CBMMLP; (iii) higher age group students have

been found to have more positive attitude towards CBMMLP than the lower age group

students; (iv) the higher age group students have been found more auditory preferred

than the lower age group students, whereas the lower age group students have been

found more visually preferred; and (v) higher age group of students have been found

satisfied more in the interaction with the CBMMLP. Also, 74.2% of class XI students

were found having prior knowledge of the computer. 75% of the class V students could

not express either their satisfaction or about their prior knowledge.

Patil (2006) conducted “A study on development of Multimedia Instructional

System on Computer Education for B.Ed. Pupil Teachers.” Various findings of the study

were: (i) The present setting of teaching of computer education in B.Ed. colleges was

found unsatisfactory; (ii) it was found feasible to design, develop and implement a

computer based Multimedia Instruction System for the Computer Education; (iii) no

significant difference was found between the performance of the pupil-teacher of control

and experimental group on pre-test; (iv) significance difference was found between the

performance of the pupil teachers of control group and experimental group on post-test;

(v) significant difference was found between the performances of the pupil-teachers of

control group from pre-test to post-test; (vi) there is significant difference between the

performance of pupil-teachers of experimental group from pre-test to post-test; (vii)

there is significant difference between the gains in achievement in terms of scores in

pre-test and post-test of the pupil-teachers from pre to post-test; (viii) there is significant

difference between the performance of the pupil-teachers from control and

experimental groups in retention test.

Sharma et al. (2006) investigated the relationship between self-concept,

achievement motivation and achievement in mathematics; a gender comparison on a

sample comprising 80 sixth class students of Bhopal in India. Data was collected by

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administering mathematics achievement test developed by the researchers themselves.

Result revealed a significant positive relationship between achievement motivation and

achievement in mathematics.

Sheela & Talawar (2006) conducted a study, “Knowledge of Information and

Communication Technology (ICT) and attitude towards Teaching ICT among Teacher

Educators.” The objectives were: (i) To study the level of attitude of Teacher Educators

towards teaching ICT; (ii) to find if there is any significant difference in attitude of teacher

educators possessing high and poor knowledge of ICT towards teaching ICT; (iii) to find

if there is any significant difference in attitude of male and female teacher educators

towards teaching ICT; (iv) to find if there is any significant difference in attitude of

teacher educators from Government, Private aided and Private Unaided colleges of

Education towards teaching ICT; (v) to find if there is any significant difference in

attitude of teacher educators of Arts and Science streams towards teaching ICT; and

(vi) to find out if there is any significant difference in attitude of Rural and Urban

teacher educators towards teaching ICT. The major findings of the study were: (i)

Teacher educators possessing good and poor knowledge of ICT differ in their attitude

towards teaching ICT: teacher educators with good knowledge of ICT have more

favourable attitude towards teaching ICT; (ii) male and female teacher educators do not

differ significantly in their attitude towards teaching ICT; (iii) teacher educators from

private aided and private unaided colleges differ significantly in their attitude towards

teaching ICT: teacher educators from private unaided colleges were found to have more

favourable attitude towards teaching ICT; (iv) a significant difference was found in the

attitude of high experienced and less experienced teacher educators towards teaching

ICT teacher educators with less experience had a more favourable attitude towards

teaching ICT than teacher educators with more experience; (v) no significant difference

was found in the attitude scores of teacher educators of arts and science streams

towards teaching ICT; (vi) teacher educators from rural and urban areas did not differ

significantly in their attitude towards teaching of ICT.

Choudhary et al. (2007) conducted a study on self-efficacy, motivation and their

relationship to academic performance of Bangladesh college students. Data were

collected through self-administrated questionnaire from the 123 college students.

Results revealed that students‟ academic achievement was affected by motivation. It

was also found that the students who attained the highest level of academic

performance were those who were simultaneously highly motivated. The findings further

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indicated both intrinsic (.327) and extrinsic motivation (.251) were positively related with

academic achievement.

Jyothi (2007) conducted a study, “Impact of Computer-Based Learning on

Students of Chemistry.” The objectives of the study were: (i) To prepare a self-

instructional module on the topic “Chemical Bond” for IXth class Chemistry; and (ii) to

compare the effectiveness of this Self-Instructional module with conventional teaching

method. The study clearly revealed that that the self-instructional module prepared by a

teacher through simple power point presentation could show immense impact on

learning of chemistry. Since the preparation of this module is very easy and simple; it

has opened a new way and is very much helpful to teachers in their physical science

instruction.

Maniar & Bhatt (2007) conducted a study, “Designing Educational CD-ROM for

Higher Education Students.” The major findings of the study were: (i) The educational

CD-ROM on topic “Graphic Aids” was effective in terms of gain in knowledge; (ii) there

was significant difference in gain in knowledge amongst the students of experimental

group; (iii) there was significant difference in gain in knowledge of the students of

experimental group in learning through developed CD-ROM in relation to the following

variables: (a) Medium of instruction; (b) Type of computer Used; (iv) there was no

significant difference in the gain in knowledge of the students of experimental group in

relation to these variable : (a) Academic achievement, (b) Economic status (c)

Achievement motivation, (d) Accessibility to computer, (e) Exposure to ICT; (v) majority

of the features of the developed CD-ROM helped the students in learning; (vi) majority

of the students reported that majority of the aspects of the CD-ROM helped the students

to learn to a great extent; (vii) majority of the students reported problems related to CD

not running well, computer hanged and background music; (viii) majority of the students

suggested that the background music could be more pleasing, CD could be made more

explanatory, more visual should be added for the content clarity and note taking facility

should be more flexible.

Sumerson et al. (2007) examined the contribution of motivation, personality,

learning strategies and scholastic aptitude to academic achievement in college

students. Data were collected through grade point average for academic achievement

scale and motivation strategies for learning questionnaire from 186 undergraduate

students from North Eastern University. The results indicated that motivation was

significantly and positively related to academic achievement.

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Tella (2007) investigated the impact of motivation on students’ school academic

achievement in mathematics in secondary schools on a sample of 450 students of both

sexes drawn from ten schools of Ibadan. Data were collected by administering

motivation for academic performance scale to the sample. The result revealed that

motivation had significant and positive relationship with academic achievement of

secondary school students.

Wadsworth et al. (2007) in their research on learning strategies used by students,

found that learning strategy use was associated with academic achievement. The use of

learning strategies makes a difference in student learning. Their learner population

consisted of 89 college students who were asked to complete a learning strategies

inventory. The researchers suggested that students’ self-efficacy and use of strategies

can affect achievement. The results revealed that students who frequently used learning

strategies achieved higher grades than those who used strategies less often.

Nimavathi & Gnanadevan (2008) conducted a study “Effectiveness of Multimedia

Programme in Teaching Science.” Objectives of the study were: (i) To prepare

multimedia package for the teaching of Science at secondary level; (ii) to find out the

effectiveness of computer multimedia program in the teaching of science at secondary

level; (iii) to compare the effectiveness of computer multimedia programs in the teaching

of science with traditional method of teaching science. The findings of the study were: (i)

There is no significant difference between the experimental group and control group in

the achievement of science at Pre-test level; (ii) there is a significant difference between

the experimental group and control group in the achievement of science at pos-test

level. The students learning with the help of multimedia programme fared better in

science than the students learning through the conventional method; (iii) there is a

significant difference between the mean achievement test scores of the pre-test and

post-test for the experimental group. This shows that the multimedia programme has

helped the students to score more marks in the post-test; and (iv) there is no significant

difference between the pre-test and post-test in the achievement of science for the

control group. This shows that the conventional method of teaching will not help the

students to score more marks in post-test.

Tang & Neber (2008) researched gifted students’ use of strategies to learn

chemistry. There were 315 10th and 12th graders from China, Germany, and the United

States. In order to measure the strategy use of each student, the questionnaire (Pintrich

and De Groot, 1990) was translated into Chinese and German. The findings revealed

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that the American students showed more frequent use of self-regulated strategies than

Chinese or German learners.

Chaturvedi (2009) investigated the effect of school environment and certain

demographic variables on achievement motivation and academic achievement of young

adolescents. The sample consisted of 300 students in the age range of 12-15 years,

from various schools of Bhopal. Deo-Mohan achievement motivation scale was used to

measure achievement motivation. Percentages of marks obtained by the students in

last three years were used as a measure of academic achievement. The results

revealed positive significant relationship between academic motivation and

achievement.

Hughes (2009) researched the relationships between teaching styles perceived

by students and teaching styles adopted by instructors. A total of 117 students

participated in the study and were put into either a control group or an experimental

group. The instructor taught control-group students pre-calculus with a conventional

lecture-based approach. On the other hand, two instructors in the experimental group

adopted a teaching style that increased student involvement; they also provided real-life

examples and sufficient time for students to learn a concept by asking questions. The

results showed a significant difference in students’ perceptions of teaching styles

between the control group and experimental group. The results also revealed that

students felt they learned better when instructors employed a teaching style that was

more interactive than when instructors adopted a conventional lecture style.

In Montague & Dietz’s (2009) review of cognitive strategy instruction as related to

mathematical problem solving, the researchers indicated that strategic learners could

use a variety of learning strategies efficiently and effectively. On the contrary, they found

that students with learning disabilities did not have effective learning strategies or might

not have been able to employ appropriate learning strategies to solve mathematical

problems. These students often chose strategies that impeded their academic

performance.

Suman (2009) determined the relative effectiveness of e-Content strategy and

conventional strategy of teaching of science. The findings of her study explored that the

e-Content strategy / method improve achievement in science significantly higher in

comparison to Conventional strategy / method when groups were matched on pre-

achievement in the subject of science. The results also revealed that mean scores of

achievement in the subject of Science at post-test stage was significantly higher than

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the mean score of achievement in the subject of science at pre-test stage of e-Content

group.

Umadevi (2009) conducted a study to find out the relationship among emotional

intelligence, achievement motivation and academic achievement of primary school

student-teachers. The sample comprised of 200 primary school student-teachers

studying in various colleges of Davangere city in Karnataka. Data were collected by

administering achievement motivation test developed by Bhargava. Academic

achievement was taken as the annual scores of second year board examination. The

findings indicated that there was a significant positive relationship between achievement

motivation and academic achievement of the students.

Liu & Lin (2010) concluded that teacher is a crucial factor in helping individuals to

develop effective learning strategies and become strategic learners. By knowing

students’ use of learning strategies, the teacher can recognize learners’ strengths and

weaknesses and adjust instruction accordingly. Teachers will be able to teach individual

students to use learning strategies appropriately and effectively if they identify and

accommodate the strategy use of students in relation to their genders.

Majzub (2010) investigated the relationship between achievement motivation and

self-regulated learning strategies among the university students. A sample of 300

undergraduate students from Malaysia participated in the study. The results indicated

that there existed a positive and significant relationship between achievement

motivation and the self-learning strategies.

Ponraj & Sivakumar (2010) revealed the effect of computer-assisted instruction

(CAI) software on the achievement in the subject of zoology. The findings from the study

has shown that teaching the subject zoology by using CAI is more effective than the

conventional method of teaching.

Raninga (2010) studied that teaching with the help of computer-assisted

instruction (CAI) is more effective for teaching of subject mathematics for the class VII

students as compared to the traditional strategy of teaching.

Bakhtiarvand et al. (2011) investigated the moderating effect of achievement

motivation on relationship of learning approaches and academic achievement of 200

college students. The findings of the study revealed that achievement motivation

moderated the relationship of learning approaches and academic achievement. The

results also indicated that achievement motivation indirectly effected the relation of

learning approaches and academic achievement.

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Serin (2011) revealed the effect of computer-based instruction (CAI) on the

problem solving skills and achievement of the students in the science subject. The

findings from the research has shown that there is a significant increase in the problem

solving skills and achievements of the science students in the experimental group that

received the instructions through the computer-based science and technology.

Thijs (2011) took a study to examine ethnic differences in teacher oriented

achievement motivation among early adolescent students in Netherland. The sample

consisted of 165 girls and 150 boys of Marrocan and Dutch culture. The results of the

study revealed that Marrocan students’ teacher oriented achievement motivation was

significantly and positively related with intrinsic motivation and perceived academic

achievement of the students.

Yusuf (2011) undertook the study with the purpose to investigate the relationship

between self-confidence, achievement motivation and self-regulated learning strategies

of the undergraduate students. 300 undergraduate students of Malaysia participated in

the study. The results of study indicated that there was a considerable relationship

between self-confidence and achievement motivation along with self-regulated learning

strategies of the undergraduate students.

Abdallah (2012) investigated the impact of computer-assisted grammar teaching

on EFL pupils performance in Jordan. The result indicated that there is a significant

difference (α < 0.05) between the students achievement mean scores in grammar

credited to the instructional strategy of teaching. This variation is in favour of the

learners in the experimental group. Also there was significant difference (α < 0.05)

between the students achievement mean scores in grammar credited to stream of

study. This variation is in favour of the scientific stream learners. Based upon the above

findings, it was suggested that English language teachers use computer assisted

instruction (CAI) in their teaching strategy.

Ada & Anemelu (2012) studied the effect of computer-assisted instruction

package on the performance of Sr. Sec. school students in the subject of mathematics

in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. The results from the research has shown that the

students taught using computer-assisted instruction package performed significantly

much better than the others taught using the conventional strategy. In retention test, the

students taught with the help of CAI performed better than the students from control

group. In case of male and female students, there was no significant difference in the

post-test performance scores taught using CAI package. Based on the above results, it

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was suggested that CAI strategy should be encouraged in the classrooms for teaching

and learning of mathematics subject.

Bayturan & Kesan (2012) investigated that teaching mathematics subject with a

computer-assisted instruction (CAI) strategy improved student achievement significantly

in mathematics lesson. However, both the groups i.e. control and experimental groups

did not differ between students attitudes towards the mathematics subject.

Kavitha & Sundharavadivel (2012) examined the effect of e-learning and

traditional learning on achievement in mathematics. This study provides descriptive data

on students’ achievement in mathematics from their learning (e-learning / traditional).

The sample constitute of 266 students drawn from five schools from Pondicherry.

Random sampling technique is adopted to select the sample. The researcher was

conducted pre-test on four concepts in mathematics. Based on the pre-test score,

students were divided into two groups, students learning by Traditional method (group

A) and students following the e-learning method (group B). Group A was subjected to

the traditional class room teaching and group B was exposed to e-learning process.

After teaching, the researcher conducted the post-test for all the 266 students. The

answer scripts were evaluated and the scores obtained by each individual were

tabulated concept wise and also for the entire questions covering all four concepts. The

findings of the study indicate that e-learning students performed better than the

traditional learning students in their post-test total mean scores. There is significant

difference between e-learning and Traditional learning methods. Comparing the

performance of English and Tamil medium students following the e-learning method, it is

found that the English medium students performed better than Tamil medium students.

Rohendi (2012) developed e-learning based on animation content to improve

mathematical connection abilities in senior high school students. The e-learning was

developed using framework proposed by Moddle, while the animation content was

developed using macromedia flash. To get the student mathematical connection

abilities, pretest and posttest were administered before and after teaching and learning

process. The data were analyzed using t-test and found that e-learning which was

based on animation content not only had significant effect on mathematical connection

abilities but also been able to improve students’ mathematical connection abilities far

better than that of conventional approach.

Telima & Aderonmu (2012) compared problem-solving ability among

mathematics students using CAI blended with traditional teaching approach (TTP)

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versus problem-solving approach (CAI-PS) in teaching basic statistics. The results from

the research has shown that the unavailability of various equipments regarding CAI and

low level of teachers proficiency in computer usage affects the use of CAI-PS for

delivery of the content in the classrooms. It was also suggested that for all the teacher

education programmes, there should be provision of sufficient computers and

instructional (teaching) related equipments to facilitate the subject mathematics

teaching and learning in the classrooms and compulsory insertion of computer usage in

teaching learning process.

