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CHAPTER- I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK


Gurukul System of Education was in vogue in India. The main characteristics
of Gurukul System were dedicated and knowledgeable individualized, teachers and
learner centre teaching, and self-motivated students eager to learn. This system
changed due to increase in number of students. Consequently, the number of teachers
increased. Some teachers are born but rests of them have to be given rigorous training
so as to develop required competency to become a teacher. Teachers have been
conscious about the quality of their teaching. To enhance the quality, some teachers use
teaching aids, like, charts, models- static and working, specimen, slides, etc. because
teachers are given training both in preparation and use of Audio-visual Aids (A-V Aids).
It is a known fact that majority of schools do not have appropriate teaching aids related
to the school content. So teachers have no facility to use A-V Aids during teaching. The
use of A-V Aids get further restricted due to unmotivated persons becoming teachers.

Central Government realized the need of improving quality of education


through the use of Television wherein most competent teacher teaches the topic with
the help of most appropriate teaching aids. This helped in improving the quality of
teaching in schools having no teacher to teach the subject, less competent teacher,
schools having poor or no facility of teaching aids, etc. Programmes offered through
television were produced by different State Institute of Educational Technology (SIET) in
different languages. Even the Video Instructional Materials were produced and made
available to teachers; still majority of schools did not make use of them. Some of the
reasons were no facility of TV and VCR, no electricity, TV and VCR not in working
condition, not incorporated in the time table, lack of initiation on the part of teacher and
Principal, etc. Along with A-V Aids, the print media has to go a long way in improving the
quality of teaching and learning. Format in which the textbooks were written was not
beneficial for teachers and students. Researchers started thinking and using different
Theories of Learning for developing Instructional Material. This gives birth to
Programmed Learning Material (PLM) based on Operant Conditioning Theory of
Learning. But the PLMs are no more in use because the development of PLM is tedious
as well as costly and time consuming. The format of PLM has under gone a change
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along with name. Consequently, Modules were developed in particular format. At
present, the Print Instructional Materials used in different Programmes offered by Open
Universities are in Module format. All above mention efforts could not improve the
quality of teaching to the level of satisfaction of teachers, students, parents and other
stakeholders. Search is on for most effective tools to be used by teachers for quality
education (Sansanwal, 2009).

Use of Computer
The desire for quality is still on. This is the age of information dominated by the
Digital Technology. The Digital Technology has influenced all aspects of human life.
Education is not an exception. Now the technology is in the process of change from
Digital to Photon. Shortly Photonic Technology will be available for the use of the
society. At present majority of devices are based on Digital Technology. One such
device is Computer. The Computer is an electronic device that has the capacity to store,
retrieve & process both qualitative & quantitative information fast and accurately. The
computers were never developed for improving quality of teaching - learning process.
But researchers started using Computers for teaching purpose. It gave birth to
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI), Computer Managed Instruction (CMI), Computer
Based Instruction (CBI), etc. People started developing CAI for teaching different
subjects at School as well as Higher Education level. The developed CAIs were
compared with the Lecture Method / Traditional Method and found that the developed
CAIs were significantly superior to Lecture Method / Traditional Method in teaching
different subjects (Benson, 1989). In spite of benefit of CAI in different aspects of
learning, CAI has not entered into the Classrooms as most of the developed CAIs were
not based on sound theories of Learning. People involved in developing CAI were not
having the sound base of Instructional Design. Secondly, the courses are changing, the
schools also do not have sufficient computer facility, teachers are not trained in the use
of CAI, etc. The use of Computers was not only for teaching but also for Psychological
Testing, Evaluation; database Management, Library Management, etc.
Information Technology
Networking of computers gave birth to Information Technology (IT). UNESCO
considered Information Technology as “Scientific, technological and engineering
disciplines and management techniques used in information handling and processing,
their application, computers and their interaction with men and machines, and

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associated social, economical and cultural matters”. According to Smith and Cambell
(1982), a mosaic of technologies, products and techniques have combined to provide
new electronic dimensions to information management. This mosaic is known by the
name of Information Technology. Sansanwal (2000) defined IT as the use of hardware
and software for efficient management of information, i.e storage, retrieval, processing,
communication, diffusion and sharing of information for social, economical and cultural
upliftment.
The Information Technology leads to development of Websites. Government,
Corporate sector, educational institutions, etc. started uploading the information on their
websites. It provides facilities for Chat, e-mail, surfing, etc. It opens up a new source of
information which increased the limitation of access to information. Prior to IT, people
were using only the print material for searching the information. It limited the search.
This limitation has been overcome by the IT.
1.1.1 Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
IT was limited only to the textual mode of transmission of information with
ease and fast. But the information not only in textual form but in audio, video or any
other media is also to be transmitted to the users. Thus, the ICT = IT + Other media. It
has opened new avenues like online learning, e-Learning, e-Coaching, e-Education, e-
Journal, etc. Third Generation Mobiles are also part of ICT. Mobile is being used in
imparting information fast and cost effective. It provides e-mail facility also. One can
access it anywhere. It will be cost effective. The ICT brings more rich material in the
classrooms and libraries for the teachers and students. It has provided opportunity for
the learner to use maximum senses to get the information. It has broken the monotony
and provided variety in the teaching - learning situation.
Twenty-first century is the age of Information and Communication Technology
(ICT). “The illiterate of the 21st century,” according to futurist Alvin Toffler, “will not be
those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn.” All
over the globe, there is a trend to use ICT in the teaching-learning process. The teacher
and learner must gain access to technology for improving learning outcomes.
Educational reform includes successful designing and implementation of ICT in the
teaching-learning process, which is the key to success. There is a rapid shift of
educational technologies and political force, so as to shape the structure of the system
of education across the globe. Efforts must be made by the educationists to change the

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process of teaching-learning in order to prepare the students to adjust themselves to the
society which is rich in information and technology (Desh, 2007).
Teaching is becoming one of the most challenging as new concepts of learning
have evolved, teachers are expected to facilitate learning and make meaningful to the
individual learners rather than just to provide knowledge and various skills. Modern
development innovative technologies have provided new possibilities to teaching
professions, but at the same time have placed more demands on teachers to learn how
to use these new technologies in their teaching (Collis & Jung, 2003).
Today’s world is a world of information explosion. To cope with the explosion in
information, ICT is the only way out. During the past decade there has been an
exponential growth in the use of ICT, which has made pervasive impact both on society
and our daily lives. It has transformed the way people live and work, communicate,
entertain and conduct businesses (Anandan & Gopal, 2011).
Communication Technology and networking is a great liberalization force. The
new processes of liberalization and globalization have led to new ways of learning,
living and working together and, new ways of organizing educational institutions and
creating products and services that would empower people in many ways, such as
Wikipedia or blogging. With the advent of these processes, new education is visualized
to be technology mediated, learner and learning centric, innovation centric, promoting
curiosity with diversity and excellence, promoting cooperative learning, developing and
nurturing universal human values in A3 (anyone, anytime, anywhere) and L3 (life-long-
learning) scenario (Takwale, 2007).
“ICT is a scientific, technological and engineering discipline and management
technique used in handling information, its application and association with social,
economical and cultural matters.” It may be defined as the use of hardware and
software for efficient management i.e. storage, retrieval, processing, communication
and sharing information for social, economical and cultural upliftment (UNESCO, 2000).
For developing countries ICTs have the potential for increasing access to and
improving the relevance and quality of education. ICT is greatly facilitate the acquisition
and absorption of knowledge, offering developing countries unprecedented
opportunities to enhance educational systems, improve policy formulation and
execution, and widen the range of opportunities for business and the poor. One of the
greatest hardships endured by the poor, and by many others who live in the poorest
countries, is there sense of isolation. The new communications technologies promise to
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reduce that sense of isolation, and to open access to knowledge in ways unimaginable
not long ago (World Bank, 1998).
ICT is an important instrument, which can transfer the present isolated, teacher-
centred, book-centered learning environment into a rich student-centered environment.
This new learning environment developed by the ICT is called Interactive Learning
Environment. ICT is a new paradigm of the teaching-learning process; we must accept
the new technology and use ICT as a tool of teaching-learning process. ICT aims at
transferring the old traditional paradigm of learning to the new paradigm of learning.
However, the experience of introducing ICTs in the classroom and other
educational settings all over the world over the past several decades suggests that the
full realization of the potential educational benefits of ICTs is not automatic. The
effective integration of ICTs into the educational system is a complex, multifaceted
process that involves not just technology - indeed, given enough initial capital, getting
the technology is the easiest part but also curriculum and pedagogy, institutional
readiness, teacher competencies, and long-term financing, among others.
The use of ICTs can make substantial change for education and training mainly
in two ways. Firstly, the rich representation of information changes learner’s perception
and understanding of the context. Secondly the vast distribution and easy access to
information can change relationships between educators and student teachers
(Sansanwal, 2009). ICT can also provide powerful support for educational innovations.
The ICT being latest, it can be used both at school and higher education levels in the
following areas:
 Teaching
 Diagnostic Testing
 Remedial Teaching
 Evaluation
 Psychological Testing
 Development of Virtual Laboratory
 Online Tutoring
 Development of Reasoning and Thinking
 Instructional Material Development

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Use of ICT in Teaching
Teaching at School as well as Higher Education, mostly, concentrates on giving
information which is not the sole objective of Teaching. Along with giving information,
the other objectives are:
 developing understanding and application of the concepts
 developing proper study habits and expression power
 developing reasoning and thinking power
 development of judgment and decision making ability
 improving comprehension, speed and vocabulary
 developing self-concept and value clarification
 developing tolerance and ambiguity, risk taking capacity, scientific temper, etc.
ICTs can enhance the quality of education in several ways: by increasing learner
motivation and engagement, by facilitating the acquisition of basic skills, and by
enhancing teacher training. ICTs are also transformational tools which, when used
appropriately, can promote the shift to a learner-centered environment (Haddad, 2002).
With the present infrastructure, class size, availability of teachers, quality of
teachers, training of teachers, etc., it is difficult to achieve all the objectives. Further,
most of the teachers use Lecture Method which does not have potentiality of achieving
majority of above mentioned objectives. The objectives are multi-dimensional in nature,
so for their achievement multiple methods should be used in an integrated fashion. At
present ICT may be of some use. It is a well known fact that not a single teacher is
capable of giving up to date and complete information in his own subject. The ICT can
fill this gap because it can provide access to different sources of information. It will
provide correct information as comprehensive as possible in different formats with
different examples. ICT provides online interaction facility. Students and teachers can
exchange their ideas and views, and get clarification on any topic from different experts,
practitioners, etc. It helps learners to broaden the information base.
ICT provides variety in the presentation of content which helps learners in
concentration, better understanding, and long retention of information which is not
possible otherwise. The learners can get opportunity to work on any live project with
learners and experts from other countries. The super highway and cyber space also
help in qualitative improvement of Teaching - Learning Process. ICT provides flexibility
to learners which are denied by the traditional process and method. Flexibility is a must
for mastery learning and quality learning. On internet many websites are available freely
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which may be utilized by teachers and students for understanding different concepts,
improving vocabulary, developing Reasoning & Thinking, etc. ICT can help in preparing
students for SAT, GRE, TOEFL, etc.
Use of ICT in Diagnostic Testing
The common observation is that the quality of teaching in the classroom is on
the decline. More and more students are depending on the private tutorial classes. The
private tuition also has become a business. This phenomenon is not only in India but in
other countries too. There are about 800 students from USA who have enrolled
themselves for Private tuition in mathematics. It means tuitions are also being
outsourced. This is being done through the use of ICT. There are students who fail to
understand certain concepts or retain certain information. This can be assessed by
introducing the diagnosis in the process of teaching - learning. Today, this is not being
done. The reasons might be large class size, non-availability of diagnostic tests in
different subjects, lack of training, money and desire on the part of teacher, etc. This is
the age of technology. These difficulties can be easily over come with the help of ICT.
Use of ICT in Remedial Teaching
Once the ICT is used for diagnosis purpose, the next step is to organize
Remedial Teaching Programme. The Remedial Teaching can be done by the teacher if
some common mistakes are identified. It may not be feasible to organize Remedial
Programme for individual students. At this point, the ICT can be used for giving
individual Remedial Programme. It may be Online or off line. The instructional material if
designed specifically for meeting the individual needs of students and uploaded on the
School website and then the ICT can be used for providing Remedial teaching
Programme.
Use of ICT in Evaluation
At present the paper pencil tests are conducted for evaluating the academic
performance of students. These tests are conducted in the group setting. The content
coverage is poor and students cannot use them at their own. These tests are evaluated
by the teachers and they may not give feedback immediately to each and every student.
It may be due to this that students are unable to know their weakness and do not make
any attempt to improve upon them. The ICT can be made use in the evaluation. If used
by teachers before teaching the topic, they can prepare the topic properly. Such
software can be used for internal assessment. Thus, ICT can be used to improve the
quality of pre as well as in-service teacher’s training.
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Use of ICT in Psychological Testing
There are individual differences. Through research some correlates of
academic achievement have been studied. Rarely this information is used by school /
college teachers. Many of them even do not know about such researches. Even if they
know, they do not make use of it at the time of forming the groups for different academic
activities. One of the major reasons is that the school / college does not have a trained
psychologists who can assess the students on some of the correlates of academic
achievement. Further, the psychological testing is laborious and involves money and
time. Even the appropriate psychological tests are not available.
This is the age of digital technology. It can be used to digitalize all the
psychological tests including the scoring and evaluation. The same may be available on
the website and students and teachers can use them whenever required. Even student
can use it individually and can share the result with the teacher who can help the
student to improve his academic performance. The digitalized psychological tests will be
easy to use and economical also. Thus ICT can be used in psychological testing also.
Use of ICT in Developing Virtual Laboratory
The students understand better, if they do some practical related to the concept.
It makes learning easy and interesting. Laboratory helps in developing scientific temper.
But the fact is that practical are not done by each student in each school. There are
many schools which do not have laboratory. Sometime if laboratory is available, the
instrument is not available. The students are not given freedom to do experiments at
their own. Some good schools have laboratories all classes right from class I to XII but
in short, there are many restrictions under which the students have to work in the
laboratory. Now it is possible to have Virtual laboratory. Once the Virtual Laboratory is
developed, it can provide lots of freedom to students. The students can manipulate any
attribute or variable related to the experiment and can see how it affects the outcome.
The Virtual Laboratory can be developed using ICT. It may be made available at the
door step of each and every student by uploading it on the Website. Further each
country can think of developing science Website which should give access to Virtual
Laboratory and it must be free of cost. Such a Website will not only help Indian students
but can go a long way in helping students of Underdeveloped and developing countries.

Use of ICT in Online Tutoring


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The digital technology has broken the foundries between countries. Human
beings do not feel any type of restriction in communicating with people all over the
globe. The access has become easy. It is a well known fact that all students do not
understand all subjects to the same extent. Some students find subjects, like,
Mathematics, Physics, English, Chemistry, Accountancy, etc. difficult. All educational
institutions do have well equipped laboratories and qualified & competent Faculty.
Consequently students do feel the need of academic support out of the school.
Therefore, students go for tuition. These days students from USA and other countries
are enrolled in private tuition classes in India. That is they are being taught Online. This
has become possible only due to ICT.
In online tutoring the student stays at his home. He logs in to his tutor through
the use of Internet and software. He can see the teacher who is in India and the teacher
can see the student who is in USA. The student asks the question and teacher replies it
by writing on soft board or using power point presentation. This interaction is normally
one to one. It has made the academic life of many students easy. This is how the
manpower available in India can be made use of other countries. All this is happening
just because of ICT.
Use of ICT in Developing Reasoning and Thinking
Web Based Instruction (WBI) can be developed with the help of ICT. The WBI
presents content in a structure format that allowing self-directed, self-paced instruction
on any topic.
The WBI was found to be effective in facilitating Reasoning Ability amongst
people belonging to different countries and age group. The WBI can be developed in
other subjects too. It will provide variety of Instructional Material to students and they
can choose that suits them best. This will improve the academic standard. This is
important in the present context as most of the Educational Institutions do not pay
attention to development of Reasoning & Thinking. They do not have any period in the
time table for Reasoning and Thinking. These abilities once develop can help individual
for solving the day-to-day problems. On the whole it will improve the quality of life. Thus,
ICT can be used for developing WBI for facilitating Reasoning and Thinking.
Use of ICT in Curriculum Development
At present some of the boards / universities are able to improve and update
their curriculum. Each board / university has its own procedure of developing
curriculum. This is quite old and too narrow. In this digitalized world, the boards /
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universities should change some of their procedures related to curriculum development,
examination, evaluation of doctoral work etc. Each board / university must have its
website. The curriculum can be put on the website and suggestions can be invited for its
improvement. It broadens the scope of receiving the suggestions. At present in India, in
spite of efforts made by UGC as well as NCTE, many boards / universities are still not in
a position to update the syllabus. In many boards / universities micro-teaching is just for
name sake. Models of Teaching have not entered in the syllabus at all and ICT is just a
formality in these boards / universities. Even the schools that employ the trained
teachers have felt this. Thus, there is a scope to use ICT in improving the curriculum.
Use of ICT in Developing Instructional Material
At present there is a shortage of qualified and competent teachers in all most
all subjects at all levels. Not only this, even the instructional material available in the
print form is not of quality. This is because many authors have written on those topics
that they have never read and / or done research. Sometime the information given in
the books is also wrong. The book reading is not very enjoyable and does not help
students in understanding the concepts and retaining the information. There are many
teachers who are well known for the specific subject. Their lectures should be digitalized
and made available to all the users. It will enhance the quality of instruction in the
classrooms. The teacher can use them in the classrooms and can organize discussion
after it wherein the new points can be added both by the teacher as well as students. It
will make the teaching effective, participatory and enjoyable. These lectures can be
uploaded on any website and students and teachers can access any lecture they like.
Another form of digitalized lectures is e-Content. The CEC is making efforts to
develop e-Content material in different subjects for the benefit of diverse users. The
competent teachers can develop e-Content in their own areas of specialization. This
has lots of potentiality to bring quality in teacher education. The ICT can be used in
developing Instructional Material and e-Content.
How can ICTs help transform the learning environment into one that is learner-
centered?
Research has shown that the appropriate use of ICTs can catalyze the
paradigmatic shift in both content and pedagogy that is at the heart of education reform
in the 21st century (Bransford, 1999). If designed and implemented properly, ICT-
supported education can promote the acquisition of the knowledge and skills that will
empower students for lifelong learning.
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When used appropriately, ICTs-especially computers and Internet
technologies- enable new ways of teaching and learning rather than simply allow
teachers and students to do what they have done before in a better way. These new
ways of teaching and learning are underpinned by constructivist theories of learning and
constitute a shift from a teacher-centered pedagogy-in its worst form characterized by
memorization and rote learning-to one that is learner-centered.
 Active learning: ICT-enhanced learning mobilizes tools for examination,
calculation and analysis of information, thus providing a platform for student
inquiry, analysis and construction of new information. Learners therefore learn as
they do and, whenever appropriate, work on real-life problems in-depth, making
learning less abstract and more relevant to the learner's life situation.
In this way, and in contrast to memorization-based or rote learning, ICT-
enhanced learning promotes increased learner engagement. ICT-enhanced
learning is also "just-in-time" learning in which learners can choose what to learn
when they need to learn it.
 Collaborative learning: ICT-supported learning encourages interaction and
cooperation among students, teachers, and experts regardless of where they
are. Apart from modeling real-world interactions, ICT-supported learning provides
learners the opportunity to work with people from different cultures, thereby
helping to enhance learners' teaming and communicative skills as well as their
global awareness. It models learning done throughout the learner's lifetime by
expanding the learning space to include not just peers but also mentors and
experts from different fields.
 Creative Learning: ICT-supported learning promotes the manipulation of
existing information and the creation of real-world products rather than the
regurgitation of received information.
 Integrative Learning: ICT-enhanced learning promotes a thematic, integrative
approach to teaching and learning. This approach eliminates the artificial
separation between the different disciplines and between theory and practice that
characterizes the traditional classroom approach.
 Evaluative Learning: ICT-enhanced learning is student-directed and diagnostic.
Unlike static, text- or print-based educational technologies, ICT-enhanced
learning recognizes that there are many different learning pathways and many

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different articulations of knowledge. ICTs allow learners to explore and discover
rather than merely listen and remember.
Issues in the use of ICT in Education
While discussing the use of ICTs in the field of education, the following
questions must be addressed:
 Which technologies?
 Who will be technically competent teacher to use ICT?
Which Technologies?
By the year 1990, the choice of various technologies for education was
limited because these were expensive and also required skilled technicians to
create and use them. For use in teaching-learning process as well as in the
teacher education programmes, the tools like Radio, television, overhead
projectors and slide projector etc. were the best examples of technology at that
time. But now the scenario has changed.
It has been established that in the teaching and learning environment,
various technologies are useful. However, it is important to know that for a
particular purpose which technologies are best suited in classroom teaching, so
the need arises for training of teachers / educators in various technologies and
their use in teaching-learning process.
Digitisation of many ICTs has increases the efficiency of the system and
also made it more powerful. It has also made it possible to design, develop,
deliver, manage and assess the various learning and training process. The new
digital technologies are a combination of hardware and software, media and
delivery systems. The latest digital technologies are evolving in the system and
conveying rapidly. Few of them are as follows:
 Multimedia PC, Laptop, Netbook

 Virtual Reality
 Computer Mediated Conferencing-Video/Audio Conferencing
 Digital Video/Still Camera/ Mobile Phone

 CD-ROM and DVD


 WWW (World Wide Web)

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 E-mail and Chat

 Digital Libraries
 Various Application Software
The choice of technology is very important for a particular purpose of
teaching learning process because the latest technologies also have a capacity
develop link between the old and the new and to integrate with older technologies
and also retrieve information stored in older technologies.

Who will be technically competent teacher to use ICT?

The efficient and effective use of ICTs depends largely on technically


competent teachers. They should have positive attitude towards ICT. They should
operate computers and should able to appreciate the potential of ICT. While
operating computers, they should use basic software for Power Point, word
processing and spreadsheets etc; evaluate educational software; create effective
multimedia-based presentations to support teaching learning; evaluate the use of
computers and related ICT tools for training and education of teachers; search on
internet for resources and use of e-mail, chat; integrate ICT tools into learning
activities throughout the curriculum; create hypertext documents and understand
about network; include new instructional principles, research and appropriate
assessment practices; demonstrate knowledge of ethics and equity issues related
to ICT; and lastly keep up-to-date as far as educational technology is concerned.
ICT in Teaching Learning Process

Our formal education system has a history of more than 5,000 year, dating
back to the progress of reading, writing, and arithmetic. Over this period of time,
educators have been faced by various problems such as:

 What is the suitable content to comprise in the learners’ curriculum?


 What are effective / valuable instructional practices for helping learners’ to learn
the curriculum content?
 What are different effective pre-service and in-service teacher education
programs of study that lead to students having effective teachers?
 What are effective student assessment practices to sustain student learning and
school system accountability?

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It is apparent that answers to these questions change over time. Answers are
powerfully affected by increases in human knowledge. We are interested in how the
various answers are being affected by the developments that are taking place in ICT.
Thus we are led to four specific ICT in education questions:

 What is suitable ICT content to comprise in the students’ curriculum?


 What are effective / valuable uses of ICT for helping students to learn the non-
ICT and the ICT curriculum content?
 What are different effective pre-service and in-service teacher educations
practices that show the way to effective combination of ICT into curriculum
content, instructional processes, assessment, and teacher’s overall professional
learning and work?
 What are various effective uses of ICT in student assessment in non-ICT areas,
and what are other effective ways to assess student ICT knowledge and skills?

These are tough questions. Moreover, ICT continues to transform at a very rapid
pace. Thus, answers to the questions are changing and will prolong to change in the
future.

Form of ICT in the Classroom


As the teacher is changing, the face of the classroom is also changing. The
teachers should get ready to sustain with the technology usefulness in the classroom.
Information and communication technology is not only a necessary tool for teachers in
their day to day work, but it also offers them opportunities for their own professional
development.
In a classroom, during the conventional teaching, the maximum time is
consumed for input-output and less time left for the process which is more significant for
the students in teaching learning process. However, in teaching with the help of ICT, the
input and output time is reduced and process time increased or in other words, process
time is greater than before. So when this process time is increased, the time of students’
discussion, activities, understanding the concept, learning, association with other
subjects, brain storming etc. will also enhance. So if the teaching is done with the help
of ICT, we get more time to the process phase which is more important in a period of 50
minutes or one hour in a classroom situation as shown below:

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Classroom Teaching Time

Conventional Teaching

Input Time Process Time Output Time


Teaching through ICT

Figure 1.1
Time taken in teaching through ICT and Conventional teaching

ICT Based Teaching: Need of the Day


With the emergence of ICTs, the world of teaching and learning has adopted at
once of its main innovations. The ways of knowing things and acquiring information has
changes tremendously with the use of ICTs, ICTs make it possible for the students to
access knowledge and information through Internet, T.V., Satellites, Cable network and
Digital media. Such a phenomenon results in lesser dependence of the learners on
classroom teaching based on text-book content. Under these circumstances, it
becomes even more challenging for the teachers not only to plan and organize learning
in entirely diverse situations, but also to synchronize learning mediated through multiple
delivery mechanism. Educational system all around us is under increasing pressure to
use ICT to teach students the knowledge and skills they need in the 21 st century.
ICT have changed the role and concept of educational institution. Now, there
are ample scopes to receive and update information from many other sources.
Naturally, the duties and responsibilities of the teachers should be considered on the
basis of emerging trends. In these days, teachers have to accept the demands of the
modern world and modify their old concepts, methods and instructional techniques
according the needs and they are to be trained as life-long learners.
Will ICT Replace the Teacher?
The answer is a resounding NO! In fact, with the inclusion of ICTs in the
classroom, the teacher's role in the learning process becomes even more critical.
What can and should change is the kind of role that the teacher plays. The role of
students, in turn, also expands. And since ICTs can open up the classroom to the
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outside world, the community can also playa new role in the classroom.
As learning shifts from the “teacher-centered model” to a “learner-centered
model”; the teacher becomes less the sole voice of authority and more the
facilitator, mentor and coach-from “sage on stage” to “guide on the side”. The
teacher's primary task becomes to teach the students how to ask questions and
pose problems, formulate hypotheses, locate information and then critically assess
the information found in relation to the problems posed. And since ICT-enhanced
learning is a new experience even for the teachers, the teachers become co-
learners and discover new things along with their students.
ICT Based Teaching: Various Advantages
According to Dahiya (2004) Information and Communication Technologies
(ICTs) can help teachers/educators in the following ways:
(i) With the assist of ICTs, teachers/educators can have access to their colleagues,
institutions and various universities, centres of excellence/ expertise, rich
resources at cyber space and various Organisations like SCERT, NCERT, UGC
and NCTE etc.
(ii) Educational software and Intelligent Tutoring Systems can significantly reduce
the cost of teacher training.
(iii) ICT enable to give feedback and testing without biases, objectively and fast.
(iv) ICT enable to access on-line research, journals and libraries to enable individuals
learning.
(v) ICTs enable to develop the initial preparation by giving good teaching or training
materials; to use simulators, recording and feedback practices for teaching and
microteaching; introducing trainees with resources and support on cyber space;
and different examples of the use of technologies in the situation during
teaching/training.
(vi) ICTs enable to interact with students over a physical distance.
(v) ICTs provide lifelong and professionally developed courses at a virtual situation,
orientation and various refresher courses on-line or through video conferencing.
(vi) ICTs enable to facilitate sharing of ideas, experiences as well as collaborating on
projects, exchange materials through virtual communities.
Apart from the above mentioned, some of the other advantages of ICTs are quick
and easy way to create, update and revise course materials through low-cost, location
and time independent delivery of course materials, increased learner control through
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hypertext based presentation of information, opportunities for international, cross-
cultural and collaborative learning, ability to combine text, graphics and a limited amount
of multimedia, enabling instructional designers to prepare quality learning materials.
ICT Benefits :
(a) For the learners
The progress of ICT should help to make learning more differentiated and
modified to individual needs, and deliver a more appealing, exciting and enjoyable
learning process that encourages better learning outcomes, including greater autonomy,
emotional resilience, as well as:
 personalized feedback on progress based on the use of assessment tools, and
the ability to record and share achievements with others;
 increased motivation through learning that stimulates, stretches and takes into
account prior and concurrent experiences in and out of school;
 flexibility to study where, when and in ways best suited to individual needs and
preferences, with smoother transitions between different phases of education;
 broadened horizons with more opportunities for creative expression;
 wider access to learning and participation, particularly for learners with special
educational needs and disabilities, and those unable to attend school due to
illness or disaffection with traditional learning methods; and
 the ability to make sensible choices about when, when not, and how to use new
technologies to enhance, extend and enrich their learning, reflecting the
increasingly ICT-rich environment in which they live and learn.
b) For the teachers:
The development of ICT should contribute to improved professional status, help
to increase capacity and provide opportunities for career development and progression
that build on the recognition and reward of effective e-learning practice. It should also
mean:
 Access to a comprehensive range of advice, guidance and support for teachers
of all subjects at all levels on how ICT can be used effectively in classroom
practice to embed ICT in teaching and learning across the curriculum;
 opportunities to access a wide range of resourcesthat simplify the preparation
and enrich the delivery of lessons;
 more sophisticated use of pupil data, including the matching of teaching and
learning styles and the setting and tracking of individual learning goals;
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 revitalized professionalnetworks supporting communication and collaboration,
including the sharing of resources and best practice, within and between
schools;
 support for workforce remodelling through the automation of routine
administrative tasks and the availability of technical support; increased
opportunities to develop innovative and creative ways of supporting students'
learning, enabling seamless links with experiences beyond the conventional
classroom and timetable.
Initiative in India for use of ICT in Education
The landmark policy on Computer Based Education and use of ICT was laid by
the National Task Force on Information Technology and Software Development (IT Task
Force) – constituted by the Prime Minister – in july, 1998. Recognising Information
Technology to be frontier area of knowledge and also a critical tool for assimilating,
processing and producing all other spheres of knowledge, the IT Task Force
recommended that the Government should launch an ‘Operational Knowledge’
campaign to universalise computer literacy and also to spread the use of computers and
IT in education (Educational Leadership, 2005).
It made four major recommendations on IT Education- which were accepted by the
Government and are given below:
 The Govt. shall soon launch three schemes- Vidyarathi Computer Scheme,
Shikshak Computer Scheme and School Computer Scheme to enable students,
teachers and schools respectively, desirous of buying computers to do so under
attractive packeges.
 Computers and internet shall be made accessible to schools, polytechnics,
colleges and public hospitals in the country by the year 2003.
 The concept of SMART schools where the emphasis is not only on Information
Technology in schools, but also on the use of skill and values that will be
important in the next millennium shall be started on a pilot demonstrative basis in
each state of India.
 A pilot project shall be launched in some lead districts, which have already
attained universal literacy with the aim of achieving universal literacy in all the
secondary schools in these districts. These pilot projects will be joint initiatives of
the local educational institutions, representative State Govt. and the Centre.

