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CURSO DE INGLÉS

ÍNDICE DE CONTENIDOS

1. Tablas de resumen Pág 3-7


2. Tenses Pág 8-14
3. Condicionales y I wish/if only Pág 15-18
4. Relative Clauses Pág 19-20
5. Modales Pág 21-23
6. Pasiva y causativa Pág 24-28
7. Estilo indirecto Pág 24-28
8. Ejercicios Estilo indirecto Pág 29-35
9. Comparativos y superlativos Pág 36-39
10. Hábitos en el pasado Pág 40
11. Too/enough, so/such Pág 41-42
12. Gerundios e infinitives Pág 43-46
13. Subordinadas adverbiales Pág 47-48
14. Question tags Pág 49-50
15. Used to/there used to/what/who Pág 51
16. Oraciones temporales Pág 52
17. Expresiones de cantidad Pág 53
18. Compuestos de some, any... Pág 54
19. Artículos Pág 55-56
20. Orden de las palabras Pág 57
21. Orden de los adjetivos Pág 58
22. Inversiones Pág 59-60
23. Preposiciones Pág 61-65
24. Frases útiles Pág 66-69

ANEXOS

25. Tabla de tiempos verbales Pág 70


26. Lista de verbos irregulares Pág 71
27. Abreviaturas Pág 72
28. Numerales Pág 73-75
29. The time Pág 76
30. Letters and Emails Pág 77-83

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TABLAS

QUESTION WORDS: (PRONOMBRES INTERROGATIVOS)

What Qué, Cuál How often Con qué frecuencia


Which: Cuál, Qué How long Cuánto tiempo
Who Quién, Quiénes How far A qué distancia
When: Cuándo How old Cuántos años
Where Dónde How much Cuánto/a
Why, Because Por qué, Porque How many Cuántos/as
Whose De quién What Qué tipo de
type/sort/kind of
How Cómo

PRONOMBRES DEMOSTRATIVOS

1 COSA 2 COSAS O MÁS


CERCA THIS (este, esta, esto) THESE(estos, estas)
LEJOS THAT(ese, esa, eso, aquel, THOSE(esos/as,
aquella/o) aquellos/as)

PRONOUNS

pronombres adjetivos pronombres pronombre pronombre pronombres


personales posesivos posesivos complemento reflexivos recíprocos

I Yo My mi, mis Mine mío/a/os/as me Myself each other


el uno al otro
YOU tú Your tu, tus Yours tuyo/a/os/as you Yourself (dos personas)

HE él his su, sus His suyo/a/os/as him Himself


(de él)

one another
los unos a los
otros (más de
SHE ella Her su, sus Hers suyo/a/os/as Verbo her Herself dos personas
(de ella)
IT ello Its su, sus Its suyo/a/os/as (de or it Itself
(animales y ello)
objetos)
WE nosotros/as Our Ours Prepos. us ourselves
nuestro/a/os/as
YOU vosotros/as Your Yours you Yourselves
vuestro/a/os/as
THEY ellos/as their su, sus Theirs suyo/a/os/as them themselves

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VERBO TO BE (SER O ESTAR)

AFIRMATIVA FORMAS NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA


CONTRAÍDAS
I am I’m I’m not Am I …?
He/She/It is He/She/It’s He/She/It isn’t Is he/she/it …?
We/You/They We/You/They’re We/You/They Are we/you/they
are aren’t ..?

PASADO SIMPLE VERBO “TO BE”

AFIRMATIVA NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA


I/HeShe/It was I/HeShe/It wasn’t Was I/he/she/it?
We/You/They were We/You/They weren’t Were we/you/they?

VERBO HAVE GOT (TENER)

AFIRMATIVA FORMAS NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA


CONTRAÍDAS

I/ We/You/They have I/We/You/They’ve I/We/You/They Have I/we/you/they


got got haven’t got got…?
He/She/It has got He/She/It’s got He/She/It hasn’t got Has he/she/it
got…?

VERBO CAN (PODER, SABER HACER ALGO)

AFIRMATIVA FORMAS NEGATIVA INTERROGATIVA


CONTRAÍDAS
NEGATIVA
I/ We/You/They can I/We/You/They I/We/You/They Can I/we/you/they
fly can´t fly cannot fly fly?
He/She/It can fly He/She/It can´t fly He/She/It cannot fly Can he/she/it fly ?

SOME AND ANY

SOME Afirmativas Some milk, some chairs (algo de leche, algunas sillas)
ANY Negativas e Any Money, any tables (algo de leche, algunas sillas o nada
Interrogativas de leche, ninguna silla)

*Excepciones:
some, se puede usar en interrogativas cuando pides información : Can you give me some information?, o cuando
ofreces alguna cosa : Would you like some coffee?
Any se puede usar en afirmativas cuando te refieres a cualquiera, el que sea.: give me any book (dame cualquier
libro)

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COMPOUNDS

Afirm. SOME -one, -body (personas)


Neg. E interrog. ANY + -Thing (cosas)
NO - where(lugares)
EVERY

Someone, Somebody Anyone/Anybody No one/Nobody Everyone/Everybody


Alguien Nadie(neg.)/Alguien( Nadie Todo el mundo
afirm)

Something Algo Anything Nothing Nada Everything Todo


Nada(neg.)/Algo
(afirm)

Somewhere Algún Anywhere Ningún Nowhere Ningún Everywhere todos los


sitio sitio(neg.)/Algún sitio sitios
sitio(afirm)

PALABRAS DE CANTIDAD

INCONTABLES CONTABLES
Negativa e Interrogativa MUCH mucho/a MANY muchos/as
Afirmativa,Negativa,Interrogativa A LOT OF/ LOTS OF Mucho/a/muchos /as
Sentido Negativo LITTLE Poco/poca A FEW Pocos/ pocas
Sentido Positivo A LITTLE A FEW
Un poco/una poca Unos pocos/unas pocas

THERE BE

PRESENTE PASADO
THERE IS (HAY) THERE WAS (HABÍA) 1 COSA/INCONT
THERE ARE(HAY) THERE WERE(HABÍA) PLURALES

PASSIVE
ELLA COMPRA COCHES ACTIVE PASSIVE
PRESENT SIMPLE SHE BUYS CARS CARS ARE BOUGHT
PRESENT CONTINUOUS SHE IS BUYING CARS CARS ARE BEING BOUGHT
PAST SIMPLE SHE BOUGHT CARS CARS WERE BOUGHT
PAST CONTINUOUS SHE WAS BUYING CARS CARS WERE BEING BOUGHT
PRESENT PERFECT SHE HAS BOUGHT CARS CARS HAVE BEEN BOUGHT
PAST PERFECT SHE HAD BOUGHT CARS CARS HAD BEEN BOUGHT
FUTURE SIMPLE SHE WILL BUY CARS CARS WILL BE BOUGHT
FUTURE CONTINUOUS SHE WILL BE BUYING CARS CARS WILL BE BEING
BOUGHT
FUTURE PERFECT SHE WILL HAVE BOUGHT CARS WILL HAVE BEEN
CARS BOUGHT
MODALES/VERBOS CON TO SHE CAN BUY CARS CARS CAN BE BOUGHT
MODALES PERFECT SHE MUST HAVE BOUGHT CARS MUST HAVE BEEN
CARS BOUGHT

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MODALES

HABILIDAD PERMISO CONSEJO OBLIGACIÓN AUSENCIA PROBABILIDAD


OBLIGACIÓN CERTEZA

Can Can Should Must Don´t have Must


to
Could Could Ought to Have to May
Needn´t
Be able to May Might
PROHIBICIÓN Don´t need
Might to Could
Mustn´t
Be Can´t
allowed
Not be
to
allowed to

GENITIVO SAJÓN
 Se utiliza para expresar posesión y sólo con personas o expresiones de tiempo (yesterday´s
newspaper).

SUSTANTIVO - poseedor’s +cosa poseída Peter’s house.


SINGULAR -si es un nombre propio que termina en –s, se añade ‘s:
Chris’s car

SUSTANTIVO PLURAL - poseedor(s)’+cosa poseída the boys’ boots.


SUSTANTIVO PLURAL - poseedor’s + cosa poseída the men’s hats.
IRREGULAR
VARIOS POSEEDORES -poseedor y poseedor’s + cosa poseída: John and Ann's cars
Los coches son de ambos.

-poseedor’s y poseedor’s + cosa poseída: John's and Ann's


cars Cada uno tiene su propio coche.