Bindal & Sharma (2013) investigated that to make learning meaningful, a teacher

is expected to know successful integration of information and communication

technology (ICT) into his/her subject area. In the field of education, ICTs are not

transformative on their own alteration requires teachers who can utilize the technology

to develop / progress student learning. In teaching and learning process, information

and communication technology incorporation is being apparent as a necessity.

Hamed (2013) studied the knowledge, skills and attitudes of Omani social studies

teachers to the use of computers in instruction. The results from the research revealed

that teachers in the subject of social studies lack in the skills regarding computer but

towards the application of computers in teaching learning process, positive attitudes

was found. The findings also described that in terms of websites of Social Studies

Centres or journals in either English or Arabic, nearly half of social studies teachers do

not possess the basic knowledge. The development of teachers' computer skills and

knowledge about journals and centers' websites were recommended by the researcher.

Khushnir & Valko (2013) developed approaches allowed us to improve a range of

disciplines including Information Technology (IT), which is taught for learners of all

teacher specialties. We also applied them to following disciplines: "Fundamentals of

Computer Science and Applied Linguistics" (translators, the 2nd year of study),

"Introduction to Information Technology" (for future teachers of elementary school and

Computer Science, the 1st year of study) and “Office Computer Technology”

(programmers, the 1st year of studies). The results from the research has shown that

the in the classrooms, the various students expressed their positive attitude verbally and

many students after finishing the discipline, sent e-mails with gratitude.

Robert (2013) explored the effectiveness of the e-Content learning package in

learning mathematics for prospective teachers and the experimental research is

essential for finding out the effective from the population of prospective teachers. The

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investigator selected 30 students from a college of education in Tamil Nadu. Tools used

were e-Content learning package for mathematics prospective teachers developed by

the investigator and pre-test in mathematics developed by the investigator. In the

experimental group, students learn the subject mathematics by using this e-Content

learning package for mathematics. The control group student teachers were taught

using conventional method. Findings of the study showed that there was significant

difference between pre-test and post-test scores for the experimental group in learning

mathematics. That is experimental group Prospective Teachers have achieved high in

post-test than the pre-test. And also there was significant difference in the post-test

scores of the experimental and control group. That is experimental group Prospective

Teachers have achieved high in post-test than the control group Prospective Teachers.

The investigator concludes that the experimental group is more effective than the

control group. Thus e-Content learning package in mathematics education for the

prospective teachers is more effective.

Warren (2013) investigated that to prevent future information and communication

technology (ICT) failures and to give ICT every chance to be successful in secondary

schools, ICT risk factors need to be aware / kept in mind by the educational

practitioners and adopt appropriate strategies to decrease them. The findings from the

research has also suggested that with this knowledge, we can anticipate to attain our

educational targets in a manner that resonates with our digital native learners.

Jaleel (2015) analyzed the effectiveness of e-Content in mathematics on

Mathematical Thinking among Secondary School Students. The research works showed

that it was possible to promote Mathematical Thinking in children by means of suitable

techniques in teaching mathematics by providing suitable teaching experiences. Hence,

through the study, the investigator tried to find the effectiveness of e-Content in

mathematics on Mathematical Thinking among Secondary School Students. The

investigators adopted Experimental Method in the present study on a sample of 112

Secondary School Students taken at random. The study revealed that the e-Content in

mathematics is effective over Activity Oriented Method on developing Mathematical

Thinking of Students at Secondary level. It is suggested that The curriculum planners

and educational administrators should include innovative methods like e-Content in the

curriculum design for the effective implementation of the content.

Singh (2015) conducted a study to investigate the effectiveness of e-Content on

Environmental Management in terms of Learning Outcomes of Undergraduate

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Students. The study was experimental in nature. Non-Equivalent Control Group Quasi-

Experimental was used on a sample of 80 undergraduate science students selected

randomly from St. Aloysius College, Jabalpur. The e-Content study group is significantly

higher in comparison to non e-Content study group in terms of post treatment

knowledge attainment on environmental management, if both the groups are equated

on pre treatment knowledge attainment and pre treatment attitude towards

environmental management. The e-Content study group is significantly higher in

comparison to non e-Content study group in terms of post treatment attitude towards

environmental management if both the groups are equated on pre treatment knowledge

attainment and pre treatment attitude towards environmental management. The study of

e-Content on environmental management has significantly enhanced the knowledge

attainment of undergraduate students. On the basic of the finding of the present study it

can be suggested that e-Content can be used to teach Environmental Management to

undergraduate students as it is helpful in enhancing the knowledge as well as making

the attitude favorable. Further, e-Content was also helpful to train professionals, officers

and workers working in the field of Environmental Management. Implications of the

results are discussed.

Amutha (2016) assessed the impact of e-Content integration in science teaching

on the learning performance of college students. Experimental research method with a

control design was adopted in this study. Investigator selected 60 undergraduate final

year Botany students as a sample from colleges in Tiruchirappalli, India. e-Content on

cloning was developed by the investigator. Learning through e-Content encourages

critical and active learning. With e-Content materials, the learner and teacher will

understand that he or she is changing from a provider of facts to the one who facilitates

a learning environment. It is in this assumption that this investigation attempts to devise

an innovative teaching technique through e-Content approach. Humans can integrate

information from different sensory stimuli into meaningful experiences. This empirical

study proved that e-Content enhance the achievement of the students at tertiary level.

Pio Albina (2017) to find out whether there is any significant difference between

pre-attitude and post- attitude scores of the control and experimental group student-

teachers. In the present study, the investigator has used experimental method. The

tools used for study were e-Content in Teaching of Mathematics Education and Attitude

scale towards e-Content in Teaching of Mathematics Education developed by the

investigator. The result revealed that there is significant difference between the pre-

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attitude and post- attitude scales of the experimental group student-teachers. This

establishes a significant effectiveness of e-Content in enhancing the attitude to a

favorable level of the student-teachers towards e-Content. The familiarity with the e-

Content, the practical usage of e-Content and the awareness of its benefits have

developed more favorable attitude of the student-teachers towards e-Content.

Jasmin (2017) measured the effectiveness of the e-Content learning package in

learning Tamil subject for students who are studying in English medium schools and the

experimental research is essential for finding out the effective from the population of

students. The investigator selected 116 students from English medium Schools at

Perambalur district in Tamil Nadu. Tools used were e-Content learning package for

Tamil Subject probable teachers developed by the investigator and pre-test in Tamil

subject developed by the investigator. In the experimental group, students teach Tamil

Subject by using this e-Content learning package and the control group students were

taught using conventional method. The investigator concludes that the experimental

group is more effective than the control group. Thus e-Content learning package in

Tamil Subject for the latent students is more effective.

2.2 OVERVIEW

This chapter can be summarized by stating that the chapter has very well

thrown light on the purpose behind review of related literature, the research studies

conducted abroad and in India for Ph.D. / M.Phil. / M.Ed. degree of various universities

and some articles published in educational journals. The study of all these proved to be

very much useful for the present study. From the review of related literature, the

researcher has concluded that e-Content strategy has improved the academic

achievement of the students significantly higher in comparison to conventional strategy.

In case of self-confidence, the relevant studies has shown that both above average as

well as below average self-confident students were benefited, but below average self-

confident students were benefited more through e-Content strategy. In case of learning

style, different Learning styles interactions with e-Content strategy were found in

different studies. However, in most of the studies reflectors were high achievers than the

theorist type of learners. In case of Achievement motivation, e-Content strategy has

fostered the achievement motivation of students more as compared to conventional

strategy equally for both male as well as female students. It could also summed up after

review that achievement motivation is a driving force that lay direct and positive

influence upon the academic achievement of the students.

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After having reviewed the related literature, it was found that use of Multimedia /

information and communication technology / e-Content for educational purposes is

swiftly increasing day by day. At various levels, different researchers had found its utility

in various subjects. Its power of presentation with the incorporation of resources allows

for the creation of a fruitful, active and healthy atmosphere for the students in the

classroom. Not only this, for the teachers, it also offers great opportunities in terms of

maintenance of class decorum, concentration, focus and interest of students in

teaching-learning process.

It is also determined by many investigators that information and communication

technology has a sole strength of communicating complicated and tricky concepts in a

simple and capturing way. Moreover, it is a pupil-centered approach. On the other hand

if we specifically explore the utility of e-Content or Multimedia Package in various school

subjects at elementary level, many linked issues are still remained unfold. At elementary

level, the students felt very hard to comprehend various concepts specially in the

subject of mathematics because the abstract content matters are boring to the most of

the students and induce disinterest. According to the child psychology, abstract learning

needs more sensory integration to fix up in the long term memory. So attention needs to

be focussed on the integrative efforts of information processing approach,

transformation between short term memory and long term memory and accelerating

cognitive strategies. The use of e-Content in teaching of mathematics produces more

integrated sensory output in learning mathematics subject. Thus a lot of work needs to

be done in this direction. Therefore the investigator found it suitable to conduct a study

on the effectiveness of e-Content strategy on achievement in mathematics of

elementary school students.

2.3 HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY

On the basis of the above review of related literature, following hypothesis

were formulated:

1. There is no significant difference between mean mathematics achievement score

of elementary school students at pre and post stages of the experimental group.

2. There is no significant difference between adjusted mean mathematics

Achievement score of elementary school students in the e-Content group and

conventional method group by considering pre-test mathematics achievement

score as covariate.

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3. There is no significant effect of treatment, gender and their interaction on

mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre-test

mathematics achievement score as covariate.

4. There is no significant effect of treatment, achievement motivation and their

interaction on mathematics achievement of elementary school students by

considering pre-test mathematics achievement score as covariate.

5. There is no significant effect of treatment, learning style and their interaction on

mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre-test

mathematics achievement score as covariate.

6. There is no significant effect of treatment, self confidence and their interaction on

mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre-test

mathematics achievement score as covariate.

CHAPTER-III

METHOD AND PROCEDURE

relationships. Experimental method begins with a question concerning the relationship

between two or more variables by observing the behavior of the subject under

77

conditions where some variables are controlled and others manipulated. The

experimental method is the event planned and carried out by the researcher to gather

evidence relevant to the hypotheses. Firstly, specified the finite set of researchable

hypotheses and secondly, has established a systematic programme of data gathering

under precisely defined conditions in an effort to test these hypotheses. The hypotheses

provide a network of statements relating to the impact on independent variable on some

outcome variable or dependent variables. In other words, the term experiment should

be confined to those actions where it is possible to do all of the following: (i) Randomly

assign the subjects of the experiment to either an experimental group (to which

something is done) or a control group (to which the thing done to the experimental

group is not done). (ii) Manipulate the experimental group and (iii) Ensure that in all

other important aspects, the factors affecting the experimental and control group remain

the same.

Any experimental programs have two inter-related aspects, the design of the

experiment and statistical analysis of data. The later aspect is directly dependent upon

the former aspect. Statistical methods can increase the efficiency of an experiment and

also strengthen the conclusions so obtained.

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

The present study was experimental in nature. An experimental design is to

researcher what a blue print is to an architect. A well-developed design provides the

structure and strategy that controls the investigation and extracts dependable answers

to the questions raised by problem hypothesis. The investigator has employed Pre-test -

Post-test Control group Design. This is also called the Classic Controlled Experimental

design because it: Controls the assignment of subjects to experimental and control

group through the use of table of random numbers; Control all other conditions under

which the experiment takes place. The steps in the classic controlled experiment were;

1. randomly assigned subjects to experimental or control group;

2. administered the pre-test to all subjects in both groups;

3. ensured that both groups experienced the same conditions except that in

addition the experimental group experienced the treatment;

4. administered the post-test to all subjects in both groups;

5. assessed the amount of change on the value of the dependent variable from the

pre-test to the post-test for each group separately.

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After making intensive study of the literature related to e-Content, the

experimental procedure was executed. One experimental and one control group was

formed. The experimental group was taught mathematics through e-Content strategy,

the control group was taught mathematics through conventional method. The design

comprised three states: the first stage involved pre-testing of all the peoples of two

groups (on achievement in Mathematics, Achievement Motivation, Learning style and

Self-confidence).

This second stage involved treatment of 02 months. The experimental treatment

consisted of teaching 06 units of VII grade mathematics through e-Content to

experimental and through conventional method to control group. The third stage i.e.

post-test stage, the pupils were post-tested on achievement in mathematics just after

the treatment so as to determine the effect of treatment. A detailed description of the

design of the experiment has been given in table below:

Table 3.1

Design of Experiment (Pre-test, Post-test Control Group Design)

S. No. Duration Stage Experimental Group Control Group

1. 3 Days Pre-Test 1. Mathematics 1. Mathematics

Achievement Test Achievement Test

2. Achievement 2. Achievement

Motivation Scale Motivation Scale

3. Learning Style 3. Learning Style

Inventory Inventory

4. Self Confidence 4. Self Confidence

Inventory Inventory

2. 2 Months Treatment Teaching Mathematics Teaching Mathematics

through e-Content through Conventional

Strategy Strategy

3. 1 Day Post-Test Mathematics Mathematics

Achievement Test Achievement Test

The difference in the Control group’s score from the pre-test to the post-test

indicated the change in the value of the mathematics achievement that could be

expected to occur without exposure to the treatment i.e. teaching mathematics

with e-Content.

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The difference in the Experimental group’s score from the pre-test to the post-

test indicated the change in the value of the mathematics achievement that could

be expected to occur with exposure to the treatment i.e. teaching mathematics

with e-Content.

The difference between the change in the Control group and the change in the

Experimental group was the amount of change in the value of the mathematics

achievement that could be attributed exclusively to the influence of the

independent variable i.e. teaching mathematics with e-Content.

3.2 VARIABLES OF THE STUDY

The relationship between independent and dependent variables have been

studied in this experimental research.

3.2.1 Independent Variables:

The variables that were manipulated in an experimental study, whose presence

or degree determines the change in the dependent variable, are called the independent

variables. In the present study, the independent variables that were used are e-Content

strategy and Conventional Strategy. These two variables were manipulated to study the

affect on achievement. The control group was taught through conventional strategy and

experimental group was taught through e-Content strategy.

3.2.2 Dependent Variable:

The dependent variable or the criterion variable that was used in the study is

achievement in mathematics. This variable may also be termed as moderator variable

as they include the variable that could have a moderating affect on the treatment. The

students were scored on this variable before and after the treatment in both groups.

This variable was measured twice during the study i.e. first before the beginning of the

treatment (pre-test stage), then after completing the treatment (post-test stage).

3.2.3 Intervening variables:

An intervening variable is a hypothetical internal state that is used to explain

relationship between observed variables, such as independent and dependent

variables. The intervening variables considered in this study were Achievement

Motivation, Learning Style and Self Confidence.

3.2.4 Control Variables:

Control variables are extraneous variables that an investigator does not wish to

examine in a study. Thus the investigator controls this variable also called a covariate.

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The control variables taken in the study were: nature of the school, grade level and

subject taught.

Physical Control Employed

It is necessary to control all those variables that may affect the dependent variables.

Hence suitable controls were employed for each such variable as follows:

Nature of School

The sample was selected from Government Model High School Sector 26 (P.L.),

UT Chandigarh.

Grade Level

Seventh class was selected for the present study and grade level was thus kept

constant during the study.

Subject and Units

Both groups were taught the same subject and same six units of mathematics.

Table3.2

Independent, Dependent, Intervening Variables and Control Employed

Independen Dependent Intervening Control

t Variable Variable Variable Employed

Only one school was taken

e-Content

Nature of School and students from same

Strategy

school were taken

Only VII grade students

Grade Level

were taught

Achievement

Same units of

in

Subject and Units Mathematics in both the

Conventional Mathematics

groups were taught

Strategy

Achievement

Motivation, These were controlled

Learning Style and statistically using ANCOVA

Self Confidence

Small representative portion of population is called sample. For selecting

samples, the investigator has employed Random Sampling Technique. The present

study was conducted on a sample of 80 pupils studying in class VII of Government

81

Model High School Sector 26 (P.L.), UT Chandigarh. One section formed experimental

group and one section formed the controlled group.