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Recommendation of the Working Group
The working group on Elementary Education for the Tenth Five Year Plan has
recommended that one or two schools in every cluster in the country should have
facilities for computer based learning that could be used by the children in the adjoining
schools. Networking of institutions in the form of school complexes would help in
promoting the sharing the infrastructure and expertise. The group has proposed Rs.
1000 crore for Computer Based Education during the Tenth Plan (2002-2007) – Rs. 2
lakh per cluster or Rs. 15-20 lakh per block or about Rs. 2 crore per district for 5 years.
The Working Group has also recommended establishing cells in SCERTs for defining
the curriculum for computer education, teacher training and ensuring quality besides up-
gradation of computer facilities in DIETs. In the component for “Education of Teacher
Educators”, computer literacy for teacher educators can also be ensured.

International status of use of ICT in Education


Most of the countries in the world have felt the need to incorporate the
Computer Education and the use of ICT in education. The developed world has a strong
network, facility and curricula for computer education in their schools even at primary
levels. In the United States of America, all the public (Government) schools are well
equipped with computers. Teachers encourage their pupils for computer projects by
using e-learning material and also using information available on Internet. This not only
makes the learning interesting and joyful but also incorporates innovativeness in
thinking and approach of the children and enhances their imaginative power. Now-a-
days students learn apart from their teachers, from different sources. ICT has changed
the learning system and styles of learning and the influence is significantly high in
education system. ICT in education is a powerful tool that may be used effectively and
efficiently within the classrooms to create more exciting learning environment and
deliver a higher level of educational expertise to students.
In short, it could be said that the technology has tremendous potential to make
learning easy and interesting. That’s why one educationist asked “If technologies have
the potential to significantly improve the teaching / learning process and revolutionize
the education enterprise, in the same manner that they revolutionized business and
entertainment, how come we have not experienced such drastic efforts in education? IT
has not made even its barest appearance in most Government schools in many
countries in the Asian region". Therefore, it is high time for involving computers and

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technology in education at elementary level too, in spite of the difficulties in mobilizing
resources.
Importance of Mathematics in Every Day Life
Mathematics is one of those human activities that man has created to gratify
certain human needs and desires. Disinterested curiosity of the man has been the
greatest motive power of the mathematics research. Mathematics is valued not only
because of its practical advantages it brings with it but also to train the minds of the
student.
Mathematics takes its place side by side with other subjects as an essential
element of one’s education; it is a part of the equipment and preparation for life, which
we expect the school to give to its pupils so that they may play their part in the
community as intellectual citizens. It affords knowledge of certain facts and laws.
Teaching of mathematics provides training in heuristic attitude, which is very valuable,
and at the same time is transferable to other situations in life. Besides its inclusion in the
school curriculum is justified on the ground that it satisfies intellectual, utilitarian,
vocational, cultural, moral and aesthetic values. The place of mathematics in our daily
life need not be emphasized. We are living in an age of science, technology and
computers. Right from the cradle to the grave, all our activities are controlled and
fashioned by mathematics. Mathematics has entered in our life and daily activities so
much that our existence would become impossible without it. Its achievement in almost
all spheres is marvelous. This subject is very much connected in the prosperity of
human race. Thus in this world of today, nobody can live without mathematics for a
single day. Mathematics will continue to occupy a prominent place in man’s life in almost
all the countries of the world.
Conventional Strategies of teaching Mathematics
It is very discouraging and an admitted fact that present day teaching of
mathematics in India- a subject which has got a very important place in the curriculum
and necessary for the study of the other disciplines and in our daily life, is far from
satisfactory. The teaching of mathematics in our schools in India is in a chaotic state
today. The conventional / traditional strategies of teaching mathematics aim at imparting
the dead-material to the pupils without offering them the opportunities to sharpen their
intellect and form insight and concepts of numerous mathematical computations.
Teachers are either trained in old methods and have never cared to look for something
better in new techniques or there are those who receive but never apply their
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knowledge and remain satisfied with routine methods. There is spoon-feeding and daily
dose of mental work is much more than the students can comfortably swallow and
digest. There are no emphasis on thought, understanding, initiative, judicious study and
power. So by the use of these methods, the power of reasoning, thinking, understanding
and retention are not developed in the students.
Teacher while teaching with traditional strategies in the class forgets that all
the students do not have same amount of capacity, taste, aptitude and the same
grasping power. They ignored the need of the learner and can hardly come down to
their level. Teacher neglect child centred approach. Child is adjusted to the subject
rather than the subject to the child. Hence, due to bad teaching, the subject loses its
appeal as it is taught in a dry and uninteresting manner. Students think that this subject
is dull, boring, difficult and useless and that is why they do not take interest in this
subject resulting into high dropout, wastage and stagnation and the fear and hatred for
the subject of mathematics. As the mathematics holds great practical values in this
world of scientific and technological development and in this age of computer, therefore
its teaching should be made effective at school level. If mathematics is to be taught in
our schools it must be taught well and for that purpose the existing conditions /
strategies under which it is being taught must be changed rather revolutionised.
ICT usage in Teaching and Learning Mathematics
ICT is just another, albeit very powerful, resource which now drastically brings
out substantial changes in teaching and learning subjects especially mathematics.
Parents, students and teachers have a right to expect that teaching of all subjects in the
curriculum should make the best possible use of ICT resources, and that means that the
selection and development of ICT resources should be made to fit the needs of the
subject - and not the reverse. ICT: an Aid in-
(a) Mathematical Concept and Skill Development:

 Enhanced power to deal with multiple representations via ICT. (e.g. symbolic,
numerical and graphical representations of functions in algebra)

 Enhanced ability to visualize via ICT (e.g. manipulations via software packages
of 3 – dimensional objects)

 Enhanced opportunity to construct mathematics knowledge via individual and


group investigation using technology (e.g. discovery of geometric properties via
geometry software )
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 Enhanced opportunity for individualized and customized diagnosis, remediation
and evaluation (e.g. computer-aided instructions for algebra students having
difficulty with factoring
(b) Mathematical Problem Solving:

 Enhanced ability to focus on the process of problem solving instead of the


computational aspect. (e.g. calculus students using a computer algebra system)

 Enhanced ability to solve realistic problems instead of being restricted to


contrived problems having ‘nice’ solutions. (e.g. algebra students solving a
problem whose model is a cubic equation via the aid of graphing calculator)

 Enhanced opportunity for students to be introduced to interesting problems and


associated mathematical subjects matter much earlier than before possible. (e.g.
student solving optimization problems via computer generated graphs or
estimating probabilities via computer simulations)

 Increased opportunity to develop mathematical modeling skills

(c) Mathematical Reasoning:

 Enhanced ability to gather data in order to form conjectures and apply inductive
reasoning (e.g. use of computers by students to find number patterns)

 Enhanced motivation to think logically in order to program a calculator or


computer to perform a desired task
(d) Mathematical Communication:

 Enhanced motivation to communicate mathematics precisely in order to perform


a desired task (e.g. algebra students programming a computer to estimate the
probability)

 Enhanced ability for students to present mathematical ideas both orally or in


writing (e.g. use of word processors to write reports which include mathematical
symbols, tables, graphs and use of multimedia presentation programs to
communicate mathematical ideas)
1.1.2 Electronic-Content (e-Content)
Wide varieties of digital materials which are of educational significance are
available online. Some of the quality materials which are available free of cost or with
minimum restrictions can be used, re-used and modified by teachers and students for

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their teaching and learning. As textbooks are too expensive, the students are switching
from textbooks to digital course materials. These materials provide both teachers and
students a greater interactivity and social collaboration. One of the materials which can
be designed and developed used, re-used and distributed is e-Content. e-Content is
becoming popular because of its flexibility of time, place and pace of learning. e-Content
includes all kinds of content created and delivered through various electronic media. e-
Content is available in many subjects and almost all levels of education. It can be used
by wide variety learners with diverse needs, different backgrounds, and previous
experience and skill levels. It can be shared and transmitted easily and promptly among
unlimited number of users around the world. Teachers, students and others get
benefited by the use of well designed and developed e-Content. It is advantageous to
the educational organizations to make their program accessible to their teachers and
students on campus, home and other community learning or resource centers. It has a
significant implications for open and distance learning institutions.
When we think more about Electronic Content (e-Content) then various questions arises
in our mind. These are:
 What is the History of e-Content
 What will be the features of e-Content?
 What is the difference between Printed Content and e-Content?
 How much e-Content does a school need?
 Where will we store e-Content?
 Is working with e-Contents need more than ICT skills?
 What will be e-Content contribution to teaching and learning?
What is the History of e-Content
In the early 1960, Stanford University Psychology Professor Suppes (1960)
experimented with using computers to teach mathematics and reading to young children
in elementary schools at California. Early e-Content systems, based on Computer-
Based Content / Training often attempt to replicate autocratic teaching styles whereby
the role of the e-Content system was assumed to be for transferring knowledge.
Graziadei (1993) described an online computer-delivered lecture, tutorial and
assessment project using electronic mail. In 1997, he published an article which
described developing an overall strategy for technology-based course development and
management for an educational system. He said that products had to be easy to use

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and maintain, portable, replicable, scanable and immediately affordable, and they had
to have a high probability of success with long-term cost-effectiveness.
After the publication of article, Graziadei further described a process at the
State University of New York of evaluating products and developing an overall strategy
for technology-based course development and management in teaching-Content. Today
many technologies can be, and are, used in e-Content, from blogs to collaborative
software, e-Portfolios, and virtual classrooms etc. Most e-Content situations use
combinations of these techniques.
What will be the features of e-Content?
In recent time, one of the important systems of communication of knowledge
has been through the web cast and its delivery through Internet or at present it is likely
to be provided through broadband. One is able to see on the website whatever is
hosted by information provider. However it is very hard to ascertain the authenticity and
correction of information. In case of print media there is a system of review by the peer
groups and publication of the same in journals and newspapers. But in the case of
websites no system seems to have been evolved so far. The system assumes greater
significance when one is web casting of educational materials. The correction and the
quality of the material have to be essentially assumed so as to provide information to
learners, teacher and general reader.
Bonime & Pohlmann (1998) and Rawlins (1991) provided a comparison of paper
book and electronic book features. According to them, e-Content benefit from:
 hyperlinking - contents can be linked to other pages inside and outside the book;
 non-linearity - i.e. the order of access can be determined by users;
 addition of multimedia - i.e. content presentation is enhanced by mixing
information type (i.e. audio, video and so on);
 data density - storage capacity is decreased while at the same time increasing
portability;
 searching - the usefulness of the content is enhanced by the ability of the users
to locate any piece of information, or to access any section instantly.
What is the difference between Printed-Content (p-Content) and e-Content:
While comparing p-Content with e-Content, we find that e-Content is much more
flexible and conducive for teaching learning across the curriculum. For updating the
content, storing the content without any hustle, for easy and random multiple access,
customization as per the taste and demand, effective pictorial presentation, effective
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sound quality and easily reproducible, e-Content has a clear edge over the printed
content. Instance search facility, animation and interactivity are also some of the main
features of e-Content which we does not meet in the printed-Content.
In modern urban world where space is very little and limited, e-Content will
always be a preferable mode than the space consuming and perishable p-Content.
How much e-Content does a school need?
Potentially, any school subject where learners work with information lends
themselves to being improved using Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
as the medium for learning. An e-learning ideal would be the goal of being able to
choose any lesson that had been already planned and to be able to teach it more
effectively in an ICT room. To do this, one would need to have all the curriculum
materials, source materials for research in the topic, pupil assignments etc. needed for
that lesson available in electronic form. The answer to the question of sufficiency must
therefore be that we might aim to acquire e-Content to match every topic in the school
curriculum. It is clear that the development of e-Content, and with it the aim of
improving professional practice in the use of ICT, will be a big issue in schools for the
next few years.
Where will we store e-Content?
An issue to consider in developing e-Content is where to put it. An important
principle will be to avoid using broadband connections to keep downloading the same
resource more than once. This will slow the system down (even at 2 Megabits per
second). Frequently used electronic sources should be stored locally. The broadband
connection should take priority for learning activities that can't be cached, like
videoconferencing. Materials to support planned lessons could be conveniently sited on
the school's ICT system. Content for managed learning programmes would probably be
sited in a 'Content Delivery System' - a special server provided. Materials to support
research activities into non-predictable topics will stay out on the Internet.
Is working with e-Content needs more than ICT skills?
The growth and development of ICT in various schools has been a series of
journeys to the next horizon, only to find that when we get there and look over it, there is
still more to do.
Unsurprisingly, over the next horizon, beyond developing e-Content, will be the
need to help students to use e-Content effectively in teaching learning situations.
Present concerns over learners cutting and pasting information as a substitute for
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learning are an indicator that we need to do additional work on this. For the answer to
this particular difficulty we can turn to the rules of research. One rule for the students -
identifies your sources and do not claim them as your own work. And one rule for the
teacher - don't mark sources! Only mark the new knowledge demonstrated by the pupil
in making use of the source information.
When learners are working at the highest levels with Information and
Communication Technology within any knowledge-based subject they will probably be
undertaking some form of enquiry. To undertake an enquiry independently they will need
to possess the skills associated with each stage in the enquiry.
The question for schools is "Where in your school's curriculum do learners
acquire the individual enquiry skills that support the development of attainment?"
e-Learning is not about delivering e-Content. It will be about developing the abilities
of the brain of the learner, through using the medium of ICT, to research, process,
synthesize and publish.
What will be e-Content Contribution to Teaching and Learning?
e-Content have a major contribution to all aspects of teaching and learning:
 e-Content can provide opportunities to engage and motivate children and young
people and meet their individual learning needs;
 e-Content can make a significant contribution to teaching and learning across all
subjects and ages, inside and outside the curriculum;
 e-Content can enable schools to share information and good practice in
networked learning communities;
 e-Content can help link school and home by providing access to teaching and
learning materials, and to assessment and attendance data, from home;
 Integrated curriculum and management information systems can help schools
monitor individual students' progress for assessment for learning and
administrative purposes;
 Use of shared drives in schools to bank lesson plans and other resources can
produce vast savings in time and effort for teachers; and
 Intelligent information management systems within schools can support school
leadership.
1.1.3 Achievement Motivation
Achievement Motivation, as put forward by a leading researcher in achievement
motivation, McClelland (1953), is a factor that relates to one’s aptitude for success.
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Achievement Motivation typically refers to an individual’s competence at striving to
achieve goals. It is also sometimes viewed as someone’s ability to select challenging
yet attainable goals and then accomplish them. McClelland viewed need for
achievement as a prominent factor in determining one’s success at selecting and
completing tasks in general. He also believed that households in which parents hold
exceptional expectations tend to produce achievement-motivated children.
McClelland found that individuals with high achievement motivation differ from
people who have low achievement motivation. Individuals high in achievement
motivation will usually earn faster promotions, earn higher grades in school and have
higher success running their own business than people with low achievement
motivation. Achievement motivation is the desire to excel at tasks. This means that
individuals with high achievement motivation tend to set goals that are neither too easy
nor extremely difficult. Easy tasks do not present a challenge and are of no interest.
Extremely difficult goals increase the risk of failure. A person with high achievement
motivation gains great satisfaction from completing a challenging goal. This reward is
more important than praise, recognition or monetary compensation.
According to McClelland's research, achievement-motivated people have certain
characteristics in common, including;
 the capacity to set high ('stretching') personal but obtainable goals,
 the concern for personal achievement rather than the rewards of success, and
 the desire for job-relevant feedback (how well am I doing?) rather than for
attitudinal feedback (how well do you like me?).
Atkinson’s (1964) conception of motivation concentrates primarily upon
achievement related behavior in which there is competition with a standard of
excellence. He conceives achievement oriented behavior as a resultant of approach-
avoidance conflict. The relative dominance of approach or avoidance tendency is
determined by individuals different from none another in particular motive strengthens.
Panda & Jena (2000) defined achievement motivation as an urge to improve or
as a psychological factor which provides internal impetus to excellence. Achievement
motivation is the tendency to maintain and increase the individual’s proficiency in one’s
area of work. It is an urge to improve and implies dissatisfaction with the present state
of affairs. Achievement oriented person is the one who sincerely tries to improve the
condition of life for himself.

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According to Narayana et al. (2007), achievement motivation is an essential
element which affects the behavior of all individual and is an acquired tendency of all
individuals which implies action to aspire, strive and achieve in completion with other,
with a standard of excellence. Such behavior is achievement motivation behavior
oriented.
Achievement motivation is thus a learned motive to complete and strive. As
almost any activity from gardening to managing an industrial organization can be
viewed in terms of competition and success versus failure. In Good’s (1973) opinion,
achievement motivation is a combination of psychological forces which initiates, directs
and sustain behavior towards successful attainment of goal which provides a sense of
significance.
1.1.4 Learning Styles
Learning styles are simply various approaches or ways of learning.
Felder (1996) defined a student’s learning style by the answers to four questions:
 What type of information does the student prefer: sensory (sights, sounds, and
physical sensations), or intuitive (memories, ideas, and insights)?
 How is information received; visual (pictures, diagrams, graphs, and
demonstrations), or verbal (sounds, written and spoken words, and formulas)?
 How do they process information: activity (through engagement in physical
activity of discussion) or reflectively (through introspection)?
 How does the student progress toward understanding: sequentially (in a logical
progression of small incremental steps), or globally (in large jumps, absorbing
material randomly)?
It is important to understand that the dimensions of this model are a matter of
degree and not either/or categories. A student’s preference for the different styles may
be strong, moderate, or mild. It may also change with time, and may vary from one
subject or learning environment to another. The most commonly used categories of
learning styles are based on sensory preferences. Wooldridge (1995) describes
learners with the visual, auditory and kinaesthetic preferences and the others fall in to
sub categories of these:
i) Visual Learners (learn through seeing): These learners need to see the teacher's
body language and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson. They

28
may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including: diagrams, illustrated
text books, overhead transparencies, videos, flipcharts and hand-outs
ii) Auditory Learners (learn through listening): They learn best through verbal
lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say.
Auditory learners interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to tone
of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances.
iii) Kinesthetic Learners (learn through moving, doing and touching):
Tactile/Kinesthetic persons learn best through a hands-on approach, actively exploring
the physical world around them. They may find it hard to sit still for long periods and
may become distracted by their need for activity and exploration.
Grasha (1996) has defined learning styles as, "personal qualities that influence a
student's ability to acquire information, to interact with peers and the teacher, and
otherwise participate in learning experiences". One of the first things educators can do
to aid the learning process is to simply be aware that there are diverse learning styles in
the student population: there are probably as many ways to "teach" as there are to
learn. Perhaps the most important thing is to be aware that people do not all see the
world in the same way. They may have very different preferences than you for how,
when, where and how often to learn.
Rita & Kenneth (1978) provide various ways in which learning style theory can
take effect in the classroom. They give a background of how learners are affected by
elements of the classroom and follow it with recommendations of how to accommodate
students’ learning strengths. They write that “learners are affected by their: (1)
immediate environment (sound, light, temperature, and design); (2) own emotionality
(motivation, persistence, responsibility, and need for structure or flexibility); (3)
sociological needs (self, pair, peers, team, adult, or varied); and (4) physical needs
(perceptual strengths, intake, time, and mobility)”. They analyze other research and
make the claim that not only can students identify their preferred learning styles, but that
students also score higher on tests, have better attitudes, and are more efficient if they
are taught in ways to which they can more easily relate. Therefore, it is to the educator’s
advantage to teach and test students in their preferred styles.
The development of the constructivist view of learning led to a change of
emphasis towards a focus on understanding the individual student. In particular
attention is now paid to the way that students acquire data and relate it to existing
knowledge, the ways in which students process the knowledge to gain understanding,
29
and finally how the students demonstrate the quality of what they have learned. These
developments have meant that great importance is now placed upon the recognition of
individual differences in learners (Biggs, 1993).
1.1.5 Self-Confidence
According to the Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (2001), Self-confidence is
one’s belief in self and in one’s powers and abilities. So self means a composite of a
person’s thought and feelings, striving and hopes, fears and fantasies, his views of what
he is what he has been, what he might be and his attitude pertaining to his worth.
Self-confidence is an attitude which allows individuals to have positive yet
realistic views of themselves and their situations. Self-confident people trust their own
abilities, have a general sense of control in their own lives, and believe that, within
reason, they will be able to do what they wish, plan, and expect. Self-confidence is an
aspect of self concept, refers to an individual’s perceived ability to act affectively in a
situation to overcome obstacles and to get things go all right. A man is reality owes a
great deal to friends who express belief to win (Basavanna, 1975).
Self-confident people have expectations that are realistic. Even when some of
their expectations are not met, they continue to be positive and to accept themselves.
Having self-confidence does not mean that individuals will be able to do everything.
Self-confident people are willing to risk the disapproval of others because they generally
trust their own abilities. Most of the time, they tend to accept themselves; they don't feel
they have to conform in order to be accepted.
Self-confidence is not necessarily a general characteristic which pervades all aspects of
a person's life. Typically, individuals will have some areas of their lives where they feel
quite confident, e.g. academics, athletics, while at the same time they do not feel at all
confident in other areas, e.g., personal appearance, social relationships.
Azmitia (2002) defined that positive Self-confidence is overall self appraisal of
one’s worth which is significant for healthy personality development. Youth friendships
are associated with Self-confidence and contribute to forming self-image and are related
to social competence.
1.2 NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In the age of cyberspace in the twenty-first century, calculation, composition and
communication on paper alone is a fractional, impoverished and increasingly outdated
concept and practice for thinking and communication. To build on the accomplishments
of paper technology, a digital infrastructure must be in place.
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At present, e-Content is entering into almost all subjects in the field of education.
It is supposed to be used as a tool where and when considered useful. By integrating e-
Content into standard learning material, by offering e-Content module cases and by
integrating the use of e-Content in the different subject areas, different types of actions
are taken or planned, to make sure that e-Content will be real part of the curriculum by
supporting software development.
If we are to cope with the various challenges of the swiftly changing
society/environment and make use of new opportunities offered by e-Content, plans
have to be realized giving learners, teachers and educators access to necessary
equipments. The most important competence building in this field is the development of
pedagogical methods. That can happen only when long-standing competence
programmes can work along with real-life experience, where educators, teachers and
learners are using e-Content in their day to day life and daily learning experiences.
Use of e-Content encourages self-expression and discovery by means of its
interactive non-linear access of information. Students will be more motivated to learn
since a multimedia lesson can provide near-reality information through its variety of
available media elements (text, audio, video and animation). The learners may learn by
using their multiple senses, which provides innovative, new and enriched experiences.
The learning process will be an active one, leaving the learners to learn by their own.
Any learning is based on processing of information in children’s mind. Optimum
level of Information Processing depends only on readiness of the learner. How can we
get the readiness of the learner ensured? The Information Processing Approach applied
to study of human perceptual and cognitive activities is useful in imaging how we
recognize objects and understand concepts.
In elementary education at VII standard level, the students felt very difficult to
understand the concepts in mathematics subject because the abstract content matters
are boring to the learners and induce disinterest. Abstract learning needs more sensory
integration to fix up in the long term memory. So attention needs to be focussed on the
integrative efforts of information processing approach, transformation between short
term memory and long term memory and accelerating cognitive strategies. The use of
e-Content in teaching of mathematics produces more integrated sensory output in
learning mathematics subject.
Integration of e-Content in the field of education is still far-away from desired.
The use of multimedia in teaching learning process and their integration in the
31
classroom has remained nearly completely unexplored. Only a small number of studies
have been conducted in this direction that too in limited disciplines. Many correlated
questions and issues have remained unanswered. Thus a lot of research / studies need
to be attempted in this direction to answer such questions/problems and it is due to this
reason that the investigator has selected e-Content as his area of research.

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


EFFECTIVENESS OF e-CONTENT STRATEGY ON ACHIEVEMENT IN
MATHEMATICS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
 To construct and standardize achievement test in mathematics for seventh grade
elementary school students.
 To study the achievement of elementary school students in mathematics at pre
and post test stages of the e-Content group.
 To compare the adjusted mean scores on mathematics achievement of the
elementary school students in the e-Content group and conventional strategy
group by considering pre mathematics achievement as covariate.
 To study the effect of treatment, Gender and their interaction on mathematics
achievement of elementary school students by considering pre mathematics
achievement as covariate.
 To study the effect of treatment, achievement motivation and their interaction on
mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre
mathematics achievement as covariate.
 To study the effect of treatment, learning style and their interaction on
mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre
mathematics achievement as covariate.
 To study the effect of treatment, self confidence and their interaction on
mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre
mathematics achievement as covariate.
1.5 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS USED
e-Content Strategy:
e-Content Strategy of teaching is the Strategy in which the digital contents are
presented to the learners in the integrated form of text, graphics, animation, audio,
video and also provide interactivity while in Conventional Strategy of teaching, the
32
teacher is the only active participant in the teaching learning process and the students
are the passive listener.
Achievement in Mathematics:
Achievement in mathematics refers to accomplishment of proficiency of
performance in the subject of mathematics. It signifies successfully carried out
performance by an individual or a group assessed after the completion of a task. Here
in this study, mathematics achievement will be considered in terms of marks obtained
by the students in mathematics achievement Test at pre and post test stages of
experiment.
Elementary School Students:
Elementary school students refers to the students studying in the class 1 st to 8th.
Here in this study, class 7th students will be considered as elementary school students.
1.6 DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
1. The study will be delimited to the VII class only.
2. The study will be delimited to the subject of mathematics only.
3. The study will be delimited to one Government school of UT Chandigarh only.
4. The content of class VII mathematics will be taken from the text book of NCERT
only.

33
CHAPTER - II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A review of related literature in the field of investigation is of great help to an


investigation. Such a review helps to understand the status of research of and also point
out the gaps in the area of research. The investigator can be sure that his problem does
not exist in vacuum and that considerable work has already been done on problems
which are directly related to his or her problem. The success of his efforts will depend in
no small measure on the extent to which the capitalized on the advances both empirical
and theoretical mode by previous studies. Every investigator must know what sources
are available in the field of enquiry, which of them he or she is likely to use and where
and how to find them. The survey of related literature is a crucial aspect in the planning
of a new study.
Related studies proves as light house which shows up the right path so that we
may not be gripped in the dark and waste our energy. Familiarity with literature in any
problem helps the investigator to discover what is already known, what others have tried
to find out, what methods of attack have been used successfully and what problems
remained to be solved. A step towards unknown can only be taken after a thorough
review of the related literature and researches conducted in that area. Any research
without such a review of related literature is likely to be a building without any
foundation. The review of related literature provides a clear picture of the study to be
taken as a pre-requisite to the proper planning of the problem and conducting the
research. The review of the past investigations in a particular field serves as a guide to
the investigator as it helps him to avoid duplication of the work already done in that
area. The knowledge that what has already been done in the area of researches
regarding the methods used for data gathering and the results of their analysis, keeps
the investigator systematic in his own endeavour.

According to John W. Best (1977), “Practically all human knowledge can be


found in books and libraries. Unlike other animals that must start a new with each
generation, man builds upon the accumulated and recorded knowledge of the past. His
constant adding to the vast store of knowledge makes possible progress in all area of
human endeavour.”