REMEMBER


El coche de mi madre es rojo My mother´s car is red
3º ´s 1º 4º

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TENSES

PRS.SIMPLE  Acciones habituales, repetidas


Every…, adv frec.,
 Horarios trenes, aviones, etc

 Con ciertos verbos que no pueden ir en continuo

PRS.CONTIN.  Acción que ocurre en este momento


Now, at the
momento, today, this  Acción que ocurre en un periodo de tiempo concreto pero no siempre, de
week manera temporal

 Futuro planeado y organizado

PAST SIMPLE  Acción que ocurrió y terminó en el pasado


Yesterday, last week,
ago  Hábitos en pasado

PAST CONTIN.  Acción que estaba ocurriendo en el pasado pero no sabemos si terminó o
while no o bien se vio interrumpida por otra

 Describir escenas en el pasado

PRS.PERFECT  Acciones que ocurrieron en el pasado pero todavía tiene que ver con el
Just, ever, already, presente
yet, this
morning,for, since  Experiencias vitales

 Cosas que acaban de ocurrir

PRS.PF.CONTIN.  Acciones que han estado ocurriendo un rato (mencionamos el tiempo) y no


For, since han terminado o acaban justo de terminar

PST. PERFECT  Acciones que tuvieron lugar antes que otra acción que ocurrió en el
pasado; es el pasado del pasado

PST.PF.CONTIN.  Acciones que habían estado ocurriendo un rato (mencionamos el tiempo) y


no habían terminado o acababan justo de terminar

FUT.SIMPLE  Acciones no planeadas, que te surgen en el momento, espontáneas

 Predicciones futuras sin ninguna prueba de que ocurrirán

 Promesas

FUTURE CONTIN.  Acciones que estarás haciendo (estarás en ello) para determinado momento
del futuro

FUT. PERFECT  Acciones que ya habrás hecho para determinado momento del futuro

GOING TO  Acciones que tienes la intención de hacer, las has pensado antes

 Predicciones futuras que tienes pruebas de que van a ocurrir

PRS.CONT.FUT.  Acciones futuras planeadas y organizadas, futuro de agenda

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TENSES
1. PRESENTE SIMPLE:
Se utiliza para hablar de acciones habituales, genéricas, que tienen lugar con cierta
frecuencia (I DRINK)

He/She/ It Drinks, en la tercera persona se añade una S y si el verbo termina en S,


SH, X, CH, se le añade ES: she washes, he fixes, it watches
Las oraciones negativas se forman con el verbo auxiliar Do para las personas, I,
You, We, They y Does para He, She, It: We don´t eat, he doesn´t wash
La forma interrogativa se forma con el verbo auxiliar Do al comienzo Do I Drink
Does para He, She, It: Do they go?, Does she drink?

USOS
 Acciones que ocurren habitual, repetidamente o con frecuencia.
 Como Futuro: horario de trenes, aviones etc. (what time does your
company open?)

Frequency adverbs: (How often): van con el Presente simple, indican frecuencia:

Always- Siempre Never- Nunca Sometimes- A veces Often- a menudo


Rarely-rara vez Usually/normally- Normalmente Hardly ever- casi nunca

Con el verbo to be I am always


Con otro verbo, I always go
Con tiempos compuestos I am always reading.

Expresiones de frecuencia: Once a week/ Once per week—Una vez a la semana


Twice a Year—Dos veces al año Three times a month—tres veces al mes
I go to the cinema twice per month

2. PRESENTE CONTINUO:
Se utiliza para describir acciones que se están desarrollando en este mismo
momento. Se forma con la persona, el verbo to be que corresponda y un verbo con
–ING (gerundio):
I am eating (You are Dancing-He is watching-She is reading a book)

La forma negativa: I am not -- I’m not eating She is not--She’s not


dancing
They are not—they’re not reading / she is not--she isn’t/ you are not--you aren’t

La forma interrogative: Se forma anteponiendo el verbo a la persona, Am I


swimming?—
are you writing?--Is he watching TV?--Is she reading?--Are we working?, Are
they putting?

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USOS

 Acciones que están ocurriendo ahora.


 Acciones que ocurren de manera temporal, no siempre pero tampoco
ocurren ahora mismo
 Future: futuro de agenda On Tuesday I am drinking, On Friday I am
visiting the museum

3. PAST SIMPLE:

Para los verbos regulares se forma añadiendo, ed, los irregulares son específicos
( ver la lista de verbos irregulares, la segunda columna)
I drunk, she worked, He danced, I worked, you washed.

La forma negativa, se hace con el To Do en pasado (Did) para todas las personas
I didn’t drink, she didn’t eat

La forma interrogative, se hace con el verbo To Do en pasado (Did) y


anteponiéndolo a la persona. Did you go to….? did she drink?,

USOS
Son Acciones que ocurrieron en el pasado, y terminaron en el pasado.
Yesterday three years ago Last week

4. PAST CONTINUOUS:

Se forma con el verbo to be en pasado más un verbo en gerundio (-ing). El verbo


To be tiene dos pasados: Was (para I, he, she, it) y were (para You, we, they)
I was drinking, she was jumping, we were driving….

En negativa, con wasn´t y weren´t:


I wasn´t drinking, she wasn´t jumping, we weren´t driving

En interrogativa, poniendo was y were delante de la persona:


Was I drinking?, Was she jumping? Were we driving?
USOS

 Son acciones que estaban sucediendo en el pasado y que no terminaron


porque se vieron interrumpidas por otra acción.
Yesterday I was having a shower, when the phone rang
 También indican que una acción estuvo mucho rato sucediendo.
Yesterday it was raining for six hours
Past simple I sang Yo cante/ Cantaba
Past continuous I was singing Yo estuve/estaba cantando/cantaba

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5. PRESENT PERFECT:
Se forma con la persona, have o has (para he, she, it) y el verbo en participio. Para el
participio hay que saber si el verbo es regular (se le añade –ed, como en el pasado) o
irregular (se mira la lista de verbos irregulares, en la tercera columna):
I have danced, she has visited, they have loaded…
I have written, she has gone, they have drunk….

En negativa, con haven´t o hasn´t más el participio:


I haven´t danced, she hasn´t visited….
I haven´t written, she hasn´t gone.

En interrogativa con el have o has delante de la persona, luego la persona y el participio:


Have I danced?, Has she visited?
Have I written?, Has she gone?
USOS

 Acciones que ocurrieron en el pasado pero todavía tienen que ver con el
presente.
Past simple: I worked in Froebel 15 years
Present perfect: I have worked in froebel for 15 years (aún trabajas ahí)
Past simple: I never met my grandfather
Present perfect: I have never met my grandfather (aún sigue vivo)
 Nos sirve para expresar experiencias vitales, Have you ever been to Italy?
 Cuando vemos el resultado de algo que acaba de ocurrir. I have just
painted my room

PARTÍCULAS QUE SUELEN IR CON EL PRESENT PERFECT:


 JUST: I have just arrived, Acabo de llegar
 Durante FOR How long J, F, M, A, M, J, J, Define un lapso de tiempo
(dos meses)
 Desde SINCE When *------------- Nos permite fijar en el tiempo (desde
Enero)
 EVER—Alguna vez /Siempre, Have you ever been to Italy? , Have you
ever seen UFO?
 Ya –ALREADY—affirmative I have already finished
 Ya/todavía/aún,YET, Interrogative: have you finished yet?, Negative: I
haven’t finished yet

6. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS:


Se forma con la persona, have o has, been y el gerundio del verbo:
I have been drinking----Yo he estado bebiendo
She has been smiling---ella ha estado sonriendo
Las negativas se forman de la siguiente manera, haven´t o hasn´t :
I haven’t been drinking
She hasn´t been smiling
Las interrogativas anteponiendo el verbo a la persona:
Have I been drinking?
Has she been smiling?

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USOS
 Acciones que han estado un rato sucediendo y no han terminado.

7. PAST PERFECT:
Se forma con la persona, had y el participio del verbo:

I had written- yo había escrito she had worked - Ella había trabajado

Negativas, se forma añadiendo NOT en su forma contraída o separada, had not:


you hadn’t smoked
She hadn’t drunk

Interrogativas, se forman anteponiendo el verbo had a la persona:


Had I drawn? - Had she visited? I had just eaten -Acababa de comer

USOS

 Acciones que ocurrieron antes que otra acción en el pasado.


Cuando el vino, yo había comido (When he came, I had eaten)

8. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOS:


Se forma con la persona, had, been y el gerundio:

Yo Había estado bebiendo- I had been drinking

Negativas, se forman con hadn´t : I Hadn’t been drinking

Interrogativas, se forma con: had, persona, been y gerundio :


Had I been drinking? Had she been driving?

USOS
Tiene el mismo uso que el past perfect, pero incide en la idea del tiempo, algo que
había estado un rato sucediendo. La acción indicamos que no termina.