Table 3.3

A Detailed Description of the Sample

Experimental VII 24 16 40

Sector 26 (P.L.), UT Chandigarh

Control VII 21 19 40

Sector 26 (P.L.), UT Chandigarh

Total Sample 45 35 80

For every research problem, the investigator uses some devices to gather new

facts. The devices which the investigator uses for data collection are known as research

tools. To measure the students at Pre-test and Post-test stage, the following tools were

employed for the collection of data:

1. Reaction towards e-Content Scale for teachers and students developed by

investigator to assess the usability of developed e-Content.

2. Mathematics Achievement Test developed by investigator himself to measure

the achievement of elementary school students in mathematics.

3. The Achievement Motivation was assessed with the help of Deo-Mohan

Achievement Motivation Scale prepared by Deo and Mohan (1985).

4. The Learning Style was assessed with the help of Learning Style Inventory by

Honey and Mumford (1982).

5. The Self Confidence was assessed with the help of Self Confidence Inventory

developed by Gupta (2000).

3.5.1 MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT TEST

Mathematics Achievement Test was developed by researcher himself to measure

the achievement of students in mathematics. Its construction and description is as

follows:

Construction of Achievement Test:

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Instructional Objectives

The first and the most important step in planning a test was to identify the

instructional objectives. As researcher has taken the subject mathematics, so the major

objectives were categorized as knowledge, comprehension, application and skill.

Design

The second step in planning a test was to make the Design. The Design

specifies weightage to different (a) instructional objective, (b) units and sub-units of

course content (c) types (or forms) of questions.

DESIGN

Subject: Mathematics Class : VII

Table 3.4

Weightage to Instructional Objectives / Learning Outcomes

S. No. Objectives Marks %age of Marks

1. Knowledge 27 36

2. Comprehension 18 24

3. Application 17 23

4. Skill 13 17

Total 75 100

Table 3.5

Weightage to Content / Subject Units

1. Perimeter and Area 20 27

2. Data Handling 16 21

3. Symmetry 4 05

4. Lines and Angles 13 17

5. The triangle and its Properties 17 23

6. Visualising Solid Shapes 05 07

Total 75 100.00

Table 3.6

Weightage to Types / Forms of Questions

of Questions each Questions Marks

Multiple Choice

1 75 75 100.00

Questions

Total 75 75 100.00

83

Writing of Questions

The next step after the finalization of the Design was writing of appropriate items

in accordance with the broad parameters. Researcher has to standardize the test, so he

has framed a total 115 items, as required in accordance to the design (i.e. 75) because

some of them will be modified or rejected during Tryout stage.

Marking Scheme

The next step was to prepare the ‘Marking Scheme’. The marking scheme

helped to prevent inconsistency in judgment. It includes scoring key, which was

prepared in respect of objective type questions.

Question-wise Analysis

This step was to ensure that there was no imbalance in the question paper. During

question-wise analysis, the researcher has analyzed each question on various

parameters stated in the design.

Initial Tryout

In initial tryout, the test was given to experts and individual students.

Researcher has given the prepared items along with its operational definition to the 08

experts and requested them to judge each item in the light of operational definition,

instructional objectives and accordingly on the opinion of the experts, few questions

were modified and 10 questions were rejected.

Now, this modified tool was given to 14 students one by one to remove the

ambiguous items and to find out if there was any defect in the language or vagueness in

the format of the items. However, researcher did not find any such requirement.

Group Tryout or Item Analysis

Item analysis is a technique that enables the researcher to access the utility or

quality of items. All the modified material was taken and given to group of students

(Number of students in group was 100). These students were dissimilar in their level of

achievement in mathematics. The necessary instructions were given to them. The

students were required to record their responses on a separate answer sheet prepared

for this purpose. There was no time limit and time taken by each student was also noted

down. With the help of scoring key, the test has been scored and the process of Item

Analysis begins. 1(one) mark was given for each right answer, the total marks obtained

by a student was the total number of his or her responses. The procedure followed is as

under:

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Arranged the obtained scores/marks by the students from highest to lowest and

then identified a higher group as well as a lower group separately.

The higher group was the highest scoring 27% and the lower group was also the

lowest scoring 27% of the total group.

For each item, count the total number of students in higher group who answered

correctly (RH) and count the number of students in the lower group, who

answered correctly (RL).

In the end, recorded all these counts on result sheets at the end of corresponding

response alternatives. (Appendix III)

Difficulty Value or Difficulty Index

Difficulty index is defined as the percentage of the group who answered the

items correctly. The larger the value of the index of the test, the easier the item is.

It was calculated by the following formula:

RH RL

Difficulty Index 100

NH NL

Where:

RH = Number of students in the higher group who answered the items correctly

RL = Number of students in the lower group who answered the items correctly

NH = Number of students in the higher group

NL = Number of students in the lower group

Interpretation of Difficulty Index

It is quite natural to assume, as many test constructor do, that a good norm

reference test must include some easy items to test the low achievers and some difficult

items to test high achievers. The easiness or difficulty of test items can be indicated by

difficulty index as:

Table 3.7

Interpretation of Difficulty Index

1. Below 20% Difficult

2. 20% to 50% Good

3. 50% to 80% Best

4. 80% and above Very easy

On the basis of above table, the researcher has categorized each item according

to their difficulty index as shown in table below:

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Table 3.8

Item Analysis based on Item Difficulty Value / Difficulty Index

Difficulty Index

1 Below 20 26, 27, 44, 70, 83, 86, 105 Difficult

2 20-50 3, 16, 33, 49, 50, 55, 59, 63, 75, 76, Good

80, 89, 93, 98, 100, 101, 108, 111

3 50-80 1, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, 20, 21, Best

25, 30, 32, 36, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43,

45, 46, 48, 51, 52, 53, 56, 57, 58,

60, 61, 62, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 71,

72, 73, 74, 77, 78, 79, 81, 82, 84,

85, 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 94, 95, 96,

97, 99, 102, 103, 104, 106, 109,

110, 112, 113, 114, 115

4 Above 80 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 14, 17, 19, 22, 23, Very easy

24, 28, 29, 31, 34, 35, 37,41, 47,

54, 64, 107

On the basis of above table, the researcher has categorized each item according

to their difficulty index of 0.20 to 0.80 were selected and rest were dropped.

Discrimination Index or Validity Index

Discrimination index is defined as the measure of the extent to which a test

item discriminates or differentiates between the students who do well on the overall test

and those who do not do well in the overall test.

It is calculated by the following formula:

RH RL

Discri min ation Index 100

N H or N L

Where:

RH = Number of students in the higher group who answered the items correctly

RL = Number of students in the lower group who answered the items correctly

NH = Number of students in the higher group

NL = Number of students in the lower group

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Table 3.9

Interpretation of Discrimination Index

1. Below 30% Poor Items to be Rejected

2. 30% to 60% Reasonably Good

3. 60% to 80% Good Discriminator

4. 80% to 100% Best Discriminator

On the basis of above table, the researcher has categorized each item according

to their discrimination index as shown in table below:

Table 3.10

Item analysis based on Item Discrimination Index

S.No. Discremination Item No. Comment

Index

1 Below 30 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, Poor Items

22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 34, to be

Rejected

35, 36, 37, 41, 44, 47, 50, 54, 64,

70, 76, 83, 86, 96, 98, 105, 106,

107, 108, 111

2 30-60 1, 3, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 18, 20, 21, 25, Reasonably

30, 32, 33, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 45, Good

58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67,

68, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78,

79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89,

90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 99, 100,

101, 102, 103, 104, 109, 110, 112,

113, 114, 115

3 60-80 _ Good

Discriminator

4 Above 80 _ Best

Discriminator

The above table has shown that if Discrimination Index value is either equal to or

greater than 0.30 then the item discriminate otherwise not. So, the researcher has

selected the items which come under the Discrimination Index of 0.30 or above.

Reliability

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Reliability is the consistency of our measurement, or the degree to which an

instrument measures the same way each time it is used under the same condition with

the same subjects. In short, it is the repeatability of our measurement. A measure is

considered reliable if a person's score on the same test given twice is similar. It is

important to remember that reliability is not measured, it is estimated.

Table 3.11

Summary Statistics for Scale

Number of items in scale 75

Number of valid cases 100

Number of cases with missing data 00

Mean 48.14 Sum 4814.00

Standard Deviation 23.38 Variance 546.84

Skewness -0.85 Kurtosis -.80

Minimum 1.00 Maximum 75.00

Cronbach's alpha 0.98 Standardized alpha 0.98

Average Inter-Item Correlation .48

There are many ways for reliability estimation. The researcher has used Split-

Half Methodology and Cronbach's alpha for estimation of reliability. The Split-half design

in effect creates two comparable test administrations. The items in a test are split into

two tests that are equivalent in content and difficulty. Researcher has done this by

splitting among odd and even numbered items. This assures that the assessment is

homogeneous in content. Once the test is split, reliability estimated as the correlation of

two separate tests with an adjustment for the test length.

Table 3.12

Reliability Estimation

First Half Second Half

Number of Items 38 Number of Items 37

Mean 24.61 Mean 23.53

Sum 2461.00 Sum 2353.00

Standard Deviation 11.61 Standard Deviation 12.35

Variance 134.84 Variance 152.75

Cronbach's alpha 0.96 Cronbach's alpha 0.97

Correlation between first and second half 0.90

Correlation corrected for attenuation 0.93

Split half reliability 0.94

Interpretation of Reliability

88

The reliability of a test is indicated by the reliability coefficient. It is denoted by the

letter "r," and is expressed as a number ranging between 0 and 1.00, with r = 0

indicating no reliability, and r = 1.00 indicating perfect reliability. The larger the reliability

coefficient, the more repeatable or reliable the test scores. Table given below serves as

a general guideline for interpreting test reliability:

Table 3.13

General Guidelines for Interpreting Reliability Coefficients

S. No. Reliability Coefficient value Interpretation

1. 0.90 and up Excellent

2. 0.80 – 0.89 Good

3. 0.70 – 0.79 Adequate

4. below 0.70 May have limited applicability

which means 94% of the variance of test scores is true-score variance, and only 6%

error variance.

Validity

The test was validated against the criterion of Content Validity. The content

validity is concerned with the adequacy of sampling of a specified universe of content.

The test was validated against the criterion of Statistical Content Validity and Face

Validity: The content validity is concerned with the adequacy of sampling of a specified

universe of content.

The first procedure used to determine the content validity involved face validation

procedure. To determine content validity the test items and a list of outcomes were

given to the panel consisting of five experts in subject matter and three experts in test

items. The panel was asked to identify which test item corresponded to which

outcomes.

The experts agreed with the researcher on the assignment of test items to

objectives 95% of time. The percentage was taken as evidence of Content Validity.

The second procedure used to determine the content validity involved item total

correlation method. The findings of the same are shown below:

Table 3.14

Item-wise validity

Item No. Item Total Item No. Item Total Item No. Item Total

correlation correlation correlation

89

1 0.49 26 0.93 51 0.72

2 0.46 27 0.66 52 0.56

3 0.52 28 0.59 53 0.89

4 0.71 29 0.60 54 0.79

5 0.42 30 0.60 55 0.93

6 0.58 31 0.50 56 0.64

7 0.73 32 0.76 57 0.85

8 0.61 33 0.81 58 0.82

9 0.72 34 0.73 59 0.50

10 0.49 35 0.61 60 0.68

11 0.55 36 0.68 61 0.73

12 0.62 37 0.79 62 0.79

13 0.73 38 0.77 63 0.91

14 0.46 39 0.91 64 0.71

15 0.65 40 0.77 65 0.58

16 0.60 41 0.91 66 0.57

17 0.88 42 0.55 67 0.56

18 0.61 43 0.89 68 0.72

19 0.69 44 0.77 69 0.61

20 0.78 45 0.50 70 0.69

21 0.79 46 0.85 71 0.69

22 0.85 47 0.93 72 0.72

23 0.50 48 0.51 73 0.61

24 0.93 49 0.67 74 0.56

25 0.56 50 0.55 75 0.48

Table 3.15

General Guidelines for Interpreting Validity Coefficients

S. No. Validity Coefficient value Interpretation

1. Above .35 Very beneficial

2. 0.21 – 0.35 Likely to be useful

3. 0.11 – 0.20 Depends on circumstances

4. below 0.11 Unlikely to be useful

Statistical content validity was calculated with the help of Item Total Correlation

Method. The content validity of all 75 selected items ranged between 0.42 to 0.93. So

as per the interpretation from the general guidelines for interpreting validity coefficient,

all selected items were under the very beneficial category.

Final Form of Test

The test was once again revised and final form of the test with 75 items was

ready to use and it takes 130 minutes on an average.

3.5.2 LEARNING STYLE INVENTORY

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This is an internationally proven tool designed by Peter Honey and Alan Mumford

(1982) used to assess the preferred learning styles of students. Knowing one’s learning

style can accelerate his/her learning as one undertake activities that best fit his/her

preferred style. Knowing one’s learning style can also help avoid repeating mistakes by

undertaking activities that strengthen one’s style. There is no time limit to this

questionnaire. There are 80 items distributed uniformly for each of the four dimensions

i.e. Activist, Reflectors, Theorist and Pragmatists. All the questions are dichotomous type,

either of the answers are yes or no. The accuracy of the results depends on how honest

you can be. There is no right or wrong answers.

Scoring and Interpreting the Learning Styles Questionnaire

The Questionnaire is scored by awarding one point for each ticked item. There

are no points for crossed items. Simply indicate on the lists below which items were

ticked by circling the appropriate question number.

Table 3.16

Learning Styles - General Descriptions

2 7 1 5

4 13 3 9

6 15 8 11

10 16 12 19

17 25 14 21

23 28 18 27

24 29 20 35

32 31 22 37

34 33 26 44

38 36 30 49

40 39 42 50

43 41 47 53

45 46 51 54

48 52 57 56

58 55 61 59

64 60 63 65

71 62 68 69

91

72 66 75 70

74 67 77 73

79 76 78 80

ACTIVISTS

Activists involve themselves fully and without bias in new experiences. They

enjoy the here and now and are happy to be dominated by immediate experiences.

They are open-minded, not skeptical, and this tends to make them enthusiastic about

anything new. Their philosophy is: "I'll try anything once". They tend to act first and

consider the consequences afterwards. Their days are filled with activity. They tackle

problems by brainstorming. As soon as the excitement from one activity has died down

they are busy looking for the next. They tend to thrive on the challenge of new

experiences but are bored with implementation and longer-term consolidation.

Activists learn best from activities where:

They can engross themselves in short "here and now" activities such as business

games, competitive teamwork tasks, role-playing exercises.

They have a lot of the limelight/high visibility, i.e. they can "chair" meetings, lead

discussions, and give presentations.

Flexible and open minded, happy to have a go, happy to be exposed to new

situations, optimistic about anything new and therefore unlikely to resist change. Tendency to

take the immediately obvious action without thinking, often take unnecessary risks, tendency

to do too much themselves and hog the limelight, rush into action without sufficient

preparation, get bored with implementation/consolidation.

REFLECTORS

Reflectors like to stand back to ponder experiences and observe them from

many different perspectives. They collect data, both first hand and from others, and

prefer to think about it thoroughly before coming to any conclusion. The thorough

collection and analysis of data about experiences and events is what counts so they

tend to postpone reaching definitive conclusions for as long as possible. Their

philosophy is to be cautious. They are thoughtful people who like to consider all

possible angles and implications before making a move. Reflectors learn best from

activities where:

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They are allowed or encouraged to watch/think/chew over activities.