34
According to Borg (1996), “The literature in any field forms the foundation upon
which all future work will be built. If we fail to build the foundation of knowledge
provided by the review of literature our work is likely to be shallow and naive and will
often duplicate work that has already being done better by someone else.”
In the present study, the investigator examined the fact of two strategies of teaching on
achievement of VII class students in mathematics. There are very few researches
conducted related to these strategies and also the dependent variable i.e. achievement.
As the present study is concerned with two strategies namely e-Content Strategy and
Conventional Strategy, the investigator reviewed the researches related to these
strategies. In the present study, the researcher has used various books, dissertations,
handbooks, articles, journals, thesis, web sites as reference material. So, the
investigator viewed the studies, which one directly or indirectly related to the problem
area and has presented them in the chronological order.
The crux of the various studies, views and comments related with two strategies
namely e-Content Strategy and Conventional Strategy are as follows:
2.1 STUDIES RELATED TO EFFECTIVENESS OF E-CONTENT
STRATEGY
Basu (1981) conducted a study on “Effectiveness of Multimedia Programmed
Materials in the Teaching of Physics,” The main purpose of the study was to make an
appraisal of the relative effectiveness of multimedia programmed instruction and
programmed class-teaching on the criteria of immediate achievement and retention of a
group of subjects at three levels of ability. The specific objectives of the study were (i)
To develop instructional materials for the strategy of programmed class-teaching and to
study its effectiveness; (ii) to develop the programme learning materials on light in
school physics in four different styles-semi programme, linear programme, branching
programme, and hybrid programme; (iii) to develop a multimedia programme package
using each style of programme in conjunction with audio-visual media; (iv) to compare
the relative effectiveness of different strategies of instruction employing multimedia
programmed material and programmed class teaching on the criteria of immediate
achievement, retention and delayed retention; and (v) to study the interaction effects of
instructional strategies, abilities and occasions. The following were the findings of the
study: (i) There was a significant difference among the different strategies means on the
criteria of overall achievement. It was found that on the criterion of overall achievement,

35
the multimedia semi-programmed instruction was better than the strategy of
programmed teaching; the multimedia linear programmed instruction was better than
the multimedia semi-programmed instruction; the multimedia branching programmed
instruction was better than the multimedia linear programmed instruction; (ii) the
strategies of multimedia programmed instruction enabled learners’ to reach the level of
mastery learning; (iii) it was found that a significant difference existed in the
achievement through the different strategies due to differences in ability.
Golani (1982) conducted a study “The Use of Audio-visual Aids in the Secondary
Schools of District Thane.” The objectives of the study were (i) To create awareness
among teachers and headmasters of secondary schools about the importance of
audiovisual aids; (ii) to help in raising the academic standard in secondary schools of
Thane district; (iii) to know the existing situation regarding audiovisual materials in the
secondary schools of Thane district; (iv) to elicit the opinion of the headmasters and
concerned teachers about the measures for providing better and improvised materials
on audiovisual education; (v) to elicit the opinion of the headmasters and concerned
teachers about the measures for providing better and improvised materials on
audiovisual education; and (vi) to present the above measures in the form of concrete
proposals and their implications for secondary schools as well as for the professional
courses in training of teachers and preparing materials for audiovisual aids in education.
Some of the important findings of the study were: (i) Schools that were situated in urban
areas and the ones which were conducted by rich societies possessed audiovisual aids;
(ii) only a few teachers used audiovisual aids in teaching; (iii) teachers who were trained
in the use of audiovisual aids were inadequate in number; (iv) at many places the
audiovisual aids were in a broken down condition and awaited repairs; (v) at many
places the hardware was purchased. However, it was not used as proper software was
not available; (vi) audiovisual aids were useful in teaching; (vii) audiovisual aids were
not used due to lack of properly trained personnel and lack of accommodation in the
schools; (viii) there were no incentives to teachers who used audiovisual aids.
Mohini (1982) conducted a study entitled “The effect of Sex, Intelligence, School
Achievement and Self Confidence on Development of Piagetion operational
comprehension among the school Adolescent.” She concluded that students who were
highly intelligent and self-confident will not necessary score high on operative
comprehension test. So intelligence and self-confidence are not significantly related to
operational comprehension thinking.
36
Krishan (1983) conducted a study “Development of Multimedia Package for
Teaching a Course on Audiovisual Education.” The major objectives of the study were:
(i) To develop a multimedia package for teaching a course on audiovisual education for
the instructor training programme; (ii) to find the effectiveness of the multimedia
package in terms of achievement of trainees and change in attitude of the instructor
trainees towards the multimedia package; and (iii) to study the feasibility of the
multimedia package in terms of time and cost for the instructor training programme. The
major findings of the study were: (i) Ninety-eight percent of the trainees obtained more
than 80 percent of the marks on the final post-test; (ii) the mean percentages of the
post-test scores varied from 81.41 to 90.46; (iii) the mean gain in the total scores for all
the modules was found to be significant; (iv) the mean gain scores of knowledge,
comprehension and higher mental abilities were found to be significant; (v) the mean
attitude change was found to be significant; (vi) the achievement of trainees and their
language ability were found to be positively related; (vii) the feasibility of the multimedia
package was established in terms of cost involved in reproduction of the various
resource materials and the time scheduling in an actual institutional set-up.
Rajput (1984) has found that intelligence and achievement motivation affects the
achievement of students in mathematics significantly at all the three levels i.e. high,
average and low level. The t-test showed the superiority of the group of high intelligence
and achievement motivation over the average and low group of students in their
achievement in mathematics. It also showed that the students of average intelligence
and achievement motivation were better achievers in mathematics than the students of
low intelligence and achievement motivation.
Rao (1984) concluded that- (i) The position of the audio-visual equipment in the
schools was poor. (ii) there was a significant relationship between the availability of the
equipment and the type of the management of the school. (iii) there was association
between the availability of the equipment in the schools and their locality. (iv) there was
a relationship between the availability of the audio-visual equipment with age the age
and type of the school. (v) there was no positive association between the availability of
audio-visual equipment and the strength of the schools. (vi) there was no positive
association between the effective or ineffective use of audio-visual equipment in
classroom teaching and the type of management. (vii) there was no significant
relationship between the effective use of audio-visual equipment in classroom teaching
and the locality of the schools. (viii) there was no relationship between the effective use
37
of audio-visual equipment in classroom teaching and the strength of the schools. The
other factor hindering the effective use of audio-visual equipment and material, given in
order of importance, were: ‘Heavy work load on the part of the teacher’, ‘Lack of
accomodation’, ‘Lack of funds’. ‘Lack of trained personal’, ‘Lack of time for the teacher’
and ‘Very expensive’.
Grove (1987) studied, however, no significant difference in academic
performance of students enrolled in an Audio-Visual Tutorial Instruction in mathematics
course at the introductory college level as compared to those students enrolled in
traditional lecture method course. There is no significant difference in attitudes towards
mathematics between students who received their instruction in Audio-Visual Tutorial
mode or students who received their instruction in a traditional mode.
Dutt Sunil (1988) found in his study “The effect of problem solving strategies in
problem solving ability in science of high school students in relation to anxiety level,
cognitive style and self-confidence”, that effect significantly in problem solving abilities
of the students.
Kohli (1988) studies that the two levels of self-confidence viz. high group and low
group differ significantly with respect to scores of religious attitude. It may, further, be
specified that the students belonging to high self-confidence group possess more
religious attitude than that of the students falling in low self-confidence group.
Pillay & Anandan (1990) in their study “An Analysis of the Educational Video
Productions Made in India” attempts to analyse educational video productions made in
India. The objectives of the study were: (i) To find the distribution of educational videos
produced by different centres and in different years; (ii) to analyse the content of the
educational videos produced in different subjects; and (iii) to make suitable suggestions
for improvement. The major findings were: (i) The total number of educational video
productions in India in 1983 was just 17. The number increased to 285 in 1987; (ii)
among the EMRC’s, the Poona Centre produced the highest percentage (42.57) of
educational videos during the period 1983-88; (iii) among the AVRC’s, the Calcutta
centre has produced the highest percentage (35.36) of educational video cassettes
during the period 1983-88; (iv) subjects like education, economics, management and
sociology received much attention. But the subjects like political science and geography
had only a very limited number of productions - four and five productions respectively;
(v) out of the 1007 videos produced, more than half of them were for a time duration of
less than 20 minutes, while 84 productions were very small and were of less than 10
38
minutes; (vi) among the agricultural video productions, the latest technology used for
increasing productivity received more attention; (vii) educational videos produced in
economics gave importance to the economic development under development and
planning activities; (viii) in the medical science, the distribution of the educational videos
produced seemed to be more or less equal among different classifications like diseases,
new methods of surgical treatment, health care of different organs like eye, kidney etc.;
(ix) out of the 101 videos produced in Physics, 50 videos (49.5%) were on different
theories and principles of classical mechanics and the cyclotron and its major
subsystems in nuclear resources. Others were on the functions and operations of
various circuits, items of equipment etc.; (x) not many video cassettes were produced
like archaeology, law, anthropology, culture, film appreciation, home science, political
science and veterinary science.
Reddy & Sujatha (1990) conducted a comparative study of some educational
variables of students of private and government schools. The sample comprised of
1340 students, the number from government schools being 709 and from private
schools being 631 from three districts of Karnataka. The results of the study reported
that achievement motivation had no significant relationship with academic achievement.
Wong & Mihaly (1990) explored the effect of personality and the quality of
experience on motivation and academic achievement. A sample of 170 high school
students consisting 68 male and 102 female students completed the personality
research forum and their experiences were recorded through experience sampling
method. The results indicated that intrinsic motivation had positive relationship with
academic achievement.
Idayavani (1991) conducted a study on “Developing a Video Programme on
Weathering and Work of Rivers in Physical Geography for Higher Secondary Students”
to investigate whether students in the higher secondary schools who were taught
certain concepts in Geography by the video method achieved more than those who
were taught by the traditional method. The objectives of the study were: (i) To prepare a
video programme on ‘Weathering’ and ‘Work for Rivers’ for instructional use for higher
secondary students; (ii) to find out whether the video method is not effective than the
traditional lecture method in teaching the concepts on ‘Weathering’ and ‘Work of the
Rivers’; (iii) to find out whether the higher secondary students improve their
achievement after viewing the video programme. She found that the higher secondary
students improved their learning of the concepts on ‘weathering’ and ‘work of the rivers’
39
after viewing the video programme; the higher secondary students taught by the video
method performed better than the students taught by the traditional lecture method.
Jayamani (1991), conducted a study, “Effectiveness of the simulation model of
teaching through Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)” to check the effectiveness of the
simulation model in teaching physics to Standard XI students through Computer
Assisted Instruction (CAI). The main objective of the study were : (i) To find out the
effectiveness of the simulation model of teaching as compared to the traditional method;
and (ii) to utilize the growing use of computers in education. The major findings of the
study were: (i) The experimental group obtained a higher mean than the control group;
(ii) the sex-wise comparison proved to be insignificant; (iii) there was no significant
difference in learning level between Tamil medium and English-medium students; and
(iv) the experimental group performed significantly better than the control group.
Kalimuthu (1991) conducted a study on “Developing a video programme on
environmental pollution in biology for higher secondary students” to investigate whether
students in higher secondary schools who are taught certain concepts in biology by the
video method achieve more than those who are taught by the traditional method. The
objectives of the study were: (i) To prepare a video programme in environmental
pollution for instructional use for higher secondary students; and (ii) to find out whether
the video method is more effective than the traditional lecture method in teaching the
concepts of environmental pollution. He found that the higher secondary students taught
through the video programme learnt more of the concepts on environmental pollution
than those who were taught by the lecturer method; the higher secondary students
improved their achievement on environment pollution after viewing the video
programme.
Sinnathambi (1991) in his study, “Developing a Video Programme on Energetic in
Chemistry for Higher Secondary Students” attempted to study whether students in
higher secondary schools who are taught certain concepts in chemistry by video
methods achieve more that those who are taught by the traditional method. The major
objectives of the study were: (i) To prepare a video programme on energetics for
instructional use for higher secondary students; (ii) to find out experimentally whether
the video method is more effective than the traditional lecture method in teaching
concepts on ‘energetics’; (iii) to find out whether the higher secondary students improve
their achievement after viewing the video programme on ‘energetics’. The major
findings of the study were: (i) The students who were taught by the video method
40
learned more concepts on energetics than those who were taught by the lecture
method; (ii) the students improved their achievement on ‘energetics’ after viewing the
video programme.
Batra (1992) concluded that two levels of achievement motivation viz. high group
and low group, differ significantly with respect to scores of conjunctive concept
formation. It may further be specified that the students belonging to high achievement
motivation group developed better conjunctive concept formation than that of students
falling in low achievement motivation group.
Bal (1992) concluded that audio-visual instruction and verbalization proved to be
the most effective method for teaching concepts in the subject of social studies at the
concrete operation stage and formal operation stage.
Passi & Paul (1992) conducted a study, “Preparation of a Multimedia Instructional
Module for Developing the Skill of Observing Classroom Behaviour through Flander’s
Interaction Analysis Category Systems (FIACS)” to investigate the affect of multimedia
instructional module for developing the skill of observing classroom behaviour through
Flander’s Interaction Analysis Category Systems (FIACS). The major objectives of the
study were: (i) To prepare instructional material for developing skills of observing
classroom behaviour through the FIACS; and (ii) to study the effectiveness of
instructional materials in terms of the achievement of trainees on the criterion test and
favourable opinion of trainees on different materials. They found that: (i) The
experimental group studying through instructional material obtained a significantly
higher mean score on the criterion test than the control group; (ii) the treatment was
found effective in developing classroom observation skills through the FIACS; (iii) the
reactions gathered during the study indicated a favourable opinion by the trainees on all
its aspects, namely, objectives, examples, contents, language, learning exercise,
glossary, utility, general appearance and cartoons.
Rose & Stella (1992) conducted a study “Effectiveness of Computer Assisted
Instruction with Special Reference to Underachievers” which throws light on the
application of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) and the Teacher Support System
(TSS) for the optimum development of Under Achievers (UA). The objectives of the
study were: (i) To develop CAI software, (ii) to find out the effectiveness of CAI with TSS
and CAI without TSS with reference to the learner variables, viz. sex, locale, IQ and
achievement level; and (iii) to find out the interaction of the learner variables and the
treatment on the achievement scores. They found that: (i) Both the CAI strategies were
41
superior to the traditional method of instruction and CAI with TSS was more effective
than CAI without TSS for underachievers (UA); (ii) except achievement level, all the
other learner variables combined with the treatment had no interaction effect on the
achievement score; and (iii) there was no relationship between the post treatment
scores and the variables ‘sex’, ‘locale’ and ‘achievement level;’ of the experimental
group. In the case of variables IQ, ‘study habits’ and ‘math study attitude’, the positive
relationship between those variables and achievement at the pre-treatment level was
found to be cancelled at the post-test. Similar results were obtained for UA.
Ginsburg & Bronstein (1993) studied family factors related to children’s intrinsic
and extrinsic motivational orientation and academic performance. Data were collected
from 93 fifth grade students and their parents from Florida. Achievement scores were
obtained from school records. Extrinsic rewards and over-and under controlling family
styles were found to be related with extrinsic motivation and lower academic
achievement of the students. On the other hand parental encouragement was
associated with intrinsic motivation of the students.
Triptimandal (1994) found that one type of audio-visual material affect the
acquisition of mathematical concepts. Sex plays a significant role in acquisition of
mathematical concept. There is an interaction effect of audio-visual material and sex.
Prabhakar (1995) conducted a study, “Development of Software for Computer
Aided Instruction and its Comparison with Traditional Method for Teaching Physics at +2
level.” The objectives of study were: (i) To develop computer software for computer
aided instruction for teaching selected topics in physics; (ii) to study the effectiveness of
CAI material in terms of achievement and reaction towards CAI material; (iii) to compare
the achievement of (a) class XII students taught through CAI with those taught through
traditional method, (b) class XII students with those of class XI students both taught
through CAI, and (c) male students with female students of class XI taught through CAI
by considering intelligence, Pre-test, attitude towards science, adjustment, personality
and study habits separately as covariates; (iv) to compare the reaction towards CAI
material (a) of class XII students with those of class XI students both taught through
CAI, (b) of male students with those female students of XI both taught through CAI, and
(c) of male students with those of female students of class XII both taught through CAI
by considering intelligence, achievement, attitude towards science, adjustment,
personality and study habits separately as covariates; (v) to study the effect of
treatment, adjustment with its various dimension and interaction on achievement
42
separately; (vi) to study the effect of treatment, attitude towards science and their
interaction on achievement; (vii) to study the effect of treatment, study habits and their
interaction on achievement. The findings of study were: (i) The CAI material was found
to be effective in terms of achievement and reaction towards CAI material of both class
XI and XII students; (ii) the CAI was found to be significantly superior to traditional
method in terms of achievement of class XII students when moderate variables were
considered as covariates separately; (iii) the class XII students achieved significantly
higher than class XI students both taught through CAI when moderate variables were
taken as covariates separately; (iv) CAI was found to be equally beneficial to both males
and females of class XI in terms of achievement when moderate variables were
considered as covariates separately; (v) CAI was found to be equally beneficial to both
males and females of class XII in terms of achievement when moderate variables were
considered as covariates separately; (vi) class XI students were found to be have
significantly more favorable reaction towards CAI material than class XII students when
moderate variables were considered as covariates separately; (vii) class XI and class
XII males as well as females were found to have equally favorable reaction towards CAI
material when moderate variables were considered as covariates separately; (viii) the
CAI was found to be significantly superior to traditional method in terms of achievement
of students; (ix) the achievement was found to be independent of personality as well as
interaction between treatment and personality; (x) the achievement was found to be
independent of personality, adjustment, emotional adjustment, social adjustment,
educational adjustment, attitude towards science, and their interaction with treatment
separately. The CAI was found to benefit both students with poor as well as good
educational adjustment; (xi) the study habits as well as interaction between treatment
and study habits were not found to influence significantly the achievement of students.
Proctor & Richardson (1995) conducted a study, “Evaluating the effectiveness of
multimedia computer modules as enrichment exercises for introductory human
geography.” The objectives were to determine overall effectiveness of computer
modules as well as the kinds of students and kinds of geographical knowledge and
skills they best served. The results were presented of a careful experimental evaluation
of two multimedia computer modules used as enrichment devices for an introductory
human geography course at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The rather
disappointing results in respect of all three of these areas tend to corroborate one
published allegation that quantitative evaluation of multimedia effectiveness is itself
43
ineffective, due primarily to the inherent complexity of learning. The conclusion of the
study was that an array of quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods will better
serve the important objective of improving multimedia use at the university level.
Sandhu (1995) concluded Audio-Visual instruction with verbalization was found
to be superior strategy of teaching in teaching Punjabi to the students of Class VII,
Intelligence was found to be a redundant factor for achievement in Punjabi.
Bose (1996) conducted a study on “Studying the effectiveness of Computer
Programmes as Remedial Strategies for overcoming specific Learning Disabilities”. The
objectives were: (i) To study the effectiveness of the remedial strategies using computer
based learning material and methods and traditional materials-cum-methods for
overcoming specific learning disabilities; (ii) to study the relative difference in the
outcome of two remedial strategies, namely, the computer based materials and the
traditional materials when applied on the learning disabled children. The findings were:
(i) The experimental group gained more than the control group in Maths by five percent;
(ii) the experimental group gained more than the control group in English by seven per
cent; (iii) the gains made by the sub groups of the experimental group were noticeably
more than those made by the control group. This was true both for mathematics and
English.
Swatantra & Devi (1996) found that- (i) The control group and the experimental
group were different significantly in their academic achievement at the post-test level.
The video group performed better than the control group; (ii) the academic achievement
of the girls in the experimental group was better than that of the same group at the post-
test level. This may be due to the interest of the girls on the exposure of T.V. than that of
boys; (iii) the performance of the urban students in the experimental group was better
than that of the rural students in the same group at the post-test level. It may be due of
frequent exposure of T.V. by the urban students.
Rangaraj (1997) conducted a study on “Effectiveness of Computer Assisted
Instruction in teaching Physics at higher secondary stage.” The objectives of the study
were: (i) To establish the relative effectiveness among different instructional strategies,
viz., conventional lecture method, CAI as individualized lecture method, CAI as support
system to teachers’ classroom instruction in teaching-learning Physics at higher
secondary level; (ii) to find out whether there was significant difference among different
instructional strategies, viz., conventional lecture methods, CAI as individualized
instructional strategy and CAI as support system to teachers’ classroom instruction in
44
terms of their effectiveness in modifying the cognition among higher secondary students
in Physics at different levels viz. Knowledge, Understanding and Application; (iii) to
develop syllabus based computer software packages in teaching Physics at higher
secondary level; (iv) to develop a computer managed testing software for assessing the
academic achievement of the pupils in Physics through computer before and after the
experimentation; (v) to evaluate the developed computer software packages from
technical and pedagogical point of view by experts, educationists and practicing
teachers; (vi) to find out whether there was any significant difference among different
instructional strategies viz. conventional lecture method, CAI as individualized
instructional strategy and CAI as support system to teachers’ classroom instruction in
their effectiveness in terms of their retention power as revealed by the learners’
performance in the retention test; (vii) to develop criterion referenced tests in the
content areas taught through different instructional strategies in the present study. The
findings of the study were: (i) There were significant differences between the means of
pre and post-test in Physics among one control and two experimental groups at all the
levels of cognition in favour of the Post-test; (ii) there was significant difference between
the means of CAI-SS and CAI as individualized instruction and conventional lecture
methods by the post-test. The mean of CAI-SS was found to be greater than the CAI as
individualized instruction and conventional lecture method; (iii) there was significant
difference between the means scores of the pupils at all levels of cognition as measured
by the retention test between lecture method and CAI as individualized instruction and
CAI as SS, and also between CAI as individualized instruction and CAI as SS; (iv) there
was no significant difference between the means of the high range and low range
scores classified based on different psychological variables with regard to their
academic achievement in Physics for the groups of CAI as individualized instruction and
CAI as SS; (v) there was no significant difference between the means of the groups of
CAI as individualized instruction and CAI as support system on the scores of the pupils
on psychological variables as measured by the post-test.
Ahmed (1998) conducted a study on achievement motivation differences among
adolescent boys and girls of various ordinal positions. The sample was comprised of
120 students of the age group of 13-18 years of Mumbai city. Data was collected by
Shafi’s achievement motivation scale. The results revealed that there was no significant
difference in achievement motivation of the boys and girls.

45
Das (1998) conducted a study entitled, “Exploring effectiveness of computer
assisted learning material on Rhymes in different modes.” The objectives were: (i) To
develop a computer software on rhymes in text, graphics text, text-music, graphics text
music, and graphics-text-music recital modes; (ii) to study the effectiveness of CALM
prepared in different modes for learning the Rhymes in terms of word meaning (lexicon),
analytical understanding, comprehensive understanding, writing ability, recitation ability
and LSRW ability. The major findings of the study were: (i) composite modes of
presentation may not ensure higher cognitive language learning; (ii) intelligibility of a
message is a function of sender, message, medium, mode, receiver, and the
environment.
Deryn et al. (1998) conducted a study on “Researching the Use of
Communication Technology in Teacher Education” to explore the reality of
communications between teacher trainers in the university and their co-tutor partners in
schools. The objective of the study was that what effect does the establishment of e-
mail and conferencing facilities have upon the initiation, content and range of
communication, and indeed the pedagogy of teacher education. The trial involves three
college lectures, six of their teacher tutor colleagues in schools and their PGCE
students. According to findings preliminary results indicate that identifying and getting
operational suitable means of communication are fraught with difficulties. Impoverished
and differential resourcing is a major inhibitor to schools going ‘on line’. Teacher
educators, whether in universities or schools appear ICT, with a complex set of
perceptions that may be at odds with reality. The staff of university computer networks
fail to understand users’ needs of distributed and distance networks. But most
significantly it is clear that the existing partnership relationships between trainers in
college and schools is out of balance, operating in parallel rather than together, and
based upon substantial misconceptions.
Kumar (1998) conducted a “Study of the Relative Effectiveness of Three Methods
of Instruction - Exposition Method, Programmed Learning Method, and Multimedia
Method in Science.” The Findings of the investigation were: (i) The multimedia method
was more effective than either the programmed learning method or the expository
method; (ii) the programmed learning method was more effective than the expository
method; (iii) retention in learning by the multimedia method was higher than by the
other two methods; (iv) retention in learning by the programmed learning group and the

46
expository group was equal; (v) there was no interaction between the three methods of
instruction and the levels of intelligence.
Nalayini (1998) conducted a study on “Development and Validation of Computer
Assisted Instruction in Physics for High School Students.” The objectives of the study
were: (i) To develop suitable software on the selected topic “Electricity” for class IX and
validate it; (ii) to study the effect of computer assisted instruction on learning the
concepts in the topic “Electricity” in physics; (iii) to analyze the variation among the
students in the acquisition of various cognitive skills by learning through computer
assisted instruction; (iv) to study the relationship between achievements in physics
learnt through computer assisted instruction and achievement motivation of the
students; (v) to find out the relation between students’ attitude towards science and their
achievement in learning through computer assisted instruction. The findings of the study
were: (i) The achievement in the post-test of the experimental group is higher as
compared to control group; (ii) the experimental group differs significantly when
compared to control group. Hence learning through computers helped in achieving
better than the control group; (iii) there is significant difference in the achievement of the
students who learnt through computer assisted instruction than the achievement of the
students learnt through traditional method; (iv) the attainment of the cognitive factor
“Application and skill” is lower for the students who learn through traditional method
when compared to the students who learn through computer; (v) for the students’
understanding of the units nature of changes (unit 1) and electric potential (unit 2) are
found to be difficult when they learn through traditional method, but it has been found
that students found it easier when they learn the same concept through computer; (vi)
there is no significant relationship between achievements of students learning through
computer assisted instruction and their achievement motivation; and (vii) there is no
significant difference between the attitude towards science that learns through computer
assisted instruction and through traditional method.
Hajzainuddin (1999) conducted “A study of learning styles and hypermedia’s
organizational structures in a Web-based instructional programme designed for trainee
teachers at the international Islamic University, Malaysia.” He has found no significant
relationship between the information-processing characteristics of learning style and
performance. In addition, he found no significant interaction among the factors of
learning style, hypermedia’s organizational structure and attitude.

47
Kadhiravan (1999) in his study, “Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction in
Relation to Students Use of Self-regulated Learning Strategies.” The main objectives of
the study were : (i) To find out whether there is any difference among the three
instructional strategies viz. Lecturer Method (LM), Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
as individualised strategy and Computer-assisted Instruction with Peer Interaction
(CAIPI) in terms of their effectiveness in improving the performance in physics among
the higher secondary students with different levels of cognition, viz. knowledge,
understanding application; (ii) to develop syllabus based computer software packages
for the selected units in physics at higher secondary level; (iii) to evaluate the developed
computer software packages from technical and pedagogical points of view; (iv) to find
out whether any difference among different instructional strategies; (v) to construct
criterion-referenced test (CRT) based on the content areas taught through different
instructional strategies in the present study; (vi) to find out whether there exists any
relationships between the students’ performance in physics as measured by the post-
test and their use of self-regulated learning strategies; and (viii) to find out whether there
is any relationships existing between the students performance in physics as measured
by the post test and their use of self regulated learning strategies. The major findings of
the study were: (i) Among the instructional strategies viz. LM, CAI and CAIPI, CAIPI
was the most effective instructional strategy in terms of realizing the instructional
objectives in physics at higher secondary state; (ii) among the three instructional
strategies, CAIPI is the most effective one in terms of its effectiveness in realizing the
instructional objectives in the context of contents with low difficulty level; (iii) there was a
significant difference among different instructional strategies, viz. LM, CAI and CAIPI in
enhancing the students’ use of SRL strategies; (iv) CAI and CAIPI had some influence
on students’ use of SRL strategies while lecture method had not; (v) there was
significant difference among the instructional strategies, viz. LM, CAI, and CAIPI in
terms of their effectiveness in enhancing the retention of what was already learnt in
physics; (6) there was a differential effect on the cognitive development of the students
in Physics due to their use of self-regulated learning strategies.
Khirwadkar (1999) conducted a study, “Developing a computer software for
learning chemistry at Standard IX.” The objectives of the study were: (i) To develop CAI
package in subject of Chemistry for standard XI Science Students studying GSTB
syllabus; (ii) to study the effectiveness of the developed software in terms of
instructional time and achievement of students; (iii) to study the effect of software
48
package on students’ intelligence level, achievement motivation level, and attitude
towards the package; and (iv) to study the attitude of the students the teachers
regarding the effectiveness of the CAI package with respect to contents, presentation,
examples, illustrations, graphs and figures, evaluation items, utility of software and
instructions given in the instructional manual. The major findings of the study were: (i)
The developed software package was effective in terms of academic achievement of
the students; (ii) the students and teachers were found to have favourable opinion
towards the software package; and (iii) there was an interaction effect of IQ,
achievement motivation and opinion of students on their academic achievement.
National Council of Educational Research and Training (1999) conducted a study
focused on the difference between achievement of SC/ST and non SC/ST students in
the subjects of mathematics and language. Study shows school level factors are
attributable to these differences. Students were taken from class IV/V and results shows
SC/ST have lower achievement than non SC/ST students. Education of father
contributed for better achievement of SC/ST students.
Zyoud (1999) conducted a study, “Development of Computer Assisted English
Language Teaching for VII Standard Students.” The study revealed that when the computer
is used to its full potential, it can help the students achieve more in learning vocabulary,
grammar and comprehension to the learners with different IQ, achievement motivation and
attitude. It helps the students learn better because it provides them with a lot of freedom
and responsibility to learn at their own pace. The students were found to have positive
attitude towards Computer Assisted English Language instruction.
Assefa & Gupta (2000) concluded that- (i) Internally controlled and externally
controlled adolescents from urban area shows a significant difference at .01 level of
significance in respect of their intelligence and Learning styles. Where as in respect of
well-being no significant difference was shown between internally controlled and
externally controlled adolescents; and (ii) internally controlled and externally controlled
sector area out of school adolescents did not show any significant difference in respect
of their intelligence and Learning styles. They showed difference at .01 level of
significance in respect of well-being.
Busato et al. (2000) investigated intellectual ability, learning style, personality and
achievement motivation as a predictor of academic success in higher education. In the
sample 409 first- year psychology students of Netherlands were included for the

49
purpose. The analyses of the study confirmed that achievement motivation was
associated positively with academic success of the students.
Panda & Chaudhury (2000) conducted a study, “Effect of Computer Assisted
Learning (CAL) in Achieving Higher Cognitive Skills.” The major objectives of the study
were: (i) To determine the degree of attainment of cognitive skills through computer
assisted learning (CAL) compared to traditional approach to teaching; and (ii) to
compare the effect of CAL on the learning achievement of boys and girls. The major
findings of the study were: (i) Computer assisted learning (CAL) resulted in greater
learning achievements in all hierarchies of cognitive domain (ii) male students were
found to be superior to female students in learning physics.
Stark et al. (2000) conducted a study, “The impact of information and
communications technology initiatives” to assess the impact of a variety of ICT
initiatives on pupils' skills and knowledge. Researchers have found that ICT improved
motivations, enhanced learning and teaching, improved communication and access to
information, and improved efficiency and feelings of independence. Teachers perceived
ICT to be useful for streamlining current teaching procedures, gaining access to new
professional opportunities and new exciting teaching opportunities.
Vashisht (2000) concluded- (i) Intelligence was found to have a significant effect
on the learning of some concepts of economics; (ii) intelligence and achievement
motivation did not interact significantly to produce any difference in achievement of
economics concepts; and (iii) the variables namely intelligence, achievement motivation
and teaching strategies did not interact significantly to produce differential achievement.
Yadav (2000) conducted a study, “A study of effectiveness of the computer
software for students of standard I” and found a significant gain in terms of mean
achievement on the software on Alphabets and Animals. Most of the students were
found to have positive reactions towards the software. Teachers welcomed the media
integrated approach towards learning.
Gill (2001) in her study “self-confidence as related to use teaching aids in
teaching geography” found that- (i) The co-relation between self-confidence and post-
experiment test score of 9th class students had been calculated to be 280 which was
significant at .05 level. (ii) the correlation between pre- experiment test score and post
experiment test score of 9 th class students had been calculated to be .437 which was
significant both at .05 level and .01 level.