FUTURE TENSES
1. FUTURE SIMPLE:
2.
 Usos: Predicciones futuras sin pruebas.Como una Fortune teller
(pitonisa).
 Acciones futuras que no tenemos planeadas, que surgen en el momento,
decisiones espontáneas, I will buy some milk because there isn´t any
We/I- shall/will, sólamente para esta dos personas se puede utilizar (shall) con
todas se usa sólo will. El shall está en desuso, se suele usar para otros casos:
Shall- otros usos:
 para ofrecerte- shall I open the window for you?
 para preguntarte a ti mismo- what shall I do with it?
 He will smile—he’ll speak El hablará

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Negative: I will not go, I won’t go, he won’t speak
Interrogative: will you go?, will he speak?

3. GOING TO FORM:

Uses: Predicciones futuras con pruebas e indica la intención que tienes de hacer
algo.
I am going to drive- voy a conducir you are going to wash-vas a lavar
He is going to draw- él va a dibujar
Negatives: I am not going to drive
Interrogativas: are you going to draw

4. PRESENT CONTINUOUS:
Con idea de future:
I am reading tomorrow
Uses: Acciones planeadas y organizadas, futuro de agenda.
On Tuesday I’m visiting the dentist
On Friday I’m having some drinks with a friend
I’m going to get married next year (tengo la intención)
I’m getting married next year(tengo ya la fecha)

5. FUTURE CONTINUOUS:
Uses: Acciones que estarás haciendo para determinado momento del futuro.
Tomorrow by this time I will be flying to the FIJI Islands
(Mañana a esta hora estaré volando a las islas Fiji)

I will be flying, I won’t be flying Will I be flying

6. FUTURE PERFECT:
Uses: Acciones que ya habrán ocurrido para determinado momento del futuro.
Tomorrow by this time I will have finished my exam
(mañana a estas horas habré terminado mi examen)

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PRESENT, PAST, PRESENT PERFECT: CHECK

1. She paid for her ticked and __________ (leave).


2. I closed the door quietly because he __________ to sleep. (try)
3. How many times __________ since he came to New York? (he call)
4. I __________ about this for some time now. (Know).
5. They __________ television, their favourite programme is on at the moment.
(watch)
6. I wanted to be the first to tell her the news, but I was too late. Someone
__________ her. (already tell)
7. The children are filthy. Where …? (They be)
8. I’m going to bed: I __________ for hours and I’m tired. (Work)
9. I think she’s the nicest person I __________ (meet)
10. Mary was cleaning the windscreen when she __________ a crack in the glass.
(notice)
11. I couldn’t open the office door because someone __________ it. (lock)
12. I agree, I __________ you should apologize. (not think).
13. When I phoned her, she __________ her homework. (do)
14. We __________for three and a half hours when John finally arrived. (wait)
15. When I shouted, they __________ off the roof and __________ away (jump /
run).
16. Last night I_______(read in bed) when suddenly I______(hear) a scream.
17. What ________he________ (do) in the garden? I think he_______ (mow) the
lawn.
18. About two weeks ago, I________(see) a great tennis match.
19. We´re worried because we_______(hear) from Tom for weeks.
20. When they finally_______(rescue) him yesterday, he_______(lie) in the snow
for hours.

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BE GOING TO – FUTURE – PRESENT CONTINUOUS

1. Jack: I don’t want to get married. I never (get) married.


Mother: You think that now. But one day you (meet) a girls and you (fall) in
love.
2. Where you (meet) Tom?
We (meet) at Covent Garden. He (take) me to see “The Magic Flute”.
3. I’ve seen the film, now I (read) the book. I’ve just got a copy from the library. (I
haven’t started the book yet).
4. He (bring) his wife with him? (Has he arranged to bring his wife?).
5. I’ve been measuring the windows. I (put) in double glazing.
6. There’s someone at the door.
I (go). But I expect it’s someone for you.
7. Why are you rolling up the carpets? You (paint) the ceiling?
No, I (take) the carpet to the cleaner’s.
8. Take an umbrella. It (rain)
9. Mrs Jones (go) to hospital; she (have) her appendix out.
Who (look) after the children?
Her sister (come) down from Scotland.
10. Where (go) you for your holidays?
I (go) to Norway.
What you (do) there?
I (fish).
11. Leave a note for them on the table and they (see) when they come in.
12. I’m afraid I’m not quite ready.
Never mind. I (wait).
13. I (play) bridge tonight with Tom and Ann.

14. Where you (go) this evening?


I (not go) anywhere. I (stay) at home. I (write) some letters.
15. I (know) the result tomorrow. A soon as I hear, I (tell) you.

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CONDICIONAL
Tipos de condicionales:

 ZERO: If…present…, …present


If you heat ice, it melts- si se calienta hielo, se derrite

 1st: If. Present.., …future


If..Present.., ..Imperative
If it rains, I will stay at home. Si llueve me quedaré en casa
If you see Tom, phone me. Si ves a Tom, llámame

 2nd: If…past..,..Would +…infinitivo.


If I had Money, I wouldn’t work. Si tuviera dinero no trabajaría
(en el caso de que fuese el verbo to be, se suele siempre poner were, no was, con
todas las personas: ej If I were you, I would not go-si yo fuese tú, no iría)

 3rd:I f...past perfert..., Would have + participle. If I had been there, she
wouldn’t have died. Si yo hubiera estado allí ella no habría muerto

USES:
Zero- Universal, general Siempre se cumple, afirmaciones científicas.

1st- Real, Probable. Si se da la primera condición, es muy probable que ocurrirá la


segunda.

2nd-Irreal, improbable, para imaginar cosas, hacer hipótesis, suposiciones,


expresar deseos. Son cosas que no crees que vayan a ocurrir.

3rd-Imposibles, para imaginar cosas, hacer hipótesis, suposiciones, expresar


deseos.
Pero es imposible que ocurran ya porque el hecho ya tuvo lugar, no puedes hacer
nada para cambiarlo.

Otras palabras que introducen condicional:


 UNLESS= a menos que = If not
If Tom goes to the party, I will not go. Si Tom va a la fiesta, yo no iré
If Tom doesn’t go to the party, I will go. Si Tom no va a la fiesta, yo iré
I will go to the party unless Tom goes. Iré a la fiesta a menos que Tom vaya

 IN CASE: Por si, Por si acaso. Take your umbrella in case it rains. Coge el
paraguas por si llueve

 WHENEVER: Siempre que. Whenever I call him, he is never at home

 AS LONG AS/PROVIDED THAT/PROVIDING: Siempre y cuando, sólo


si....
I will marry you as long as/provided that/providing/ you love me. (me casaré
contigo siempre y cuando/sólo si me amas

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CONDICIONALES MIXTOS

Son una mezcla entre el segundo condicional y el tercero. Lo hacemos porque nos referimos a
momentos diferentes en el tiempo:

If I had studied for the exam yesterday, now I would go to the cinema
PASADO(cond.tercero) PRESENTE(cond. Segundo)

If I were rich, I would have gone to Cuba last summer


PRESENTE(cond. Segundo) PASADO(cond.tercero)

I WISH/IF ONLY (ójala)

+ PAST SIMPLE: expresa deseo para el presente o futuro:


If only/I wish he lived in Madrid (ójala él viviera en Madrid)
If only I had Money (ójala tuviese dinero)
I wish I had Money (ójala tuviese dinero)

+ WOULD: expresa un deseo que no crees que se cumpla porque no depende


de ti (es algo que te molesta de otras personas)

I wish/if only he wouldn´t shout so much (ójala él no gritara tanto)


+ PAST PERFECT: expresa un deseo ya no realizable, referido al pasado:
If only/I wish he had gone to university (ójala él hubiera ido a la Universidad)

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CONDICIONALES
1. I’ve hung out the clothes. It’s lovely and sunny; if it (stay) like this they (be) dry
in two hours.
2. How did you do in the car rally?
We came in last actually; but only because we got lost. If we (not get) lots we
(come) in somewhere in the middle. We certainly (not be) last.
3. This flat would be all right if the people above us (not be) so noisy.
4. A group of spectators, including my self, left the stand just before the end of the
game. When we were half way down the stairs a goal was scored and there was
a great cheer from the spectators. If there (not be) a goal the crowd (not cheer).
5. If the crowd (not cheer) we (not run) back up the stairs to see what had
happened.
6. If we (not run) back we (not crash) into the rest of the spectators on their way
down, and there (not be) this frightful accident.
7. If the pain (return), take another pill.
8. If I (have) a balcony in my house, I (grow) plants in pots.
9. If he (leave) his bike outside, somebody (steal it)
10. I sometimes think that if I (have) children, I (make) the same mistakes my
parents made
11. We had a lot of trouble putting the tent up. If it (not be)so windy, perhaps it (not
be so difficult)
12. Look at poor Tom with his car. If I (be) Tom, I (get) a new battery.
1. If you had a carpet on the stairs...
2. If I lived in the country...
3. The milk wouldn´t have gone off...
4. If you took a course on computers
5. If you tell my secret to anyone...
6. He would be furious...
7. If the price of petrol goes up...
8. What would you do...?
9. He threatened to kill us unless...
10. We were lost. If we had brought a map......
11. We will go to the party...
12. If I were the President...