They have the opportunity to review what has happened, what they have learned.

They are able to stand back from events and listen/observe, i.e. observing a group at

work, taking a back seat in a meeting, watching a film or video.

Careful, thorough and methodical, thoughtful, good at listening to others and

assimilating information, rarely jump to conclusions. Tendency to hold back from direct

participation, slow to make up their minds and reach a decision, tendency to be too cautious

and not take enough risks, not assertive - they aren't particularly forthcoming and have no

"small talk".

THEORISTS

Theorists adapt and integrate observations into complex but logically sound

theories. They think problems through in a vertical, step-by-step logical way. They

assimilate disparate facts into coherent theories. They tend to be perfectionists who

won't rest easy until things are tidy and fit into a rational scheme. They like to analyze

and synthesize. They are keen on basic assumptions, principles, theories models and

systems thinking. Theorists learn best from activities where:

They have time to explore methodically the associations and inter-relationships

between ideas, events and situations.

tested in a tutorial session, by teaching high calibre people who ask searching

questions.

Logical "vertical" thinkers, rational and objective, good at asking probing questions

and disciplined approach. Restricted in lateral thinking, low tolerance for uncertainty, disorder

and ambiguity, intolerant of anything subjective or intuitive, full of "shoulds, oughts and musts"

etc.

PRAGMATISTS

Pragmatists are keen on trying out ideas, theories and techniques to see if

they work in practice. They positively search out new ideas and take the first

opportunity to experiment with applications. They are the sorts of people who return

from management courses brimming with new ideas that they want to try out in

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practice. They like to get on with things and act quickly and confidently on ideas that

attract them. Pragmatists learn best from activities where:

They are shown techniques for doing things with obvious practical advantages,

i.e. how to save time, how to make a good first impression, how to deal with

people.

They can concentrate on practical issues, i.e. drawing up action plans with an

obvious end product, suggesting short cuts, giving tips.

Keen to test things out in practice, Practical, down to earth, realistic, Businesslike -

gets straight to the point, Technique oriented. Tendency to reject anything without an

obvious application, Not very interested in theory or basic principles, Tendency to seize on

the first expedient solution to a problem, Impatient with waffle, on balance, task oriented not

people oriented.

3.5.3 ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION (N-ACH) SCALE

Deo-Mohan Achievement Motivation scale (1985) was used to measure the

achievement motivation of adolescents. The scale has been constructed by Dr. (Mrs.)

Pratibha Deo and Asha Mohan in 1985. English form of Achievement Motivation scale

was used in the present study. The scale consisted of 50 items having the distribution

as achievement motivation, need for achievement, academic challenge, achievement

anxiety, importance of grades, meaningfulness of task , relevance of school/college to

future goals, attitude towards education, attitude towards education, work methods,

attitude towards teachers, interpersonal relations, individual concern, general interests,

dramatics, sports etc. Out of 50 items, 13 are negative and 37 are positive items.

The scale is of the self-rating type and can be administered in a group with 5

points to rate viz always, frequently, sometimes, rarely, never. It has no time limit. The

scoring device was simple stencil type having a numerical weightage from 4 to 0 for

positive in the above order of rating scale and the reverse of it for the negative items.

The Finally selected 50 items were chosen after careful scrutiny having the distribution

as follows:

Table 3.17

Factors and No. of Selected Items

Sr. No. Factors No. of items

1. Academic motivation 4

2. Need for achievement 4

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3. Academic challenges 4

4. Achievement anxiety 1

5. Importance of grades/ marks 2

6. Meaningfulness of task 4

7. Relevance of school/college to future 2

8. Goals 4

9. Attitude towards education 5

10. Work method 3

11. Attitude toward teachers 4

12. Interpersonal relation 2

13. Individual concern 4

14. General interest 2

15. Dramatic, sports etc. 5

Total 50

Test retest method was applied to obtain the reliability coefficient of the scale.

Bending (1964) established the reliability coefficient of .68 for men and .62 for women

for his factor-analytic scale of need achievement. Taking into consideration these result,

the present scale reliability coefficient by test-retest method for the total group, as well

as for the separate for the male and female groups, are very satisfactory and the scale

can be taken as quit reliable for use.

Validity of the scale:

As far as the validity of the scale is concerned, in the first instance the item

validity established by the high-low discrimination method was accepted as the validity

of the whole measure. The coefficient of correlation between the scale and the

projective test was observed to be .54 which speaks for the validity of the scale also, the

validity being of the concurrent nature. E. Carney (1966) observed that questionnaire

measures correlated orally with McClellend’s projrective measures. This support the

result of present scale of achievement motivation to be sufficiently valid for use for

measuring achievement motivation.

Scoring:

One stencil keys is to be used for scoring, positive and negative items. A positive

item carry’s the way of 4,3,2,1 and 0 for the categories of Always, frequently,

sometimes, rarely and never respectively. The negative item is to be scored 0,1,2,3

and 4 for the same categories respectively that are given above. Separate keys for

positive and negative items are provided. The total score is the summation of all the

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positive and negative item scores. The minimum scores obtained can be 0 (zero) and

the maximum can be 200, other scores ranging in between these limits.

Table 3.18

Item-wise and Category-wise Scores

Positive 4 3 2 1 0

Negative 0 1 2 3 4

and very easy for use in administration as well as scoring.

Table 3.19

Response and Item-wise Scoring

2,3,4,5,6,7,10,11,15,16,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,

Positive 37

33,35,36,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50.

Negative 1,12,13,14,17,18,19,20,21,22,32,34,37 13

Total 50

The scores theoretically range between 0 to 200, and an obtained score for any

person will be in between these two limits. This obtained score shall be the raw score,

and for the interpretation of the raw score, z-score norms have been presented. The z-

score norms have been prepared age wise since the sample population was very small,

therefore z-score norms on the basis of means and Standard Deviation have been

prepared and these have been presented table 5-11 and in table 12 norms for

interpretation of the z-score for level of achievement motivation have been presented.

3.5.4 SELF CONFIDENCE INVENTORY

The Self Confidence Inventory (SCI) has been designed to assess the level of

Self -confidence among adolescents and adults. The abbreviated name has been used

so that the respondent may not decipher the real propos of the test and take good.

The personality pattern is unified multidimensional structure in which the concept

of self is the core or center of gravity (Breckenridge and Vincent, 1965). Into this

structure are integrated many patterns of response tendencies, known as ‘traits’ which

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are closely related to and influenced by the concept of self. Self confidence is one such

personality trait. The self is a composite of a person’s thoughts and feelings, strivings

and hopes, fears and, his view of what he is, what he has been, what he might become,

and his attitude pertaining of his worth. Self confidence is a positive attitude of oneself

towards one’ self –concept. It is an attribute of perceived self. Self confidence refers to

person’s perceived ability to tackle situations successfully without leaning on others and

to have a positive self confidence. In the word of Basavanna (1975), “In general terms,

self confidence refers to an individual’s perceived ability to act affectively in a situation

to overcome obstacle and to get thing go all right”.

A self confident person perceives himself to be socially competent, emotionally

mature, intellectually adequate, successful, satisfied, decisive, optimistic, independent,

self assured, forward moving, fairly assertive and having leadership qualities.

Reliability

The obtained reliability coefficient and index of reliability have been below in table:

Table 3.20

Reliability Coefficient and Index of Reliability

Method N Reliability Coefficient Index of Reliability

Split-Half 362 .91 .95

K-R Formula 200 .89 .94

Test-Retest 116 .78 .88

Validity

In item-analysis validity coefficients were determined for each item by biserial

correlation method and only those items were retained which yielded .25 or above

biserial correlation with the total score. This was also validated by correlating the scores

obtained on this inventory with the scores obtained by the subject on Basavanna’s Self-

confidence Inventory. The validity coefficient obtained is .82 which is significant beyond .

01 level.

Scoring

The inventory can be scored by hand. A score of one is awarded for a response

indicative of lack of Self- confidence, i.e., for making cross (×) response to item nos.

2,7,23,31,40,41,43,44,45,53,54,55 and for making cross (×) to response to the rest of

the items. Hence, the lower the score, the higher would be the level of Self- confidence

vice - versa.

Norms

97

The norms have been prepared on a sample of 2074 individuals with Mean

(25.59), S.D. (10.25) and Standard Error of means (0.22). For the purpose of converting

raw scores into Z-score for the purpose of interpreting the level of self-confidence.

Norms for interpretation of the level of self-confidence have been below in the table:

Table: 3.21

Norms for interpretation of the level of Self-confidence

Sr. No. Range of Z-scores Grade Level of Self-confidence

1. +2.01 and above A Extremely Low

2. +1.26 to +2.00 B Highly Low

3. +0.51 to +1.25 C Above Average Low

4. -0.50 to +0.50 D Average / Moderate

5. -0.51 to -1.25 E Above Average High

6. -1.26 to -2.00 F Very High

7. -2.01 and below G Extremely High

e-Content Development Process

Investigator had gone through three distinct phases during development of e-

Content and these were Pre-Development phase, Development phase, and Post-

Development phase. Each of these phase had a number of stages that were organized

sequentially.

Stages during Pre-Development phase:

Content Analysis and Instructional Design

The investigator had analysed the content of class VII mathematics syllabus.

While developing e-Content, the strength of various theories were kept in view and

adapted the approach which suited most to largest group, objectives of learning and

expected outcome of learning.

Script Writing of e-Content Elements

The investigator had written the script of all the required elements of e-Content

i.e. Video and Animation.

Stages during Development Phase:

ICT Plan and Selection

The investigator has planned about appropriate ICT for each media element

such as graphics, text, audio, video, animation and interactivity for each learning

experience. The investigator has selected required hardware and software for each

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element of e-Content. Investigator has developed a flowchart to outline the behind-the-

screen logic. Investigator will determine computer hardware and software requirements.

Production and Integration of e-Content Elements

Investigator has developed each of elements of e-Content using appropriate

Software. and then integrated different elements of e-Content.

e-Content assessment by experts / teachers and students

e-Content assessment tool for experts and teacher was developed by investigator

himself. Reaction towards e-Content Scale assesses the usability of the developed e-

Content. Usability can be defined as “a measure of the ease with which a system can

be learned or used, its safety, effectiveness and efficiency, and attitude of its users

towards it.” Based upon this definition, the usability of e-Content could be measured by

how easily and effectively a specific user can use the e-Content, given particular kind of

support, to carry out a fixed set of tasks, in a defined set of environments. The aim of

usability testing is to identify problem area, and the extracting of information concerning

problems, difficulties, weaknesses, and areas for improvement. e-Content should be

enjoyable to use and aesthetically pleasing to users. User satisfaction should be within

acceptable levels of users cost in terms of tiredness, discomfort, frustration, and

individual effort so that satisfaction causes continued and enhanced usage of e-

Content. Motivational elements including color, graphical images, animation, and sound

in the interactive multimedia can motivate the user and increase satisfaction.

Format of the Scale

The reaction towards e-Content scale has two forms: Form ‘A’ and Form ‘B’.

Form ‘A’ is e-Content assessment by the experts and teachers, and Form ‘B’ is e-

Content assessment by the students.

Description of the Scale

The Scale is consisted by keeping few parameters in mind like Content and

Instructional Design, Communication and Innovation Strategy and Content

Effectiveness. The scale in its final form consists of 15 items in Form ‘A’ and 15 items in

form ‘B’.

The method of assessment of each parameter is based on five points scale i.e

1) VG : Stands for very good

2) G : Stands for good

3) A : Stands for average

4) P : Stands for poor

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5) VP : Stands for very poor

Scoring

All the items of the scale are positively worded. Items are given a score of 5, 4,

3, 2, 1 for Very Good, Good, Average, Poor and Very Poor respectively. The sum of

these values gives the effectiveness of developed e-Content. The total score varies

from 34 to 68 showing least effective to highest effectiveness for form ‘A’ and 29 to 72

showing least effective to highest effectiveness for form ‘B’. The percentage of

assessment of this tool by experts and student was found above 75%.

Finalization of e-Content Elements

After e-Content assessment by experts/teachers and students the investigator has

finalized the e-Content by including suggested changes.

Post-Development Phase

Investigator has conducted an experiment to check the educational effectiveness of

developed e-Content. The investigator had used Pre-test – Post-test Control Group

Design.

3.7 CONDUCT OF THE STUDY

The experimental procedure was executed. One experimental and one control

group was formed. The e-Content group as experimental group was taught

mathematics with the supplement of e-Content, the control group was taught

mathematics through Conventional Method. The design had comprised three stages:

the first stage has involved pre-testing of all the students of two groups on the following

scale / test: (a) Mathematics Achievement Test (b) Achievement Motivation Scale (c)

Learning Style Inventory by Honey & Mumford (d) Self Confidence Inventory. The

second stage has involved treatment of two months. The experimental treatment was

consisted of teaching mathematics to VII class with e-Content to experimental and

through Conventional Method to control group. During the third stage i.e. post-test

stage, the students were post-tested on achievement in mathematics just after the

treatment so as to determine the effect of treatment. A detailed description of the design

of the experiment has been given in the table 3.1.

3.7.1 Pre-Test

Before the commencement of the experiment, the subjects were administered

mathematics achievement test, Achievement Motivation with the help of Deo-Mohan

Achievement Motivation Scale prepared by Pratibha Deo and Asha Mohan, Learning

Style with the help of Learning Style Inventory by Honey and Mumford, Self

100

Confidence with the help of Self Confidence Inventory developed by Rekha Gupta.

Before administrating the test, instructions were explained verbally to the subjects by

the investigator. Both the groups of subjects were administered their test. The

administration of the test was carried out as per norms and instructions contained in

their manual. After administrating the above test, they were scored as per the scoring

procedure mentioned in the manual. Thus, pre-test score were obtained on

achievement in mathematics, Achievement Motivation, Learning Style and Self

Confidence of both groups. This all took time of three days.

3.7.2 The Treatment

To find out the efficacy of the independent variables, the experimental variables

were manipulated in the form of teaching based on e-Content and conventional method.

The experimental group was taught through e-Content and control group was taught

through conventional method. The process was carried out for two months. Same

topics were taught to both groups. The treatment was conducted by the investigator

himself in both groups so as to avoid teacher variable and maximum precision.

3.7.3 Post-Test

Immediately after the treatment was over, the subjects were administered the

post-test. The same criterion test as taken in pre-test was taken. Both the groups of

sampled students were subjected to those post-test. In this way, post-test scores were

obtained on achievement test in mathematics of both the groups.

3.8 STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA

Mean, Standard Deviation, Correlated t-test, One-way ANCOVA and Two-way

ANCOVA was employed by the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences)

software to find out the effectiveness of e-Content strategy on achievement in

mathematics of elementary school students.

101

Figure 3.1: Glimpses of the developed e-Content from the various chapters of class VII

Mathematics

102

Figure 3.2: Mathematics Achievement Test at try out & final stage and e-Content

assessment by the expert.

103

Figure 3.3: Glimpses of the e-Content assessment by the teachers and students.

104

Figure 3.4: Teaching Mathematics with the help of e-Content to the experimental group

in the Classroom.

105

Figure 3.5: Teaching Mathematics with the help of traditional method to the control

group in the classroom.

106

Figure 3.6: Glimpses from the Post-test for assessment of Mathematics achievement.

107

CHAPTER- IV

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of e-Content

strategy on achievement in mathematics of elementary school students. For this

purpose, descriptive statistics namely mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics

namely t-test and analysis of covariance was used to study the effectiveness of e-

Content strategy on achievement in mathematics of elementary school students.