50
Lohumi (2001) conducted a study, “Media and Adult Education in Himachal
Pradesh.” The major objectives of the study were: (i) Quality and content of information
about adult education and literacy disseminated through the media and the manner in
which it was done; (ii) to analyse coverage of adult education and literacy in print media
on the basis of material supplied to media persons; (iii) to device mechanism to elicit
active support of media for popularizing literacy and education. Findings of the study
were: (i) The coverage of the programme in the print media was satisfactory as
compared to efforts put in by the organizers but there had been no sustained effort to
motivate media persons to take initiative in this regard; (ii) the efforts of the organizers
at the state and districts levels to seek media support were not adequate and effective
as the officials entrusted with the task did not have a clear perception about the strategy
to be evolved for creating awareness about the programme and give it wide publicity;
(iii) the media persons were associated with the programme right from its launching but
the organizers lacked initiative for maintaining a close rapport with the media persons
and providing them necessary information on a regular basis; (iv) in the districts, the
organizers mainly depended on official channel of DPRO for supplying information to
the press; (v) the organizers offered a wide range of suggestions for seeking effective
media support such as range of suggestions for seeking effective media support such
as holding of regular press conference, producing high quality video films and audio-
cassettes, providing sufficient material to press, about the activities of the programme,
organizing the publicity campaign, giving advertisements in newspapers, and actively
involving the teachers; and (vi) the administrators and NGOs were of the view that the
literacy rate would increase from 63.54 percent in 1991 to nearly 90 percent in 2001
census.
Patel (2001) conducted a study, “Learning through CALM in relation to selected
production variables and contiguity.” The objectives of the study were: (i) To analyses
CALM in relation to production variables and continuity; (ii) to study the effectiveness of
CALM in terms of mean achievement of students; and (iii) to study the learning through
various message items in relation to production variables and contiguity. The major
findings of the study were: (i) There has been found significant gain through interaction
with CALM on Solar System and Magnet; (ii) the status of CALM in terms of production
variables and contiguity vis-à-vis achievement has been found quite high except on a
few teaching points where there was need to improve upon graphics, mode of

51
presentation, spatial contiguity of text and animation, and temporal contiguity of
animation and narration.
Pulist (2001) conducted a study on, “Transition to Internet-Based Learning in
IGNOU: A Learner’s Perspective.” The objectives of the study were: (i) To analyse the
method and procedures adopted by IGNOU to provide support services to the Internet
learners; (ii) to study the problems faced by the learners who initially opted for Internet
mode; (iii) to analyse the operational difficulties of the University in accomplishing the
task of providing support services to the Internet learners; and (iv) to highlight various
uncontrollable variables which affected the operations of the University. The major
findings of the study: (i) The programme was directly managed and run by the School of
Computer and Information Science. Other outlets (Regional Centres and Study Centres)
were not involved in the programme delivery; other wings of the University were not
able to give the core information pertaining to Internet programmes to the learners.
However, utilization of the University network throughout country could have helped in
removing misgivings of aspirant learners about the programme; (ii) the Internet Access
Points empanelled by the University did not come up to the expectations of learners
and became the major source of problem generation not only for the students but for the
University as well. Many Internet Access Providers (IAPs) were not providing the quality
services for which they were, in fact, empanelled. Since, the learners were utilizing
Internet as their study Centre for all intents and purposes, the extent of dependence of
the learners on these IAPs was very high; (iii) the University Website needs to be
managed professionally in order to enhance its performance level and outside agency
could be engaged for the purpose in case in-house expertise is not available.
Balasubramanian & Meera (2002) conducted a study, “Relative Effectiveness of
Different Modes of Computer - Based Instruction in Teaching Biology.” The major
objectives of the study were: (i) To find out whether there is any significant difference
among the different modes of Computer Assisted Instructional strategy viz. Tutorial, Drill
and Practice in realizing and instructional objectives in Biology at Standard XI; (ii) to
develop a Criterion Referenced Test in the content areas being instructed to subjects of
control and experimental groups; (iii) to develop syllabus based Computer Based
instructional packages in different modes viz. Tutorial, Drill and Practice and Simulation
for the selected content areas. The major findings of the study were: (i) CAI in Drill and
Practice is more effective than the Tutorial and Simulation modes in teaching Biology at
Standard XI; (ii) more software packages can be developed for the whole syllabus
52
which will help the students to learn at their own pace; (iii) the CAI packages in Biology
should be planned, developed, evaluated and implemented with the help of a team of
experts constituting curriculum planners, educational technologists, computer experts
and biology teachers. It will be helpful in the development of quality packages in the
teaching and learning of Biology.
Dilek & Sevil (2002) conducted a study, “Effectiveness of multimedia-based
instruction that emphasizes molecular representations on students' understanding of
chemical change.” The present study made use of the capabilities of computerized
environments to enable simultaneous display of molecular representations that
correspond to observations at the macroscopic level. This study questioned the
immediate and long-term effects of using a multimedia instructional unit that integrates
the macroscopic, symbolic, and molecular representations of chemical phenomena.
Forty-nine eighth graders received either multimedia-based instruction that emphasized
molecular representations (n = 16), or regular instruction (n = 33). Students who
received multimedia-based instruction that emphasized the molecular state of chemicals
outperformed students from the regular instruction group in terms of the resulting test
scores and the ease with which they could represent matter at the molecular level.
However, results relating to the long-term effects suggested that the effectiveness of a
multimedia-based environment can be improved if instruction includes additional
prompting that requires students to attend to the correspondence between different
representations of the same phenomena.
Sharma & Sansanwal (2002) conducted a study, “Comparison among Video-
based Instructional Strategies for Teaching Science at Class IX Level in Terms of
Achievement.” The study aims to compare the mean scores of achievement of student
in Science belonging to different video-based instructional strategies for teaching
science at Class IX level. The findings of the study were: (i) The treatment had
significant effect on achievement in science of students belonging to different video-
based instructional strategies for teaching science; (ii) the video viewing followed by
lecture as well as video viewing followed by discussion were significantly higher than
those of video viewing only; and (iii) the mean scores of science achievement of video
viewing followed by lecture was found to be significantly superior to video viewing
followed by discussion.
Shinde (2002) conducted a study, “Effectiveness of Multimedia CAI Package with
Reference to Levels of Interactivity and Learning Style.” The objectives of study were: (i)
53
To prepare multi-media CAI packages with two levels of interactivity viz. high and low;
(ii) to test effectiveness of the prepared CAI packages; (iii) to find out the extent to which
scholastic achievement of the learner is affected by the levels of interactivity; (iv) to find
out the extent to which scholastic achievement of the learners is affected by the learning
style in two different environments (learning through CAI with high level of interactivity
(HCAI) and learning through CAI with low level of interactivity (LCAI). The findings of
study were: (i) HCAI was effective in terms of achievement; (ii) LCAI can also bring
significant increase in the achievement scores; (iii) the two sample groups were not
significantly different and were selected from the same population; (iv) the interactivity
plays major role in enhancing the achievement of the learners learning through CAI; (v-
a) diverges and converges show significantly higher performance than Assimilators
while learning through HCAI. Accommodators were also found performing better than
Assimilators through not significantly; (v-b) the diverges and Accommodators found to
learn with non-interactive mode; (vi) most of the learners appreciated multimedia inputs
in the CAI packages; and (vii) CAI mode was considered to be an effective and efficient
mode of learning. The preference for this mode was higher in case of HCAI than LCAI.
Vekaria (2002) conducted a study, “An exploration in the teaching of science for
standard VIII on the unit of agriculture through a video instruction programme.” The
major findings of the study were : (i) The research found that the video instructional
programme developed was effective in the urban as well as rural areas of Saurashtra,
Central Gujarat and South Gujarat; (ii) the video instructional programme was found
equally effective on rural and urban areas of entire Gujarat; (iii) the effectiveness of the
programme was found directly proportional to the level of achievement in all the three
areas; (iv) The learning styles of standard VIII students plays significant role in
achievement on rural and urban areas of entire Gujarat; and (v) the students and
teachers were found to have positive reaction towards the video instructional
programme.
Farkas (2003) investigated the effect of teaching styles on two groups of
seventh-grade students. Students in the experimental group preferred similar learning
styles and were taught according to their preferences, while the control group was
taught with a conventional teaching style. In this study, the students in the experimental
group, who received a teaching style that matched their preferred learning styles,
outperformed the control group academically. The experimental group also showed

54
more positive attitudes toward learning, more understanding of people’s feelings, and
an increased ability to transfer what they had learned from one area to another.
Goldberg et al. (2003) conducted a study, “The effect of computers on student
writing: A meta-analysis of studies from 1992-2002.” In this study, the researcher has
performed a meta-analysis of 26 studies conducted between 1992-2002 that focused on
the comparison between pupils' writing with computers vs. paper-and-pencil. This
analysis found significant mean effect sizes in favour of computers in relation to the
quantity as well as the quality of the writing. The researchers has also found that the
writing process was more collaborative, iterative and social in computer classrooms as
compared to paper-and-pencil environments, and they concluded that pupils who use
computers when learning to write were not only more engaged and motivated in their
writing but also produce written work that was of greater length and higher quality.
Tavani & Losh (2003) examined motivation, self-confidence and expectations
as predictors of academic performance among high school students. The sample
consisted of 4012 students of Florida State. From the findings a significant positive
relationship was found between self-confidence and academic achievement. Parental
education had also positive relationship with self-confidence of the students. The results
indicated that self-confidence was significant predictors of educational achievement.
Trimble (2003) concluded in the study entitled “Works to Improve Students
Achievements” found that school leadership, holistic approach of teaching, parental
involvement and community support are factors which promotes achievement of
students.
Vasanthi & Hema (2003) in their study “Effectiveness of Teaching Chemistry for
First Year B.E. Students through Computer Assisted Instructions”, the major objectives
of the study were: (i) To study the effectiveness of teaching chemistry through Computer
Assisted Instruction over the Traditional Teaching Method; (ii) to study the effectiveness
of the Computer Assisted Instruction over the Traditional Teaching Method in pre-test
scores and post-test scores. The major findings were: (i) There is significant difference
between the mean gain score of the control group taught through TTM and the
experimental group administered by the CAI in all unit put together; (ii) there is no
significant difference between the mean scores of the pre-test of control group taught
through TTM and experimental group administered by CAI in all units put together
(Electro Chemistry and Banding); (iii) there is significant difference between the mean

55
scores of post-test of control group taught through TTM and experimental group
administered by CAI in all units put together.
Vij (2003) conducted a study, “A comparative study of the Effectiveness of
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) and Computer Managed Instruction (CMI) on
Pupil’s Achievement in Science, their Self-concept and Study Involvement.” The
objectives of the study were: (i) To design and develop instructional plan for Teaching
selected unit in Science amongst the prescribed course of study at class VII stage
based on Computer Aided Instructions (CAI) and Computer Managed Instructions
(CMI); (ii) to construct and standardize achievement test in selected units of Science for
class VII; (iii) to study individual effectiveness of CAI on Self-concept; study
involvement; and Academic Achievement; (iv) to study individual effectiveness of CMI
on Self-concept; study involvement; and Academic Achievement; (v) to compare the
effectiveness of CAI and CMI instructions on Self-concept of students; (vi) to compare
the effectiveness of CAI and CMI instructions on study involvement of students; and (vii)
to compare the effectiveness of CAI and CMI instructions on Academic Achievement of
students. The findings of the study were: (i) At the end of the experiment, it was found
that the group of Pupils taught science through Computer Assisted Instructions was
effective in raising the Self-concept of the Pupils; (ii) the post-test mean scores of the
Pupils taught science through Computer Assisted Instructions increased significantly
which indicates that Computer Assisted Instructions enhanced study involvement of the
Pupils; (iii) the group of Pupils taught Science through Computer Assisted Instructions
showed significantly higher post-test mean score on Achievement in science in
comparison to pre-test mean Achievement score; (iv) at the completion of experiment, it
was found that the group of Pupils taught science through Computer Managed
Instructions was effective in raising the study involvement of the Pupils; (v) the post-test
mean score of the Pupils taught science through Computer Assisted Instructions was
found to be significantly higher on increasing the study involvement in comparison to
pre-test score; (vi) the group of Pupils taught science through Computer Managed
Instructions showed significantly higher post-test mean scores on Achievement in
science in comparison to pre-test score; (vii) the group of Pupils taught science through
Computer Managed Instructions achieved significantly higher mean score on the test of
Self-concept than the Pupils taught science through Computer Assisted Instructions;
(viii) at the post-test mean score of the group of Pupils taught science through
Computer Managed Instructions was significantly higher on the test of Self-concept than
56
the group of Pupils taught science through traditional method; (ix) there was no
significant difference in Self-concept between the group of Pupils taught science
through Computer Assisted Instructions and the group of Pupils taught science through
traditional method; (x) the mean gain score of the group of Pupils taught science
through Computer Managed Instructions was found to be significantly higher on the test
of Self-concept, than the group of Pupils taught science through Computer Assisted
Instructions; (xi) the group of Pupils taught science through Computer Managed
Instructions showed significantly higher mean gain score on the test of Self-concept
than the group of Pupils taught science through traditional method; (xii) there was no
significant difference between the group of Pupils taught science through Computer
Assisted Instructions and the group of Pupils taught science through traditional method
on the mean gain score of Self-concept; (xiii) the post-test mean score of study
involvement of the group of Pupils taught science through Computer Assisted
Instructions was significantly higher than the group of Pupils taught science through
Traditional Method; (xiv) the group of Pupils taught science through Computer Managed
Instructions achieved higher mean score on study involvement than the group of Pupils
taught science through Traditional Method; (xv) there was no significant difference in the
post-test mean score of study involvement between the group of Pupils taught science
through Computer Managed Instructions and the group of Pupils taught science through
Computer Assisted Instructions; (xvi) the group of Pupils taught science through
Computer Assisted Instructions showed significantly higher mean gain score on study
involvement than the group of Pupils taught science through traditional method; (xvii)
the mean gain score on study involvement of the group of Pupils taught science through
Computer Managed Instructions was found to be significantly higher than the group of
Pupils taught science through traditional method.
Chang (2004) conducted a study, “The role and effectiveness of e-learning: Key
issues in an Industrial context.” The purpose of the study was identify the role and
effectiveness of e-learning and key issues related to its implementation in an industrial
context. The above study revealed interesting findings about differences between
industrialists and academics regarding factor influencing effectives and ineffective e-
learning implementation. Both groups have close ideas in identifying factors influencing
effective implementations but have some variations in identifying factors influencing
ineffective implementations. There is a significant difference between their rationales.

57
Industrialist’s rationale emphasizes practical applications; in contrast academics’
rationale emphasizes the literature review and research findings.
Cox et al. (2004) conducted a study, “A review of the research literature relating
to ICT and attainment.” The study has found positive effects of ICT on pupils'
attainment in almost all the National Curriculum subjects, particularly regarding
mathematics and English at all key stages. This study further has suggested that a
crucial component in the use of ICT within education is the teacher and their
pedagogical approaches. The impact on attainment was greatest for those ICT
resources that have been integrated in teachers' practices for a long time. The authors
concluded that ICT has a positive impact on pupils' learning when the use of ICT was
closely related to learning objectives and when the choice of how to use ICT was
relevant to the teaching and learning purposes.
Desai (2004) carried out “A comparative study of the efficacy of teaching through
the Traditional Method and the Multimedia Approach in the Subject of Home Science.”
The findings of the study were: (i) The mean achievement of the experimental group
was found significantly higher than that of the control group; (ii) From post-test to
retention test almost equal reduction in performance was found in both the groups; (iii)
the students were found to have favourable opinions towards the multimedia approach;
(iv) the study has found the relative efficacy of teaching through the traditional method
and multimedia approach in the subject of Home Science, particularly proteins.
Galanouli et al. (2004) conducted a study, “Teachers perceptions of the
effectiveness of ICT-competence training.” The aim of the study was to analyse training
programmes initialised by a national initiative in the U.K., designed to raise ICT
competence development of all U.K. primary and secondary teachers and to foster their
positive attitudes to computers. The analysis presented in the study has focused on the
teachers’ perspective and called into question the extent to which teachers have made
significant progress as a result of the so-called NOF (New Opportunities Fund) training.
The findings of the study have shown that the NOF completed group expressed more
confidence, but exhibited no significant differences for the pairings of gender, age or
school type. A comparison between the means of the subgroups that expressed positive
and negative attitudes to NOF training in their free responses showed a significant
difference concerning the importance of computers. The negative views expressed by
teachers in the free, response items concerned the nature, level and delivery of the