Página 17 de 83
I WISH
1. I wish I (were, would be) older than you
2. She is flying to Spain next week. I wish I (could go, could have gone) with
her
3. The train has just left. I wish we (hurried, had hurried)
4. I would love to play basketball. I wish I (were, had been) taller
5. The party was terrific. I wish you (were, had been) there
6. You look great. I wish I (looked, had looked) like you
7. He was in an accident. He wishes he (didn´t drive, hadn´t driven) so fast
8. He failed his test. He wishes he (studied, had studied) harder
9. Alan wishes you (would have come, had come)
10. I´m having a great time in Italy. I wish you (were, had been) here.

1. I wish you....be quiet


2. He wishes he...play tennis as well as me
3. Do you wish you...speak six languages?
4. I wish I....(not be) so tall
5. I wish Barry....(love) me
6. I wish Barry......(not love) my cousin
7. They wish they.....sell their house
8. I wish you.....(not have to) go tomorrow
9. Tom wishes he....(be) stronger
10. Jane´s father wishes she.....help him wash the car
11. Helen wishes you.....(not tell) everyone where she worked
12. If only I.....(not get) so angry with him
13. Don´t you wish we......(stay) in Paris longer?

1. It really is a pity that you don´t want to stay for dinner


2. My father is angry about the loud music Colin is playing
3. Helen is upset that she quarrelled with her boyfriend
4. I´m really sorry I can´t go with David to the party tonight
5. Jim would love to have a puppy
6. He´d like to have a Ferrari
7. I bet Harry is sorry he wasn´t nicer to you last night

Página 18 de 83
RELATIVE CAUSES

Existen dos tipos de frases relativas, especificativas, DEFINING y explicativas,


NON- DEFINING
 Defining, son las frases necesarias para entender qué objeto, qué animal o qué
persona es a la que nos referimos. Si las quitásemos de la frase principal no lo
sabríamos. E.j: The woman who is looking at me is Mary - La mujer que me está
mirando es María (que me está mirando es la frase de relativo. Si la quitamos,
nos queda: La mujer es María, pero no sabríamos quién es, de las que hay)
 Non defining, son frases que dan información extra, puede ser importante esta
información pero no las necesitamos para saber a qué o a quién nos referimos
Nina, who is Italian, sooks very well (Nina, que es italiana, cocina muy bien)

RELATIVE PRONOUNS
 Who que,cual,el cual, quien, únicamente referido a personas
 Which que, el cual, Cuando nos referimos a objetos o animales
 Whose cuyo/a/os/as, Para referirnos a personas, objetos y animales.Indica
posesión.
 Where donde, en donde(nunca con in, at, on) Cuando nos referimos a
lugares.
 When que, cuando, Cuando nos referimos a tiempo
 What lo que
 Why el porqué, la razón de que (reason,motive)
 Of which (de la cual) the table, the leg of which is broken, is brown. Para
objetos y animals, se puede poner whose, también.

La mujer cuya (que su) hija murió en un accidente es Maria


The woman whose daughter died in an accident is Mary
El restaurante que está en la esquina es chino
The restaurant which is in the corner is Chinese
El restaurante donde como todos los días es chino
The restaurant where I eat everyday is Chinese
La razón de porque no vino no la sabe nadie
The reason why he didn’t come is known by nobody

RULES
- Defining.
1. Who/Which se pueden sustituirse por that, pero solo se suele hacer de manera
oral. The man who/that gave me the book, is Peter

2. Who/Which se deben omitir en ciertos casos.


The man who gave me the book, is Peter
En esta frase no podemos omitir el who puesto que es el sujeto y la frase no
tendría ningún sentido
The man who she gave the book to is Peter. The man she gave the book to is
Peter

Sin embargo en esta frase podemos prescindir del who puesto que no es el sujeto
Página 19 de 83
RELATIVE CLAUSES

1. Boris Becker is a tennis player. He won the Wimbledon championship when he


was eighteen year old.

2. I was reading about the Atacama Desert. It’s the driest place in the world.

3. There’s that new restaurant. I went there yesterday.

4. Have you met John Smith? His sister can speak fourteen languages.

5. Romeo and Juliet were lovers. Their parents hated each other.

6. “Intrepid Fox” is a bar. Tom usually goes there for lunch.

7. I was sitting in a chair. It suddenly collapsed.

8. A man answered the phone. He said Tom was out.

9. He introduced me to his students. Most of them were from abroad.

10. We’ll have to get across the frontier. This will be difficult.

11. The Smiths were given rooms in the hotel. Their house had been destroyed in
the explosion.

12. The lorry crashed into a bus-load of school children. Six of them were slightly
injured.

13. They went to an agency. It was Blue skies Agency.

14. The matter was reported to the Chief of Police. He ordered us all to be arrested.

15. His girlfriend turned out to be an enemy spy. He trusted her absolutely

Página 20 de 83
MODALS

ABILITY:
Can Poder, Saber can’t /cannot
Could Podía, Podría
Be able to Poder, Saber
 COULD
1. Habilidades en el pasado, permanentes.
When I was five I could play the piano.
2. Verbos de percepción: see, hear.
I could see a figure in the distance.
 BE ABLE TO was/were able to
1. Acciones que después de cierto esfuerzo se consiguieron hacer.
2. The fireman was able to save the girl.
3. Para todos los tiempos (Next year I’ll be able to drive a car)
PERMISION:
Can Puedo, (no se debe utilizar).
Could Podría (formal, educado)
May Puedo (formal muy educado)
ADVICE: (consejo)
Should Deberías
Ought to Deberías
OBLIGATION:
Must Deber Mustn’t Prohibicion
Have to Tener que Don’t have to No tener que, ausencia de
obigación.
Must: expresa la opinión, obligación interna , moral
Have to: expresa obligación de un gobierno, reglas etc.

PROBABILITY:
+ Must 90%, May 70%, might/could 50%, can’t 90% -
He must be at home, (debe estar en casa)
He may be at home, (puede que este en casa)
He might/could be at home (podria estar en casa,Pudiera ser que estuviera en casa)
He can’t be at home (no debe/puede estar en casa)

MODALES PERFECTOS

Se usan para hablar de acciones pasadas, para hacer suposiciones y sacar conclusions
sobre el pasado:

MODAL + HAVE + PARTICIPIO

He must have gone (Debe haberse ido)


She may have written the book (Puede que hay escrito el libro)

Página 21 de 83
MODAL VERBS

1. When I was a child I __________ understand adults, and now that I am an adult
I __________ children.
2. If I bought a lottery ticket I __________ win &1.000.
3. He sees very badly, he __________wear glasses all the time.
4. We __________ drive faster; we have plenty of time.
5. Notice in a picture gallery: cameras, sticks and umbrellas __________ be left at
the desk.
6. Mr Pitt __________ cook his own meals. His wife is away.
7. You ought to buy now; prices __________ go up.
8. You have put too much in your rucksacks; you never __________ carry all that.
9. Father to small son: you __________ do what Mummy says.
10. You __________ ring the bell; I have a key.
11. You __________ drink this it is poison.
12. At five years old he __________ read quite well.
13. He has refused, but he __________ change his mind if you asked him again.
14. ....you open the window, please?
15. She.....type at 40 words per minute.
16. I´m not surprised you failed the exam. You ........worked harder.
17. I.....go now, or I´ll be late for work.
18. This car is in terrible condition- You...have an accident at any time.
19. They.....understand the teacher as he spoke too fast.
20. You...try to make your applications a bit neater or you´ll never get a job.
21. Poor Jack- he lost his homework, and he....do it again.
22. The government....increase taxes soon.
23. ........I have an orange juice, please?
24. Next year I..........to drive a car.
25. He didn´t speak very clearly but I.....understand what he said.
26. If we miss the last train, we......walk.
27. The vase is broken but it.........been the cat. It was outside the whole day.
28. My sister.......to go to work because it is Sunday.
29. She......come tomorrow, but I don´t think so.
30. You......drive carefully, I insist on it.