Analysis of covariance was employed to analyse the obtained (pre-test and post-test)

scores of the experimental and control group. Analysis of Covariance is an extension of

ANOVA that provides a way of statistically controlling the (linear) effect of variables one

does not want to examine in a study. These extraneous variables are called covariates,

or control variables. ANCOVA allows us to remove covariates from the list of possible

explanations of variance in the dependent variable. ANCOVA does this by using

statistical techniques (such as regression to partial out the effects of covariates) rather

than direct experimental methods to control extraneous variables (Vogt, 1999).

4.1 TESTING OF ASSUMPTIONS OF ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE

(ANCOVA)

The basic assumption underlying the technique of analysis of covariance for the

data of the variable under study were tested as under:

(i) Assumption of Normality:

In the light of the findings of Eden and Yates (Johnson, 1961), and Norton

(Guilford, 1965) the assumption of normality may not be considered important for the

data of the experiment.

(ii) Assumption of randomness:

The assumption of randomness was not tested because in the present study the

quasi-experimental method was used. The experimental and control groups were

taken as the intact sections of class seventh from Government Model High School,

Sector 26, Chandigarh.

(iii) Assumption of Homogeneity of variance:

The assumption of homogeneity of sample variance for the variables under study

was tested through Levene's Test of homogeneity of variance. The results are given

in the table 4.1.

Table 4.1

Levene's test of Homogeneity of Variance

108

S. No. Variables Levene's statistics df1 df2 Significance

Achievement in

1. 0.62 3 76 0.67

Mathematics

Achievement

2. 1.04 5 74 0.40

Motivation

3. Self confidence 1.55 5 74 0.19

4. Learning style 0.76 7 72 0.62

The table 4.1 shows the results of Levene's test for testing the assumption of

homogeneity of variance which is the basic assumption of applying ANCOVA. It may be

observed from the table 4.1 that all the values indicated in the Levene's statistical table

4.1 turned out to be greater than 0.5 (therefore not significant); indicating that the

assumption of homogeneity of variance was not violated in the present study.

ANCOVA was employed to achieve the objectives of the study. The results of analysis

of data are presented below:

MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT

The second objective was to compare mean score of mathematics achievement

of pre and post stages of the experimental group. For achieving this objective, use of

correlated t-test was made. The table 4.2 shows the means and SDs of pre-test and

post-test achievement in mathematics scores of elementary school students in the

experimental and control group.

Table 4.2

Means and SDs of the Pre-test and Post-test Achievement in Mathematics Scores

of Elementary School Students in Experimental and Control Groups

Experimental Group Control Group

Stage

N Mean SD N Mean SD

Pre-test 40 47.20 8.47 40 44.65 7.81

Post-test 40 60.43 6.74 40 49.10 7.66

It may be observed from the table 4.2 that the mean achievement in mathematics

scores for the elementary school students in the experimental group at the pre-test and

post-test stages are 47.20 and 60.43 with SD of 8.47 and 6.74 respectively. Similarly,

the mean achievement in mathematics scores for the control group at the pre-test and

109

post-test stages are 44.65 and 49.10 respectively with SD 7.81 and 7.66 respectively.

The data were analyzed with the help of correlated t-test. The results are given in table

4.3.

Table 4.3

Comparison of Mathematics Achievement of Elementary School Students in the

Experimental Group at the Pre-test and Post-test Stages

Correlated

Testing N Mean SD

t-value

Pre-test 40 47.20 8.47

21.31**

Post-test 40 60.43 6.74

*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01

From table 4.3, it is evident that the correlated t-value is 21.31 which is significant

at 0.01 level. It reflects that the mean scores of mathematics achievement at pre-test

and post-test stages of e-Content group differ significantly. Thus, the null hypothesis,

namely, there is no significant difference between mean scores of mathematics

achievement at pre-test and post-test stages of e-Content group is rejected. Further, the

mean score of mathematics achievement at post-test stage is 60.43 which is

significantly higher than the mean score of mathematics achievement at pre-test stage

which is 47.20. It may, therefore, be concluded that the teaching mathematics through

e-Content significantly enhanced mathematics achievement of students.

The treatment is effective as the same is evident also from the figure 4.1 that the

overall scores of experimental group increased from 47.2 to 60.4 as there is

comparatively negligible change in the control group from 44.65 to 49.1 in the post-test

stage.

4.3 COMPARISON OF ADJUSTED MEAN SCORES OF

MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT OF E-CONTENT GROUP &

CONVENTIONAL METHOD GROUP WHEN PRE-MATHEMATICS

ACHIEVEMENT CONSIDERED AS COVARIATE

The third objective was to compare adjusted mean score of mathematics

achievement of e-Content group and conventional method group by considering Pre-

mathematics achievement as covariate. The data were analyzed with the help of One

Way ANCOVA. The results are given in table 4.4.

Table 4.4

110

Summary of the Results of Analysis of Covariance for the Effect of Treatment on

Achievement in Mathematics

Source SS df MS F-value

Pre-test 3322.243 1 3322.243 345.17**

Treatment 1338.607 1 1338.607 139.08**

Error 741.132 77 9.625

Total 6195.487 79

*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01

From the table 4.4, it is evident that the adjusted F-value for the effect of

treatment on the achievement in mathematics is 139.08 which is significant at 0.01

level. It shows that the adjusted mean score of mathematics achievement of students

taught mathematics through e-Content and those taught the same topics through

conventional method differ significantly when Pre-mathematics achievement was taken

as a covariate. Thus, the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in

adjusted mean scores of mathematics achievement of e-Content group and

Conventional group when Pre-mathematics achievement is taken as covariate is

rejected. The adjusted means of achievement in mathematics of experimental and

control groups along with pre-test and post-test mean scores are presented in the table

4.5.

Table 4.5

Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores of Elementary School Students of

Experimental and Control Groups and t-value

Pre-test Post-test Adjusted Mean

Group N t-value

(Mx) (My) (Myx)

Experimental 40 47.20 60.43 59.40

Control 40 44.65 49.10 51.12 5.13**

General Means 45.93 54.77 55.26

*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01

It may be observed from the table 4.5 that the adjusted mean mathematics

achievement scores for the e-Content group and conventional method group are 59.40

and 51.12 respectively. Further, the t-value testing the significance of mean difference in

the adjusted mean scores of the experimental and control group came out to be 5.13

which is significant at .01 level. It may, therefore, be said that the teaching mathematics

through e-Content strategy was found to significant enhance mathematics achievement

in comparison to conventional method when groups were matched on Pre-mathematics

achievement.

111

Figure 4.1: Comparison of Pre-test, Post-test and Adjusted Mean of Achievement

in Mathematics Scores of Experimental Group and Control Group

ON MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT WHEN PRE–MATHEMATICS

ACHIEVEMENT CONSIDERED AS COVARIATE

The fourth objective was to study the effect of treatment, Gender and their

interaction on mathematics achievement by considering Pre-mathematics achievement

as covariate. There were two levels of treatment, namely, e-Content and conventional

method. The data were analyzed with the help of 2x2 Factorial Design ANCOVA. The

results are given in table 4.6

Table 4.6

Summary of Analysis of Covariance of Interaction Effect of

Treatment x Gender for Achievement in Mathematics

Source SS df MS F-value

Pre-test 3189.805 1 3189.805 325.67**

Treatment 1341.168 1 1341.168 136.93**

Gender 1.411 1 1.411 0.15

Treatment x Gender 5.301 1 5.301 0.54

Error 734.598 75 9.795

Total 6195.487 79

*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01

112

4.4.1 Effect of Treatment on Mathematics Achievement

From table 4.6, it is evident that the adjusted F-value for the main effect of

treatment on the mathematics achievement came out to be 136.93 which is significant

at 0.01 level. It shows that the adjusted mean score of mathematics achievement of

students taught mathematics through e-Content and those taught the same topics

through conventional method differ significantly when groups were matched with

respect to Pre-mathematics achievement. Thus, the null hypothesis that there is no

significant effect of treatment on mathematics achievement of students when groups

were matched with respect to Pre-mathematics achievement is rejected. It may,

therefore, be said that the e-Content was found to improve mathematics achievement

significantly higher in comparison to conventional method when groups were matched

on Pre- mathematics achievement.

4.4.2 Effect of Gender on Mathematics Achievement

From table 4.6, it is evident that the adjusted F-value for the main effect of

gender on mathematics achievement turned out to be 0.15 which is not significant even

at .05 level. It indicates that the adjusted mean scores of mathematics achievement of

males and females did not differ significantly when Pre-mathematics achievement was

considered as covariate. So, there was no significant effect of gender on mathematics

achievement when groups were matched with respect to Pre-mathematics

achievement. In this context, the null hypothesis that there is no significant effect of

gender on mathematics achievement of students when groups were matched with

respect to pre-mathematics achievement is accepted. It may, therefore, be said that

both male and female students do not differ significantly on mathematics achievement

when groups were matched in respect of Pre-mathematics achievement.

4.4.3 Effect of Interaction between treatment and Gender on Mathematics

Achievement

It may be seen from the table 4.6 that the adjusted F-value for interaction

between treatment and gender turned out to be 0.55 which is not significant even at .05

level when Pre-mathematics achievement was taken as covariate. It indicates that there

was no significant interaction effect of treatment and gender on mathematics

achievement when Pre-mathematics achievement was taken as covariate. Thus, the

null hypothesis that there is no significant effect of interaction between treatment and

gender on mathematics achievement when pre-mathematics achievement was taken as

113

covariate is accepted. It may, therefore, be said that gender may not be kept in mind

while selecting the strategy of teaching mathematics when groups were matched with

respect to pre- achievement in mathematics as both male and female students were

found to have mathematics achievement to the same extent when groups were

matched in respect of pre-mathematics achievement.

The table 4.7 shows the adjusted mean achievement in mathematics scores of

male and female elementary school students in the experimental and control groups.

Table 4.7

Adjusted Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores of Elementary School

Students for Treatment x Gender

Adjusted

Gender Group N SD t-value

Mean

Experimental 24 59.08 6.50

Male 3.71**

Control 21 51.25 7.64

Experimental 16 59.88 6.92

Female 3.56**

Control 19 51.00 7.70

*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01

It may be observed from the table 4.7 that the adjusted mean achievement in

mathematics scores of the male students of the experimental and control groups are

59.08 and 51.25 with SD of 6.50 and 7.64 respectively. The t-value testing the

significance of mean difference came out to be 3.71 which is significant at .01 level . It

indicates that there is a significant difference in adjusted mean mathematics

achievement scores of male students of experimental and control groups. Further, the

perusal of table 4.7 indicates that the adjusted mean mathematics achievement scores

of female students of the experimental and control group are 59.88 and 51.00 with SD

of 6.92 and 7.70 respectively. The t-value testing the significance of mean difference

turned out to be 3.56 which is significant at .01 level indicating that there is a significant

difference in the adjusted mean mathematics achievement scores female students of

the experimental and control groups of students.

It may be concluded that there is significant difference in the adjusted mean

scores of achievement in mathematics of experimental and control groups across

gender.

114

Figure 4.2: Comparison of Adjusted Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores of

Elementary School Students for Treatment x Gender

THEIR INTERACTION ON MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT WHEN

PRE-MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT CONSIDERED AS

COVARIATE

The fifth objective was to study the effect of treatment, achievement motivation

and their interaction on mathematics achievement by considering pre-mathematics

achievement as covariate. There were two levels of treatment, namely, e-Content and

conventional method. Achievement motivation was considered at three levels i.e. high,

average and low. The data were analyzed with the help of 2X3 Factorial Design

ANCOVA. The results are given in table 4.8.

Table 4.8

Treatment x Achievement Motivation for Achievement in Mathematics

Source SS df MS F-value

Pre-test 751.67 1 751.67 83.57**

Treatment 1320.66 1 1320.66 146.82**

Achievement Motivation 43.51 2 21.76 2.42*

Treatment x Achievement

42.974 2 21.487 2.39*

Motivation

115

Error 656.633 73 8.995

Total 6195.487 79

*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01

4.5.1 Effect of Treatment on Mathematics Achievement

From table 4.8, it is evident that the adjusted F-value for the main effect of

treatment on mathematics achievement came out to be 146.82 which is significant at

0.01 level. It shows that the adjusted mean score of mathematics achievement of

students taught mathematics through e-Content and those taught the same topics

through conventional method differ significantly when groups were matched with

respect to Pre-mathematics achievement. Thus, the null hypothesis that there is no

significant effect of treatment on mathematics achievement of students when groups

were matched with respect to pre-mathematics achievement is rejected. It may,

therefore, be said that the e-Content was found to significantly enhance the

mathematics achievement of elementary school students in comparison to conventional

method when groups were matched on Pre-mathematics achievement.

4.5.2 Effect of Achievement Motivation on Mathematics Achievement

From table 4.8, it is evident that the adjusted F-value for the main effect of

achievement motivation is 2.42 which is significant at 0.05 level. It shows that the

adjusted mean score of mathematics achievement of elementary school students

belonging to high, average and low levels of achievement motivation differed

significantly when Pre-mathematics achievement was considered as covariate. So there

was a significant effect of achievement motivation on mathematics achievement of

elementary school students when groups were matched with respect to Pre-

mathematics achievement. In this context, the null hypothesis that there is no significant

effect of achievement motivation on mathematics achievement of students when groups

were matched with respect to Pre-mathematics achievement is rejected. It may,

therefore, be said that students belonging to high, average and low levels of

achievement motivation were found to be significantly different on mathematics

achievement when groups were matched in respect of pre-mathematics achievement.

4.5.3 Effect of Interaction between Treatment and Achievement Motivation on

Mathematics Achievement

From table 4.8, it is evident that the adjusted F-value for interaction effect of

treatment and achievement motivation on mathematics achievement turned out to be

2.39 which is significant at .05 level. It indicates that there is a significant effect of

116

Interaction between treatment and achievement motivation on mathematics

achievement of elementary school students when Pre-mathematics achievement was

taken as covariate. Thus, the null hypothesis that there is no significant effect of

interaction between treatment and achievement motivation on mathematics

achievement when Pre-mathematics achievement was taken as covariate is rejected.

The table 4.9 shows the adjusted means of mathematics achievement of

elementary school students across high, average and low levels of achievement

motivation.

Table 4.9

Adjusted Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores across three Levels of

Achievement Motivation

N SD t-value

Motivation Mean

High (1) 21 58.19 6.27 1 vs 2 1.33

Average (2) 37 54.98 6.00

2 vs 3 0.54

Low (3) 22 53.03 7.32

3 vs 1 2.48*

*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01

It may be observed from the table 4.9 that the adjusted mean scores of

mathematics achievement of elementary school students across high, average and low

levels of achievement motivation came out to be 58.19, 54.98 and 53.03 respectively.

Further, the t-values testing the significance of mean differences across high and

average levels of achievement motivation came out to be 1.33 which is not significant

even at .05 level showing that there is no significant difference in adjusted mean

mathematics achievement of elementary school students across high and average

levels of achievement motivation.

Also, the t-values testing the significance of mean differences across average

and low levels of achievement motivation came out to be 0.54 and 2.48 which is not

significant even at .05 level showing that there is no significant difference in adjusted

mean mathematics achievement of elementary school students across average and low

levels of mathematics achievement motivation.

117

Figure 4.3: Adjusted Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores across three

levels of Achievement Motivation

The table 4.10 shows the adjusted mean achievement in mathematics scores of

elementary school students in the experimental and control group across high, average

and low levels of achievement motivation.