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training, lack of time, the exploitation of teachers’ own time and expense and the lack of
technical and social support and good equipment.
Jones & Scrimshaw (2004) conducted a study, “A review of the research
literature on the barriers and enables to the uptake of ICT by teachers” to identity the
factors that prevent and facilitate the uptake of ICT by teachers. The study on the
barriers has found that: (i) The uptake of ICT is most commonly prevented by lack of
confidence, recurring technical faults, and resistance to change; (ii) the uptake of ICT is
most frequently facilitated by leadership and planning, sharing of resources, technical
support, and schools working with each other and with the local community.
Jothiokani & Thiagarajan (2004) in their study, “Effectiveness of Computer
Assisted Instructions in mathematics among B.Sc. Degree Student”, the major
objectives of the study, (i) To analyse the efficiency of teaching B.Sc. Degree
(Mathematics) students through CAI over conventional method for knowledge,
comprehension and application objectives; (ii) to compare the effectiveness of teaching
mathematics through CAI to B.Sc. Degree (Mathematics) students over conventional
method in terms of the levels of achievement; and (iii) to study the effectiveness of
teaching mathematics through CAI to B.Sc. Degree (Mathematics) students over
conventional methods in terms of objectives of teaching mathematics and their level of
achievement. The major findings were: (i) There was no significant difference between
the mean scores of pre-test for control groups and the experimental groups in all six
units with reference to the objectives such as knowledge, Comprehension and
Application and their level of achievement such as Low, Average and High Achievers;
(ii) the mean scores of post-test of control group were significantly higher than that of
the experimental group in all six units with reference to the objectives and their level of
achievement in both the years 1999-2000 and 2001-02; (iii) the mean gain scores of
the control group were significantly greater than that of experimental group in all six
units with reference to the objectives and their level of achievement in both the years
1999-2000 and 2001-02. Hence, it is concluded that the conventional method is more
effective and efficient than CAI method.
Joy & Shaiju (2004) conducted a study, “Development of Computer Assisted
Teaching Material in History at Higher Secondary Level and its Effectiveness.” The
major objectives of the study were: (i) To develop computer assisted lesson on the topic
– UNO in History at higher secondary level; (ii) to test the effectiveness of the computer
assisted teaching and lecture method in the lesson on the topic, UNO in History and
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Higher Secondary level; and (iii) to verify the impact of gender, domicile and type of
school on the effectiveness of computer assisted teaching method. The findings of the
study were: (i) While both the methods led effective learning, the CAT method was
found superior to that of the lecture method; (ii) it is interesting to note that there is no
gender difference on the scores obtained.
Kaur (2004) compared achievement motivation of students. The sample was
comprised of 200 boys and girls of eleventh class of the residents of urban and rural
areas of Ludhiana District. Results showed that there was a significant difference
between achievement motivation of boys and girls and there was also a significant
difference between achievement motivation of rural and urban students.
Kumar (2004) conducted a study “Impact of using teaching aids on academic
achievement in relation to achievement motivation and rigidity of +1 students” and
concluded that there exist significant difference in achievement scores of +1 students
before and after teaching them chemistry with teaching aids.
Ludwig & Daniel (2004) conducted a study, “Using Multimedia In Classroom
Presentations: Best Principles.” The purpose of the study goes to identify some of the
best practices in computer-enhanced classroom instructions. The findings of the study
had shown that if done well, multimedia content organized with a slideware tool can
generate productive and stimulating presentations that lead to greater retention,
application to new situations, and performance on assessments. If not done well, they
can be a distraction from learning and ultimately unproductive.
Macwana (2004) conducted a study, “A Study of Development and Effectiveness
of Computer Assisted Learning Material for Class IX Students.” The study focused on
the development of Computer Assisted Learning Material (CALM) on optics for Standard
IX Gujarati medium students and to find out is effectiveness in terms of the achievement
of students and Reactions of the students and teachers. The study revealed that CALM
was effective in terms of achievement and reaction.
Tuzlukova (2004) in his study “Some cultural and social aspects of educational
discourse in E-Medium” reported on some impressions of Russian English Language
teachers who took an e-learning course: Integrating Internet into the classroom. The
main purpose of the study was to identify socio-cultural factors and personal attributes
that influence the decision of Russian learners to take an on-line course and stay
enrolled in the programme. The findings showed that the percentage of those who have
not started any e-course in the last 3 years is great (74 percent). Nevertheless the
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dropout percent is low (4 percent). Most of those who started e-learning courses
completed them (21 percent). These findings indicate that e-learning programmes have
not replaced even partially traditional classroom practices in Russian universities. Most
of the respondents answered that their universities were quite new in e-learning
programmes. Some started educational programmes with electronic means in 2001,
others in 2003 and try to their best to organize them well.
Barot (2005) conducted a study of “The effectiveness of CAI in Sanskrit for VIII
Standard Students. The study was conducted to develop CAI in Sanskrit for Std. VIII
students and to study its effectiveness in terms of mean achievement of students in
Sanskrit and to study the reactions of the standard VIII students regarding the
effectiveness of the developed CAI package. 86 students of Std. VIII of Shree Ambe
Vidyalaya School constituted the sample for this study. A single group Pre-test and Post-
test design was employed for the study. Achievement test and reaction scale was
constructed by the investigator. Flash MX, Corel Draw 11 and Front Page were used for
the development of software. ‘t’ value, frequencies and percentage responses were
used for data analysis. The developed CAI in Sanskrit was found effective in teaching
Sanskrit to VIII standard students. The reactions of the students towards the developed
CAI in Sanskrit were found positive.
Kohli (2005) conducted a study, “Efficacy of Computer Assisted, Concept
Attainment Models on Students’ Achievement in Environmental Science, Self-concept
and Emotional Intelligence.” The objective was to compare the mean gain achievement
scores, self-concept scores and emotional intelligence scores with the help of Computer
Assisted Model and Concept Attainment Model before and after the experimental
treatment. The findings were: (i) Computer Assisted Model and Concept Attainment
Model were found to be effective in improving the achievement level of students; (ii)
learning with Computer Assisted Model and Concept Attainment Model changed the
aptitude and interest of the students. Unlike conventional method, students got
feedback and remedial teaching which automatically improved their achievement and
promoted their self-concept; (iii) Computer Assisted Model and Concept Attainment
Model was shown to be very effective in enhancing the emotional intelligence of the
students.
Pardeshi (2005) conducted a study, “The relative effectiveness of CAI an CAIPI
in learning Trigonometry by English medium students of Standard IX of Baroda City.”
The objectives of the study were to develop the CAI and study its effectives in mono,
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diad and triad settings and its relative effectiveness in the three settings and through
reactions of the students. The findings of the study were: (i) No significant difference
has been found in the mean achievement scores of the experimental group in mono
diad, triad and control groups, respectively; (ii) significant difference has been found in
the mean achievement scores of the experimental group in triad and control group; and
(iii) the students were found to have positive reactions towards the developed CAI.
Pareek (2005) conducted a study on “Computer Curriculum in Teacher Education
Program: An Analytical Study.” The objectives were: To study the computer programme
running at different Teacher Training Colleges in Rajasthan for (a) Teacher Trainee,
Teacher and Principals attitude towards computer programme, (b) Units of Programme,
(c) Evaluation Process, and (d) Usage of Learning Experiences. The findings were: (i)
Teacher trainees, teacher and principals keep a positive attitude towards computer
programme; (ii) different colleges of different university of Rajasthan have similar units
of computer programme as their syllabus; (iii) the evaluation procedure of different
teacher training colleges were different though their objectives remained the same; (iv)
the usage of computer related learning was not carried out for different educational
activities.
Sarupria (2005) conducted a study on “Status, Issues and Future Perspective of
Computer Education in Senior Secondary Schools.” The main objectives of her study
were: (i) To study the status of Computer Education Programme (CEP) in schools in
terms of physical facilities, financial provisions, human resources, curriculum and its
execution; (ii) to compare the status of CEP on the basis of demographic variables like
situation of school (rural and urban) and the type of school management (government
and private); (iii) to identify issues related to CEP in schools effective and futuristic; (iv)
to perceive the future of CEP in schools (2012 AD); (v) to suggest a model for making
CEP in schools effective and futuristic. Descriptive field survey was used to study the
status and issues, whereas the Delphi Technique was used to perceive the future of
CEP. The major findings of the study were: (i) CEP started in a majority of schools in
Rajasthan after the class project in 1986 and was being run on the contract basis in
two-third of the schools; (ii) most of the schools had computer laboratories with basic
computer facilities, but there were certain issues that need immediate attention like;
status of contract computer teachers in terms of salaries, teaching experience,
permanent appointment of staff and in-service training; budget for CEP; dissatisfaction
of students towards the quality of study materials; lack of correlation between theory
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and practice; guidance given by teachers during practical classes; and the ICT policy of
the state of Rajasthan for implementing CEP in schools; (iii) the status of CEP was
particularly poor in government and rural schools, when compared with private schools
and urban schools respectively; (iv) students possessed high level of interest in CEP
and an average awareness towards Internet; (v) most of the experts predicted a
promising future of CEP in schools by 2012 AD in all respects except hardware
maintenance and availability of computers for all students; and (vi) experts did not
foresee any substantial improvement in the status of CEP in rural government schools.
Sidhu & Parminder (2005) carried out a comparative study of concept attainment
model, advance organiser model and conventional method in teaching of physics in
relation to intelligence and achievement motivation of ninth class students. Data were
collected by using achievement motivation test by Pratibha Deo and Asha Mohan from
240 students of Sangrur district in Punjab. The results indicated that there was no
statistically significant effect of achievement motivation on scholastic achievement of the
students. The results also revealed that there was no relationship between intelligence
and achievement motivation.
Singh (2005) Conducted a study on “Effectiveness of computer Assisted
instruction for Teaching Biology”. The objective of the study is to compare the
effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) as compared to lecture method on
the topics tissues and cell. Experimental method was used for conducting this study.
Pre-test, Post-test, Experimental group and Control group design was used for this
study. The sample selected 28 students (14 in Control group and 14 in Experimental
group) of class IX by random sampling from the students studying in Ramanujan Public
School. The findings of the study were while Lecture method was more effective than
CAI for teaching cell, CAI was more effective than Lecture method for teaching tissues.
The gain score of the Experimental group were higher than the gains recorded by the
Control group.
Bansal et al. (2006) explored the relationship between quality of home
environment, locus of control and achievement motivation among high achiever urban
female adolescents. The data were collected from 100, eleventh grade high achievers
from 10 senior secondary schools of Ludhiana city, by using Bhargava achievement
motivation scale and Mishra‟s home environment inventory scale. The results indicated
that good quality of home environment had significant positive relationship with high
level of achievement motivation and high level of academic achievement.
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Jayaraman (2006) carried out “A study of the relative effectiveness of computer
based Multimedia Learning Packages on performance and behavioural outcomes of
students of different age groups.” Various findings of the study were: (i) The CBMMLP
prepared specifically for the particular concepts are significantly effective for all the age
group of students. There has been found a higher usage by higher age group students;
(ii) the relative effectiveness of the CBMMLP is significant for all the age groups of
students, who are studying Class V, Class VIII and Class XI. The performance of the
students who have learned through CBMMLP is higher than the performance of the
students who have not learned through CBMMLP; (iii) higher age group students have
been found to have more positive attitude towards CBMMLP than the lower age group
students; (iv) the higher age group students have been found more auditory preferred
than the lower age group students, whereas the lower age group students have been
found more visually preferred; and (v) higher age group of students have been found
satisfied more in the interaction with the CBMMLP. Also, 74.2% of class XI students
were found having prior knowledge of the computer. 75% of the class V students could
not express either their satisfaction or about their prior knowledge.
Patil (2006) conducted “A study on development of Multimedia Instructional
System on Computer Education for B.Ed. Pupil Teachers.” Various findings of the study
were: (i) The present setting of teaching of computer education in B.Ed. colleges was
found unsatisfactory; (ii) it was found feasible to design, develop and implement a
computer based Multimedia Instruction System for the Computer Education; (iii) no
significant difference was found between the performance of the pupil-teacher of control
and experimental group on pre-test; (iv) significance difference was found between the
performance of the pupil teachers of control group and experimental group on post-test;
(v) significant difference was found between the performances of the pupil-teachers of
control group from pre-test to post-test; (vi) there is significant difference between the
performance of pupil-teachers of experimental group from pre-test to post-test; (vii)
there is significant difference between the gains in achievement in terms of scores in
pre-test and post-test of the pupil-teachers from pre to post-test; (viii) there is significant
difference between the performance of the pupil-teachers from control and
experimental groups in retention test.
Sharma et al. (2006) investigated the relationship between self-concept,
achievement motivation and achievement in mathematics; a gender comparison on a
sample comprising 80 sixth class students of Bhopal in India. Data was collected by
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administering mathematics achievement test developed by the researchers themselves.
Result revealed a significant positive relationship between achievement motivation and
achievement in mathematics.
Sheela & Talawar (2006) conducted a study, “Knowledge of Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) and attitude towards Teaching ICT among Teacher
Educators.” The objectives were: (i) To study the level of attitude of Teacher Educators
towards teaching ICT; (ii) to find if there is any significant difference in attitude of teacher
educators possessing high and poor knowledge of ICT towards teaching ICT; (iii) to find
if there is any significant difference in attitude of male and female teacher educators
towards teaching ICT; (iv) to find if there is any significant difference in attitude of
teacher educators from Government, Private aided and Private Unaided colleges of
Education towards teaching ICT; (v) to find if there is any significant difference in
attitude of teacher educators of Arts and Science streams towards teaching ICT; and
(vi) to find out if there is any significant difference in attitude of Rural and Urban
teacher educators towards teaching ICT. The major findings of the study were: (i)
Teacher educators possessing good and poor knowledge of ICT differ in their attitude
towards teaching ICT: teacher educators with good knowledge of ICT have more
favourable attitude towards teaching ICT; (ii) male and female teacher educators do not
differ significantly in their attitude towards teaching ICT; (iii) teacher educators from
private aided and private unaided colleges differ significantly in their attitude towards
teaching ICT: teacher educators from private unaided colleges were found to have more
favourable attitude towards teaching ICT; (iv) a significant difference was found in the
attitude of high experienced and less experienced teacher educators towards teaching
ICT teacher educators with less experience had a more favourable attitude towards
teaching ICT than teacher educators with more experience; (v) no significant difference
was found in the attitude scores of teacher educators of arts and science streams
towards teaching ICT; (vi) teacher educators from rural and urban areas did not differ
significantly in their attitude towards teaching of ICT.
Choudhary et al. (2007) conducted a study on self-efficacy, motivation and their
relationship to academic performance of Bangladesh college students. Data were
collected through self-administrated questionnaire from the 123 college students.
Results revealed that students‟ academic achievement was affected by motivation. It
was also found that the students who attained the highest level of academic
performance were those who were simultaneously highly motivated. The findings further
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indicated both intrinsic (.327) and extrinsic motivation (.251) were positively related with
academic achievement.
Jyothi (2007) conducted a study, “Impact of Computer-Based Learning on
Students of Chemistry.” The objectives of the study were: (i) To prepare a self-
instructional module on the topic “Chemical Bond” for IXth class Chemistry; and (ii) to
compare the effectiveness of this Self-Instructional module with conventional teaching
method. The study clearly revealed that that the self-instructional module prepared by a
teacher through simple power point presentation could show immense impact on
learning of chemistry. Since the preparation of this module is very easy and simple; it
has opened a new way and is very much helpful to teachers in their physical science
instruction.
Maniar & Bhatt (2007) conducted a study, “Designing Educational CD-ROM for
Higher Education Students.” The major findings of the study were: (i) The educational
CD-ROM on topic “Graphic Aids” was effective in terms of gain in knowledge; (ii) there
was significant difference in gain in knowledge amongst the students of experimental
group; (iii) there was significant difference in gain in knowledge of the students of
experimental group in learning through developed CD-ROM in relation to the following
variables: (a) Medium of instruction; (b) Type of computer Used; (iv) there was no
significant difference in the gain in knowledge of the students of experimental group in
relation to these variable : (a) Academic achievement, (b) Economic status (c)
Achievement motivation, (d) Accessibility to computer, (e) Exposure to ICT; (v) majority
of the features of the developed CD-ROM helped the students in learning; (vi) majority
of the students reported that majority of the aspects of the CD-ROM helped the students
to learn to a great extent; (vii) majority of the students reported problems related to CD
not running well, computer hanged and background music; (viii) majority of the students
suggested that the background music could be more pleasing, CD could be made more
explanatory, more visual should be added for the content clarity and note taking facility
should be more flexible.
Sumerson et al. (2007) examined the contribution of motivation, personality,
learning strategies and scholastic aptitude to academic achievement in college
students. Data were collected through grade point average for academic achievement
scale and motivation strategies for learning questionnaire from 186 undergraduate
students from North Eastern University. The results indicated that motivation was
significantly and positively related to academic achievement.
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Tella (2007) investigated the impact of motivation on students’ school academic
achievement in mathematics in secondary schools on a sample of 450 students of both
sexes drawn from ten schools of Ibadan. Data were collected by administering
motivation for academic performance scale to the sample. The result revealed that
motivation had significant and positive relationship with academic achievement of
secondary school students.
Wadsworth et al. (2007) in their research on learning strategies used by students,
found that learning strategy use was associated with academic achievement. The use of
learning strategies makes a difference in student learning. Their learner population
consisted of 89 college students who were asked to complete a learning strategies
inventory. The researchers suggested that students’ self-efficacy and use of strategies
can affect achievement. The results revealed that students who frequently used learning
strategies achieved higher grades than those who used strategies less often.
Nimavathi & Gnanadevan (2008) conducted a study “Effectiveness of Multimedia
Programme in Teaching Science.” Objectives of the study were: (i) To prepare
multimedia package for the teaching of Science at secondary level; (ii) to find out the
effectiveness of computer multimedia program in the teaching of science at secondary
level; (iii) to compare the effectiveness of computer multimedia programs in the teaching
of science with traditional method of teaching science. The findings of the study were: (i)
There is no significant difference between the experimental group and control group in
the achievement of science at Pre-test level; (ii) there is a significant difference between
the experimental group and control group in the achievement of science at pos-test
level. The students learning with the help of multimedia programme fared better in
science than the students learning through the conventional method; (iii) there is a
significant difference between the mean achievement test scores of the pre-test and
post-test for the experimental group. This shows that the multimedia programme has
helped the students to score more marks in the post-test; and (iv) there is no significant
difference between the pre-test and post-test in the achievement of science for the
control group. This shows that the conventional method of teaching will not help the
students to score more marks in post-test.
Tang & Neber (2008) researched gifted students’ use of strategies to learn
chemistry. There were 315 10th and 12th graders from China, Germany, and the United
States. In order to measure the strategy use of each student, the questionnaire (Pintrich
and De Groot, 1990) was translated into Chinese and German. The findings revealed
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that the American students showed more frequent use of self-regulated strategies than
Chinese or German learners.
Chaturvedi (2009) investigated the effect of school environment and certain
demographic variables on achievement motivation and academic achievement of young
adolescents. The sample consisted of 300 students in the age range of 12-15 years,
from various schools of Bhopal. Deo-Mohan achievement motivation scale was used to
measure achievement motivation. Percentages of marks obtained by the students in
last three years were used as a measure of academic achievement. The results
revealed positive significant relationship between academic motivation and
achievement.
Hughes (2009) researched the relationships between teaching styles perceived
by students and teaching styles adopted by instructors. A total of 117 students
participated in the study and were put into either a control group or an experimental
group. The instructor taught control-group students pre-calculus with a conventional
lecture-based approach. On the other hand, two instructors in the experimental group
adopted a teaching style that increased student involvement; they also provided real-life
examples and sufficient time for students to learn a concept by asking questions. The
results showed a significant difference in students’ perceptions of teaching styles
between the control group and experimental group. The results also revealed that
students felt they learned better when instructors employed a teaching style that was
more interactive than when instructors adopted a conventional lecture style.
In Montague & Dietz’s (2009) review of cognitive strategy instruction as related to
mathematical problem solving, the researchers indicated that strategic learners could
use a variety of learning strategies efficiently and effectively. On the contrary, they found
that students with learning disabilities did not have effective learning strategies or might
not have been able to employ appropriate learning strategies to solve mathematical
problems. These students often chose strategies that impeded their academic
performance.
Suman (2009) determined the relative effectiveness of e-Content strategy and
conventional strategy of teaching of science. The findings of her study explored that the
e-Content strategy / method improve achievement in science significantly higher in
comparison to Conventional strategy / method when groups were matched on pre-
achievement in the subject of science. The results also revealed that mean scores of
achievement in the subject of Science at post-test stage was significantly higher than
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the mean score of achievement in the subject of science at pre-test stage of e-Content
group.
Umadevi (2009) conducted a study to find out the relationship among emotional
intelligence, achievement motivation and academic achievement of primary school
student-teachers. The sample comprised of 200 primary school student-teachers
studying in various colleges of Davangere city in Karnataka. Data were collected by
administering achievement motivation test developed by Bhargava. Academic
achievement was taken as the annual scores of second year board examination. The
findings indicated that there was a significant positive relationship between achievement
motivation and academic achievement of the students.
Liu & Lin (2010) concluded that teacher is a crucial factor in helping individuals to
develop effective learning strategies and become strategic learners. By knowing
students’ use of learning strategies, the teacher can recognize learners’ strengths and
weaknesses and adjust instruction accordingly. Teachers will be able to teach individual
students to use learning strategies appropriately and effectively if they identify and
accommodate the strategy use of students in relation to their genders.
Majzub (2010) investigated the relationship between achievement motivation and
self-regulated learning strategies among the university students. A sample of 300
undergraduate students from Malaysia participated in the study. The results indicated
that there existed a positive and significant relationship between achievement
motivation and the self-learning strategies.
Ponraj & Sivakumar (2010) revealed the effect of computer-assisted instruction
(CAI) software on the achievement in the subject of zoology. The findings from the study
has shown that teaching the subject zoology by using CAI is more effective than the
conventional method of teaching.
Raninga (2010) studied that teaching with the help of computer-assisted
instruction (CAI) is more effective for teaching of subject mathematics for the class VII
students as compared to the traditional strategy of teaching.
Bakhtiarvand et al. (2011) investigated the moderating effect of achievement
motivation on relationship of learning approaches and academic achievement of 200
college students. The findings of the study revealed that achievement motivation
moderated the relationship of learning approaches and academic achievement. The
results also indicated that achievement motivation indirectly effected the relation of
learning approaches and academic achievement.
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Serin (2011) revealed the effect of computer-based instruction (CAI) on the
problem solving skills and achievement of the students in the science subject. The
findings from the research has shown that there is a significant increase in the problem
solving skills and achievements of the science students in the experimental group that
received the instructions through the computer-based science and technology.
Thijs (2011) took a study to examine ethnic differences in teacher oriented
achievement motivation among early adolescent students in Netherland. The sample
consisted of 165 girls and 150 boys of Marrocan and Dutch culture. The results of the
study revealed that Marrocan students’ teacher oriented achievement motivation was
significantly and positively related with intrinsic motivation and perceived academic
achievement of the students.
Yusuf (2011) undertook the study with the purpose to investigate the relationship
between self-confidence, achievement motivation and self-regulated learning strategies
of the undergraduate students. 300 undergraduate students of Malaysia participated in
the study. The results of study indicated that there was a considerable relationship
between self-confidence and achievement motivation along with self-regulated learning
strategies of the undergraduate students.
Abdallah (2012) investigated the impact of computer-assisted grammar teaching
on EFL pupils performance in Jordan. The result indicated that there is a significant
difference (α < 0.05) between the students achievement mean scores in grammar
credited to the instructional strategy of teaching. This variation is in favour of the
learners in the experimental group. Also there was significant difference (α < 0.05)
between the students achievement mean scores in grammar credited to stream of
study. This variation is in favour of the scientific stream learners. Based upon the above
findings, it was suggested that English language teachers use computer assisted
instruction (CAI) in their teaching strategy.
Ada & Anemelu (2012) studied the effect of computer-assisted instruction
package on the performance of Sr. Sec. school students in the subject of mathematics
in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria. The results from the research has shown that the
students taught using computer-assisted instruction package performed significantly
much better than the others taught using the conventional strategy. In retention test, the
students taught with the help of CAI performed better than the students from control
group. In case of male and female students, there was no significant difference in the
post-test performance scores taught using CAI package. Based on the above results, it
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was suggested that CAI strategy should be encouraged in the classrooms for teaching
and learning of mathematics subject.
Bayturan & Kesan (2012) investigated that teaching mathematics subject with a
computer-assisted instruction (CAI) strategy improved student achievement significantly
in mathematics lesson. However, both the groups i.e. control and experimental groups
did not differ between students attitudes towards the mathematics subject.
Kavitha & Sundharavadivel (2012) examined the effect of e-learning and
traditional learning on achievement in mathematics. This study provides descriptive data
on students’ achievement in mathematics from their learning (e-learning / traditional).
The sample constitute of 266 students drawn from five schools from Pondicherry.
Random sampling technique is adopted to select the sample. The researcher was
conducted pre-test on four concepts in mathematics. Based on the pre-test score,
students were divided into two groups, students learning by Traditional method (group
A) and students following the e-learning method (group B). Group A was subjected to
the traditional class room teaching and group B was exposed to e-learning process.
After teaching, the researcher conducted the post-test for all the 266 students. The
answer scripts were evaluated and the scores obtained by each individual were
tabulated concept wise and also for the entire questions covering all four concepts. The
findings of the study indicate that e-learning students performed better than the
traditional learning students in their post-test total mean scores. There is significant
difference between e-learning and Traditional learning methods. Comparing the
performance of English and Tamil medium students following the e-learning method, it is
found that the English medium students performed better than Tamil medium students.
Rohendi (2012) developed e-learning based on animation content to improve
mathematical connection abilities in senior high school students. The e-learning was
developed using framework proposed by Moddle, while the animation content was
developed using macromedia flash. To get the student mathematical connection
abilities, pretest and posttest were administered before and after teaching and learning
process. The data were analyzed using t-test and found that e-learning which was
based on animation content not only had significant effect on mathematical connection
abilities but also been able to improve students’ mathematical connection abilities far
better than that of conventional approach.
Telima & Aderonmu (2012) compared problem-solving ability among
mathematics students using CAI blended with traditional teaching approach (TTP)
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versus problem-solving approach (CAI-PS) in teaching basic statistics. The results from
the research has shown that the unavailability of various equipments regarding CAI and
low level of teachers proficiency in computer usage affects the use of CAI-PS for
delivery of the content in the classrooms. It was also suggested that for all the teacher
education programmes, there should be provision of sufficient computers and
instructional (teaching) related equipments to facilitate the subject mathematics
teaching and learning in the classrooms and compulsory insertion of computer usage in
teaching learning process.
Bindal & Sharma (2013) investigated that to make learning meaningful, a teacher
is expected to know successful integration of information and communication
technology (ICT) into his/her subject area. In the field of education, ICTs are not
transformative on their own alteration requires teachers who can utilize the technology
to develop / progress student learning. In teaching and learning process, information
and communication technology incorporation is being apparent as a necessity.
Hamed (2013) studied the knowledge, skills and attitudes of Omani social studies
teachers to the use of computers in instruction. The results from the research revealed
that teachers in the subject of social studies lack in the skills regarding computer but
towards the application of computers in teaching learning process, positive attitudes
was found. The findings also described that in terms of websites of Social Studies
Centres or journals in either English or Arabic, nearly half of social studies teachers do
not possess the basic knowledge. The development of teachers' computer skills and
knowledge about journals and centers' websites were recommended by the researcher.
Khushnir & Valko (2013) developed approaches allowed us to improve a range of
disciplines including Information Technology (IT), which is taught for learners of all
teacher specialties. We also applied them to following disciplines: "Fundamentals of
Computer Science and Applied Linguistics" (translators, the 2nd year of study),
"Introduction to Information Technology" (for future teachers of elementary school and
Computer Science, the 1st year of study) and “Office Computer Technology”
(programmers, the 1st year of studies). The results from the research has shown that
the in the classrooms, the various students expressed their positive attitude verbally and
many students after finishing the discipline, sent e-mails with gratitude.
Robert (2013) explored the effectiveness of the e-Content learning package in
learning mathematics for prospective teachers and the experimental research is
essential for finding out the effective from the population of prospective teachers. The
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investigator selected 30 students from a college of education in Tamil Nadu. Tools used
were e-Content learning package for mathematics prospective teachers developed by
the investigator and pre-test in mathematics developed by the investigator. In the
experimental group, students learn the subject mathematics by using this e-Content
learning package for mathematics. The control group student teachers were taught
using conventional method. Findings of the study showed that there was significant
difference between pre-test and post-test scores for the experimental group in learning
mathematics. That is experimental group Prospective Teachers have achieved high in
post-test than the pre-test. And also there was significant difference in the post-test
scores of the experimental and control group. That is experimental group Prospective
Teachers have achieved high in post-test than the control group Prospective Teachers.
The investigator concludes that the experimental group is more effective than the
control group. Thus e-Content learning package in mathematics education for the
prospective teachers is more effective.
Warren (2013) investigated that to prevent future information and communication
technology (ICT) failures and to give ICT every chance to be successful in secondary
schools, ICT risk factors need to be aware / kept in mind by the educational
practitioners and adopt appropriate strategies to decrease them. The findings from the
research has also suggested that with this knowledge, we can anticipate to attain our
educational targets in a manner that resonates with our digital native learners.
Jaleel (2015) analyzed the effectiveness of e-Content in mathematics on
Mathematical Thinking among Secondary School Students. The research works showed
that it was possible to promote Mathematical Thinking in children by means of suitable
techniques in teaching mathematics by providing suitable teaching experiences. Hence,
through the study, the investigator tried to find the effectiveness of e-Content in
mathematics on Mathematical Thinking among Secondary School Students. The
investigators adopted Experimental Method in the present study on a sample of 112
Secondary School Students taken at random. The study revealed that the e-Content in
mathematics is effective over Activity Oriented Method on developing Mathematical
Thinking of Students at Secondary level. It is suggested that The curriculum planners
and educational administrators should include innovative methods like e-Content in the
curriculum design for the effective implementation of the content.
Singh (2015) conducted a study to investigate the effectiveness of e-Content on
Environmental Management in terms of Learning Outcomes of Undergraduate
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Students. The study was experimental in nature. Non-Equivalent Control Group Quasi-
Experimental was used on a sample of 80 undergraduate science students selected
randomly from St. Aloysius College, Jabalpur. The e-Content study group is significantly
higher in comparison to non e-Content study group in terms of post treatment
knowledge attainment on environmental management, if both the groups are equated
on pre treatment knowledge attainment and pre treatment attitude towards
environmental management. The e-Content study group is significantly higher in
comparison to non e-Content study group in terms of post treatment attitude towards
environmental management if both the groups are equated on pre treatment knowledge
attainment and pre treatment attitude towards environmental management. The study of
e-Content on environmental management has significantly enhanced the knowledge
attainment of undergraduate students. On the basic of the finding of the present study it
can be suggested that e-Content can be used to teach Environmental Management to
undergraduate students as it is helpful in enhancing the knowledge as well as making
the attitude favorable. Further, e-Content was also helpful to train professionals, officers
and workers working in the field of Environmental Management. Implications of the
results are discussed.
Amutha (2016) assessed the impact of e-Content integration in science teaching
on the learning performance of college students. Experimental research method with a
control design was adopted in this study. Investigator selected 60 undergraduate final
year Botany students as a sample from colleges in Tiruchirappalli, India. e-Content on
cloning was developed by the investigator. Learning through e-Content encourages
critical and active learning. With e-Content materials, the learner and teacher will
understand that he or she is changing from a provider of facts to the one who facilitates
a learning environment. It is in this assumption that this investigation attempts to devise
an innovative teaching technique through e-Content approach. Humans can integrate
information from different sensory stimuli into meaningful experiences. This empirical
study proved that e-Content enhance the achievement of the students at tertiary level.
Pio Albina (2017) to find out whether there is any significant difference between
pre-attitude and post- attitude scores of the control and experimental group student-
teachers. In the present study, the investigator has used experimental method. The
tools used for study were e-Content in Teaching of Mathematics Education and Attitude
scale towards e-Content in Teaching of Mathematics Education developed by the
investigator. The result revealed that there is significant difference between the pre-
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attitude and post- attitude scales of the experimental group student-teachers. This
establishes a significant effectiveness of e-Content in enhancing the attitude to a
favorable level of the student-teachers towards e-Content. The familiarity with the e-
Content, the practical usage of e-Content and the awareness of its benefits have
developed more favorable attitude of the student-teachers towards e-Content.
Jasmin (2017) measured the effectiveness of the e-Content learning package in
learning Tamil subject for students who are studying in English medium schools and the
experimental research is essential for finding out the effective from the population of
students. The investigator selected 116 students from English medium Schools at
Perambalur district in Tamil Nadu. Tools used were e-Content learning package for
Tamil Subject probable teachers developed by the investigator and pre-test in Tamil
subject developed by the investigator. In the experimental group, students teach Tamil
Subject by using this e-Content learning package and the control group students were
taught using conventional method. The investigator concludes that the experimental
group is more effective than the control group. Thus e-Content learning package in
Tamil Subject for the latent students is more effective.
2.2 OVERVIEW
This chapter can be summarized by stating that the chapter has very well
thrown light on the purpose behind review of related literature, the research studies
conducted abroad and in India for Ph.D. / M.Phil. / M.Ed. degree of various universities
and some articles published in educational journals. The study of all these proved to be
very much useful for the present study. From the review of related literature, the
researcher has concluded that e-Content strategy has improved the academic
achievement of the students significantly higher in comparison to conventional strategy.
In case of self-confidence, the relevant studies has shown that both above average as
well as below average self-confident students were benefited, but below average self-
confident students were benefited more through e-Content strategy. In case of learning
style, different Learning styles interactions with e-Content strategy were found in
different studies. However, in most of the studies reflectors were high achievers than the
theorist type of learners. In case of Achievement motivation, e-Content strategy has
fostered the achievement motivation of students more as compared to conventional
strategy equally for both male as well as female students. It could also summed up after
review that achievement motivation is a driving force that lay direct and positive
influence upon the academic achievement of the students.
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After having reviewed the related literature, it was found that use of Multimedia /
information and communication technology / e-Content for educational purposes is
swiftly increasing day by day. At various levels, different researchers had found its utility
in various subjects. Its power of presentation with the incorporation of resources allows
for the creation of a fruitful, active and healthy atmosphere for the students in the
classroom. Not only this, for the teachers, it also offers great opportunities in terms of
maintenance of class decorum, concentration, focus and interest of students in
teaching-learning process.
It is also determined by many investigators that information and communication
technology has a sole strength of communicating complicated and tricky concepts in a
simple and capturing way. Moreover, it is a pupil-centered approach. On the other hand
if we specifically explore the utility of e-Content or Multimedia Package in various school
subjects at elementary level, many linked issues are still remained unfold. At elementary
level, the students felt very hard to comprehend various concepts specially in the
subject of mathematics because the abstract content matters are boring to the most of
the students and induce disinterest. According to the child psychology, abstract learning
needs more sensory integration to fix up in the long term memory. So attention needs to
be focussed on the integrative efforts of information processing approach,
transformation between short term memory and long term memory and accelerating
cognitive strategies. The use of e-Content in teaching of mathematics produces more
integrated sensory output in learning mathematics subject. Thus a lot of work needs to
be done in this direction. Therefore the investigator found it suitable to conduct a study
on the effectiveness of e-Content strategy on achievement in mathematics of
elementary school students.
2.3 HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY
On the basis of the above review of related literature, following hypothesis
were formulated:
1. There is no significant difference between mean mathematics achievement score
of elementary school students at pre and post stages of the experimental group.
2. There is no significant difference between adjusted mean mathematics
Achievement score of elementary school students in the e-Content group and
conventional method group by considering pre-test mathematics achievement
score as covariate.

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3. There is no significant effect of treatment, gender and their interaction on
mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre-test
mathematics achievement score as covariate.
4. There is no significant effect of treatment, achievement motivation and their
interaction on mathematics achievement of elementary school students by
considering pre-test mathematics achievement score as covariate.
5. There is no significant effect of treatment, learning style and their interaction on
mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre-test
mathematics achievement score as covariate.
6. There is no significant effect of treatment, self confidence and their interaction on
mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre-test
mathematics achievement score as covariate.

CHAPTER-III
METHOD AND PROCEDURE

Experimental research studies are designed for establishing causal


relationships. Experimental method begins with a question concerning the relationship
between two or more variables by observing the behavior of the subject under
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conditions where some variables are controlled and others manipulated. The
experimental method is the event planned and carried out by the researcher to gather
evidence relevant to the hypotheses. Firstly, specified the finite set of researchable
hypotheses and secondly, has established a systematic programme of data gathering
under precisely defined conditions in an effort to test these hypotheses. The hypotheses
provide a network of statements relating to the impact on independent variable on some
outcome variable or dependent variables. In other words, the term experiment should
be confined to those actions where it is possible to do all of the following: (i) Randomly
assign the subjects of the experiment to either an experimental group (to which
something is done) or a control group (to which the thing done to the experimental
group is not done). (ii) Manipulate the experimental group and (iii) Ensure that in all
other important aspects, the factors affecting the experimental and control group remain
the same.
Any experimental programs have two inter-related aspects, the design of the
experiment and statistical analysis of data. The later aspect is directly dependent upon
the former aspect. Statistical methods can increase the efficiency of an experiment and
also strengthen the conclusions so obtained.
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
The present study was experimental in nature. An experimental design is to
researcher what a blue print is to an architect. A well-developed design provides the
structure and strategy that controls the investigation and extracts dependable answers
to the questions raised by problem hypothesis. The investigator has employed Pre-test -
Post-test Control group Design. This is also called the Classic Controlled Experimental
design because it: Controls the assignment of subjects to experimental and control
group through the use of table of random numbers; Control all other conditions under
which the experiment takes place. The steps in the classic controlled experiment were;
1. randomly assigned subjects to experimental or control group;
2. administered the pre-test to all subjects in both groups;
3. ensured that both groups experienced the same conditions except that in
addition the experimental group experienced the treatment;
4. administered the post-test to all subjects in both groups;
5. assessed the amount of change on the value of the dependent variable from the
pre-test to the post-test for each group separately.

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After making intensive study of the literature related to e-Content, the
experimental procedure was executed. One experimental and one control group was
formed. The experimental group was taught mathematics through e-Content strategy,
the control group was taught mathematics through conventional method. The design
comprised three states: the first stage involved pre-testing of all the peoples of two
groups (on achievement in Mathematics, Achievement Motivation, Learning style and
Self-confidence).
This second stage involved treatment of 02 months. The experimental treatment
consisted of teaching 06 units of VII grade mathematics through e-Content to
experimental and through conventional method to control group. The third stage i.e.
post-test stage, the pupils were post-tested on achievement in mathematics just after
the treatment so as to determine the effect of treatment. A detailed description of the
design of the experiment has been given in table below:
Table 3.1
Design of Experiment (Pre-test, Post-test Control Group Design)
S. No. Duration Stage Experimental Group Control Group
1. 3 Days Pre-Test 1. Mathematics 1. Mathematics
Achievement Test Achievement Test
2. Achievement 2. Achievement
Motivation Scale Motivation Scale
3. Learning Style 3. Learning Style
Inventory Inventory
4. Self Confidence 4. Self Confidence
Inventory Inventory
2. 2 Months Treatment Teaching Mathematics Teaching Mathematics
through e-Content through Conventional
Strategy Strategy
3. 1 Day Post-Test Mathematics Mathematics
Achievement Test Achievement Test

 The difference in the Control group’s score from the pre-test to the post-test
indicated the change in the value of the mathematics achievement that could be
expected to occur without exposure to the treatment i.e. teaching mathematics
with e-Content.

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 The difference in the Experimental group’s score from the pre-test to the post-
test indicated the change in the value of the mathematics achievement that could
be expected to occur with exposure to the treatment i.e. teaching mathematics
with e-Content.
 The difference between the change in the Control group and the change in the
Experimental group was the amount of change in the value of the mathematics
achievement that could be attributed exclusively to the influence of the
independent variable i.e. teaching mathematics with e-Content.
3.2 VARIABLES OF THE STUDY
The relationship between independent and dependent variables have been
studied in this experimental research.
3.2.1 Independent Variables:
The variables that were manipulated in an experimental study, whose presence
or degree determines the change in the dependent variable, are called the independent
variables. In the present study, the independent variables that were used are e-Content
strategy and Conventional Strategy. These two variables were manipulated to study the
affect on achievement. The control group was taught through conventional strategy and
experimental group was taught through e-Content strategy.
3.2.2 Dependent Variable:
The dependent variable or the criterion variable that was used in the study is
achievement in mathematics. This variable may also be termed as moderator variable
as they include the variable that could have a moderating affect on the treatment. The
students were scored on this variable before and after the treatment in both groups.
This variable was measured twice during the study i.e. first before the beginning of the
treatment (pre-test stage), then after completing the treatment (post-test stage).
3.2.3 Intervening variables:
An intervening variable is a hypothetical internal state that is used to explain
relationship between observed variables, such as independent and dependent
variables. The intervening variables considered in this study were Achievement
Motivation, Learning Style and Self Confidence.
3.2.4 Control Variables:
Control variables are extraneous variables that an investigator does not wish to
examine in a study. Thus the investigator controls this variable also called a covariate.

80
The control variables taken in the study were: nature of the school, grade level and
subject taught.
Physical Control Employed
It is necessary to control all those variables that may affect the dependent variables.
Hence suitable controls were employed for each such variable as follows:
 Nature of School
The sample was selected from Government Model High School Sector 26 (P.L.),
UT Chandigarh.
 Grade Level
Seventh class was selected for the present study and grade level was thus kept
constant during the study.
 Subject and Units
Both groups were taught the same subject and same six units of mathematics.
Table3.2
Independent, Dependent, Intervening Variables and Control Employed
Independen Dependent Intervening Control
t Variable Variable Variable Employed
Only one school was taken
e-Content
Nature of School and students from same
Strategy
school were taken
Only VII grade students
Grade Level
were taught
Achievement
Same units of
in
Subject and Units Mathematics in both the
Conventional Mathematics
groups were taught
Strategy
Achievement
Motivation, These were controlled
Learning Style and statistically using ANCOVA
Self Confidence

3.3 SAMPLE OF THE STUDY


Small representative portion of population is called sample. For selecting
samples, the investigator has employed Random Sampling Technique. The present
study was conducted on a sample of 80 pupils studying in class VII of Government

81
Model High School Sector 26 (P.L.), UT Chandigarh. One section formed experimental
group and one section formed the controlled group.
Table 3.3
A Detailed Description of the Sample

Group Name of School Class Male Female Total

Government Model High School


Experimental VII 24 16 40
Sector 26 (P.L.), UT Chandigarh

Government Model High School


Control VII 21 19 40
Sector 26 (P.L.), UT Chandigarh

Total Sample 45 35 80

3.4 RESEARCH TOOLS USED


For every research problem, the investigator uses some devices to gather new
facts. The devices which the investigator uses for data collection are known as research
tools. To measure the students at Pre-test and Post-test stage, the following tools were
employed for the collection of data:
1. Reaction towards e-Content Scale for teachers and students developed by
investigator to assess the usability of developed e-Content.
2. Mathematics Achievement Test developed by investigator himself to measure
the achievement of elementary school students in mathematics.
3. The Achievement Motivation was assessed with the help of Deo-Mohan
Achievement Motivation Scale prepared by Deo and Mohan (1985).
4. The Learning Style was assessed with the help of Learning Style Inventory by
Honey and Mumford (1982).
5. The Self Confidence was assessed with the help of Self Confidence Inventory
developed by Gupta (2000).