Página 22 de 83
MODALS
1. It is your obligation to feed the cats
2. If I were you, I´d sell my house
3. It is not necessary to do all the homework
4. Finally, he managed to reach the top
5. Perhaps she drank too much at the party
6. It is no allowed to drink or eat in the cinema
7. You needn´t get up early on Sundays
8. It´s forbidden to use your dictionaries in the exam
9. If I were you, I wouldn´t smoke so much
10. Perhaps they´ll come tomorrow
11. He has the ability to swim very well
12. I´m sure they visited the country
13. It is necessary to have a visa to enter the country
14. If I were you, I wouldn´t say anything
15. Perhaps she was afraid of him
16. I´m quite sure he´ll fail the exam
17. I knew how to play the piano when I was 8
18. It wasn´t necessary to stay there yesterday
19. It is your duty to report at six
20. It is not necessary for you to go
21. This is the best way to clean the gun
22. I suggest you get a second opinion
23. I expected him to pass the exam but he failed
24. Am I obliged to eat this food?
25. Taking it without permission was the wrong thing to do
26. School rules insist on uniform al all times
27. I advise you to relax more
28. It wasn´t necessary for her to buy me a gift
29. Will it be necessary for me to kill?
30. Chewing gum is forbidden in class

Página 23 de 83
FORMA PASIVA

La forma pasiva en inglés, al igual que en castellano, se forma utilizando el verbo TO BE,
acompañado del participio (past participle) del verbo principal:

The match is played. El partido es jugado. Se juega el partido


The house is built. La case es construida. Se construye la casa

La diferencia que se puede observar con el castellano es que, mientras en este el participio
concuerda en género y número con el sujeto, en inglés, al ser la forma del participio única,
no se produce dicha concordancia.

The boy is combed. El niño es peinado


The girl is combed. La niña es peinada

Si mencionamos en la oración el sujeto agente, es decir, el sujeto que realiza la acción,


este va introducido por la preposición “by”

This boy is combed by his mother Este niño es peinado por su madre
The book is read by my sister El libro es leído por mi hermana

Casos en los que no ponemos el complemento agente: (by me,by people, by someone)
1. Cuando tenemos en la activa el sujeto en forma de pronombre personal:
I, You, He, we, You, They
2. Cuando el sujeto de la activa es, People
3. Cuando el sujeto de la activa es Someone,Somebody
4. Cuando el sujeto de la activa es obvio
The police arrested the Thief yesterday
(The thief was arrested yesterday)

Cuando transformamos una oración active en su equivalente pasiva el proceso es el


siguiente:
1. El objeto de la oración activa pasa a ser sujeto de la pasiva
2. El verbo principal se sustituye por el auxiliar TO BE, en su mismo tiempo,
acompañado del participio del verbo principal
3. El sujeto de la oración principal, pasa a ser complemento agente de la pasiva
4.
Forma activa Forma Pasiva
I watch this program this program is watched by me
I cleaned my car my car was cleaned by me
You have read this book this book has been read by you

Todas las formas activas tienen su equivalencia pasiva, incluidas las formas continuas,
excepto los verbos que no tienen complemento directo o indirecto o verbos como tener,
parecer o ser. Todas ellas se construyen, como hemos indicado, poniendo el verbo
auxiliar de la oración pasiva en el mismo tiempo que el verbo principal de la oración
activa.

I wash my hands my hands are washed by me


I will wash my hands my hands will be washed by me
I would wash my hands my hands would be washed by me

Página 24 de 83
PREGUNTAS EN PASIVAS

Where did you buy it? When do you write it?


Affirm. You bought it. Affirm. you write it
Pass. It was bought. Pass. It is written by you
Interr. Where was it bought? Interr. When is it written?

Why didn’t you inform me of the plan?


Affirm. You didn’t inform me of the plan.
Pass. I wasn’t informed of the plan.
Interr. Why wasn’t I informed of the plan?

PASIVAS CON DOBLE COMPLEMENTO

En una frase active puedes encontrarte dos complementos: el complemento indirecto de


persona y el complemento directo de cosa. Se podrían hacer dos pasivas diferentes, una
empezando con el indirecto y otra con el directo. En inglés, cuando tienen estas dos
posibilidades, optan por empezar con la persona, pero también se podría hacer
empezando con el objeto, aunque suena mucho menos natural:

Peter bought her a book yesterday in the morning


CI CD

CI She was bought a book yesterday in the morning (si es un pronombre hay que
cambiarlo a pronombre personal)

CD A book was bought to her yesterday in the morning (si empiezas por el CD,
tienes que añadir un to, delante del CI)

PASIVAS CON MODALES, FUTUROS Y VERBOS CON TO

Estas pasivas van con:


 Modales: can, could, may, might, must, should...
 Futuros: will, shall
 Verbos con to: have to, going to, ought to

can
She will buy flowers in the street
Has to

can
Flowers will be bought in the street
Have to

Página 25 de 83
PASIVAS IMPERSONALES

Las frases pasivas impersonales se forman con los verbos de comunicación

Tell, Say, Think, Believe, know, Suppose, Consider.

Existen dos formas de hacerlo.

They say (that) he works in Paris.

FÁCIL.
It is said that he works in Paris (se dice que él trabaja en Paris)
(En pasado) It was said that he works in Paris. (Se dijo que él trabaja en Paris)

DIFÍCIL.
He is said to work in Paris (se dice que él trabaja en Paris)
He was said to have worked in Paris (se decía que él trabajaba en Paris)

CONTINUOUS.
They said that he was working in Paris. (Ellos dijeron que él estaba trabajando en Paris)
He was said to have been working in Paris (se decia que él había estado trabajando en Paris)
They say that he is working in Paris. (Ellos dicen que él está trabajando en Paris)
He is said to be working in Paris (se dice que él está trabajando en Paris)

CAUSATIVAS : HAVE/GET SOMETHING DONE

Esta estructura se usa cuando queremos indicar que no hemos sido nosotros los que hemos
hecho la acción, sino otra persona:

I cut my hair yesterday (me corté el pelo ayer, pero lo hice yo)
I had/got my hair cut yesterday ( me corté el pelo ayer, pero fui a una peluquería)

SUJETO + HAVE (FORMAL) (en cualquier tiempo) + EL OBJETO +


PARTICIPIO
GET (INFORMAL)
EJ: she will have/get her tooth taken tomorrow (Se sacará la muela mañana)
I am having my house painted (Me están pintando la casa)

Página 26 de 83
PASIVA
1. The burglars have cut an enormous hole in the door.
2. They make these artificial flowers of silk
3. Previous climbers had cut steps in the ice.
4. Students are doing a lot of the work.
5. The author has written a special edition for children.
6. Somebody has cleaned my shoes.
7. They rang the church bells.
8. A thief stole my dog two days ago.
9. Someone is serving refreshments.
10. Somebody has slashed the picture with a knife.
11. I’ve bought a new car.
12. In some districts farmers use pigs to find truffles.
13. What did you write it with?
14. Someone saw him pick up the gun.
15. Has someone posted my parcel yet?
16. They didn´t tell me the news.
17. He escaped when they were moving him from one prison to another.
18. We can´t repair your clock.
19. You should take down the for sale notice.
20. Will they serve champagne at the party?
21. They gave her two weeks to pay the fine.
22. You needn´t do this.
23. Why have they never tried my scheme?
24. A Japanese firm makes these tv sets.
25. An earthquake destroyed the town.
26. Visitors must leave their umbrellas in the cloakroom.
27. She didn´t introduce me to his mother.
28. The roar of the traffic will keep residents awake all night.
29. Who invented the telephone?
30. You will get someone to see to it.

Página 27 de 83
PASIVA IMPERSONAL
1. They say she´s unreliable.
2. People thought he was too outspoken
3. People suppose smoking is bad for your health
4. People know the escaped convict is armed
5. They believe that the sculpture is genuine
6. People said he had a terrible argument with his wife
7. They rumoured that Beethoven went deaf towards the end of
his life
8. People say food is going up in price.
9. Everybody knows sweet things are bad for your teeth
10. They considered that the painting was a fake
11. People expect the government will maintain its majority
12. People knew she had had a baby
13. People know she is living with her father
14. They reported that the thieves were murdered
15. They believed he was drinking too much
16. We know the expedition reached the South Pole
17. They said that he had been there
18. People think that he is a spy
19. We considered that she was the best singer that Australia had
ever produced
20. We know that you were on the town the day of the crime
CAUSATIVE
1. She.....(have) her wedding dress....(make) three months ago
2. You have to.....(get) your photo....(take) for your passport
3. She.....(just have) one article.....(accept) by the local newspaper
4. I can´t visit you tomorrow. I....(have)my hair...(cut)
5. My mother.....(have) the broken window....(fix) last week
6. He.....(have)new glasses.......(make) at the optician´s tomorrow
7. She......(have) a phone line....(install) today
8. We......(have) the contracts....prepare) by a lawyer next week
9. She.....(just have) a new cupboard.....(build) in her bedroom
10. You should......(get) your brakes........(check) before the winter

Página 28 de 83
REPORTED SPEECH

INDIRECT SPEECH: STATEMENTS FRASES ENUNCIATIVAS


(AFIRMATIVAS Y NEGATIVAS)

Estilo indirecto - Reported Speech

El Estilo indirecto o Reported speech es una estructura que se emplea


cuando queremos decir o hacer mención sobre algo que alguien ha dicho
previamente.