Table 4.10

Adjusted Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores of Elementary School

Students for Treatment x Achievement Motivation

Group N SD t-value

Motivation Mean

Experimental 12 61.01 3.10

High 4.63**

Control 9 53.36 4.48

Experimental 18 58.66 3.80

Average 4.76**

Control 19 51.30 5.41

Experimental 10 59.41 4.79

Low 5.83**

Control 12 48.66 3.86

*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01

The table 4.10 shows the t-values testing the significance of mean differences in

the adjusted mean mathematics achievement scores elementary school students with

high achievement motivation in the experimental and control groups. It may further be

118

noted from the table 4.10 that the adjusted mean scores for the elementary school

students with high achievement motivation in the experimental and control groups are

61.01 and 53.36 with SD of 3.10 and 4.48 respectively. The t-value testing the

significance of mean difference in adjusted mean scores of mathematics achievement

of high achievement motivation group of elementary school students in the experimental

and control group came out to be 4.63 which is significant at .01 level.

It may also be seen from the table 4.10 that the adjusted mean scores for the

elementary school students with average achievement motivation in the experimental

and control groups are 58.66 and 51.30 with SD of 3.80 and 5.41 respectively. The t-

value testing the significance of mean difference in adjusted mean scores of

mathematics achievement of average achievement motivation group of elementary

school students in the experimental and control group came out to be 4.76 which is

significant at .01 level.

The perusal of the table 4.10 further reveals that the adjusted mean scores for

the elementary school students with low achievement motivation in the experimental

and control groups are 59.41 and 48.66 with SD of 4.79 and 3.86 respectively. The t-

value testing the significance of mean difference in adjusted mean scores of

mathematics achievement of low achievement motivation group of elementary school

students in the experimental and control group came out to be 5.83 which is significant

at .01 level.

It may thus be concluded that there is significant difference in the adjusted mean

scores of achievement in mathematics of the experimental and control group across

high, average and low levels of achievement motivation.

119

Figure 4.4: Adjusted Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores of Elementary

School Students for Treatment x Achievement Motivation

INTERACTION ON MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT WHEN PRE-

MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT CONSIDERED AS COVARIATE

The sixth objective was to study the effect of treatment, learning style and their

interaction on mathematics achievement by considering Pre-mathematics achievement

as covariate. There were two levels of treatment, namely, e-Content and conventional

method. Theorist, reflectors, activist and pragmatist were four levels of learning styles.

The data were analyzed with the help of 2x4 factorial design ANCOVA. The results are

given in table 4.11.

Table 4.11

Style for Achievement in Mathematics

(2x4 Factorial Design)

Source SS df MS F-value

120

Pre-test 1752.951 1 1752.951 186.94**

Treatment 801.562 1 801.562 85.48**

Learning Style 44.131 3 14.710 1.57

Treatment x Learning

22.482 3 7.494 .80

Style

Error 665.767 71 9.377

Total 6195.487 79

*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01

From table 4.11, it is evident that the adjusted F-value for the main effect of

treatment came out to be 85.48 which is significant at 0.01 level. It shows that the

adjusted mean score of achievement in mathematics of students taught mathematics

through e-Content and those taught the same topics through conventional strategy differ

significantly when groups were matched with respect to Pre-achievement in

mathematics. Thus, the null hypothesis that there is no significant effect of treatment on

achievement in mathematics of students when groups were matched with respect to

Pre-achievement in mathematics is rejected. It may, therefore, be said that e-Content

was found to improve achievement in mathematics significantly higher in comparison to

conventional strategy when groups were matched on pre-achievement in mathematics.

4.6.2 Effect of Learning Style on Mathematics Achievement

It may be observed from the table 4.11 that the adjusted F-value for the main

effect of learning style is 1.57 which is not significant even at 0.05 level. It shows that

the adjusted mean score of achievement in mathematics of students belonging to

different learning styles do not differ significantly when pre-achievement in mathematics

was considered as covariate. So, there was no significant effect of learning style on

achievement in mathematics of students when matched with respect to pre-

achievement in mathematics. In this context, the null hypothesis that there is no

significant effect of learning style on achievement in mathematics of students when

groups were matched with respect of Pre-achievement in mathematics is accepted. It

may, therefore, be said that learning style may not be kept in mind while selecting the

method of teaching mathematics if the groups are matched with respect of pre-

achievement in mathematics.

4.6.3 Effects of Interaction between Treatment and Learning Style on Mathematics

Achievement

121

The table 4.11 depicts that the adjusted F-value for interaction between treatment

and learning style is 0.23 which is not significant when pre-achievement in mathematics

was taken as covariate. It indicates that there was no significant effect of Interaction

between treatment and learning style on achievement in mathematics when pre-

achievement in mathematics was taken as covariate. Thus, the null hypothesis that

there is no significant effect of interaction between treatment and learning style on

achievement in mathematics when pre-achievement in mathematics was taken as

covariate is accepted. It may, therefore, be said that learning style may not be kept in

mind while selecting the method of teaching mathematics if the groups are matched

with respect of pre-achievement in mathematics.

The table 4.12 shows the adjusted mean achievement in mathematics scores of

elementary school students in the experimental and control group across four different

types of learning styles viz. activist, reflector, theorist and pragmatist.

Table 4.12

Adjusted Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores of Elementary School

Students for Treatment x Learning Style

Type of Adjusted

Group N SD t-value

Learning Style Mean

Experimental 7 62.87 3.95

Activist

Control 4 52.88 2.83 4.10**

Experimental 11 59.25 5.46

Reflector

Control 12 50.92 5.73 3.56**

Experimental 18 58.32 5.04

Theorist

Control 20 51.20 7.37 3.43**

Experimental 4 57.26 6.88

Pragmatist

Control 4 50.94 3.51 1.64

*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01

The table 4.12 shows the t-values testing the significance of mean differences in

the adjusted mean mathematics achievement scores of elementary school students

across different learning styles in the experimental and control groups. It may further be

noted from the table 4.12 that the adjusted mean scores for the elementary school

students with activist learning style in the experimental and control groups are 62.87

and 52.88 with SD of 3.95 and 2.83 respectively. The t-value testing the significance of

mean difference in adjusted mean scores of mathematics achievement of elementary

122

school students with activist learning style in the experimental and control group came

out to be 4.10 which is significant at .01 level.

It may further be noted from the table 4.12 that the adjusted mean scores for the

elementary school students with reflector learning style in the experimental and control

groups are 59.25 and 50.22 with SD of 5.46 and 5.73 respectively. The t-value testing

the significance of mean difference in adjusted mean scores of mathematics

achievement of elementary school students with reflector learning style in the

experimental and control group came out to be 3.56 which is significant at .01 level.

Also, the table 4.12 reveals that the adjusted mean scores for the elementary

school students with theorist learning style in the experimental and control groups are

58.32 and 51.20 with SD of 5.04 and 7.37 respectively. The t-value testing the

significance of mean difference in adjusted mean scores of mathematics achievement

of elementary school students with theorist learning style in the experimental and

control group came out to be 3.43 which is significant at .01 level.

The table 4.12 shows that the adjusted mean scores for the elementary school

students with pragmatist learning style in the experimental and control groups are 57.26

and 50.94 with SD of 6.88 and 3.51 respectively. The t-value testing the significance of

mean difference in adjusted mean scores of mathematics achievement of elementary

school students with activist learning style in the experimental and control group came

out to be 1.64 which is not significant even at .05 level.

It may be concluded that there are significant differences in the adjusted mean

mathematics achievement scores of elementary school students with activist, theorist

and reflector learning styles in the experimental and control groups. However, no

significant differences were found in the adjusted mean mathematics achievement

scores of elementary school students with pragmatist learning style in the experimental

and control groups.

123

Figure 4.5: Adjusted Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores of Elementary

School Students for Treatment x Learning Style

INTERACTION ON MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT WHEN PRE-

MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT CONSIDERED AS COVARIATE

The seventh objective was to study the effect of treatment, self-confidence and

their interaction on mathematics achievement by considering Pre-mathematics

achievement as covariate. There were two levels of treatment, namely, e-Content and

conventional method. There were three levels of self-confidence namely high, average

and low. The data were analyzed with the help of 2X3 factorial design ANCOVA. The

results are given in table 4.13.

Table 4.13

Summary of Analysis of Covariance of Interaction Effect of

Treatment x Self-confidence for Achievement in Mathematics

(2x3 Factorial Design)

Source SS df MS F-value

Pre-test 1065.18 1 1065.18 118.03**

124

Treatment 1294.55 1 1294.55 143.44**

Self Confidence 1.97 2 0.99 0.11

Treatment x Self

74.95 2 37.48 4.15**

Confidence

Error 658.818 73 9.025

Total 6195.487 79

*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01

4.7.1 Effect of Treatment on Mathematics Achievement

The table 4.13 shows that the adjusted F-value for the main effect of treatment

on mathematics achievement is 143.44 which is significant at 0.01 level. It shows that

the adjusted mean score of achievement in mathematics of students taught

mathematics through e-Content and those taught the same topics through conventional

strategy differ significantly when groups were matched with respect to pre-achievement

in mathematics. Thus, the null hypothesis that there is no significant effect of treatment

on achievement in mathematics of students when groups were matched with respect to

pre-achievement in mathematics is rejected. It may, therefore, be said that the e-

Content was found to improve achievement in mathematics significantly higher in

comparison conventional strategy when groups were matched on pre-achievement in

mathematics.

4.7.2 Effect of Self-confidence on Mathematics Achievement

It is evident from table 4.13 that the adjusted F-value for the main effect of self-

confidence is 0.11 which is not significant even at .05 level. It shows that the adjusted

mean score of achievement in mathematics of elementary school students belonging to

high, average and low levels of self-confidence do not differ significantly when pre-

achievement in mathematics was considered as covariate. So there is no significant

effect of self-confidence on achievement in mathematics of elementary school students

when groups were matched with respect of pre-achievement in mathematics. In this

context, the null hypothesis that there is no significant effect of self-confidence on

achievement in mathematics of elementary school students when groups were matched

with respect to pre-achievement in mathematics is accepted. It may, therefore, be said

that no significant difference in achievement in mathematics was found among

125

elementary school students belonging to high, average and low self-confidence groups

when pre-achievement in mathematics was taken as a covariate.

4.7.3 Effect of Interaction between Treatment and Self-confidence on Mathematics

Achievement

The table 4.13 depicts that the adjusted F-value for the interaction effect of

treatment and self-confidence is 4.15 which is significant at .01 level when pre-

achievement in mathematics was taken as covariate.

It indicates that there is significant interaction effect of treatment and self-

confidence on achievement in mathematics when pre-achievement in mathematics was

taken as covariate. Thus, the null hypothesis that there is no significant effect of

interaction between treatment and self-confidence on achievement in mathematics

when pre-achievement in mathematics was taken as covariate is rejected. It may be

inferred that there is significant difference in achievement in mathematics of

experimental and control groups of elementary school students across high, average

and low levels of self-confidence.

The table 4.14 shows the adjusted mean achievement in mathematics scores of

elementary school students in the experimental and control group across high, average

and low levels of self confidence. The perusal of the table 4.14 reveals that the adjusted

mean scores for the elementary school students with high self confidence in the

experimental and control groups are 60.79 and 52.69 with SD of 3.94 and 3.60

respectively. The t-value testing the significance of mean difference in the adjusted

mean scores of mathematics achievement of high self confidence group of elementary

school students in the experimental and control group came out to be 4.90 which is

significant at .01 level.

Table 4.14

Adjusted Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores of Elementary School

Students for Treatment x Self confidence

Level of Self Adjusted

Group N SD t-value

confidence Mean

Experimental 9 60.79 3.94

High

Control 12 52.69 3.60 4.90**

Experimental 19 59.23 5.21

Average

Control 17 51.22 6.51 4.10**

Experimental 12 58.70 3.87

Low

Control 11 49.49 3.53 5.94**

126

*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01

It may also be seen from the table 4.14 that the adjusted mean scores for the

elementary school students with average self confidence in the experimental and

control groups are 59.23 and 51.22 with SD of 5.21 and 6.51 respectively. The t-value

testing the significance of mean difference in the adjusted mean scores of mathematics

achievement of average self confidence group of elementary school students in the

experimental and control group came out to be 4.10 which is significant at .01 level.

The table 4.14 shows that the adjusted mean scores for the elementary school

students with low self confidence in the experimental and control groups are 58.70 and

49.49 with SD of 3.87 and 3.53 respectively. The t-value testing the significance of

mean difference in the adjusted mean scores of mathematics achievement of low self

confidence group of elementary school students in the experimental and control group

came out to be 5.94 which is significant at .01 level.

It indicates that there are there are significance differences in the adjusted mean

achievement in mathematics scores of elementary school students in the experimental

and control group across high, average and low levels of self confidence.

School Students for Treatment x Self confidence

127

Taking into consideration the outcomes after data analysis, as reported in the

proceeding sections, the hypotheses were tested and interpretations are made here

under:

1. The findings of the study revealed that the mean scores of mathematics

achievement of elementary school students at pre-test and post-test stages of e-

Content group differ significantly. Hence, the first hypothesis “There is no

significant difference between mean mathematics achievement score of

elementary school students at pre and post stages of the experimental group” is

rejected.

2. The findings of the study revealed that the adjusted mean score of mathematics

achievement of students taught mathematics through e-Content and those taught

the same topics through conventional method differ significantly when groups

were matched with respect to Pre-mathematics achievement. Hence, the second

hypothesis, “There is no significant difference between adjusted mean

mathematics achievement score of the e-Content group and conventional

method group by considering pre-test mathematics achievement score as

covariate” is rejected.

3. The findings of the study revealed that there was no significant effect of

interaction between treatment and gender on mathematics achievement when

Pre-mathematics achievement was taken as covariate. It may, therefore, be said

that gender may not be kept in mind while selecting the strategy of teaching

mathematics when groups were matched with respect to pre-achievement in

mathematics as both male and female students were found to have mathematics

achievement to the same extent when groups were matched in respect of

mathematics achievement. Hence, the third hypothesis, “There is no significant

effect of treatment, gender and their interaction on mathematics achievement by

considering pre-test mathematics achievement score as covariate” is accepted.

4. The findings of the study revealed that there was significant effect of Interaction

between treatment and achievement motivation on mathematics achievement

when Pre-mathematics achievement was taken as covariate. It may, therefore,

be said that elementary school students in experimental and control groups

across high, average and low levels of achievement motivation were found to be

significantly different in mathematics achievement when groups were matched in

respect of pre-mathematics achievement. Hence, the fourth hypothesis, “There is

128

no significant effect of treatment, achievement motivation and their interaction on

mathematics achievement by considering pre-test mathematics achievement

score as covariate” is rejected.

5. The findings of the study revealed that there was no significant effect of

Interaction between treatment and learning style on achievement in mathematics

when pre-achievement in mathematics was taken as covariate. Hence, the fifth

hypothesis, “There is no significant effect of treatment, Learning Style and their

interaction on mathematics achievement by considering pre-test mathematics

achievement score as covariate” is accepted.

6. The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant effect of interaction

between treatment and self-confidence on achievement in mathematics when

pre-achievement in mathematics was taken as covariate. It may, therefore, be

said that there is a significant difference in achievement in mathematics in

experimental and control groups of elementary school students across high,

average and low levels of self-confidence when groups were matched in respect

of Pre mathematics achievement. Hence, the sixth hypothesis, “There is no

significant effect of treatment, self confidence and their interaction on

mathematics achievement by considering pre-test mathematics achievement

score as covariate” is rejected.

4.9 DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS

The purpose of the study was to compare student learning of general

mathematics through the two strategies of Instructions i.e. e-Content strategy and

conventional strategy of teaching. Two groups matched by their pre-achievement in

mathematics were randomly assigned to control and experimental group to teach

through the conventional strategy and e-Content strategy respectively. Student learning

was measured in terms of scores on post achievement test. Findings of the experiment

revealed that student of the e-Content group outperformed the matched students of the

conventional strategy group. Students who taught mathematics through e-Content

strategy learned more than those who taught through Conventional strategy of teaching.