3.5 DESCRIPTION OF TOOLS USED


3.5.1 MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT TEST
Mathematics Achievement Test was developed by researcher himself to measure
the achievement of students in mathematics. Its construction and description is as
follows:
Construction of Achievement Test:
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Instructional Objectives
The first and the most important step in planning a test was to identify the
instructional objectives. As researcher has taken the subject mathematics, so the major
objectives were categorized as knowledge, comprehension, application and skill.
Design
The second step in planning a test was to make the Design. The Design
specifies weightage to different (a) instructional objective, (b) units and sub-units of
course content (c) types (or forms) of questions.
DESIGN
Subject: Mathematics Class : VII

Table 3.4
Weightage to Instructional Objectives / Learning Outcomes
S. No. Objectives Marks %age of Marks
1. Knowledge 27 36
2. Comprehension 18 24
3. Application 17 23
4. Skill 13 17
Total 75 100

Table 3.5
Weightage to Content / Subject Units

S. No. Name of the Units Marks %age of Marks


1. Perimeter and Area 20 27
2. Data Handling 16 21
3. Symmetry 4 05
4. Lines and Angles 13 17
5. The triangle and its Properties 17 23
6. Visualising Solid Shapes 05 07
Total 75 100.00

Table 3.6
Weightage to Types / Forms of Questions

Form Marks for Number of Total Marks %age of


of Questions each Questions Marks
Multiple Choice
1 75 75 100.00
Questions
Total 75 75 100.00

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Writing of Questions
The next step after the finalization of the Design was writing of appropriate items
in accordance with the broad parameters. Researcher has to standardize the test, so he
has framed a total 115 items, as required in accordance to the design (i.e. 75) because
some of them will be modified or rejected during Tryout stage.
Marking Scheme
The next step was to prepare the ‘Marking Scheme’. The marking scheme
helped to prevent inconsistency in judgment. It includes scoring key, which was
prepared in respect of objective type questions.
Question-wise Analysis
This step was to ensure that there was no imbalance in the question paper. During
question-wise analysis, the researcher has analyzed each question on various
parameters stated in the design.
Initial Tryout
In initial tryout, the test was given to experts and individual students.
Researcher has given the prepared items along with its operational definition to the 08
experts and requested them to judge each item in the light of operational definition,
instructional objectives and accordingly on the opinion of the experts, few questions
were modified and 10 questions were rejected.
Now, this modified tool was given to 14 students one by one to remove the
ambiguous items and to find out if there was any defect in the language or vagueness in
the format of the items. However, researcher did not find any such requirement.
Group Tryout or Item Analysis
Item analysis is a technique that enables the researcher to access the utility or
quality of items. All the modified material was taken and given to group of students
(Number of students in group was 100). These students were dissimilar in their level of
achievement in mathematics. The necessary instructions were given to them. The
students were required to record their responses on a separate answer sheet prepared
for this purpose. There was no time limit and time taken by each student was also noted
down. With the help of scoring key, the test has been scored and the process of Item
Analysis begins. 1(one) mark was given for each right answer, the total marks obtained
by a student was the total number of his or her responses. The procedure followed is as
under:

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 Arranged the obtained scores/marks by the students from highest to lowest and
then identified a higher group as well as a lower group separately.
 The higher group was the highest scoring 27% and the lower group was also the
lowest scoring 27% of the total group.
 For each item, count the total number of students in higher group who answered
correctly (RH) and count the number of students in the lower group, who
answered correctly (RL).
 In the end, recorded all these counts on result sheets at the end of corresponding
response alternatives. (Appendix III)
Difficulty Value or Difficulty Index
Difficulty index is defined as the percentage of the group who answered the
items correctly. The larger the value of the index of the test, the easier the item is.
It was calculated by the following formula:
RH  RL
Difficulty Index   100
NH  NL

Where:
RH = Number of students in the higher group who answered the items correctly
RL = Number of students in the lower group who answered the items correctly
NH = Number of students in the higher group
NL = Number of students in the lower group
Interpretation of Difficulty Index
It is quite natural to assume, as many test constructor do, that a good norm
reference test must include some easy items to test the low achievers and some difficult
items to test high achievers. The easiness or difficulty of test items can be indicated by
difficulty index as:
Table 3.7
Interpretation of Difficulty Index

S. No. Difficulty Index Comments


1. Below 20% Difficult
2. 20% to 50% Good
3. 50% to 80% Best
4. 80% and above Very easy

On the basis of above table, the researcher has categorized each item according
to their difficulty index as shown in table below:

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Table 3.8
Item Analysis based on Item Difficulty Value / Difficulty Index

S. No. Difficulty Value / Item No. Comment


Difficulty Index
1 Below 20 26, 27, 44, 70, 83, 86, 105 Difficult
2 20-50 3, 16, 33, 49, 50, 55, 59, 63, 75, 76, Good
80, 89, 93, 98, 100, 101, 108, 111
3 50-80 1, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 18, 20, 21, Best
25, 30, 32, 36, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43,
45, 46, 48, 51, 52, 53, 56, 57, 58,
60, 61, 62, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 71,
72, 73, 74, 77, 78, 79, 81, 82, 84,
85, 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 94, 95, 96,
97, 99, 102, 103, 104, 106, 109,
110, 112, 113, 114, 115
4 Above 80 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 14, 17, 19, 22, 23, Very easy
24, 28, 29, 31, 34, 35, 37,41, 47,
54, 64, 107

On the basis of above table, the researcher has categorized each item according
to their difficulty index of 0.20 to 0.80 were selected and rest were dropped.
Discrimination Index or Validity Index
Discrimination index is defined as the measure of the extent to which a test
item discriminates or differentiates between the students who do well on the overall test
and those who do not do well in the overall test.
It is calculated by the following formula:
RH  RL
Discri min ation Index   100
N H or N L

Where:
RH = Number of students in the higher group who answered the items correctly
RL = Number of students in the lower group who answered the items correctly
NH = Number of students in the higher group
NL = Number of students in the lower group

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Table 3.9
Interpretation of Discrimination Index

S. No. Discrimination Index Comment


1. Below 30% Poor Items to be Rejected
2. 30% to 60% Reasonably Good
3. 60% to 80% Good Discriminator
4. 80% to 100% Best Discriminator

On the basis of above table, the researcher has categorized each item according
to their discrimination index as shown in table below:
Table 3.10
Item analysis based on Item Discrimination Index
S.No. Discremination Item No. Comment
Index
1 Below 30 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, Poor Items
22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 34, to be
Rejected
35, 36, 37, 41, 44, 47, 50, 54, 64,
70, 76, 83, 86, 96, 98, 105, 106,
107, 108, 111
2 30-60 1, 3, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 18, 20, 21, 25, Reasonably
30, 32, 33, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 45, Good

46, 48, 49, 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57,


58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67,
68, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78,
79, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89,
90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 99, 100,
101, 102, 103, 104, 109, 110, 112,
113, 114, 115
3 60-80 _ Good
Discriminator
4 Above 80 _ Best
Discriminator

The above table has shown that if Discrimination Index value is either equal to or
greater than 0.30 then the item discriminate otherwise not. So, the researcher has
selected the items which come under the Discrimination Index of 0.30 or above.
Reliability

87
Reliability is the consistency of our measurement, or the degree to which an
instrument measures the same way each time it is used under the same condition with
the same subjects. In short, it is the repeatability of our measurement. A measure is
considered reliable if a person's score on the same test given twice is similar. It is
important to remember that reliability is not measured, it is estimated.
Table 3.11
Summary Statistics for Scale
Number of items in scale 75
Number of valid cases 100
Number of cases with missing data 00
Mean 48.14 Sum 4814.00
Standard Deviation 23.38 Variance 546.84
Skewness -0.85 Kurtosis -.80
Minimum 1.00 Maximum 75.00
Cronbach's alpha 0.98 Standardized alpha 0.98
Average Inter-Item Correlation .48

There are many ways for reliability estimation. The researcher has used Split-
Half Methodology and Cronbach's alpha for estimation of reliability. The Split-half design
in effect creates two comparable test administrations. The items in a test are split into
two tests that are equivalent in content and difficulty. Researcher has done this by
splitting among odd and even numbered items. This assures that the assessment is
homogeneous in content. Once the test is split, reliability estimated as the correlation of
two separate tests with an adjustment for the test length.
Table 3.12
Reliability Estimation
First Half Second Half
Number of Items 38 Number of Items 37
Mean 24.61 Mean 23.53
Sum 2461.00 Sum 2353.00
Standard Deviation 11.61 Standard Deviation 12.35
Variance 134.84 Variance 152.75
Cronbach's alpha 0.96 Cronbach's alpha 0.97
Correlation between first and second half 0.90
Correlation corrected for attenuation 0.93
Split half reliability 0.94

Interpretation of Reliability

88
The reliability of a test is indicated by the reliability coefficient. It is denoted by the
letter "r," and is expressed as a number ranging between 0 and 1.00, with r = 0
indicating no reliability, and r = 1.00 indicating perfect reliability. The larger the reliability
coefficient, the more repeatable or reliable the test scores. Table given below serves as
a general guideline for interpreting test reliability:

Table 3.13
General Guidelines for Interpreting Reliability Coefficients
S. No. Reliability Coefficient value Interpretation
1. 0.90 and up Excellent
2. 0.80 – 0.89 Good
3. 0.70 – 0.79 Adequate
4. below 0.70 May have limited applicability

Researcher has found 0.94 as the calculated value of Reliability coefficient,


which means 94% of the variance of test scores is true-score variance, and only 6%
error variance.
Validity
The test was validated against the criterion of Content Validity. The content
validity is concerned with the adequacy of sampling of a specified universe of content.
The test was validated against the criterion of Statistical Content Validity and Face
Validity: The content validity is concerned with the adequacy of sampling of a specified
universe of content.
The first procedure used to determine the content validity involved face validation
procedure. To determine content validity the test items and a list of outcomes were
given to the panel consisting of five experts in subject matter and three experts in test
items. The panel was asked to identify which test item corresponded to which
outcomes.
The experts agreed with the researcher on the assignment of test items to
objectives 95% of time. The percentage was taken as evidence of Content Validity.
The second procedure used to determine the content validity involved item total
correlation method. The findings of the same are shown below:
Table 3.14
Item-wise validity
Item No. Item Total Item No. Item Total Item No. Item Total
correlation correlation correlation
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1 0.49 26 0.93 51 0.72
2 0.46 27 0.66 52 0.56
3 0.52 28 0.59 53 0.89
4 0.71 29 0.60 54 0.79
5 0.42 30 0.60 55 0.93
6 0.58 31 0.50 56 0.64
7 0.73 32 0.76 57 0.85
8 0.61 33 0.81 58 0.82
9 0.72 34 0.73 59 0.50
10 0.49 35 0.61 60 0.68
11 0.55 36 0.68 61 0.73
12 0.62 37 0.79 62 0.79
13 0.73 38 0.77 63 0.91
14 0.46 39 0.91 64 0.71
15 0.65 40 0.77 65 0.58
16 0.60 41 0.91 66 0.57
17 0.88 42 0.55 67 0.56
18 0.61 43 0.89 68 0.72
19 0.69 44 0.77 69 0.61
20 0.78 45 0.50 70 0.69
21 0.79 46 0.85 71 0.69
22 0.85 47 0.93 72 0.72
23 0.50 48 0.51 73 0.61
24 0.93 49 0.67 74 0.56
25 0.56 50 0.55 75 0.48

Table 3.15
General Guidelines for Interpreting Validity Coefficients
S. No. Validity Coefficient value Interpretation
1. Above .35 Very beneficial
2. 0.21 – 0.35 Likely to be useful
3. 0.11 – 0.20 Depends on circumstances
4. below 0.11 Unlikely to be useful

Statistical content validity was calculated with the help of Item Total Correlation
Method. The content validity of all 75 selected items ranged between 0.42 to 0.93. So
as per the interpretation from the general guidelines for interpreting validity coefficient,
all selected items were under the very beneficial category.
Final Form of Test
The test was once again revised and final form of the test with 75 items was
ready to use and it takes 130 minutes on an average.
3.5.2 LEARNING STYLE INVENTORY

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This is an internationally proven tool designed by Peter Honey and Alan Mumford
(1982) used to assess the preferred learning styles of students. Knowing one’s learning
style can accelerate his/her learning as one undertake activities that best fit his/her
preferred style. Knowing one’s learning style can also help avoid repeating mistakes by
undertaking activities that strengthen one’s style. There is no time limit to this
questionnaire. There are 80 items distributed uniformly for each of the four dimensions
i.e. Activist, Reflectors, Theorist and Pragmatists. All the questions are dichotomous type,
either of the answers are yes or no. The accuracy of the results depends on how honest
you can be. There is no right or wrong answers.
Scoring and Interpreting the Learning Styles Questionnaire
The Questionnaire is scored by awarding one point for each ticked item. There
are no points for crossed items. Simply indicate on the lists below which items were
ticked by circling the appropriate question number.
Table 3.16
Learning Styles - General Descriptions

Activist Reflectors Theorist Pragmatists


2 7 1 5
4 13 3 9
6 15 8 11
10 16 12 19
17 25 14 21
23 28 18 27
24 29 20 35
32 31 22 37
34 33 26 44
38 36 30 49
40 39 42 50
43 41 47 53
45 46 51 54
48 52 57 56
58 55 61 59
64 60 63 65
71 62 68 69

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72 66 75 70
74 67 77 73
79 76 78 80

ACTIVISTS
Activists involve themselves fully and without bias in new experiences. They
enjoy the here and now and are happy to be dominated by immediate experiences.
They are open-minded, not skeptical, and this tends to make them enthusiastic about
anything new. Their philosophy is: "I'll try anything once". They tend to act first and
consider the consequences afterwards. Their days are filled with activity. They tackle
problems by brainstorming. As soon as the excitement from one activity has died down
they are busy looking for the next. They tend to thrive on the challenge of new
experiences but are bored with implementation and longer-term consolidation.
Activists learn best from activities where:
 They can engross themselves in short "here and now" activities such as business
games, competitive teamwork tasks, role-playing exercises.

 They have a lot of the limelight/high visibility, i.e. they can "chair" meetings, lead
discussions, and give presentations.

Summary of strengths and weakness:

Flexible and open minded, happy to have a go, happy to be exposed to new
situations, optimistic about anything new and therefore unlikely to resist change. Tendency to
take the immediately obvious action without thinking, often take unnecessary risks, tendency
to do too much themselves and hog the limelight, rush into action without sufficient
preparation, get bored with implementation/consolidation.

REFLECTORS
Reflectors like to stand back to ponder experiences and observe them from
many different perspectives. They collect data, both first hand and from others, and
prefer to think about it thoroughly before coming to any conclusion. The thorough
collection and analysis of data about experiences and events is what counts so they
tend to postpone reaching definitive conclusions for as long as possible. Their
philosophy is to be cautious. They are thoughtful people who like to consider all
possible angles and implications before making a move. Reflectors learn best from
activities where:
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 They are allowed or encouraged to watch/think/chew over activities.

 They have the opportunity to review what has happened, what they have learned.

 They are able to stand back from events and listen/observe, i.e. observing a group at
work, taking a back seat in a meeting, watching a film or video.

Summary of strengths and weaknesses:


Careful, thorough and methodical, thoughtful, good at listening to others and
assimilating information, rarely jump to conclusions. Tendency to hold back from direct
participation, slow to make up their minds and reach a decision, tendency to be too cautious
and not take enough risks, not assertive - they aren't particularly forthcoming and have no
"small talk".
THEORISTS
Theorists adapt and integrate observations into complex but logically sound
theories. They think problems through in a vertical, step-by-step logical way. They
assimilate disparate facts into coherent theories. They tend to be perfectionists who
won't rest easy until things are tidy and fit into a rational scheme. They like to analyze
and synthesize. They are keen on basic assumptions, principles, theories models and
systems thinking. Theorists learn best from activities where:
 They have time to explore methodically the associations and inter-relationships
between ideas, events and situations.

 They are intellectually stretched, i.e. by analysing a complex situation, being


tested in a tutorial session, by teaching high calibre people who ask searching
questions.

Summary of strengths and weaknesses:

Logical "vertical" thinkers, rational and objective, good at asking probing questions
and disciplined approach. Restricted in lateral thinking, low tolerance for uncertainty, disorder
and ambiguity, intolerant of anything subjective or intuitive, full of "shoulds, oughts and musts"
etc.

PRAGMATISTS

Pragmatists are keen on trying out ideas, theories and techniques to see if
they work in practice. They positively search out new ideas and take the first
opportunity to experiment with applications. They are the sorts of people who return
from management courses brimming with new ideas that they want to try out in

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practice. They like to get on with things and act quickly and confidently on ideas that
attract them. Pragmatists learn best from activities where:
 They are shown techniques for doing things with obvious practical advantages,
i.e. how to save time, how to make a good first impression, how to deal with
people.

 They can concentrate on practical issues, i.e. drawing up action plans with an
obvious end product, suggesting short cuts, giving tips.

Summary of strengths and weaknesses:


Keen to test things out in practice, Practical, down to earth, realistic, Businesslike -
gets straight to the point, Technique oriented. Tendency to reject anything without an
obvious application, Not very interested in theory or basic principles, Tendency to seize on
the first expedient solution to a problem, Impatient with waffle, on balance, task oriented not
people oriented.
3.5.3 ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION (N-ACH) SCALE
Deo-Mohan Achievement Motivation scale (1985) was used to measure the
achievement motivation of adolescents. The scale has been constructed by Dr. (Mrs.)
Pratibha Deo and Asha Mohan in 1985. English form of Achievement Motivation scale
was used in the present study. The scale consisted of 50 items having the distribution
as achievement motivation, need for achievement, academic challenge, achievement
anxiety, importance of grades, meaningfulness of task , relevance of school/college to
future goals, attitude towards education, attitude towards education, work methods,
attitude towards teachers, interpersonal relations, individual concern, general interests,
dramatics, sports etc. Out of 50 items, 13 are negative and 37 are positive items.
The scale is of the self-rating type and can be administered in a group with 5
points to rate viz always, frequently, sometimes, rarely, never. It has no time limit. The
scoring device was simple stencil type having a numerical weightage from 4 to 0 for
positive in the above order of rating scale and the reverse of it for the negative items.
The Finally selected 50 items were chosen after careful scrutiny having the distribution
as follows:
Table 3.17
Factors and No. of Selected Items
Sr. No. Factors No. of items
1. Academic motivation 4
2. Need for achievement 4
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3. Academic challenges 4
4. Achievement anxiety 1
5. Importance of grades/ marks 2
6. Meaningfulness of task 4
7. Relevance of school/college to future 2
8. Goals 4
9. Attitude towards education 5
10. Work method 3
11. Attitude toward teachers 4
12. Interpersonal relation 2
13. Individual concern 4
14. General interest 2
15. Dramatic, sports etc. 5
Total 50

Reliability of the scale:


Test retest method was applied to obtain the reliability coefficient of the scale.
Bending (1964) established the reliability coefficient of .68 for men and .62 for women
for his factor-analytic scale of need achievement. Taking into consideration these result,
the present scale reliability coefficient by test-retest method for the total group, as well
as for the separate for the male and female groups, are very satisfactory and the scale
can be taken as quit reliable for use.
Validity of the scale:
As far as the validity of the scale is concerned, in the first instance the item
validity established by the high-low discrimination method was accepted as the validity
of the whole measure. The coefficient of correlation between the scale and the
projective test was observed to be .54 which speaks for the validity of the scale also, the
validity being of the concurrent nature. E. Carney (1966) observed that questionnaire
measures correlated orally with McClellend’s projrective measures. This support the
result of present scale of achievement motivation to be sufficiently valid for use for
measuring achievement motivation.
Scoring:
One stencil keys is to be used for scoring, positive and negative items. A positive
item carry’s the way of 4,3,2,1 and 0 for the categories of Always, frequently,
sometimes, rarely and never respectively. The negative item is to be scored 0,1,2,3
and 4 for the same categories respectively that are given above. Separate keys for
positive and negative items are provided. The total score is the summation of all the

95
positive and negative item scores. The minimum scores obtained can be 0 (zero) and
the maximum can be 200, other scores ranging in between these limits.
Table 3.18
Item-wise and Category-wise Scores

Statement Always Frequently Sometime Rarely Never


Positive 4 3 2 1 0
Negative 0 1 2 3 4

This is a quick – scoring self-administered scale which is also quick in administration


and very easy for use in administration as well as scoring.
Table 3.19
Response and Item-wise Scoring

Response Item wise Sr. No. Total


2,3,4,5,6,7,10,11,15,16,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,
Positive 37
33,35,36,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50.
Negative 1,12,13,14,17,18,19,20,21,22,32,34,37 13
Total 50

Norms and Interpretation of the Obtained Raw Scores:


The scores theoretically range between 0 to 200, and an obtained score for any
person will be in between these two limits. This obtained score shall be the raw score,
and for the interpretation of the raw score, z-score norms have been presented. The z-
score norms have been prepared age wise since the sample population was very small,
therefore z-score norms on the basis of means and Standard Deviation have been
prepared and these have been presented table 5-11 and in table 12 norms for
interpretation of the z-score for level of achievement motivation have been presented.
3.5.4 SELF CONFIDENCE INVENTORY
The Self Confidence Inventory (SCI) has been designed to assess the level of
Self -confidence among adolescents and adults. The abbreviated name has been used
so that the respondent may not decipher the real propos of the test and take good.
The personality pattern is unified multidimensional structure in which the concept
of self is the core or center of gravity (Breckenridge and Vincent, 1965). Into this
structure are integrated many patterns of response tendencies, known as ‘traits’ which

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are closely related to and influenced by the concept of self. Self confidence is one such
personality trait. The self is a composite of a person’s thoughts and feelings, strivings
and hopes, fears and, his view of what he is, what he has been, what he might become,
and his attitude pertaining of his worth. Self confidence is a positive attitude of oneself
towards one’ self –concept. It is an attribute of perceived self. Self confidence refers to
person’s perceived ability to tackle situations successfully without leaning on others and
to have a positive self confidence. In the word of Basavanna (1975), “In general terms,
self confidence refers to an individual’s perceived ability to act affectively in a situation
to overcome obstacle and to get thing go all right”.
A self confident person perceives himself to be socially competent, emotionally
mature, intellectually adequate, successful, satisfied, decisive, optimistic, independent,
self assured, forward moving, fairly assertive and having leadership qualities.
Reliability
The obtained reliability coefficient and index of reliability have been below in table:
Table 3.20
Reliability Coefficient and Index of Reliability
Method N Reliability Coefficient Index of Reliability
Split-Half 362 .91 .95
K-R Formula 200 .89 .94
Test-Retest 116 .78 .88

Validity
In item-analysis validity coefficients were determined for each item by biserial
correlation method and only those items were retained which yielded .25 or above
biserial correlation with the total score. This was also validated by correlating the scores
obtained on this inventory with the scores obtained by the subject on Basavanna’s Self-
confidence Inventory. The validity coefficient obtained is .82 which is significant beyond .
01 level.
Scoring
The inventory can be scored by hand. A score of one is awarded for a response
indicative of lack of Self- confidence, i.e., for making cross (×) response to item nos.
2,7,23,31,40,41,43,44,45,53,54,55 and for making cross (×) to response to the rest of
the items. Hence, the lower the score, the higher would be the level of Self- confidence
vice - versa.
Norms
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The norms have been prepared on a sample of 2074 individuals with Mean
(25.59), S.D. (10.25) and Standard Error of means (0.22). For the purpose of converting
raw scores into Z-score for the purpose of interpreting the level of self-confidence.
Norms for interpretation of the level of self-confidence have been below in the table:
Table: 3.21
Norms for interpretation of the level of Self-confidence
Sr. No. Range of Z-scores Grade Level of Self-confidence
1. +2.01 and above A Extremely Low
2. +1.26 to +2.00 B Highly Low
3. +0.51 to +1.25 C Above Average Low
4. -0.50 to +0.50 D Average / Moderate
5. -0.51 to -1.25 E Above Average High
6. -1.26 to -2.00 F Very High
7. -2.01 and below G Extremely High

3.6 DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL MATERIAL


e-Content Development Process
Investigator had gone through three distinct phases during development of e-
Content and these were Pre-Development phase, Development phase, and Post-
Development phase. Each of these phase had a number of stages that were organized
sequentially.
 Stages during Pre-Development phase:
Content Analysis and Instructional Design
The investigator had analysed the content of class VII mathematics syllabus.
While developing e-Content, the strength of various theories were kept in view and
adapted the approach which suited most to largest group, objectives of learning and
expected outcome of learning.
Script Writing of e-Content Elements
The investigator had written the script of all the required elements of e-Content
i.e. Video and Animation.
 Stages during Development Phase:
ICT Plan and Selection
The investigator has planned about appropriate ICT for each media element
such as graphics, text, audio, video, animation and interactivity for each learning
experience. The investigator has selected required hardware and software for each

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element of e-Content. Investigator has developed a flowchart to outline the behind-the-
screen logic. Investigator will determine computer hardware and software requirements.
Production and Integration of e-Content Elements
Investigator has developed each of elements of e-Content using appropriate
Software. and then integrated different elements of e-Content.
e-Content assessment by experts / teachers and students
e-Content assessment tool for experts and teacher was developed by investigator
himself. Reaction towards e-Content Scale assesses the usability of the developed e-
Content. Usability can be defined as “a measure of the ease with which a system can
be learned or used, its safety, effectiveness and efficiency, and attitude of its users
towards it.” Based upon this definition, the usability of e-Content could be measured by
how easily and effectively a specific user can use the e-Content, given particular kind of
support, to carry out a fixed set of tasks, in a defined set of environments. The aim of
usability testing is to identify problem area, and the extracting of information concerning
problems, difficulties, weaknesses, and areas for improvement. e-Content should be
enjoyable to use and aesthetically pleasing to users. User satisfaction should be within
acceptable levels of users cost in terms of tiredness, discomfort, frustration, and
individual effort so that satisfaction causes continued and enhanced usage of e-
Content. Motivational elements including color, graphical images, animation, and sound
in the interactive multimedia can motivate the user and increase satisfaction.
Format of the Scale
The reaction towards e-Content scale has two forms: Form ‘A’ and Form ‘B’.
Form ‘A’ is e-Content assessment by the experts and teachers, and Form ‘B’ is e-
Content assessment by the students.
Description of the Scale
The Scale is consisted by keeping few parameters in mind like Content and
Instructional Design, Communication and Innovation Strategy and Content
Effectiveness. The scale in its final form consists of 15 items in Form ‘A’ and 15 items in
form ‘B’.
The method of assessment of each parameter is based on five points scale i.e
1) VG : Stands for very good
2) G : Stands for good
3) A : Stands for average
4) P : Stands for poor
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5) VP : Stands for very poor
Scoring
All the items of the scale are positively worded. Items are given a score of 5, 4,
3, 2, 1 for Very Good, Good, Average, Poor and Very Poor respectively. The sum of
these values gives the effectiveness of developed e-Content. The total score varies
from 34 to 68 showing least effective to highest effectiveness for form ‘A’ and 29 to 72
showing least effective to highest effectiveness for form ‘B’. The percentage of
assessment of this tool by experts and student was found above 75%.
Finalization of e-Content Elements
After e-Content assessment by experts/teachers and students the investigator has
finalized the e-Content by including suggested changes.
 Post-Development Phase
Investigator has conducted an experiment to check the educational effectiveness of
developed e-Content. The investigator had used Pre-test – Post-test Control Group
Design.
3.7 CONDUCT OF THE STUDY
The experimental procedure was executed. One experimental and one control
group was formed. The e-Content group as experimental group was taught
mathematics with the supplement of e-Content, the control group was taught
mathematics through Conventional Method. The design had comprised three stages:
the first stage has involved pre-testing of all the students of two groups on the following
scale / test: (a) Mathematics Achievement Test (b) Achievement Motivation Scale (c)
Learning Style Inventory by Honey & Mumford (d) Self Confidence Inventory. The
second stage has involved treatment of two months. The experimental treatment was
consisted of teaching mathematics to VII class with e-Content to experimental and
through Conventional Method to control group. During the third stage i.e. post-test
stage, the students were post-tested on achievement in mathematics just after the
treatment so as to determine the effect of treatment. A detailed description of the design
of the experiment has been given in the table 3.1.
3.7.1 Pre-Test
Before the commencement of the experiment, the subjects were administered
mathematics achievement test, Achievement Motivation with the help of Deo-Mohan
Achievement Motivation Scale prepared by Pratibha Deo and Asha Mohan, Learning
Style with the help of Learning Style Inventory by Honey and Mumford, Self
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Confidence with the help of Self Confidence Inventory developed by Rekha Gupta.
Before administrating the test, instructions were explained verbally to the subjects by
the investigator. Both the groups of subjects were administered their test. The
administration of the test was carried out as per norms and instructions contained in
their manual. After administrating the above test, they were scored as per the scoring
procedure mentioned in the manual. Thus, pre-test score were obtained on
achievement in mathematics, Achievement Motivation, Learning Style and Self
Confidence of both groups. This all took time of three days.
3.7.2 The Treatment
To find out the efficacy of the independent variables, the experimental variables
were manipulated in the form of teaching based on e-Content and conventional method.
The experimental group was taught through e-Content and control group was taught
through conventional method. The process was carried out for two months. Same
topics were taught to both groups. The treatment was conducted by the investigator
himself in both groups so as to avoid teacher variable and maximum precision.
3.7.3 Post-Test
Immediately after the treatment was over, the subjects were administered the
post-test. The same criterion test as taken in pre-test was taken. Both the groups of
sampled students were subjected to those post-test. In this way, post-test scores were
obtained on achievement test in mathematics of both the groups.
3.8 STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA
Mean, Standard Deviation, Correlated t-test, One-way ANCOVA and Two-way
ANCOVA was employed by the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences)
software to find out the effectiveness of e-Content strategy on achievement in
mathematics of elementary school students.

101
Figure 3.1: Glimpses of the developed e-Content from the various chapters of class VII
Mathematics

102
Figure 3.2: Mathematics Achievement Test at try out & final stage and e-Content
assessment by the expert.

103
Figure 3.3: Glimpses of the e-Content assessment by the teachers and students.

104
Figure 3.4: Teaching Mathematics with the help of e-Content to the experimental group
in the Classroom.

105
Figure 3.5: Teaching Mathematics with the help of traditional method to the control
group in the classroom.

106
Figure 3.6: Glimpses from the Post-test for assessment of Mathematics achievement.

107
CHAPTER- IV
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of e-Content
strategy on achievement in mathematics of elementary school students. For this
purpose, descriptive statistics namely mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics
namely t-test and analysis of covariance was used to study the effectiveness of e-
Content strategy on achievement in mathematics of elementary school students.
Analysis of covariance was employed to analyse the obtained (pre-test and post-test)
scores of the experimental and control group. Analysis of Covariance is an extension of
ANOVA that provides a way of statistically controlling the (linear) effect of variables one
does not want to examine in a study. These extraneous variables are called covariates,
or control variables. ANCOVA allows us to remove covariates from the list of possible
explanations of variance in the dependent variable. ANCOVA does this by using
statistical techniques (such as regression to partial out the effects of covariates) rather
than direct experimental methods to control extraneous variables (Vogt, 1999).
4.1 TESTING OF ASSUMPTIONS OF ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE
(ANCOVA)
The basic assumption underlying the technique of analysis of covariance for the
data of the variable under study were tested as under:
(i) Assumption of Normality:
In the light of the findings of Eden and Yates (Johnson, 1961), and Norton
(Guilford, 1965) the assumption of normality may not be considered important for the
data of the experiment.
(ii) Assumption of randomness:
The assumption of randomness was not tested because in the present study the
quasi-experimental method was used. The experimental and control groups were
taken as the intact sections of class seventh from Government Model High School,
Sector 26, Chandigarh.
(iii) Assumption of Homogeneity of variance:
The assumption of homogeneity of sample variance for the variables under study
was tested through Levene's Test of homogeneity of variance. The results are given
in the table 4.1.
Table 4.1
Levene's test of Homogeneity of Variance

108
S. No. Variables Levene's statistics df1 df2 Significance

Achievement in
1. 0.62 3 76 0.67
Mathematics
Achievement
2. 1.04 5 74 0.40
Motivation
3. Self confidence 1.55 5 74 0.19
4. Learning style 0.76 7 72 0.62
The table 4.1 shows the results of Levene's test for testing the assumption of
homogeneity of variance which is the basic assumption of applying ANCOVA. It may be
observed from the table 4.1 that all the values indicated in the Levene's statistical table
4.1 turned out to be greater than 0.5 (therefore not significant); indicating that the
assumption of homogeneity of variance was not violated in the present study.