Direct speech Reported speech


(estilo directo) (estilo indirecto)

"I always drink coffee", She said that she always


She said. drank coffee.
"Yo siempre bebo café." Ella dijo. Ella dijo que ella siempre bebía café.

Para hacer mención sobre lo que alguien ha dicho usamos verbos como
explain,I want to know, I wonder... Aunque los más utilizados son say y
tell:

Say (to me) y Tell me

No es necesario cambiar el tiempo del verbo si el verbo de la oración principal


está en presente. En el ejemplo anterior podríamos decir: She says that she
always drinks coffee.

Para introducir lo que ha dicho, usamos that aunque muchas veces se puede
omitir esta palabra.

Al convertir una oración de "Direct Speech" a "Reported Speech" tenemos en


cuenta que el verbo principal retrocede un tiempo verbal.

Página 29 de 83
Tabla de cambios que sufre el verbo:

Cuando el verbo introductor está en pasado, todos los tiempos cambian:

Direct speech Reported speech

present simple past simple


I am happy He said he was happy
I sleep He said he slept

past continuos
present continuos
He said he was feeling
I am feeling happy
happy
I am sleeping
He said he was sleeping

past perfect
past simple
He said he had been
I was happy
happy
I slept
He said he had slept

past perfect
present perfect
He said he had been
I have been happy
happy
I have slept
He said he had slept

past perfect continuous


present perfect continuous He said he had been
I have been feeling happy feeling happy
I have been sleeping He said he had been
sleeping

simple conditional
future
He said he would be
I will be happy
happy
I will sleep
He said he would sleep

simple conditional perfect


He said he would have
been happy
future perfect He said he would have
I will have been happy slept
I will have sleep

Página 30 de 83
CAMBIOS CON LOS VERBOS MODALES

Direct speech Reported speech

CAN COULD

MAY MIGHT

MUST HAD TO

SHOULD SHOULD

OUGHT TO 0UGHT TO

WOULD WOULD

WILL WOULD

SHALL futuro(would) otros usos(should)

Now Then Yesterday The day before


Tonight That night Tomorrow The next day/The
following day
Today That day ......ago ...before
Last... The previous... this that
Next.... The following these Those
Here There come go

REPORTED SPEECH: QUESTIONS (PREGUNTAS)

En las oraciones interrogativas usamos el mismo orden gramatical que si fuese una afirmativa: el
sujeto va antes del verbo pero no es necesario usar el auxiliar "do" o "did".

Las reglas son exactamente iguales que en el estilo indirecto con statements, pero hay algunas
diferencias:

 El verbo introductor es ask.


 No se puede poner nunca that.

Hay dos tipos de preguntas:

- Con pronombre interrogativo:

1. Where do you live? He asked (me) where I lived

- Sin pronombre interrogativo:

2. Have you been to Italy? He asked (me) if/whether I had been to Italy

Página 31 de 83
REPORTED SPEECH (interpretando)

ORDERS, SUGGESTIONS, ADVISE, INVITATIONS.

Cuando la frase que tenemos que pasar a estilo directo es una orden, una
sugerencia, una amenaza, aviso, consejo, etc… el estilo indirecto interpreta la
intención del hablante. Hay que seleccionar el verbo correcto: threaten
(amenazar), warn (avisar), tell/ask (pedir), order (ordenar), apologize for
(disculparse por), advise (aconsejar), etc Cada uno de estos verbos tiene su
propia estructura, aunque la gran mayoría sigue esta estructura:

S+VERB+CT+(NOT)+TO+INFINITIVO
EJEMPLOS

`If you don’t do your homework, I’ll kill you´, she said

She threatened me to kill me if I didn’t do my homework.

My wife encouraged me to buy the car but I refused to buy it because it was
very expensive.
Mi mujer me animó a que me comprase el coche pero yo me negué a compralo
porque era muy caro

He reminded me not to take my medicine


Él me recordó que no me tomara la medicina

They forbade us to enter the disco because we were too young.


Ellos nos prohibieron entrar en la discoteca porque éramos demasiado jóvenes

He ordered me not to move the boxes.


Él me ordenó que no moviese las cajas

They begged us to send them a copy of the document.


Ellos me rogaron que les enviáramos una copia del documento

I told her to bring me the book and she agreed.


Le pedí a ella que me trajese el libro y ella dijo que sí

Página 32 de 83
LISTA DE VERBOS CON SUS ESTRUCTURAS

REPORTED SPEECH: INTERPRETANDO


CON TO

 Advise: Aconsejar. He advised me to go.


 Ask/ Tell: Pedir He asked me not to smoke.
 Beg: Rogar She begged him to go.
 Order/Command: Ordenar He ordered her to go.
 Encourage: Animar He encouraged me to study.
 Remind: Recordar He reminded me to post it.
 Forbid: Prohibir He forbade him to smoke.
 Invite: Invitar They invited me to go.
 Warn: Avisar He warned me not to touch it.
 Want: Querer She wanted him to study.
 Threaten: Amenazar He threatened to Hill me.
 Refuse: Negarse He refused to go.
 Agree: Estar de acuerdo en hacer algo He agreed to do it.
 Offer: Ofrecerse He offered to buy it.
 Promise: Prometer He promised to study.

CON THAT

 Agree that+frase: Estar de acuerdo en que He agreed that she was nice
 Complain that+frase: Quejarse de que… He complained that it was broken
 Exclaim that+frase: Exclamar que.. She exclaimed that she had money
 Explain that+frase: Explicar que… He explained That the bus
 Promise that +frase: Prometer que He promised that she would go

INFINITIVOS SIN TO

 Let: Permitir He let her smoke


 Make: Hacer( que alguien haga algo) She made him clean it

CON GERUNDIO

 Accuse sb of: Acusar He accused me of stealing


 Apologize for: Disculparse He apologized for hitting me
 Admit: Admitir He admitted stealing the car
 Boast about: Chulear He boasted about winning
 Complain (to sb) Quejarse He complained about studying so much
 Deny: Negar He denied stealing the car
 Insist on: Insistir He insisted on going

SUGGEST
 Cuando te incluyes en la sugerencia: + GERUNDIO
“Let´s dance” She suggested dancing
 Cuando no te incluyes en la sugerencia: + THAT SUJETO SHOULD VERBO
“why din´t you dance?” She suggested that they should dance

NOTA: Tanto los infinitivos como los gerundios se niegan con el NOT delante.
He ordered me not to go
He let me not go
He suggested not going

Página 33 de 83
ESTILO INDIRECTO
STATEMENTS
1. “There´s been an accident and the road is blocked”, said the policeman. “It
won´t be clear for some time”
2. “This letter is full of mistakes”, said Mrs Jones.
3. “I don´t know why you waste so much time polishing the car”, said Paul
4. “You can phone from my office”, said Ann to Peter
5. “I´m going out now, but I´ll be in by nine”, he said
6. “I´ve just bought a car, it is not insured yet so I cannot take you for a ride”, said
Peter
7. “I must hurry; my father is always furious if any of us are late for meals”, She
told us
8. “Nothing ever happens in the village, all the young people have drifted away to
the towns”, Ann explained to me
9. “I can´t live on my basic salary so I´m going to ask for a chance to do overtime
work”, Sam said
10. “I have a message for your brother”, Tom said to Mary. “He isn´t at home. He
left two days ago”, Mary answered.
QUESTIONS
1. “Do you want to see the cathedral?” said the guide
2. “Who did you give the money to?”, Ann asked
3. “Have you been her long?”, he said
4. What country do you come from?” said Bill.
5. “How long have you been here?” said Ann.
6. “Are you working as well as studying?” asked Peter.
7. “Have you got a work permit?” Bill wanted to know.
8. “What are you going to study?” asked Ann.
9. “Have you enrolled for more than one class?” said Peter.
10. “Why Do you want to buy any second – hand books?” said Bill.
11. “Have you seen the library?” asked Ann.
12. “How often do you play rugby?” said Peter.
13. “Will you have time to play regularly?” he went on.
14. “Did you play for your school team?” said Bill.