The present study showed that the e-Content improve achievement in

mathematics significantly higher in comparison to Conventional strategy when groups

were matched on pre-achievement in mathematics. The findings of the study supported

by the previous studies in which students learned academic material/subjects using

multimedia program performed significantly better than those taught using conventional

129

strategy. Panda and Chaudhary (2000) observed that computer assisted learning was

very effective in achieving higher cognitive skills among students. Also, Sharma and

Sansanwal (2002) found that video based instructional strategies for teaching science

were effective on achievement in Science of class IX students. In addition, these

findings are consistent with Jayaraman (2006) & Nimavathi and Gnanadevan (2008)

who found that the computer based multimedia learning packages were effective on

performance, behavioral outcomes and understanding of academic material for students

at different age groups. Also, Jyothi (2007) claimed that computer based learning had a

significantly better effect than traditional instruction on learning. The findings from the

present study are also in agreement with the research by Kavitha and Sundharavadivel

(2012) indicated that e-learning students performed better than the traditional learning

students in their post-test total mean scores and there is a significant difference

between e-learning and Traditional learning methods. Rohendi (2012) found that e-

learning which was based on animation content not only had significant effect on

mathematical connection abilities but also been able to improve students’ mathematical

connection abilities far better than that of conventional approach.

Also, Owino (2013) and Robert (2013) found e-Content learning package in

mathematics Education for the prospective teachers to be more effective than traditional

method of teaching. In addition, these findings are consistent with Jaleel (2015), who

showed that the e-Content in mathematics is effective over activity oriented method on

developing Mathematical Thinking of Students at Secondary level. The research by

Singh (2015) suggested that e-Content can be used to teach Environmental

Management to undergraduate students as it is helpful in enhancing the knowledge as

well as making the attitude favorable. Similarly, Amutha (2016) also found that e-

Content strategy enhances the achievement of the students at tertiary level. In addition,

the results of the present study are also in consistent with the results of the research by

Jasmin (2017) who established the effectiveness of the e-Content learning package in

learning Tamil subject for students who are studying in English medium

schools.Researcher gives the fact that the e-Content strategy has promoted learning

because it encourages students to take an active role in the learning process and have

a better control over their education. Muthukumari and Ramakrishnan (2017) concluded

that use of e-Content way of teaching has significant impact on enhancing the

achievement in history among the IX standard elementary school students. Further,

Mishra et al. (2017) also concluded that e-Content proves to be is very useful tool for

130

teaching green consumerism at secondary level. On the contrary, Lin et al. (2014)

reported that e-learning strategy is not different from the traditional learning method in

terms of achievement in accounting for freshman students in college.

The findings of present study showed no significant effect of gender and their

interaction on achievement in mathematics when groups were matched with respect to

their pre-achievement in mathematics which is in agreement with the findings of the

research by Rose and Stella (1992) found that there was no significant relationship

between the post treatment scores of gender and achievement. Similarly,

Rajaswaminathan (1998) also found no interaction between treatment and gender in his

study on the impact of multi-media package on the teaching of commerce with

reference to select variables.

In the present study, a significant effect of achievement motivation on

mathematics achievement of students was found when groups were matched with

respect to Pre-mathematics achievement which is in agreement with the findings of the

various researches such as by Wong and Mihaly (1990) explored the effect of

personality and the quality of experience on motivation and academic achievement and

indicated that intrinsic motivation had positive relationship with academic achievement.

In addition to these, Zyoud (1999) found that when the computer is used to its full

potential, it can help the students achieve more in learning vocabulary, grammar and

comprehension to the learners with different IQ, achievement motivation and attitude. It

helps the students learn better because it provides them with a lot of freedom and

responsibility to learn at their own pace. Also, Kumar (2004) found significant difference

in achievement scores of +1 student before and after teaching them chemistry with

teaching aids. Sharma, Brajesh, Subramania (2006) found a significant positive

relationship between achievement motivation and achievement in mathematics.

Sumerson, Joanne and Farley (2007) & Tella (2007) indicated that motivation was

significantly and positively related to academic achievement of secondary elementary

school students. Also, Majzub and Yusuf (2010) found positive and significant

relationship between achievement motivation and the self-learning strategies. Also, Lin

et al. (2014) found e-learning strategy is superior to the traditional learning method in

terms of learning motivation.

In the present study, significant effect of learning style on achievement in

mathematics and no interaction between treatment and learning style of students was

found when groups were matched with respect to Pre-achievement in mathematics.

131

Similar to these findings, Hajizainuddin (1999) & Kadhiravan (1999) found no significant

relationship between the information-processing characteristics of learning style and

performance and self-regulated learning strategies. Sansanwal (2002) concluded that

learning style does not significantly influence a subject’s learning. In addition to these,

Farkas (2003) found experimental group showed more positive attitudes toward

learning, more understanding of people’s feelings, and an increased ability to transfer

what they had learned from one area to another.

In the present study, a significant effect of Self-confidence on mathematics

achievements and no interaction between treatment and self-confidence was found

when groups were matched with respect to pre-achievement in mathematics which is in

agreement with the findings of the research by Tavani and Losh (2003) explored that

the students belonging to both above average Self- confidence group as well as below

average self-confidence group benefited significantly more through the e-Content than

the conventional strategy. In case of e-Content group, students belonging to above

average Self-confidence group were found to benefit more than those belonging to

below average self-confidence group. In addition to this, Yusuf (2011) indicated that

there was a considerable relationship between self-confidence and achievement

motivation along with self-regulated learning strategies of the undergraduate students.

CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS

AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

5.1 SUMMARY

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Technological development and the internet have changed people’s lives on

different scales including for instance teaching and learning. The web has become one

of the channels of learning that opens the door for people around the world to access

education for free, or for fewer costs. Some of the most important developments in

education have happened since the launch of the internet. These days’ learners are well

versed in the use of smart phones, text messaging and using the internet so

participating in and running an online course has become a simple affair. Message

boards, social media and various other means of online communication allow learners

to keep in touch and discuss course related matters, whilst providing for a sense of

community. In the fast-paced world of e-learning the available technologies to make a

course new and exciting are always changing, and course content can and should be

updated quickly to give students the very latest information.

In the age of cyberspace in the twenty-first century, calculation, composition and

communication on paper alone is a fractional, impoverished and increasingly outdated

concept and practice for thinking and communication. To build on the accomplishments

of paper technology, a digital infrastructure must be in place. At present, e-Content is

entering into almost all subjects in the field of education. It is supposed to be used as a

tool where and when considered useful. By integrating e-Content into standard learning

material, by offering e-Content module cases and by integrating the use of e-Content in

the different subject areas, different types of actions are taken or planned, to make sure

that e-Content will be real part of the curriculum by supporting software development. If

we are to cope with the various challenges of the swiftly changing society/ environment

and make use of new opportunities offered by e-Content, plans have to be realized

giving learners, teachers and educators access to necessary equipments. The most

important competence building in this field is the development of pedagogical methods.

That can happen only when long-standing competence programmes can work along

with real-life experience, where educators, teachers and learners are using e-Content in

their day to day life and daily learning experiences. Use of e-Content encourages self-

expression and discovery by means of its interactive non-linear access of information.

Students will be more motivated to learn since a multimedia lesson can provide near-

reality information through its variety of available media elements (text, audio, video and

animation). The learners may learn by using their multiple senses, which provides

innovative, new and enriched experiences. The learning process will be an active one,

leaving the learners to learn by their own. From the review of related literature related to

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the effectiveness of e-Content, it was concluded that e-Content strategy has improved

the academic achievement of the students significantly higher in comparison to

conventional strategy (Rose and Stella, 1992; Proctor and Richardson, 1995; Kumar,

1998; Yadav, 2000; Nimavathi and Gnanadevan, 2008; Hughes, 2009; Kavitha and

Sundharavadivel, 2012; Rohendi, 2012; Pio Albina, 2017; Jasmin, 2017).

In case of self-confidence, the relevant studies had shown that both above

average as well as below average self-confident students were benefited, but below

average self-confident students were benefited more through e-Content strategy (Gill,

2001; Vij 2003; Kohli, 2005; Yusuf, 2011; Robert 2013; Jaleel, 2015).

In case of learning style, different learning style interactions with e-Content

strategy were found in different studies. However, in most of the studies reflectors were

high achievers than the theorist type of learners (Kadhiravan, 1999; Assefa and Gupta,

2000; Sharma and Sansanwal, 2002; Goldberg, Russell and Cook, 2003; Liu and Lin,

2010; Singh, 2015).

In case of achievement motivation, e-Content strategy had fostered the

achievement motivation of students more as compared to conventional strategy equally

for both male as well as female students. As per the related literature, achievement

motivation is a driving force that lay direct and positive influence upon the academic

achievement of the students (Wong and Mihaly, 1990; Sidhu and Parminder, 2005;

Sharma and Subramania, 2006; Majzub, 2010; Bakhtiarvand, Sana and Kazem, 2011;

Thijs, 2011; Amutha, 2016).

The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of e-Content

strategy as compared with conventional strategy of teaching mathematics to the

students of class seventh. The purpose of the study was twofold, firstly the development

of e-Content and secondly to assess the effectiveness of such e-Content. Comparison

of e-Content strategy and conventional strategy of teaching is not only a comparison of

two modes of instruction but of two theoretical paradigms. Conventional strategy

represents a paradigm whereby knowledge is transmitted from teacher to student.

Teacher plays an active part in this mode of instruction. e-Content represents a

paradigm where knowledge is constructed and sort by the learner. Learner plays an

active role in the learning process. Learning is individualized, self-paced and hands on.

During the past 12 to 15 years, the use of computers in education has increased

dramatically and a wide range of educational computer programs are now widely

available for individual and classroom use. However, there has been very little research

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reported on the effectiveness of such use. At elementary level, the students felt very

difficult to understand the concepts in mathematics subject because the abstract

content matters are boring to the learners and induce disinterest. Abstract learning

needs more sensory integration to fix up in the long term memory. So attention needs to

be focussed on the integrative efforts of information processing approach,

transformation between short term memory and long term memory and accelerating

cognitive strategies. The use of e-Content in teaching of mathematics produces more

integrated sensory output in learning mathematics subject.

EFFECTIVENESS OF e-CONTENT STRATEGY ON ACHIEVEMENT IN

MATHEMATICS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

Objectives of the Study

Following were the objectives of the study:

To construct and standardize achievement test in mathematics for seventh grade

elementary school students.

To study the achievement of elementary school students in mathematics at pre

and post test stages of the e-Content group.

To compare the adjusted mean scores on mathematics achievement of the

elementary school students in the e-Content group and conventional strategy

group by considering pre mathematics achievement as covariate.

To study the effect of treatment, Gender and their interaction on mathematics

achievement of elementary school students by considering pre mathematics

achievement as covariate.

To study the effect of treatment, achievement motivation and their interaction on

mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre

mathematics achievement as covariate.

To study the effect of treatment, learning style and their interaction on

mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre

mathematics achievement as covariate.

To study the effect of treatment, self confidence and their interaction on

mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre

mathematics achievement as covariate.

Hypotheses of the study

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There is no significant difference between mean mathematics achievement score

of elementary school students at pre and post stages of the experimental group.

There is no significant difference between adjusted mean mathematics

achievement score of elementary school students in the e-Content group and

conventional method group by considering pre-test mathematics achievement

score as covariate.

There is no significant effect of treatment, gender and their interaction on

mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre-test

mathematics achievement score as covariate.

There is no significant effect of treatment, achievement motivation and their

interaction on mathematics achievement of elementary school students by

considering pre-test mathematics achievement score as covariate.

There is no significant effect of treatment, learning style and their interaction on

mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre-test

mathematics achievement score as covariate.

There is no significant effect of treatment, self confidence and their interaction on

mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre-test

mathematics achievement score as covariate.

Delimitations of the Study

1. The study will be delimited to the VII class only.

2. The study will be delimited to the subject of mathematics only.

3. The study will be delimited to one Government school of UT Chandigarh only.

4. The content of class VII mathematics will be taken from the text book of

NCERT only.

Operational Definition of Terms Used

(a) e-Content Strategy:

e-Content Strategy of teaching is the strategy in which the digital contents

are presented to the learners in the integrated form of text, graphics,

animation, audio, video and also provide interactivity while in Conventional

Strategy of teaching, the teacher is the only active participant in the

teaching learning process and the students are the passive listener.

(b) Achievement in Mathematics:

Achievement in mathematics refers to accomplishment of proficiency of

performance in the subject of mathematics. It signifies successfully carried

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out performance by an individual or a group assessed after the completion

of a task. Here in this study, mathematics achievement will be considered in

terms of marks obtained by the students in mathematics achievement test at

pre and post test stages of experiment.

(c) Elementary School Students:

Elementary school students refers to the students studying in the class 1 st

to 8th. Here in this study, class 7th students will be considered as elementary

school students.

Research Design

The present study was experimental in nature. An experimental design is to

researcher what a blue print is to an architect. A well-developed design provides the

structure and strategy that controls the investigation and extracts dependable answers

to the questions raised by problem hypothesis. The investigator has employed Pre-test -

Post-test Control Group design. This is also called the Classic Controlled Experimental

design because it: Controls the assignment of subjects to experimental and control

group through the use of table of random numbers; Control all other conditions under

which the experiment takes place.

Variables of the Study

The relationship between independent and dependent variables have been

studied in this experimental research.

Independent Variables:

The variables that were manipulated in an experimental study, whose presence

or degree determines the change in the dependent variable, are called the

independent variables. In the present study, the independent variables that

were used are e-Content strategy and conventional strategy. These two

variables were manipulated to study the affect on achievement. The control

group was taught through conventional strategy and experimental group was

taught through e-Content strategy.

Dependent Variable:

The dependent variable or the criterion variable that was used in the study is

achievement in mathematics. This variable may also be termed as moderator

variable as they include the variable that could have a moderating affect on the

treatment. The students were scored on this variable before and after the

treatment in both groups. This variable was measured twice during the study

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i.e. first before the beginning of the treatment (pre-test stage), then after

completing the treatment (post-test stage).

Intervening variables:

An intervening variable is a hypothetical internal state that is used to explain

relationship between observed variables, such as independent and dependent

variables. The intervening variables considered in this study were Achievement

Motivation, Learning Style and Self Confidence.

Control Variables:

Control variables are extraneous variables that an investigator does not wish to

examine in a study. Thus the investigator controls this variable also called a

covariate. The control variables taken in the study were: nature of the school,

grade level and subject taught.

Sample of the Study

Small representative portion of population is called sample. For selecting

samples, the investigator has employed Random Sampling Technique. The present

study was conducted on a sample of 80 pupils studying in class VII of Government

Model High School Sector 26 (P.L.), UT Chandigarh. One section formed experimental

group and one section formed the controlled group.

Experimental VII 24 16 40

Sector 26 (P.L.), UT Chandigarh

Control VII 21 19 40

Sector 26 (P.L.), UT Chandigarh

Total Sample 45 35 80

For every research problem, the investigator uses some devices to gather new

facts. The devices which the investigator uses for data collection are known as research

tools. To measure the students at Pre-test and Post-test stage, the following tools were

employed for the collection of data:

1. Reaction towards e-Content scale for teachers and students developed by

investigator to assess the usability of developed e-Content.

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2. Mathematics Achievement Test developed by investigator himself to measure

the achievement of elementary school students in mathematics.

3. The Achievement Motivation was assessed with the help of Deo-Mohan

Achievement Motivation Scale prepared by Deo and Mohan (1985).

4. The Learning Style was assessed with the help of Learning Style Inventory by

Honey and Mumford (1982).

5. The Self Confidence was assessed with the help of Self Confidence Inventory

developed by Gupta (2000).