Mean, Standard Deviation, Correlated t-test, One-way ANCOVA and Two-way


ANCOVA was employed to achieve the objectives of the study. The results of analysis
of data are presented below:

4.2 EFFECTIVENESS OF E-CONTENT ON THE BASIS OF


MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT
The second objective was to compare mean score of mathematics achievement
of pre and post stages of the experimental group. For achieving this objective, use of
correlated t-test was made. The table 4.2 shows the means and SDs of pre-test and
post-test achievement in mathematics scores of elementary school students in the
experimental and control group.
Table 4.2

Means and SDs of the Pre-test and Post-test Achievement in Mathematics Scores
of Elementary School Students in Experimental and Control Groups
Experimental Group Control Group
Stage
N Mean SD N Mean SD
Pre-test 40 47.20 8.47 40 44.65 7.81
Post-test 40 60.43 6.74 40 49.10 7.66

It may be observed from the table 4.2 that the mean achievement in mathematics
scores for the elementary school students in the experimental group at the pre-test and
post-test stages are 47.20 and 60.43 with SD of 8.47 and 6.74 respectively. Similarly,
the mean achievement in mathematics scores for the control group at the pre-test and
109
post-test stages are 44.65 and 49.10 respectively with SD 7.81 and 7.66 respectively.
The data were analyzed with the help of correlated t-test. The results are given in table
4.3.
Table 4.3
Comparison of Mathematics Achievement of Elementary School Students in the
Experimental Group at the Pre-test and Post-test Stages
Correlated
Testing N Mean SD
t-value
Pre-test 40 47.20 8.47
21.31**
Post-test 40 60.43 6.74
*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01
From table 4.3, it is evident that the correlated t-value is 21.31 which is significant
at 0.01 level. It reflects that the mean scores of mathematics achievement at pre-test
and post-test stages of e-Content group differ significantly. Thus, the null hypothesis,
namely, there is no significant difference between mean scores of mathematics
achievement at pre-test and post-test stages of e-Content group is rejected. Further, the
mean score of mathematics achievement at post-test stage is 60.43 which is
significantly higher than the mean score of mathematics achievement at pre-test stage
which is 47.20. It may, therefore, be concluded that the teaching mathematics through
e-Content significantly enhanced mathematics achievement of students.
The treatment is effective as the same is evident also from the figure 4.1 that the
overall scores of experimental group increased from 47.2 to 60.4 as there is
comparatively negligible change in the control group from 44.65 to 49.1 in the post-test
stage.
4.3 COMPARISON OF ADJUSTED MEAN SCORES OF
MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT OF E-CONTENT GROUP &
CONVENTIONAL METHOD GROUP WHEN PRE-MATHEMATICS
ACHIEVEMENT CONSIDERED AS COVARIATE
The third objective was to compare adjusted mean score of mathematics
achievement of e-Content group and conventional method group by considering Pre-
mathematics achievement as covariate. The data were analyzed with the help of One
Way ANCOVA. The results are given in table 4.4.
Table 4.4

110
Summary of the Results of Analysis of Covariance for the Effect of Treatment on
Achievement in Mathematics
Source SS df MS F-value
Pre-test 3322.243 1 3322.243 345.17**
Treatment 1338.607 1 1338.607 139.08**
Error 741.132 77 9.625
Total 6195.487 79
*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01
From the table 4.4, it is evident that the adjusted F-value for the effect of
treatment on the achievement in mathematics is 139.08 which is significant at 0.01
level. It shows that the adjusted mean score of mathematics achievement of students
taught mathematics through e-Content and those taught the same topics through
conventional method differ significantly when Pre-mathematics achievement was taken
as a covariate. Thus, the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in
adjusted mean scores of mathematics achievement of e-Content group and
Conventional group when Pre-mathematics achievement is taken as covariate is
rejected. The adjusted means of achievement in mathematics of experimental and
control groups along with pre-test and post-test mean scores are presented in the table
4.5.
Table 4.5
Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores of Elementary School Students of
Experimental and Control Groups and t-value
Pre-test Post-test Adjusted Mean
Group N t-value
(Mx) (My) (Myx)
Experimental 40 47.20 60.43 59.40
Control 40 44.65 49.10 51.12 5.13**
General Means 45.93 54.77 55.26
*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01
It may be observed from the table 4.5 that the adjusted mean mathematics
achievement scores for the e-Content group and conventional method group are 59.40
and 51.12 respectively. Further, the t-value testing the significance of mean difference in
the adjusted mean scores of the experimental and control group came out to be 5.13
which is significant at .01 level. It may, therefore, be said that the teaching mathematics
through e-Content strategy was found to significant enhance mathematics achievement
in comparison to conventional method when groups were matched on Pre-mathematics
achievement.

111
Figure 4.1: Comparison of Pre-test, Post-test and Adjusted Mean of Achievement
in Mathematics Scores of Experimental Group and Control Group

4.4 EFFECT OF TREATMENT, GENDER AND THEIR INTERACTION


ON MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT WHEN PRE–MATHEMATICS
ACHIEVEMENT CONSIDERED AS COVARIATE
The fourth objective was to study the effect of treatment, Gender and their
interaction on mathematics achievement by considering Pre-mathematics achievement
as covariate. There were two levels of treatment, namely, e-Content and conventional
method. The data were analyzed with the help of 2x2 Factorial Design ANCOVA. The
results are given in table 4.6
Table 4.6
Summary of Analysis of Covariance of Interaction Effect of
Treatment x Gender for Achievement in Mathematics
Source SS df MS F-value
Pre-test 3189.805 1 3189.805 325.67**
Treatment 1341.168 1 1341.168 136.93**
Gender 1.411 1 1.411 0.15
Treatment x Gender 5.301 1 5.301 0.54
Error 734.598 75 9.795
Total 6195.487 79
*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01

112
4.4.1 Effect of Treatment on Mathematics Achievement
From table 4.6, it is evident that the adjusted F-value for the main effect of
treatment on the mathematics achievement came out to be 136.93 which is significant
at 0.01 level. It shows that the adjusted mean score of mathematics achievement of
students taught mathematics through e-Content and those taught the same topics
through conventional method differ significantly when groups were matched with
respect to Pre-mathematics achievement. Thus, the null hypothesis that there is no
significant effect of treatment on mathematics achievement of students when groups
were matched with respect to Pre-mathematics achievement is rejected. It may,
therefore, be said that the e-Content was found to improve mathematics achievement
significantly higher in comparison to conventional method when groups were matched
on Pre- mathematics achievement.
4.4.2 Effect of Gender on Mathematics Achievement

From table 4.6, it is evident that the adjusted F-value for the main effect of
gender on mathematics achievement turned out to be 0.15 which is not significant even
at .05 level. It indicates that the adjusted mean scores of mathematics achievement of
males and females did not differ significantly when Pre-mathematics achievement was
considered as covariate. So, there was no significant effect of gender on mathematics
achievement when groups were matched with respect to Pre-mathematics
achievement. In this context, the null hypothesis that there is no significant effect of
gender on mathematics achievement of students when groups were matched with
respect to pre-mathematics achievement is accepted. It may, therefore, be said that
both male and female students do not differ significantly on mathematics achievement
when groups were matched in respect of Pre-mathematics achievement.
4.4.3 Effect of Interaction between treatment and Gender on Mathematics
Achievement
It may be seen from the table 4.6 that the adjusted F-value for interaction
between treatment and gender turned out to be 0.55 which is not significant even at .05
level when Pre-mathematics achievement was taken as covariate. It indicates that there
was no significant interaction effect of treatment and gender on mathematics
achievement when Pre-mathematics achievement was taken as covariate. Thus, the
null hypothesis that there is no significant effect of interaction between treatment and
gender on mathematics achievement when pre-mathematics achievement was taken as
113
covariate is accepted. It may, therefore, be said that gender may not be kept in mind
while selecting the strategy of teaching mathematics when groups were matched with
respect to pre- achievement in mathematics as both male and female students were
found to have mathematics achievement to the same extent when groups were
matched in respect of pre-mathematics achievement.
The table 4.7 shows the adjusted mean achievement in mathematics scores of
male and female elementary school students in the experimental and control groups.
Table 4.7
Adjusted Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores of Elementary School
Students for Treatment x Gender
Adjusted
Gender Group N SD t-value
Mean
Experimental 24 59.08 6.50
Male 3.71**
Control 21 51.25 7.64
Experimental 16 59.88 6.92
Female 3.56**
Control 19 51.00 7.70
*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01
It may be observed from the table 4.7 that the adjusted mean achievement in
mathematics scores of the male students of the experimental and control groups are
59.08 and 51.25 with SD of 6.50 and 7.64 respectively. The t-value testing the
significance of mean difference came out to be 3.71 which is significant at .01 level . It
indicates that there is a significant difference in adjusted mean mathematics
achievement scores of male students of experimental and control groups. Further, the
perusal of table 4.7 indicates that the adjusted mean mathematics achievement scores
of female students of the experimental and control group are 59.88 and 51.00 with SD
of 6.92 and 7.70 respectively. The t-value testing the significance of mean difference
turned out to be 3.56 which is significant at .01 level indicating that there is a significant
difference in the adjusted mean mathematics achievement scores female students of
the experimental and control groups of students.
It may be concluded that there is significant difference in the adjusted mean
scores of achievement in mathematics of experimental and control groups across
gender.

114
Figure 4.2: Comparison of Adjusted Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores of
Elementary School Students for Treatment x Gender

4.5 EFFECT OF TREATMENT, ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION AND


THEIR INTERACTION ON MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT WHEN
PRE-MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT CONSIDERED AS
COVARIATE
The fifth objective was to study the effect of treatment, achievement motivation
and their interaction on mathematics achievement by considering pre-mathematics
achievement as covariate. There were two levels of treatment, namely, e-Content and
conventional method. Achievement motivation was considered at three levels i.e. high,
average and low. The data were analyzed with the help of 2X3 Factorial Design
ANCOVA. The results are given in table 4.8.
Table 4.8

Summary of Analysis of Covariance of Interaction Effect of


Treatment x Achievement Motivation for Achievement in Mathematics
Source SS df MS F-value
Pre-test 751.67 1 751.67 83.57**
Treatment 1320.66 1 1320.66 146.82**
Achievement Motivation 43.51 2 21.76 2.42*
Treatment x Achievement
42.974 2 21.487 2.39*
Motivation
115
Error 656.633 73 8.995
Total 6195.487 79
*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01
4.5.1 Effect of Treatment on Mathematics Achievement
From table 4.8, it is evident that the adjusted F-value for the main effect of
treatment on mathematics achievement came out to be 146.82 which is significant at
0.01 level. It shows that the adjusted mean score of mathematics achievement of
students taught mathematics through e-Content and those taught the same topics
through conventional method differ significantly when groups were matched with
respect to Pre-mathematics achievement. Thus, the null hypothesis that there is no
significant effect of treatment on mathematics achievement of students when groups
were matched with respect to pre-mathematics achievement is rejected. It may,
therefore, be said that the e-Content was found to significantly enhance the
mathematics achievement of elementary school students in comparison to conventional
method when groups were matched on Pre-mathematics achievement.
4.5.2 Effect of Achievement Motivation on Mathematics Achievement
From table 4.8, it is evident that the adjusted F-value for the main effect of
achievement motivation is 2.42 which is significant at 0.05 level. It shows that the
adjusted mean score of mathematics achievement of elementary school students
belonging to high, average and low levels of achievement motivation differed
significantly when Pre-mathematics achievement was considered as covariate. So there
was a significant effect of achievement motivation on mathematics achievement of
elementary school students when groups were matched with respect to Pre-
mathematics achievement. In this context, the null hypothesis that there is no significant
effect of achievement motivation on mathematics achievement of students when groups
were matched with respect to Pre-mathematics achievement is rejected. It may,
therefore, be said that students belonging to high, average and low levels of
achievement motivation were found to be significantly different on mathematics
achievement when groups were matched in respect of pre-mathematics achievement.
4.5.3 Effect of Interaction between Treatment and Achievement Motivation on
Mathematics Achievement
From table 4.8, it is evident that the adjusted F-value for interaction effect of
treatment and achievement motivation on mathematics achievement turned out to be
2.39 which is significant at .05 level. It indicates that there is a significant effect of

116
Interaction between treatment and achievement motivation on mathematics
achievement of elementary school students when Pre-mathematics achievement was
taken as covariate. Thus, the null hypothesis that there is no significant effect of
interaction between treatment and achievement motivation on mathematics
achievement when Pre-mathematics achievement was taken as covariate is rejected.
The table 4.9 shows the adjusted means of mathematics achievement of
elementary school students across high, average and low levels of achievement
motivation.
Table 4.9
Adjusted Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores across three Levels of
Achievement Motivation

Level of Achievement Adjusted


N SD t-value
Motivation Mean
High (1) 21 58.19 6.27 1 vs 2 1.33
Average (2) 37 54.98 6.00
2 vs 3 0.54
Low (3) 22 53.03 7.32
3 vs 1 2.48*
*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01
It may be observed from the table 4.9 that the adjusted mean scores of
mathematics achievement of elementary school students across high, average and low
levels of achievement motivation came out to be 58.19, 54.98 and 53.03 respectively.
Further, the t-values testing the significance of mean differences across high and
average levels of achievement motivation came out to be 1.33 which is not significant
even at .05 level showing that there is no significant difference in adjusted mean
mathematics achievement of elementary school students across high and average
levels of achievement motivation.
Also, the t-values testing the significance of mean differences across average
and low levels of achievement motivation came out to be 0.54 and 2.48 which is not
significant even at .05 level showing that there is no significant difference in adjusted
mean mathematics achievement of elementary school students across average and low
levels of mathematics achievement motivation.

117
Figure 4.3: Adjusted Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores across three
levels of Achievement Motivation
The table 4.10 shows the adjusted mean achievement in mathematics scores of
elementary school students in the experimental and control group across high, average
and low levels of achievement motivation.
Table 4.10
Adjusted Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores of Elementary School
Students for Treatment x Achievement Motivation

Level of Achievement Adjusted


Group N SD t-value
Motivation Mean
Experimental 12 61.01 3.10
High 4.63**
Control 9 53.36 4.48
Experimental 18 58.66 3.80
Average 4.76**
Control 19 51.30 5.41
Experimental 10 59.41 4.79
Low 5.83**
Control 12 48.66 3.86
*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01

The table 4.10 shows the t-values testing the significance of mean differences in
the adjusted mean mathematics achievement scores elementary school students with
high achievement motivation in the experimental and control groups. It may further be

118
noted from the table 4.10 that the adjusted mean scores for the elementary school
students with high achievement motivation in the experimental and control groups are
61.01 and 53.36 with SD of 3.10 and 4.48 respectively. The t-value testing the
significance of mean difference in adjusted mean scores of mathematics achievement
of high achievement motivation group of elementary school students in the experimental
and control group came out to be 4.63 which is significant at .01 level.
It may also be seen from the table 4.10 that the adjusted mean scores for the
elementary school students with average achievement motivation in the experimental
and control groups are 58.66 and 51.30 with SD of 3.80 and 5.41 respectively. The t-
value testing the significance of mean difference in adjusted mean scores of
mathematics achievement of average achievement motivation group of elementary
school students in the experimental and control group came out to be 4.76 which is
significant at .01 level.
The perusal of the table 4.10 further reveals that the adjusted mean scores for
the elementary school students with low achievement motivation in the experimental
and control groups are 59.41 and 48.66 with SD of 4.79 and 3.86 respectively. The t-
value testing the significance of mean difference in adjusted mean scores of
mathematics achievement of low achievement motivation group of elementary school
students in the experimental and control group came out to be 5.83 which is significant
at .01 level.
It may thus be concluded that there is significant difference in the adjusted mean
scores of achievement in mathematics of the experimental and control group across
high, average and low levels of achievement motivation.

119
Figure 4.4: Adjusted Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores of Elementary
School Students for Treatment x Achievement Motivation

4.6 EFFECT OF TREATMENT, LEARNING STYLE AND THEIR


INTERACTION ON MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT WHEN PRE-
MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT CONSIDERED AS COVARIATE

The sixth objective was to study the effect of treatment, learning style and their
interaction on mathematics achievement by considering Pre-mathematics achievement
as covariate. There were two levels of treatment, namely, e-Content and conventional
method. Theorist, reflectors, activist and pragmatist were four levels of learning styles.
The data were analyzed with the help of 2x4 factorial design ANCOVA. The results are
given in table 4.11.
Table 4.11

Summary of Analysis of Covariance of Interaction Effect of Treatment x Learning


Style for Achievement in Mathematics
(2x4 Factorial Design)

Source SS df MS F-value
120
Pre-test 1752.951 1 1752.951 186.94**
Treatment 801.562 1 801.562 85.48**
Learning Style 44.131 3 14.710 1.57
Treatment x Learning
22.482 3 7.494 .80
Style
Error 665.767 71 9.377
Total 6195.487 79
*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01

4.6.1 Effect of Treatment on Mathematics Achievement


From table 4.11, it is evident that the adjusted F-value for the main effect of
treatment came out to be 85.48 which is significant at 0.01 level. It shows that the
adjusted mean score of achievement in mathematics of students taught mathematics
through e-Content and those taught the same topics through conventional strategy differ
significantly when groups were matched with respect to Pre-achievement in
mathematics. Thus, the null hypothesis that there is no significant effect of treatment on
achievement in mathematics of students when groups were matched with respect to
Pre-achievement in mathematics is rejected. It may, therefore, be said that e-Content
was found to improve achievement in mathematics significantly higher in comparison to
conventional strategy when groups were matched on pre-achievement in mathematics.
4.6.2 Effect of Learning Style on Mathematics Achievement
It may be observed from the table 4.11 that the adjusted F-value for the main
effect of learning style is 1.57 which is not significant even at 0.05 level. It shows that
the adjusted mean score of achievement in mathematics of students belonging to
different learning styles do not differ significantly when pre-achievement in mathematics
was considered as covariate. So, there was no significant effect of learning style on
achievement in mathematics of students when matched with respect to pre-
achievement in mathematics. In this context, the null hypothesis that there is no
significant effect of learning style on achievement in mathematics of students when
groups were matched with respect of Pre-achievement in mathematics is accepted. It
may, therefore, be said that learning style may not be kept in mind while selecting the
method of teaching mathematics if the groups are matched with respect of pre-
achievement in mathematics.
4.6.3 Effects of Interaction between Treatment and Learning Style on Mathematics
Achievement

121
The table 4.11 depicts that the adjusted F-value for interaction between treatment
and learning style is 0.23 which is not significant when pre-achievement in mathematics
was taken as covariate. It indicates that there was no significant effect of Interaction
between treatment and learning style on achievement in mathematics when pre-
achievement in mathematics was taken as covariate. Thus, the null hypothesis that
there is no significant effect of interaction between treatment and learning style on
achievement in mathematics when pre-achievement in mathematics was taken as
covariate is accepted. It may, therefore, be said that learning style may not be kept in
mind while selecting the method of teaching mathematics if the groups are matched
with respect of pre-achievement in mathematics.
The table 4.12 shows the adjusted mean achievement in mathematics scores of
elementary school students in the experimental and control group across four different
types of learning styles viz. activist, reflector, theorist and pragmatist.
Table 4.12
Adjusted Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores of Elementary School
Students for Treatment x Learning Style
Type of Adjusted
Group N SD t-value
Learning Style Mean
Experimental 7 62.87 3.95
Activist
Control 4 52.88 2.83 4.10**
Experimental 11 59.25 5.46
Reflector
Control 12 50.92 5.73 3.56**
Experimental 18 58.32 5.04
Theorist
Control 20 51.20 7.37 3.43**
Experimental 4 57.26 6.88
Pragmatist
Control 4 50.94 3.51 1.64
*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01
The table 4.12 shows the t-values testing the significance of mean differences in
the adjusted mean mathematics achievement scores of elementary school students
across different learning styles in the experimental and control groups. It may further be
noted from the table 4.12 that the adjusted mean scores for the elementary school
students with activist learning style in the experimental and control groups are 62.87
and 52.88 with SD of 3.95 and 2.83 respectively. The t-value testing the significance of
mean difference in adjusted mean scores of mathematics achievement of elementary

122
school students with activist learning style in the experimental and control group came
out to be 4.10 which is significant at .01 level.
It may further be noted from the table 4.12 that the adjusted mean scores for the
elementary school students with reflector learning style in the experimental and control
groups are 59.25 and 50.22 with SD of 5.46 and 5.73 respectively. The t-value testing
the significance of mean difference in adjusted mean scores of mathematics
achievement of elementary school students with reflector learning style in the
experimental and control group came out to be 3.56 which is significant at .01 level.
Also, the table 4.12 reveals that the adjusted mean scores for the elementary
school students with theorist learning style in the experimental and control groups are
58.32 and 51.20 with SD of 5.04 and 7.37 respectively. The t-value testing the
significance of mean difference in adjusted mean scores of mathematics achievement
of elementary school students with theorist learning style in the experimental and
control group came out to be 3.43 which is significant at .01 level.
The table 4.12 shows that the adjusted mean scores for the elementary school
students with pragmatist learning style in the experimental and control groups are 57.26
and 50.94 with SD of 6.88 and 3.51 respectively. The t-value testing the significance of
mean difference in adjusted mean scores of mathematics achievement of elementary
school students with activist learning style in the experimental and control group came
out to be 1.64 which is not significant even at .05 level.
It may be concluded that there are significant differences in the adjusted mean
mathematics achievement scores of elementary school students with activist, theorist
and reflector learning styles in the experimental and control groups. However, no
significant differences were found in the adjusted mean mathematics achievement
scores of elementary school students with pragmatist learning style in the experimental
and control groups.

123
Figure 4.5: Adjusted Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores of Elementary
School Students for Treatment x Learning Style

4.7 EFFECT OF TREATMENT, SELF-CONFIDENCE AND THEIR


INTERACTION ON MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT WHEN PRE-
MATHEMATICS ACHIEVEMENT CONSIDERED AS COVARIATE

The seventh objective was to study the effect of treatment, self-confidence and
their interaction on mathematics achievement by considering Pre-mathematics
achievement as covariate. There were two levels of treatment, namely, e-Content and
conventional method. There were three levels of self-confidence namely high, average
and low. The data were analyzed with the help of 2X3 factorial design ANCOVA. The
results are given in table 4.13.
Table 4.13
Summary of Analysis of Covariance of Interaction Effect of
Treatment x Self-confidence for Achievement in Mathematics
(2x3 Factorial Design)
Source SS df MS F-value
Pre-test 1065.18 1 1065.18 118.03**
124
Treatment 1294.55 1 1294.55 143.44**
Self Confidence 1.97 2 0.99 0.11
Treatment x Self
74.95 2 37.48 4.15**
Confidence
Error 658.818 73 9.025
Total 6195.487 79
*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01
4.7.1 Effect of Treatment on Mathematics Achievement

The table 4.13 shows that the adjusted F-value for the main effect of treatment
on mathematics achievement is 143.44 which is significant at 0.01 level. It shows that
the adjusted mean score of achievement in mathematics of students taught
mathematics through e-Content and those taught the same topics through conventional
strategy differ significantly when groups were matched with respect to pre-achievement
in mathematics. Thus, the null hypothesis that there is no significant effect of treatment
on achievement in mathematics of students when groups were matched with respect to
pre-achievement in mathematics is rejected. It may, therefore, be said that the e-
Content was found to improve achievement in mathematics significantly higher in
comparison conventional strategy when groups were matched on pre-achievement in
mathematics.
4.7.2 Effect of Self-confidence on Mathematics Achievement
It is evident from table 4.13 that the adjusted F-value for the main effect of self-
confidence is 0.11 which is not significant even at .05 level. It shows that the adjusted
mean score of achievement in mathematics of elementary school students belonging to
high, average and low levels of self-confidence do not differ significantly when pre-
achievement in mathematics was considered as covariate. So there is no significant
effect of self-confidence on achievement in mathematics of elementary school students
when groups were matched with respect of pre-achievement in mathematics. In this
context, the null hypothesis that there is no significant effect of self-confidence on
achievement in mathematics of elementary school students when groups were matched
with respect to pre-achievement in mathematics is accepted. It may, therefore, be said
that no significant difference in achievement in mathematics was found among

125
elementary school students belonging to high, average and low self-confidence groups
when pre-achievement in mathematics was taken as a covariate.
4.7.3 Effect of Interaction between Treatment and Self-confidence on Mathematics
Achievement
The table 4.13 depicts that the adjusted F-value for the interaction effect of
treatment and self-confidence is 4.15 which is significant at .01 level when pre-
achievement in mathematics was taken as covariate.
It indicates that there is significant interaction effect of treatment and self-
confidence on achievement in mathematics when pre-achievement in mathematics was
taken as covariate. Thus, the null hypothesis that there is no significant effect of
interaction between treatment and self-confidence on achievement in mathematics
when pre-achievement in mathematics was taken as covariate is rejected. It may be
inferred that there is significant difference in achievement in mathematics of
experimental and control groups of elementary school students across high, average
and low levels of self-confidence.
The table 4.14 shows the adjusted mean achievement in mathematics scores of
elementary school students in the experimental and control group across high, average
and low levels of self confidence. The perusal of the table 4.14 reveals that the adjusted
mean scores for the elementary school students with high self confidence in the
experimental and control groups are 60.79 and 52.69 with SD of 3.94 and 3.60
respectively. The t-value testing the significance of mean difference in the adjusted
mean scores of mathematics achievement of high self confidence group of elementary
school students in the experimental and control group came out to be 4.90 which is
significant at .01 level.
Table 4.14
Adjusted Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores of Elementary School
Students for Treatment x Self confidence
Level of Self Adjusted
Group N SD t-value
confidence Mean
Experimental 9 60.79 3.94
High
Control 12 52.69 3.60 4.90**
Experimental 19 59.23 5.21
Average
Control 17 51.22 6.51 4.10**
Experimental 12 58.70 3.87
Low
Control 11 49.49 3.53 5.94**
126
*p≤0.05; **p≤0.01
It may also be seen from the table 4.14 that the adjusted mean scores for the
elementary school students with average self confidence in the experimental and
control groups are 59.23 and 51.22 with SD of 5.21 and 6.51 respectively. The t-value
testing the significance of mean difference in the adjusted mean scores of mathematics
achievement of average self confidence group of elementary school students in the
experimental and control group came out to be 4.10 which is significant at .01 level.
The table 4.14 shows that the adjusted mean scores for the elementary school
students with low self confidence in the experimental and control groups are 58.70 and
49.49 with SD of 3.87 and 3.53 respectively. The t-value testing the significance of
mean difference in the adjusted mean scores of mathematics achievement of low self
confidence group of elementary school students in the experimental and control group
came out to be 5.94 which is significant at .01 level.
It indicates that there are there are significance differences in the adjusted mean
achievement in mathematics scores of elementary school students in the experimental
and control group across high, average and low levels of self confidence.

Figure 4.6: Adjusted Mean Achievement in Mathematics Scores of Elementary


School Students for Treatment x Self confidence

4.8 TESTING OF HYPOTHESES


127
Taking into consideration the outcomes after data analysis, as reported in the
proceeding sections, the hypotheses were tested and interpretations are made here
under:
1. The findings of the study revealed that the mean scores of mathematics
achievement of elementary school students at pre-test and post-test stages of e-
Content group differ significantly. Hence, the first hypothesis “There is no
significant difference between mean mathematics achievement score of
elementary school students at pre and post stages of the experimental group” is
rejected.
2. The findings of the study revealed that the adjusted mean score of mathematics
achievement of students taught mathematics through e-Content and those taught
the same topics through conventional method differ significantly when groups
were matched with respect to Pre-mathematics achievement. Hence, the second
hypothesis, “There is no significant difference between adjusted mean
mathematics achievement score of the e-Content group and conventional
method group by considering pre-test mathematics achievement score as
covariate” is rejected.
3. The findings of the study revealed that there was no significant effect of
interaction between treatment and gender on mathematics achievement when
Pre-mathematics achievement was taken as covariate. It may, therefore, be said
that gender may not be kept in mind while selecting the strategy of teaching
mathematics when groups were matched with respect to pre-achievement in
mathematics as both male and female students were found to have mathematics
achievement to the same extent when groups were matched in respect of
mathematics achievement. Hence, the third hypothesis, “There is no significant
effect of treatment, gender and their interaction on mathematics achievement by
considering pre-test mathematics achievement score as covariate” is accepted.
4. The findings of the study revealed that there was significant effect of Interaction
between treatment and achievement motivation on mathematics achievement
when Pre-mathematics achievement was taken as covariate. It may, therefore,
be said that elementary school students in experimental and control groups
across high, average and low levels of achievement motivation were found to be
significantly different in mathematics achievement when groups were matched in
respect of pre-mathematics achievement. Hence, the fourth hypothesis, “There is
128
no significant effect of treatment, achievement motivation and their interaction on
mathematics achievement by considering pre-test mathematics achievement
score as covariate” is rejected.
5. The findings of the study revealed that there was no significant effect of
Interaction between treatment and learning style on achievement in mathematics
when pre-achievement in mathematics was taken as covariate. Hence, the fifth
hypothesis, “There is no significant effect of treatment, Learning Style and their
interaction on mathematics achievement by considering pre-test mathematics
achievement score as covariate” is accepted.
6. The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant effect of interaction
between treatment and self-confidence on achievement in mathematics when
pre-achievement in mathematics was taken as covariate. It may, therefore, be
said that there is a significant difference in achievement in mathematics in
experimental and control groups of elementary school students across high,
average and low levels of self-confidence when groups were matched in respect
of Pre mathematics achievement. Hence, the sixth hypothesis, “There is no
significant effect of treatment, self confidence and their interaction on
mathematics achievement by considering pre-test mathematics achievement
score as covariate” is rejected.
4.9 DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS
The purpose of the study was to compare student learning of general
mathematics through the two strategies of Instructions i.e. e-Content strategy and
conventional strategy of teaching. Two groups matched by their pre-achievement in
mathematics were randomly assigned to control and experimental group to teach
through the conventional strategy and e-Content strategy respectively. Student learning
was measured in terms of scores on post achievement test. Findings of the experiment
revealed that student of the e-Content group outperformed the matched students of the
conventional strategy group. Students who taught mathematics through e-Content
strategy learned more than those who taught through Conventional strategy of teaching.
The present study showed that the e-Content improve achievement in
mathematics significantly higher in comparison to Conventional strategy when groups
were matched on pre-achievement in mathematics. The findings of the study supported
by the previous studies in which students learned academic material/subjects using
multimedia program performed significantly better than those taught using conventional
129
strategy. Panda and Chaudhary (2000) observed that computer assisted learning was
very effective in achieving higher cognitive skills among students. Also, Sharma and
Sansanwal (2002) found that video based instructional strategies for teaching science
were effective on achievement in Science of class IX students. In addition, these
findings are consistent with Jayaraman (2006) & Nimavathi and Gnanadevan (2008)
who found that the computer based multimedia learning packages were effective on
performance, behavioral outcomes and understanding of academic material for students
at different age groups. Also, Jyothi (2007) claimed that computer based learning had a
significantly better effect than traditional instruction on learning. The findings from the
present study are also in agreement with the research by Kavitha and Sundharavadivel
(2012) indicated that e-learning students performed better than the traditional learning
students in their post-test total mean scores and there is a significant difference
between e-learning and Traditional learning methods. Rohendi (2012) found that e-
learning which was based on animation content not only had significant effect on
mathematical connection abilities but also been able to improve students’ mathematical
connection abilities far better than that of conventional approach.
Also, Owino (2013) and Robert (2013) found e-Content learning package in
mathematics Education for the prospective teachers to be more effective than traditional
method of teaching. In addition, these findings are consistent with Jaleel (2015), who
showed that the e-Content in mathematics is effective over activity oriented method on
developing Mathematical Thinking of Students at Secondary level. The research by
Singh (2015) suggested that e-Content can be used to teach Environmental
Management to undergraduate students as it is helpful in enhancing the knowledge as
well as making the attitude favorable. Similarly, Amutha (2016) also found that e-
Content strategy enhances the achievement of the students at tertiary level. In addition,
the results of the present study are also in consistent with the results of the research by
Jasmin (2017) who established the effectiveness of the e-Content learning package in
learning Tamil subject for students who are studying in English medium
schools.Researcher gives the fact that the e-Content strategy has promoted learning
because it encourages students to take an active role in the learning process and have
a better control over their education. Muthukumari and Ramakrishnan (2017) concluded
that use of e-Content way of teaching has significant impact on enhancing the
achievement in history among the IX standard elementary school students. Further,
Mishra et al. (2017) also concluded that e-Content proves to be is very useful tool for
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teaching green consumerism at secondary level. On the contrary, Lin et al. (2014)
reported that e-learning strategy is not different from the traditional learning method in
terms of achievement in accounting for freshman students in college.
The findings of present study showed no significant effect of gender and their
interaction on achievement in mathematics when groups were matched with respect to
their pre-achievement in mathematics which is in agreement with the findings of the
research by Rose and Stella (1992) found that there was no significant relationship
between the post treatment scores of gender and achievement. Similarly,
Rajaswaminathan (1998) also found no interaction between treatment and gender in his
study on the impact of multi-media package on the teaching of commerce with
reference to select variables.
In the present study, a significant effect of achievement motivation on
mathematics achievement of students was found when groups were matched with
respect to Pre-mathematics achievement which is in agreement with the findings of the
various researches such as by Wong and Mihaly (1990) explored the effect of
personality and the quality of experience on motivation and academic achievement and
indicated that intrinsic motivation had positive relationship with academic achievement.
In addition to these, Zyoud (1999) found that when the computer is used to its full
potential, it can help the students achieve more in learning vocabulary, grammar and
comprehension to the learners with different IQ, achievement motivation and attitude. It
helps the students learn better because it provides them with a lot of freedom and
responsibility to learn at their own pace. Also, Kumar (2004) found significant difference
in achievement scores of +1 student before and after teaching them chemistry with
teaching aids. Sharma, Brajesh, Subramania (2006) found a significant positive
relationship between achievement motivation and achievement in mathematics.
Sumerson, Joanne and Farley (2007) & Tella (2007) indicated that motivation was
significantly and positively related to academic achievement of secondary elementary
school students. Also, Majzub and Yusuf (2010) found positive and significant
relationship between achievement motivation and the self-learning strategies. Also, Lin
et al. (2014) found e-learning strategy is superior to the traditional learning method in
terms of learning motivation.
In the present study, significant effect of learning style on achievement in
mathematics and no interaction between treatment and learning style of students was
found when groups were matched with respect to Pre-achievement in mathematics.
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Similar to these findings, Hajizainuddin (1999) & Kadhiravan (1999) found no significant
relationship between the information-processing characteristics of learning style and
performance and self-regulated learning strategies. Sansanwal (2002) concluded that
learning style does not significantly influence a subject’s learning. In addition to these,
Farkas (2003) found experimental group showed more positive attitudes toward
learning, more understanding of people’s feelings, and an increased ability to transfer
what they had learned from one area to another.
In the present study, a significant effect of Self-confidence on mathematics
achievements and no interaction between treatment and self-confidence was found
when groups were matched with respect to pre-achievement in mathematics which is in
agreement with the findings of the research by Tavani and Losh (2003) explored that
the students belonging to both above average Self- confidence group as well as below
average self-confidence group benefited significantly more through the e-Content than
the conventional strategy. In case of e-Content group, students belonging to above
average Self-confidence group were found to benefit more than those belonging to
below average self-confidence group. In addition to this, Yusuf (2011) indicated that
there was a considerable relationship between self-confidence and achievement
motivation along with self-regulated learning strategies of the undergraduate students.