Página 34 de 83
ORDERS, REQUESTS, ADVICE...
1. “Don´t drive through fog with only a fog light on”, he said “or oncoming drivers
may take you for a motorcycle”
2. “Please don´t drink any more”, she said. “Don´t forget that we have to drive
home”
3. “I´d buy the cabbage if I were you”, said the grocer
4. “Let´s go to Italy instead”, he said to me
5. “Remember to book the table for the restaurant, please”, she said
6. “Go to the dentist, Tom, before it gets any worse”, I said
7. “Would you like to come with us?”, they said
8. “I´m really sorry I´m late but the bus didn´t come on time”, She said
9. “You stole the money and I´m going to go to the police to report it”, he said to
her
10. “You´d better not go to the party”, Ellen told him

Página 35 de 83
COMPARATIVE/SUPERLATIVE

Para hacer los comparativos y superlativos hay que saber cuántas sílabas tiene el
adjetivo. En inglés, la división de sílabas se hace según se pronuncian las palabras, no
cómo se escriben. Si se pronuncia en un golpe de voz, tiene una sílaba, si es es dos, dos
sílabas, etc….
Big, large 1 Sílaba Beautiful 3 sílabas

RULES:
1º Adjetivos de 1 sílaba.
Para formar el comparativo se le añade + er, al adjetivo:
small /smaller, big/bigger, large/larger
Para formar el superlativo se añade la partícula + est, al adjetivo y el artículo:
Small/ the smallest, big/the biggest, large/ the largest

2º Adjetivos con 2 o más sílabas.


Para formar el comparativo, se añade la palabra más, MORE y para el superlativo
Se añade la palabra la más, el más THE MOST.
Beautiful—more beautiful (comparativo) más bonito
the most beautiful (superlativo) el más bonito

3º Adjetivos con 2 sílabas terminados en: (lo hacen como si tuvieran sólo 1 sílaba)
Y comparativo cambia y por i latina y se añade er : heavy heavier
Para el superlativo se añade la partícula the +est : the heaviest
Le comparativo se añade la r : simple simpler
Para el superlativo, se le añade la partícula the + est : the simplest
Er para el comparativo se añade er : clever cleverer
Para el superlativo se le añade la partícula the + est: the cleverest
OW para el comparativo se añade er yellow: yellower
Para el superlativo se le añade la partícula the +est : the yellowest

4º Irregular Adjectives:
GOOD BETTER THE BEST
BAD WORSE THE WORST
FAR FARTHER/FURTHER THE
FARTHEST/FURTHEST
MUCH/MANY MORE THE MOST
LITTLE (POCO) LESS THE LEAST
OLD (MIEMBROS FAMILIA) ELDER THE ELDEST

Página 36 de 83
EN FRASES:

 TAN.......COMO..... (AS........AS.......)
1º Tú eres tan alto como yo, You are as tall as me
You aren’t as/so tall as me
 MÁS......QUE.....(COMPARATIVO.......THAN)
2º Tú eres más alto que yo, You are taller than me

 EL MÁS……DE…(SUPERLATIVO…….IN…)
3º Tú eres el más alto de la clase, you are the tallest in the class

 MENOS.....QUE.......(LESS......THAN......)
4º Tú eres menos inteligente que él, You are less intelligent than him

 El MENOS.......DE......(THE LEAST....IN....)
5ºTú eres el menos inteligente de la clase, You are the least intelligent in the class

EXPRESIONES RARAS

 CUANTO MÁS........MÁS.....(THE + COMPARATIVO,


THE+COMPARATIVO)
Cuanto más deprisa corro, más temprano llego
The faster I run, the earlier I arrive

 ......CADA VEZ MÁS....(COMPARATIVO+COMPARATIVO)

Se está poniendo cada vez más oscuro


It is getting darker and darker
Está convirtiéndose cada vez más inteligente
He is becoming more and more intelligent

Página 37 de 83
COMPARATIVOS Y SUPERLATIVOS
1. Today´s soup tastes much.........than yesterday´s (good)
2. The way to school seems.....when I take the bus than when I walk (far)
3. England is not......the USA (big)
4. Trains are generally...........than buses (fast)
5. I´m sorry. I don´t have....time to help you now as I used to. (much)
6. I have......money this month than I did last month (little)
7. My graduation day was one of the.......days of my life (happy)
8. This car is.......in Spain than in England (common)
9. That´s the......car I´ve ever seen (old)
10. David is not........as his sister (tall)
11. Mice are.........than lions (dangerous)
12. Your bike is in......condition than mine (bad)
13. There were......people at the party than I expected (few)
14. That is probably the........painting I´ve ever seen (fine)
15. Flights to Spain are......than flights to America (frequent)
16. That was the.....meal I´ve ever eaten (bad)
17. Portugal is............than Argentina (big)
18. This museum is not........as the one we saw yesterday (interesting)
19. The new student is.......at maths than me (clever)
20. It is.......living in the city than living in the country (noisy)
21. David is the.........person I know (funny)
22. That book is......than the one we used to study at school (boring)
23. She isn´t.............as her mother (pretty)
24. That was the......meal I´ve ever eaten (delicious)
25. He has always been.........than Peter (active)
26. Glasgow is the......city in Scotland (large)
27. Iraq is..........than Britain (democratic)
28. Insects are the..........animals in the world (big)
29. The capital is not......as you imagine (small)
30. This is the.........day in my life (exhausting)

Página 38 de 83
TRANSLATE
1. Cuanto antes detectas un problema, más fácil es curarlo

2. Cada día es más difícil encontrar un sitio para aparcar

3. Los días se están hacienda cada vez más cortos

4. El divorcio es cada vez más común

5. Te estás volviendo cada vez más tonto

1. If you are generous, you will be popular


In fact....
2. Divorce is more common now
Divorce....
3. If you are honest, you will have few problems
In fact...
4. Life is easier now
Life......
5. When you are kind, people respect you less
In fact....
6. If you get married early, it is better
In fact....
7. Computers are cheaper today
Computers
8. I´m eating, and eating, and eating so I´m....

9. People are older now (live/ long)

10. There are black clouds, it is worse than two minutes ago

Página 39 de 83
HÁBITOS EN PASADO

USED TO: SOLÍA. Cosas que solías hacer y ya no haces


con verbos de acción y de estado (have, like, love, hate,...):
I used to drink a lot
I used to have a dog when I was a child (verbo de estado

WOULD: cosas que solías hacer y ya no haces


Con verbos de acción:
I would drink a glass of wine when I arrived home

USED TO/WOULD HÁBITOS EN PASADO


Which of the verbs......
1. Can take would or used to?
2. Can take only used to?
3. Must stay in the past simple?
As a boy, I liked going for long walks, especially in summer. We lived in the
country and the hills behind our house were beautiful. I got up early, and
without waking my parents, I crept out of the house. Once I walked for twenty
miles, and my parents got very worried. We had a dog called Rex, and together
we climbed the hills while the rest of the world was sleeping. I loved those days,
so innocent, so carefree. I went back there last year, but it wasn´t the same.

Lucy answered this advertisement and made a dream come true. She went to live
on a tropical island from May 1981 to June 1982. The dream was more romantic
than the reality. They took only a few provisions and so in order to survive, they
fished and hunted for food. They lived in a small tent and at night they retired
quickly into it, otherwise they were attacked by all kinds of insects. Here they
entertained each other with stories of their childhood, but they argued about how
to organize their life on the island. Lucy liked going for walks while Peter, who
was often ill, had to stay near their camp. Fresh water was a particular problem.
There were few streams on the island and the sun beat down day after day. They
waited desperately for the rains to come; every day clouds formed on the
horizon and then disappeared. Their health suffered and they lost a lot of weight.
Any small cut or insect bite became infected. At first they bathed but in fact it
made the wounds worse. Slowly their lives improved. At the end of the year
Lucy felt very sad to leave the island.

Página 40 de 83
ENOUGH/TOO

 Enough bastante, Suficiente


enough+ sustantivo there’s enough milk
adjetivo + enough you are tall enough

 Too Demasiado/a/os/as
Too much/many + sustantivo There’s too much milk
There are too many chairs
Too + Adjetivo you are too tall

A: Eres demasiado inteligente para suspender


You are too intelligent to fail (es el mismo sujeto: tú eres inteligente y
tú suspenderías)
B: Eres demasiado inteligente para que María te engañe (hay un nuevo
sujeto, tú eres inteligente pero es María la que te engañaría)
You are too intelligent for Mary to lie

SO/SUCH

 Tan so + adjective She is so nice


so + adverb this car runs so fast

 Tan such + a/an/o nada +adjective + noun She is such a nice girl
She is such an ugly girl
a/an lo ponemos con sustantivos contables singular, an cuando el adjetivo
empieza por vocal
 Tan such + adjective + noun It is such good milk(uncountable)
They are such good boys (plurals)
No ponemos ni a/an cuando el sustantivo es incontable y plural