Conduct of the Study

The experimental procedure was executed. One experimental and one control

group was formed. The e-Content group as experimental group was taught

mathematics with the supplement of e-Content, the control group was taught

mathematics through Conventional Method. The design had comprised three stages:

the first stage has involved pre-testing of all the students of two groups on the following

scale / test: (a) Mathematics Achievement Test (b) Achievement Motivation Scale (c)

Learning Style Inventory by Honey & Mumford (d) Self Confidence Inventory. The

second stage has involved treatment of two months. The experimental treatment was

consisted of teaching mathematics to VII class with e-Content to experimental and

through Conventional Method to control group. During the third stage i.e. post-test

stage, the students were post-tested on achievement in mathematics just after the

treatment so as to determine the effect of treatment.

Pre-Test:

Before the commencement of the experiment, the subjects were administered

mathematics achievement test, achievement motivation with the help of Deo-Mohan

achievement motivation scale prepared by Deo and Mohan (1985), learning style with

the help of Learning Style Inventory by Honey and Mumford (1982), self confidence with

the help of Self Confidence Inventory developed by Gupta (2000). Before administrating

the test, instructions were explained verbally to the subjects by the investigator. Both the

groups of subjects were administered their test. The administration of the test was

carried out as per norms and instructions contained in their manual. After administrating

the above test, they were scored as per the scoring procedure mentioned in the manual.

Thus, pre-test score were obtained on achievement in mathematics, achievement

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motivation, learning style and self confidence of both groups. This all took time of three

days.

The Treatment: To find out the efficacy of the independent variables, the

experimental variables were manipulated in the form of teaching based on e-Content

and conventional method. The experimental group was taught through e-Content and

control group was taught through conventional method. The process was carried out for

two months. Same topics were taught to both groups. The treatment was conducted by

the investigator himself in both groups so as to avoid teacher variable and maximum

precision.

Post-Test: Immediately after the treatment was over, the subjects were

administered the post-test. The same criterion test as taken in pre-test was taken. Both

the groups of sampled students were subjected to those post-test. In this way, post-test

scores were obtained on achievement test in mathematics of both the groups.

Statistical Treatment of Data

Mean, Standard Deviation, Correlated t-test, One-way ANCOVA and Two-way

ANCOVA was employed by the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences)

software to find out the effectiveness of e-Content strategy on achievement in

mathematics of elementary school students.

5.2 CONCLUSIONS

The purpose of the study was to compare the effect of conventional strategy

versus those of e-Content strategy on mathematics achievement of elementary school

students across gender, achievement motivation, learning style and self-confidence.

Findings of the study are presented below in relation to each objective.

1. Effectiveness of e-Content on the basis of Mathematics Achievement

It has been found that the mean score of mathematics achievement at post-test stage

was significantly higher than the mean score of mathematics achievement at Pre- test

stage of experimental group. Therefore, the e-Content was found to significantly

enhance mathematics achievement of students of e-Content group.

2. Comparison of Adjusted Mean Scores of Mathematics Achievement of e-

Content Group and Conventional method Group by Considering Pre-mathematics

Achievement as Covariate

One way ANCOVA was computed to compare adjusted mean scores of

mathematics achievement of e-Content group and conventional method group by

considering Pre-mathematics achievement as covariate. It has been found that the e-

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Content improve mathematics achievement significantly higher in comparison to

Conventional method when groups were matched on Pre-mathematics achievement.

Therefore, the e-Content was found to improve mathematics achievement significantly

higher in comparison to conventional method when groups were matched on Pre-

mathematics achievement.

3. Effect of treatment, Gender and their Interaction on Mathematics Achievement

by considering Pre-Mathematics Achievement as Covariate

The data were analyzed with the help of 2x2 factorial design ANCOVA. The

findings are as under:

a) Effect of treatment on Mathematics Achievement

It has been found that mean score of mathematics achievement at post-test

stage was significantly higher than the mean score of mathematics achievement at pre-

test stage of e-Content group. Therefore, the e-Content was found to improve

mathematics achievement significantly higher in comparison to conventional strategy

when groups were matched on Pre-mathematics achievement.

No significant effect of gender on mathematics achievement was found when

groups were matched with respect to Pre-mathematics achievement. Therefore, no

significant differences were found in mathematics achievement of male and female

elementary school students when groups were matched in respect of mathematics

achievement.

c) Effect of Interaction between treatment and Gender on Mathematics

Achievement

No significant effect of Interaction between treatment and gender was found on

mathematics achievement when Pre-mathematics achievement was taken as covariate.

Therefore, gender may not be kept in mind while selecting the strategy of teaching

mathematics when groups were matched with respect to Pre-achievement in

mathematics.

4. Effect of Treatment, Achievement Motivation and their Interaction on

Mathematics Achievement by considering Pre-mathematics Achievement as

Covariate

The data were analyzed with the help of 2x3 Factorial Design ANCOVA. The

findings are as under:

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a) Effect of treatment on Mathematics Achievement

It has been found that mean score of mathematics achievement at post-test stage

was significantly higher than the mean score of mathematics achievement at pre-test

stage of e-Content group. Therefore, the e-Content was found to improve mathematics

achievement significantly higher in comparison to conventional strategy when groups

were matched on Pre-mathematics achievement.

b) Effect of Achievement Motivation on Mathematics Achievement

A significant effect of achievement motivation on mathematics achievement of

students was found when groups were matched with respect to Pre-mathematics

achievement. It indicates that there are significant differences in adjusted mean

mathematics achievement scores of elementary school students belonging high,

average and low levels of achievement motivation group when groups were matched in

respect of mathematics achievement.

c) Effect of Interaction between treatment and Achievement Motivation on

Mathematics Achievement

A significant effect of interaction between treatment and achievement motivation

was found on mathematics achievement when Pre-mathematics achievement was

taken as covariate.

5. Effect of Treatment, Learning Style and their Interaction on Mathematics

Achievement by considering Pre-Mathematics Achievement as Covariate

The data were analyzed with the help of 2x4 factorial design ANCOVA. The

findings are as under:

a) Effect of treatment on Mathematics Achievement

It has been found that mean score of mathematics achievement at post-test

stage was significantly higher than the mean score of mathematics achievement at pre-

test stage of e-Content group. Therefore, the e-Content was found to improve

mathematics achievement significantly higher in comparison to conventional strategy

when groups were matched on Pre-mathematics achievement.

b) Effect of Learning Style on Mathematics Achievement

No significant effect of learning style on achievement in mathematics of students

was found when matched with respect to pre-achievement in mathematics. Therefore,

elementary school students having different learning styles do not differ significantly on

achievement in mathematics when groups were matched in respect of pre-achievement

in mathematics.

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c) Effect of Interaction between Treatment & Learning Style on Mathematics

Achievement

No significant effect of Interaction between treatment and learning style on

achievement in mathematics when pre-achievement in mathematics was taken as a

covariate. Therefore, the learning style may not be kept in mind while selecting the

method of teaching mathematics if the groups are matched with respect of pre-

achievement in mathematics.

6. Effect of Treatment, Self-confidence and their Interaction on Mathematics

Achievement by considering Pre-mathematics Achievement as Covariate

The data were analyzed with the help of 2x3 Factorial Design ANCOVA. The

findings are as under:

a) Effect of Treatment on Mathematics Achievement

It has been found that mean score of mathematics achievement at post-test stage

was significantly higher than the mean score of mathematics achievement at pre-test

stage of e-Content group. Therefore, the e-Content was found to improve mathematics

achievement significantly higher in comparison to conventional strategy when groups

were matched on pre-mathematics achievement.

b) Effect of Self-confidence on Mathematics Achievement

No significant effect of self-confidence on achievement in mathematics was found

when groups were matched with respect of pre-achievement in mathematics. Therefore,

no significant differences were found in achievement in mathematics of elementary

school students belonging to high, average and low levels of self confidence when

groups were matched with respect to achievement in mathematics.

c) Effect of Interaction between Treatment and Self-confidence on Mathematics

Achievement

A significant effect of interaction between treatment and self-confidence on achievement

in mathematics when pre-achievement in mathematics was taken as a covariate. It

indicates that there are significant differences in the adjusted mean mathematics

achievement scores of elementary school students in the experimental and control

group across high, average and low levels of self confidence when groups were

matched in respect of Pre mathematics achievement.

5.3 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS

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In India, the main focus of teaching is on providing information at school level

as well as at the higher education level, which should not be the sole objective. Along

with providing information at these levels, the other objectives are:

To develop thinking and reasoning power

To develop the power of understanding and application of the concepts

To develop the power of expressions

To improve the ability of comprehension, speed and vocabulary

To develop appropriate study habits

To develop self-concept and value clarification

To develop the power of judgment and ability to take right decision

It is very difficult to achieve all the objectives with the present infrastructure such

as availability training of teachers, quality of teachers, size of the class, availability of

the resource material etc. In Indian conditions, the most of the above mentioned

objectives cannot be achieved as most of the teachers use conventional strategies in

teaching learning process. So to achieve these multidimensional objectives, multiple

methods should be used. At present e-Content may be of some use. A single teacher is

not capable of giving complete and up-to-date information in his own subject. The e-

Content can provide access to various sources of information. Therefore, the gap can

be filled up with the help of e-Content.

The present research study has various implications in the field of education as

given below:

1. The results of the study revealed that the e-Content significantly enhance

mathematics achievement of students, so it is suggested that with the

implementation of e-Content in the schools, the students will develop keen

interest in their course of study and will be able to explore their abilities and

hidden talents

2. The results of the study revealed that there is no significant effect of Interaction

between treatment and gender mathematics achievement, therefore it is

suggested that gender may not be kept in mind while selecting the strategy of

teaching mathematics.

3. The achievement level of the students can be significantly enhanced especially in

the subject of mathematics if the conventional strategy of teaching is

supplemented with the e-Content.

4. The more use of e-Content in the educational institutions leads to further positive

attitude towards computers, by the virtue of which when the students are taught

with the help of computers or e-Content, the achievement of the students

significantly enhanced as the students feel much more involved in their studies.

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5. The e-Content strategy needs to be introduced for teaching mathematics as it will

significantly enhance academic achievement of the students.

6. Accessibility to the educational web sites should be provided free of cost to the

students along with fast speed of internet to nurture their aptitude.

7. With the implementation of e-Content, the students will be able to grasp the basic

concept of various subjects especially in the subject of mathematics easily as

colorful animation, graphics and attractive display form a versatile and effective

alternative change in instructional strategy of teaching.

8. There is a significant effect of achievement motivation on achievement of

elementary school students in mathematics. Hence, teachers can develop

achievement motivation among the students by providing appropriate challenges

and emotional warmth and support, and having high expectations for children

(Wigfield and Eccles, 2002).

9. Achievement motivation can also be enhanced by properly planned training

programme. Workshop training, refresher courses, in service training courses

should be provided for the teachers to help them to equip with necessary skills

and competencies to enhance student‟s achievement motivation (Chetri, 2014).

10. Also, a significant interaction effect of treatment and self confidence has been

observed in the present study. It indicates that students taught through e-Content

strategy possess significantly higher self-confidence than their counterparts

taught through conventional strategy. Hence, students will develop more

confidence when they are taught through e-Content strategy.

11. There will be more participation of students in studies when they would be taught

through computers. It leads to a constructive approach toward computer or e-

Content which enhances their achievement in various subjects.

12. Psycho-motor skills can be learnt much better and effectively via various

communication technologies and e-Content because they work as live teacher

and guide the students more efficiently in many areas.

13. The teaching learning process can be made child centered as teachers will be

able to devote more time to help the students as there will be less administrative

burden due to the implementation of e-Content.

14. Instead of use of various traditional strategies, conventional strategies of

teaching if supplemented with e-Content can prove to be more effective in

enhancing achievement of the students in different areas or different subjects.

15. Computers can be better utilized for school education if teachers are open

minded in the use of computer as a tool for the education. Thus, e-Content

should find a proper place in school curriculum.

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16. There is need for bigger interference of the Government at national as well as at

state level to give guidelines / instructions in planning students sustains sources,

staff development and appropriate courses with e-Content even at elementary

level.

17. E-content can be used by wide variety of learners with diverse needs, different

backgrounds, and previous experience and skill levels. It can be shared and

transmitted easily and promptly among unlimited number of users around the

world.

18. Well developed e-Content can be delivered many times to different learners.

Individual course components i.e. units, lessons and media elements such as

graphics and animations can be re-used in different contexts.

19. Teachers, students and others get benefited by the use of well designed and

developed e-Content. It is advantageous to the educational organizations to

make their program accessible to their teachers and students on campus, home

and other community learning or resource centers. It has a significant

implications for open and distance learning institutions. Hence, e-learning can

reduce the cost of education per student by increasing the relative economic

benefits of investment in education (Kumar and Bajpai, 2015).

20. Various government departments may conduct Research Studies and make

efforts to develop e-Content software along with the co-ordination with the private

organizations to establish a system to check the software piracy.

21. Children should be encouraged by the teachers as well as by the parents to

utilize educational software available in the market.

22. Different e-Content portals should be established in various organizations such

as Institute of Education and Research, Curriculum Research and Development

Centers, Curriculum wing and Educational Universities.

23. Incentives should be offered to the teachers who increase their proficiency in

computer studies and contribute to raise e-Content.

24. Steps should be taken to meet the needs of the literature. e-Content learning

generals can be purchased for the libraries.

25. A culture should be developed for better utilization of computer in teaching

learning process. Computer literacy training should be given to the In-service

teachers.

26. Teacher education Institutions are required to introduce courses to prepare

teachers for computer programming skills.

27. Educational Institutions should have up to date ICT laboratories along with best

physical facilities for using ICT.

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28. More educational web sites should be created so that researcher should get

more web space to upload their research articles.

29. Information Technology courses should be a part of educational curriculum and

students should be allowed to use computers with internet facility.

30. Teachers should motivate themselves to use information and communication

technology, they should be aware of preparation of ICT, should actively

participate in training related to ICT and should have faith in recent innovations.

5.4 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

In India, in the system of education, the use of e-Content has remained almost

completely unexplored. So in this direction, a very few number of studies / researches

have been conducted. Based on the results / findings of the present study, some of the

suggestions in the area of e-Content are identified as follows:

1. More studies may be conducted by involving larger content of curriculum from

various subjects as the present study has been conducted only on limited topics

of mathematics syllabus.

2. The present study has been conducted on class VII only. To confirm the findings

of this study, it is desirable to find out the effect of e-Content on the achievement

of students of different grade level and different subject.

3. The similar study can be extended for a larger span of time as in the present

study, the treatment process was carried out for two months only.

4. To explore the effectiveness of e-Content, further research can be conducted on

various other groups such as low achievers, mentally retarded, delinquents, gifted

and backwards.

5. The present study was conducted in one Government School of UT Chandigarh.

Further studies can be undertaken with the students from any Non Government

School i.e. from any Private / Public / Recognized / Unrecognized School of UT

Chandigarh.

6. Effectiveness of the e-Content can also be studied in relation to other variables

such as Intelligence, socio-economic status, cognitive style, group size, age,

creativity, classroom climate and personality etc.

7. The present research may be replicated on other areas also where chances of

dropouts and failures are high such as rural, slum and tribal population.

8. The present research shows that e-Content is effective intervention for improving

learner’s academic achievements. Further, more studies should be conducted to

know that how can e-Content can become more effective instructional tool.

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9. Learner’s interests or willingness to learn / study with the help of provided e-

Content may be probed and their effect on the motivation may be studied in a

longitudinal manner.

10. The present study was confined to a school which is located at Urban area of UT

of Chandigarh. Comparative study can be undertaken in the schools which are

located other cities or typical rural areas of UT of Chandigarh or from the

surroundings.

11. The present study was conducted in one typical Government Model School of UT

Chandigarh. It can be further extended with the students from the Government

Non-Model Schools of UT Chandigarh.

12. The present study was conducted over a sample of 80 students. Similar study

can be conducted by taking a large sample in order to generalize the results.

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