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS
AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
5.1 SUMMARY
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Technological development and the internet have changed people’s lives on
different scales including for instance teaching and learning. The web has become one
of the channels of learning that opens the door for people around the world to access
education for free, or for fewer costs. Some of the most important developments in
education have happened since the launch of the internet. These days’ learners are well
versed in the use of smart phones, text messaging and using the internet so
participating in and running an online course has become a simple affair. Message
boards, social media and various other means of online communication allow learners
to keep in touch and discuss course related matters, whilst providing for a sense of
community. In the fast-paced world of e-learning the available technologies to make a
course new and exciting are always changing, and course content can and should be
updated quickly to give students the very latest information.
In the age of cyberspace in the twenty-first century, calculation, composition and
communication on paper alone is a fractional, impoverished and increasingly outdated
concept and practice for thinking and communication. To build on the accomplishments
of paper technology, a digital infrastructure must be in place. At present, e-Content is
entering into almost all subjects in the field of education. It is supposed to be used as a
tool where and when considered useful. By integrating e-Content into standard learning
material, by offering e-Content module cases and by integrating the use of e-Content in
the different subject areas, different types of actions are taken or planned, to make sure
that e-Content will be real part of the curriculum by supporting software development. If
we are to cope with the various challenges of the swiftly changing society/ environment
and make use of new opportunities offered by e-Content, plans have to be realized
giving learners, teachers and educators access to necessary equipments. The most
important competence building in this field is the development of pedagogical methods.
That can happen only when long-standing competence programmes can work along
with real-life experience, where educators, teachers and learners are using e-Content in
their day to day life and daily learning experiences. Use of e-Content encourages self-
expression and discovery by means of its interactive non-linear access of information.
Students will be more motivated to learn since a multimedia lesson can provide near-
reality information through its variety of available media elements (text, audio, video and
animation). The learners may learn by using their multiple senses, which provides
innovative, new and enriched experiences. The learning process will be an active one,
leaving the learners to learn by their own. From the review of related literature related to
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the effectiveness of e-Content, it was concluded that e-Content strategy has improved
the academic achievement of the students significantly higher in comparison to
conventional strategy (Rose and Stella, 1992; Proctor and Richardson, 1995; Kumar,
1998; Yadav, 2000; Nimavathi and Gnanadevan, 2008; Hughes, 2009; Kavitha and
Sundharavadivel, 2012; Rohendi, 2012; Pio Albina, 2017; Jasmin, 2017).
In case of self-confidence, the relevant studies had shown that both above
average as well as below average self-confident students were benefited, but below
average self-confident students were benefited more through e-Content strategy (Gill,
2001; Vij 2003; Kohli, 2005; Yusuf, 2011; Robert 2013; Jaleel, 2015).
In case of learning style, different learning style interactions with e-Content
strategy were found in different studies. However, in most of the studies reflectors were
high achievers than the theorist type of learners (Kadhiravan, 1999; Assefa and Gupta,
2000; Sharma and Sansanwal, 2002; Goldberg, Russell and Cook, 2003; Liu and Lin,
2010; Singh, 2015).
In case of achievement motivation, e-Content strategy had fostered the
achievement motivation of students more as compared to conventional strategy equally
for both male as well as female students. As per the related literature, achievement
motivation is a driving force that lay direct and positive influence upon the academic
achievement of the students (Wong and Mihaly, 1990; Sidhu and Parminder, 2005;
Sharma and Subramania, 2006; Majzub, 2010; Bakhtiarvand, Sana and Kazem, 2011;
Thijs, 2011; Amutha, 2016).
The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of e-Content
strategy as compared with conventional strategy of teaching mathematics to the
students of class seventh. The purpose of the study was twofold, firstly the development
of e-Content and secondly to assess the effectiveness of such e-Content. Comparison
of e-Content strategy and conventional strategy of teaching is not only a comparison of
two modes of instruction but of two theoretical paradigms. Conventional strategy
represents a paradigm whereby knowledge is transmitted from teacher to student.
Teacher plays an active part in this mode of instruction. e-Content represents a
paradigm where knowledge is constructed and sort by the learner. Learner plays an
active role in the learning process. Learning is individualized, self-paced and hands on.
During the past 12 to 15 years, the use of computers in education has increased
dramatically and a wide range of educational computer programs are now widely
available for individual and classroom use. However, there has been very little research
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reported on the effectiveness of such use. At elementary level, the students felt very
difficult to understand the concepts in mathematics subject because the abstract
content matters are boring to the learners and induce disinterest. Abstract learning
needs more sensory integration to fix up in the long term memory. So attention needs to
be focussed on the integrative efforts of information processing approach,
transformation between short term memory and long term memory and accelerating
cognitive strategies. The use of e-Content in teaching of mathematics produces more
integrated sensory output in learning mathematics subject.

Statement of the Problem


EFFECTIVENESS OF e-CONTENT STRATEGY ON ACHIEVEMENT IN
MATHEMATICS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
Objectives of the Study
Following were the objectives of the study:
 To construct and standardize achievement test in mathematics for seventh grade
elementary school students.
 To study the achievement of elementary school students in mathematics at pre
and post test stages of the e-Content group.
 To compare the adjusted mean scores on mathematics achievement of the
elementary school students in the e-Content group and conventional strategy
group by considering pre mathematics achievement as covariate.
 To study the effect of treatment, Gender and their interaction on mathematics
achievement of elementary school students by considering pre mathematics
achievement as covariate.
 To study the effect of treatment, achievement motivation and their interaction on
mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre
mathematics achievement as covariate.
 To study the effect of treatment, learning style and their interaction on
mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre
mathematics achievement as covariate.
 To study the effect of treatment, self confidence and their interaction on
mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre
mathematics achievement as covariate.
Hypotheses of the study

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 There is no significant difference between mean mathematics achievement score
of elementary school students at pre and post stages of the experimental group.
 There is no significant difference between adjusted mean mathematics
achievement score of elementary school students in the e-Content group and
conventional method group by considering pre-test mathematics achievement
score as covariate.
 There is no significant effect of treatment, gender and their interaction on
mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre-test
mathematics achievement score as covariate.
 There is no significant effect of treatment, achievement motivation and their
interaction on mathematics achievement of elementary school students by
considering pre-test mathematics achievement score as covariate.
 There is no significant effect of treatment, learning style and their interaction on
mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre-test
mathematics achievement score as covariate.
 There is no significant effect of treatment, self confidence and their interaction on
mathematics achievement of elementary school students by considering pre-test
mathematics achievement score as covariate.
Delimitations of the Study
1. The study will be delimited to the VII class only.
2. The study will be delimited to the subject of mathematics only.
3. The study will be delimited to one Government school of UT Chandigarh only.
4. The content of class VII mathematics will be taken from the text book of
NCERT only.
Operational Definition of Terms Used
(a) e-Content Strategy:
e-Content Strategy of teaching is the strategy in which the digital contents
are presented to the learners in the integrated form of text, graphics,
animation, audio, video and also provide interactivity while in Conventional
Strategy of teaching, the teacher is the only active participant in the
teaching learning process and the students are the passive listener.
(b) Achievement in Mathematics:
Achievement in mathematics refers to accomplishment of proficiency of
performance in the subject of mathematics. It signifies successfully carried
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out performance by an individual or a group assessed after the completion
of a task. Here in this study, mathematics achievement will be considered in
terms of marks obtained by the students in mathematics achievement test at
pre and post test stages of experiment.
(c) Elementary School Students:
Elementary school students refers to the students studying in the class 1 st
to 8th. Here in this study, class 7th students will be considered as elementary
school students.
Research Design
The present study was experimental in nature. An experimental design is to
researcher what a blue print is to an architect. A well-developed design provides the
structure and strategy that controls the investigation and extracts dependable answers
to the questions raised by problem hypothesis. The investigator has employed Pre-test -
Post-test Control Group design. This is also called the Classic Controlled Experimental
design because it: Controls the assignment of subjects to experimental and control
group through the use of table of random numbers; Control all other conditions under
which the experiment takes place.
Variables of the Study
The relationship between independent and dependent variables have been
studied in this experimental research.
 Independent Variables:
The variables that were manipulated in an experimental study, whose presence
or degree determines the change in the dependent variable, are called the
independent variables. In the present study, the independent variables that
were used are e-Content strategy and conventional strategy. These two
variables were manipulated to study the affect on achievement. The control
group was taught through conventional strategy and experimental group was
taught through e-Content strategy.
 Dependent Variable:
The dependent variable or the criterion variable that was used in the study is
achievement in mathematics. This variable may also be termed as moderator
variable as they include the variable that could have a moderating affect on the
treatment. The students were scored on this variable before and after the
treatment in both groups. This variable was measured twice during the study
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i.e. first before the beginning of the treatment (pre-test stage), then after
completing the treatment (post-test stage).
 Intervening variables:
An intervening variable is a hypothetical internal state that is used to explain
relationship between observed variables, such as independent and dependent
variables. The intervening variables considered in this study were Achievement
Motivation, Learning Style and Self Confidence.
 Control Variables:
Control variables are extraneous variables that an investigator does not wish to
examine in a study. Thus the investigator controls this variable also called a
covariate. The control variables taken in the study were: nature of the school,
grade level and subject taught.
Sample of the Study
Small representative portion of population is called sample. For selecting
samples, the investigator has employed Random Sampling Technique. The present
study was conducted on a sample of 80 pupils studying in class VII of Government
Model High School Sector 26 (P.L.), UT Chandigarh. One section formed experimental
group and one section formed the controlled group.

Group Name of School Class Male Female Total

Government Model High School


Experimental VII 24 16 40
Sector 26 (P.L.), UT Chandigarh

Government Model High School


Control VII 21 19 40
Sector 26 (P.L.), UT Chandigarh

Total Sample 45 35 80

Research Tools Used


For every research problem, the investigator uses some devices to gather new
facts. The devices which the investigator uses for data collection are known as research
tools. To measure the students at Pre-test and Post-test stage, the following tools were
employed for the collection of data:
1. Reaction towards e-Content scale for teachers and students developed by
investigator to assess the usability of developed e-Content.

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2. Mathematics Achievement Test developed by investigator himself to measure
the achievement of elementary school students in mathematics.
3. The Achievement Motivation was assessed with the help of Deo-Mohan
Achievement Motivation Scale prepared by Deo and Mohan (1985).
4. The Learning Style was assessed with the help of Learning Style Inventory by
Honey and Mumford (1982).
5. The Self Confidence was assessed with the help of Self Confidence Inventory
developed by Gupta (2000).
Conduct of the Study
The experimental procedure was executed. One experimental and one control
group was formed. The e-Content group as experimental group was taught
mathematics with the supplement of e-Content, the control group was taught
mathematics through Conventional Method. The design had comprised three stages:
the first stage has involved pre-testing of all the students of two groups on the following
scale / test: (a) Mathematics Achievement Test (b) Achievement Motivation Scale (c)
Learning Style Inventory by Honey & Mumford (d) Self Confidence Inventory. The
second stage has involved treatment of two months. The experimental treatment was
consisted of teaching mathematics to VII class with e-Content to experimental and
through Conventional Method to control group. During the third stage i.e. post-test
stage, the students were post-tested on achievement in mathematics just after the
treatment so as to determine the effect of treatment.
Pre-Test:
Before the commencement of the experiment, the subjects were administered
mathematics achievement test, achievement motivation with the help of Deo-Mohan
achievement motivation scale prepared by Deo and Mohan (1985), learning style with
the help of Learning Style Inventory by Honey and Mumford (1982), self confidence with
the help of Self Confidence Inventory developed by Gupta (2000). Before administrating
the test, instructions were explained verbally to the subjects by the investigator. Both the
groups of subjects were administered their test. The administration of the test was
carried out as per norms and instructions contained in their manual. After administrating
the above test, they were scored as per the scoring procedure mentioned in the manual.
Thus, pre-test score were obtained on achievement in mathematics, achievement

139
motivation, learning style and self confidence of both groups. This all took time of three
days.
 The Treatment: To find out the efficacy of the independent variables, the
experimental variables were manipulated in the form of teaching based on e-Content
and conventional method. The experimental group was taught through e-Content and
control group was taught through conventional method. The process was carried out for
two months. Same topics were taught to both groups. The treatment was conducted by
the investigator himself in both groups so as to avoid teacher variable and maximum
precision.
 Post-Test: Immediately after the treatment was over, the subjects were
administered the post-test. The same criterion test as taken in pre-test was taken. Both
the groups of sampled students were subjected to those post-test. In this way, post-test
scores were obtained on achievement test in mathematics of both the groups.
Statistical Treatment of Data
Mean, Standard Deviation, Correlated t-test, One-way ANCOVA and Two-way
ANCOVA was employed by the SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences)
software to find out the effectiveness of e-Content strategy on achievement in
mathematics of elementary school students.
5.2 CONCLUSIONS
The purpose of the study was to compare the effect of conventional strategy
versus those of e-Content strategy on mathematics achievement of elementary school
students across gender, achievement motivation, learning style and self-confidence.
Findings of the study are presented below in relation to each objective.
1. Effectiveness of e-Content on the basis of Mathematics Achievement
It has been found that the mean score of mathematics achievement at post-test stage
was significantly higher than the mean score of mathematics achievement at Pre- test
stage of experimental group. Therefore, the e-Content was found to significantly
enhance mathematics achievement of students of e-Content group.
2. Comparison of Adjusted Mean Scores of Mathematics Achievement of e-
Content Group and Conventional method Group by Considering Pre-mathematics
Achievement as Covariate
One way ANCOVA was computed to compare adjusted mean scores of
mathematics achievement of e-Content group and conventional method group by
considering Pre-mathematics achievement as covariate. It has been found that the e-
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Content improve mathematics achievement significantly higher in comparison to
Conventional method when groups were matched on Pre-mathematics achievement.
Therefore, the e-Content was found to improve mathematics achievement significantly
higher in comparison to conventional method when groups were matched on Pre-
mathematics achievement.
3. Effect of treatment, Gender and their Interaction on Mathematics Achievement
by considering Pre-Mathematics Achievement as Covariate
The data were analyzed with the help of 2x2 factorial design ANCOVA. The
findings are as under:
a) Effect of treatment on Mathematics Achievement
It has been found that mean score of mathematics achievement at post-test
stage was significantly higher than the mean score of mathematics achievement at pre-
test stage of e-Content group. Therefore, the e-Content was found to improve
mathematics achievement significantly higher in comparison to conventional strategy
when groups were matched on Pre-mathematics achievement.

b) Effect of Gender on Mathematics Achievement


No significant effect of gender on mathematics achievement was found when
groups were matched with respect to Pre-mathematics achievement. Therefore, no
significant differences were found in mathematics achievement of male and female
elementary school students when groups were matched in respect of mathematics
achievement.
c) Effect of Interaction between treatment and Gender on Mathematics
Achievement
No significant effect of Interaction between treatment and gender was found on
mathematics achievement when Pre-mathematics achievement was taken as covariate.
Therefore, gender may not be kept in mind while selecting the strategy of teaching
mathematics when groups were matched with respect to Pre-achievement in
mathematics.
4. Effect of Treatment, Achievement Motivation and their Interaction on
Mathematics Achievement by considering Pre-mathematics Achievement as
Covariate
The data were analyzed with the help of 2x3 Factorial Design ANCOVA. The
findings are as under:

141
a) Effect of treatment on Mathematics Achievement
It has been found that mean score of mathematics achievement at post-test stage
was significantly higher than the mean score of mathematics achievement at pre-test
stage of e-Content group. Therefore, the e-Content was found to improve mathematics
achievement significantly higher in comparison to conventional strategy when groups
were matched on Pre-mathematics achievement.
b) Effect of Achievement Motivation on Mathematics Achievement
A significant effect of achievement motivation on mathematics achievement of
students was found when groups were matched with respect to Pre-mathematics
achievement. It indicates that there are significant differences in adjusted mean
mathematics achievement scores of elementary school students belonging high,
average and low levels of achievement motivation group when groups were matched in
respect of mathematics achievement.
c) Effect of Interaction between treatment and Achievement Motivation on
Mathematics Achievement
A significant effect of interaction between treatment and achievement motivation
was found on mathematics achievement when Pre-mathematics achievement was
taken as covariate.
5. Effect of Treatment, Learning Style and their Interaction on Mathematics
Achievement by considering Pre-Mathematics Achievement as Covariate
The data were analyzed with the help of 2x4 factorial design ANCOVA. The
findings are as under:
a) Effect of treatment on Mathematics Achievement
It has been found that mean score of mathematics achievement at post-test
stage was significantly higher than the mean score of mathematics achievement at pre-
test stage of e-Content group. Therefore, the e-Content was found to improve
mathematics achievement significantly higher in comparison to conventional strategy
when groups were matched on Pre-mathematics achievement.
b) Effect of Learning Style on Mathematics Achievement
No significant effect of learning style on achievement in mathematics of students
was found when matched with respect to pre-achievement in mathematics. Therefore,
elementary school students having different learning styles do not differ significantly on
achievement in mathematics when groups were matched in respect of pre-achievement
in mathematics.

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c) Effect of Interaction between Treatment & Learning Style on Mathematics
Achievement
No significant effect of Interaction between treatment and learning style on
achievement in mathematics when pre-achievement in mathematics was taken as a
covariate. Therefore, the learning style may not be kept in mind while selecting the
method of teaching mathematics if the groups are matched with respect of pre-
achievement in mathematics.
6. Effect of Treatment, Self-confidence and their Interaction on Mathematics
Achievement by considering Pre-mathematics Achievement as Covariate
The data were analyzed with the help of 2x3 Factorial Design ANCOVA. The
findings are as under:
a) Effect of Treatment on Mathematics Achievement
It has been found that mean score of mathematics achievement at post-test stage
was significantly higher than the mean score of mathematics achievement at pre-test
stage of e-Content group. Therefore, the e-Content was found to improve mathematics
achievement significantly higher in comparison to conventional strategy when groups
were matched on pre-mathematics achievement.
b) Effect of Self-confidence on Mathematics Achievement
No significant effect of self-confidence on achievement in mathematics was found
when groups were matched with respect of pre-achievement in mathematics. Therefore,
no significant differences were found in achievement in mathematics of elementary
school students belonging to high, average and low levels of self confidence when
groups were matched with respect to achievement in mathematics.
c) Effect of Interaction between Treatment and Self-confidence on Mathematics
Achievement
A significant effect of interaction between treatment and self-confidence on achievement
in mathematics when pre-achievement in mathematics was taken as a covariate. It
indicates that there are significant differences in the adjusted mean mathematics
achievement scores of elementary school students in the experimental and control
group across high, average and low levels of self confidence when groups were
matched in respect of Pre mathematics achievement.
5.3 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS

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In India, the main focus of teaching is on providing information at school level
as well as at the higher education level, which should not be the sole objective. Along
with providing information at these levels, the other objectives are:
 To develop thinking and reasoning power
 To develop the power of understanding and application of the concepts
 To develop the power of expressions
 To improve the ability of comprehension, speed and vocabulary
 To develop appropriate study habits
 To develop self-concept and value clarification
 To develop the power of judgment and ability to take right decision
It is very difficult to achieve all the objectives with the present infrastructure such
as availability training of teachers, quality of teachers, size of the class, availability of
the resource material etc. In Indian conditions, the most of the above mentioned
objectives cannot be achieved as most of the teachers use conventional strategies in
teaching learning process. So to achieve these multidimensional objectives, multiple
methods should be used. At present e-Content may be of some use. A single teacher is
not capable of giving complete and up-to-date information in his own subject. The e-
Content can provide access to various sources of information. Therefore, the gap can
be filled up with the help of e-Content.
The present research study has various implications in the field of education as
given below:
1. The results of the study revealed that the e-Content significantly enhance
mathematics achievement of students, so it is suggested that with the
implementation of e-Content in the schools, the students will develop keen
interest in their course of study and will be able to explore their abilities and
hidden talents
2. The results of the study revealed that there is no significant effect of Interaction
between treatment and gender mathematics achievement, therefore it is
suggested that gender may not be kept in mind while selecting the strategy of
teaching mathematics.
3. The achievement level of the students can be significantly enhanced especially in
the subject of mathematics if the conventional strategy of teaching is
supplemented with the e-Content.
4. The more use of e-Content in the educational institutions leads to further positive
attitude towards computers, by the virtue of which when the students are taught
with the help of computers or e-Content, the achievement of the students
significantly enhanced as the students feel much more involved in their studies.
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5. The e-Content strategy needs to be introduced for teaching mathematics as it will
significantly enhance academic achievement of the students.
6. Accessibility to the educational web sites should be provided free of cost to the
students along with fast speed of internet to nurture their aptitude.
7. With the implementation of e-Content, the students will be able to grasp the basic
concept of various subjects especially in the subject of mathematics easily as
colorful animation, graphics and attractive display form a versatile and effective
alternative change in instructional strategy of teaching.
8. There is a significant effect of achievement motivation on achievement of
elementary school students in mathematics. Hence, teachers can develop
achievement motivation among the students by providing appropriate challenges
and emotional warmth and support, and having high expectations for children
(Wigfield and Eccles, 2002).
9. Achievement motivation can also be enhanced by properly planned training
programme. Workshop training, refresher courses, in service training courses
should be provided for the teachers to help them to equip with necessary skills
and competencies to enhance student‟s achievement motivation (Chetri, 2014).
10. Also, a significant interaction effect of treatment and self confidence has been
observed in the present study. It indicates that students taught through e-Content
strategy possess significantly higher self-confidence than their counterparts
taught through conventional strategy. Hence, students will develop more
confidence when they are taught through e-Content strategy.
11. There will be more participation of students in studies when they would be taught
through computers. It leads to a constructive approach toward computer or e-
Content which enhances their achievement in various subjects.
12. Psycho-motor skills can be learnt much better and effectively via various
communication technologies and e-Content because they work as live teacher
and guide the students more efficiently in many areas.
13. The teaching learning process can be made child centered as teachers will be
able to devote more time to help the students as there will be less administrative
burden due to the implementation of e-Content.
14. Instead of use of various traditional strategies, conventional strategies of
teaching if supplemented with e-Content can prove to be more effective in
enhancing achievement of the students in different areas or different subjects.
15. Computers can be better utilized for school education if teachers are open
minded in the use of computer as a tool for the education. Thus, e-Content
should find a proper place in school curriculum.

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16. There is need for bigger interference of the Government at national as well as at
state level to give guidelines / instructions in planning students sustains sources,
staff development and appropriate courses with e-Content even at elementary
level.
17. E-content can be used by wide variety of learners with diverse needs, different
backgrounds, and previous experience and skill levels. It can be shared and
transmitted easily and promptly among unlimited number of users around the
world.
18. Well developed e-Content can be delivered many times to different learners.
Individual course components i.e. units, lessons and media elements such as
graphics and animations can be re-used in different contexts.
19. Teachers, students and others get benefited by the use of well designed and
developed e-Content. It is advantageous to the educational organizations to
make their program accessible to their teachers and students on campus, home
and other community learning or resource centers. It has a significant
implications for open and distance learning institutions. Hence, e-learning can
reduce the cost of education per student by increasing the relative economic
benefits of investment in education (Kumar and Bajpai, 2015).
20. Various government departments may conduct Research Studies and make
efforts to develop e-Content software along with the co-ordination with the private
organizations to establish a system to check the software piracy.
21. Children should be encouraged by the teachers as well as by the parents to
utilize educational software available in the market.
22. Different e-Content portals should be established in various organizations such
as Institute of Education and Research, Curriculum Research and Development
Centers, Curriculum wing and Educational Universities.
23. Incentives should be offered to the teachers who increase their proficiency in
computer studies and contribute to raise e-Content.
24. Steps should be taken to meet the needs of the literature. e-Content learning
generals can be purchased for the libraries.
25. A culture should be developed for better utilization of computer in teaching
learning process. Computer literacy training should be given to the In-service
teachers.
26. Teacher education Institutions are required to introduce courses to prepare
teachers for computer programming skills.
27. Educational Institutions should have up to date ICT laboratories along with best
physical facilities for using ICT.

146
28. More educational web sites should be created so that researcher should get
more web space to upload their research articles.
29. Information Technology courses should be a part of educational curriculum and
students should be allowed to use computers with internet facility.
30. Teachers should motivate themselves to use information and communication
technology, they should be aware of preparation of ICT, should actively
participate in training related to ICT and should have faith in recent innovations.
5.4 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
In India, in the system of education, the use of e-Content has remained almost
completely unexplored. So in this direction, a very few number of studies / researches
have been conducted. Based on the results / findings of the present study, some of the
suggestions in the area of e-Content are identified as follows:
1. More studies may be conducted by involving larger content of curriculum from
various subjects as the present study has been conducted only on limited topics
of mathematics syllabus.
2. The present study has been conducted on class VII only. To confirm the findings
of this study, it is desirable to find out the effect of e-Content on the achievement
of students of different grade level and different subject.
3. The similar study can be extended for a larger span of time as in the present
study, the treatment process was carried out for two months only.
4. To explore the effectiveness of e-Content, further research can be conducted on
various other groups such as low achievers, mentally retarded, delinquents, gifted
and backwards.
5. The present study was conducted in one Government School of UT Chandigarh.
Further studies can be undertaken with the students from any Non Government
School i.e. from any Private / Public / Recognized / Unrecognized School of UT
Chandigarh.
6. Effectiveness of the e-Content can also be studied in relation to other variables
such as Intelligence, socio-economic status, cognitive style, group size, age,
creativity, classroom climate and personality etc.
7. The present research may be replicated on other areas also where chances of
dropouts and failures are high such as rural, slum and tribal population.
8. The present research shows that e-Content is effective intervention for improving
learner’s academic achievements. Further, more studies should be conducted to
know that how can e-Content can become more effective instructional tool.

147
9. Learner’s interests or willingness to learn / study with the help of provided e-
Content may be probed and their effect on the motivation may be studied in a
longitudinal manner.
10. The present study was confined to a school which is located at Urban area of UT
of Chandigarh. Comparative study can be undertaken in the schools which are
located other cities or typical rural areas of UT of Chandigarh or from the
surroundings.
11. The present study was conducted in one typical Government Model School of UT
Chandigarh. It can be further extended with the students from the Government
Non-Model Schools of UT Chandigarh.
12. The present study was conducted over a sample of 80 students. Similar study
can be conducted by taking a large sample in order to generalize the results.

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