Página 41 de 83
SO/SUCH
1. The weather was ….cold that we cancelled the trip
2. There is…….long queue for tickets that we won´t get any
3. This book is……good that I can´t put it down
4. The child was……ill that his parents took him to hospital
5. There was……heavy traffic that I was late for work
6. The radio was……loud that I couldn´t hear myself speak
7. She has got……many friends that she is invited to a lot of parties
8. It was……great book that I read it three times
9. She paid…..much Money for this car that she won´t let anyone drive it
10. It was……cold weather that there was ice on the windscreen
TOO/ENOUGH
1. My brother isn´t ………(old) to vote
2. The car drove by…….(quickly) for us to see the registration number
3. The handwriting wasn´t…….(clear) for me to read
4. Algebra is…….(complicated) to understand
5. She isn´t…….(tall) to be a basketball player
6. When the game was over, we were……(hungry) toe at two meals
7. You didn´t wait….(long) for your friend, poor boy!
8. Please, be quiet, you are….(noisy) to wake up the whole neighbourhood
9. Let´s get a taxi. It is……(far) to walk
10. The weather wasn´t…….(nice) to go swimming
MIXED
1. Alan is too old to change career now (enough)
2. The climb was so difficult that we stopped to res several times (such)
3. She ran too slowly to win the race (enough)
4. My bag was so heavy that I had to ask for help (such)
5. The house isn´t big enough for us to live in (too)
6. He wore such elegant suit that everyone complimented him (so)
7. My sister is too Young to watch horror films (enough)
8. My mother is so wise that people often ask her for advice (such)
9. The package is too heavy for you to lift by yourself (enough)
10. She felt so happy that she hugged everyone around her (such)

Página 42 de 83
GERUNDIO E INFINITIVO

*GERUNDIO

1. Como sujeto o sustantivo.

EJEMPLO: Living in London is expensive.

1. Después de estos verbos:


Admit, Anticipate, Avoid, Consider, Delay, Deny, Detest, Dread, Defer, keep
(on)(= continue), Enjoy, Excuse, Resent, Fancy, Finish, Forgive, help, (can’t help),
imagine, Involve, mind, Miss, Postpone, Resist, Risk, Stand, (can’t stand),
Prevent, Recollect, Pardon, Suggest, Save, Waste, Spend, Go,

EJEMPLO: I enjoy dancing

2. Después de preposiciones y adverbios ( excepto to, que a veces va con gerundio y a veces va
con infinitivo)

EJEMPLO: I have been two days without drinking

INFINITIVO CON TO

1. Después de esto verbos:


Afford, Agree, Appear(=seem), Arrange, Ask, Beg, Care, Cease, Decide,
Determine, Demand, Except, Fail, *Help, Hesitate, Hope, Learn, Intend, Manage,
Neglect, Prefer, Prepare, Pretend, Proceed, Promise, Refuse, Seem, Swear, Tend,
Want, Wish, Threaten, Undertake, Urge, y prácticamente todos los demás verbos en
inglés

EJEMPLO: He threatened to kill me

2. Con auxiliares o modales que lleven to:


Be, Have, Ought, *Need, Dare, Used, Going.

EJEMPLO: I have to go

3. Frases finales para+ un verbo.

EJEMPLO: This Knife is to cut.


4. Después de how, where, etc.

EJEMPLO: I don´t know where to go

5. Después de something, etc.

EJEMPLO: I need somebody to help me

6. Después de too /enough.

EJEMPLO: You are too Young to go to the disco

7. Después de adjetivos.

EJEMPLO: It is difficult to understand

Página 43 de 83
*INFINITIVOS SIN TO

1. Modales sin to: Can, must, will, shall, Should,*Need, Do, May…..

EJEMPLO: I must go now

2. Make, Let, Would rather, Had Better, *Help, But, Except, Than, Sooner, Than.

EJEMPLO: He made me cry


She let me go
I´d rather stay here (preferiría quedarme aqui)
You´d better go (sería mejor que fueras)

INFINITIVOS/GERUNDIO SIN CAMBIO DE SIGNIFICADO

1. Begin, Bother, Can’t bear, Continue, Prefer, Start.

EJEMPLO: It started to rain/It started raining

*INFINITIVOS/GERUNDIO CON CAMBIO DE SIGNIFICADO

 TRY
(Intentar hacer algo) He tried to climb the mountain.
(Probar experimentar) His car stopped. He tried filling it up with petrol.
I have a headache. Try taking an aspirin.

 REMEMBER/FORGET
(Acordarse de algo que tenías que hacer) I remembered to post the letter.
(Recordar algo del pasado, algo que hiciste) I remember going for walks in the country.

 MEAN
(Tener la intención de algo) I didn’t mean to hurt you.
(Conllevar, traer consigo, Significar) Being a teacher means working a lot.

 REGRET (Lamentarse, Arrepentirse)


(Algo que aún no ha ocurrido) I regret to inform you that you……
(Algo que ya has hecho) I regret hitting you….

 STOP
(Dejar de hacer algo) I stopped smoking two years ago.
(Parar para hacer algo) I was working. I stopped to smoke a cigarette.
(
 HEAR / WATCH / LOOK / LISTEN / SEE / FEEL (Verbos de percepción)
(Viste la acción completa) I saw him fall.
(No viste la acción completa, sólo un rato) I saw him falling

 NEED
I need to go (verbo normal)/ I need go (verbo modal)
It needs repairing (significado pasivo)
I need to go/go (go) I needn’t go/I don’t need to go (go)
Need I go?/ Do I need to go ?
I needn’t have gone to the office. But I went.
I didn’t need to go to the office. And I didn’t go.
My car needs repairing (Mi coche necesita repararse/ser reparado).
My house needs decorating (Mi casa necesita ser decorada/decorarse)

Página 44 de 83
 BE USED TO Estar acostumbrado a + gerundios
BECOME USED TO/ GET USED TO Acostumbrarse a + gerundio
USED TO Solía……. + infinitive
I’m used to staying up late at night
When I went to England, I got used to driving on the left
I used to smoke a lot but now I didn’t.

 HATE / LOVE / LIKE / DISLIKE


General. - I like + gerundio (I like reading after…..)
Concretas. - I like to read after lunch with a cigar,
I would like to dance (Me gustaría bailar )

 BE AFRAID OF/BE AFRAID TO ( Tener miedo de)


I’m afraid of flying. (me da miedo a volar) miedo genérico, no voluntario.
I’m afraid to jump that puddle. (me da miedo saltar ese charco) miedo concreto, voluntario.

 ALLOW/ PERMIT Permitir


I don’t allow smoking in my class. (Si no mencionas a la persona)
I don’t allow my students to smoke in my class.

NEGARLOS: Tanto los infinitivos con To, sin To o gerundios se niegan poniendo NOT delante
de ellos.
I decided not to go. I let him not go I enjoy not going to work

*EXPRESIONES

 GERUNDIO
I can’t stand. No puedo soportar.
There’s no. No tiene sentido.
It’s well/worth. Merece la pena.
It’s no good. Es inútil.
It’s no use. Es inútil.
It’s a waste of time. Es una pérdida de tiempo.
I am keen on Soy aficionado a/de
 INFINITIVO
I’m keen Soy aficionado a/ de.
I can’t afford No poder permitirse el lujo.
It’s a good idea. Es buena idea…
It’s best Lo mejor es...
It’s better (not) Es mejor...

Página 45 de 83
INFINITIVO Y GERUNDIO
1. You don't need (ask) me to go out.
2. Would you like (keep) the tickets
3. We watched them (jump) from a window
4. This book tells you how (win) at chess.
5. The fire seems (be) out.
6. She apologized for (be) late.
7. It is nice (sit) in the garden at night.
8. I'm for (do) nothing till the evening.
9. I suggest (leave) him here.
10. I don't like (get) bills.
11. I can hear the bell (ring)
12. He offered (lend) me Money
13. You´d better (not go) to the parrty
14. He made me (do) the same things.
15. He hates (be) kept waiting.
16. He decided (disguise) himself.
17. He stopped(drink) alcohol after his accident
18. Don't keep him (stand) at the door.
19. Did you remember (book) seats for the cinema tomorrow?
20. Did you advise him (go) to the police?
21. At dinner she annoyed me by (smoke)
22. You don't need (ask) him every time you want to go out.
23. Do you feel like (go) out tonight?
24. I´d rather (stay) home tonight
25. After what she told me I stopped(talk) to her
26. I remember (go) to school for the first time
27. I look forward to(see) you at the weekend.
28. The teacher expected Sarah (study) hard
29. She doesn't mind (work) on the noght shift
30. I enjoy (write) picture postcards
31. Avoid(make) silly mistakes
32. (Live) in London is very expensive
33. He tried(wash) it with bleach

Página 46 de 83
ADVERBIAL SURBODINATES

TIME PURPOSE

Before: Antes de (que) To: Para.


After: Después de (que) In order to: Para.
As: Cuando, Mientras, Según. So as to: Para.
While: Mientras. So that + modal: Para q
When: Cuando.
Once: Una vez que. que, a fin de que
As soon as: Tan pronto como.
No sooner....than Apenas, Cuando.
Since: Desde que.
Till/Untill: Hasta que.

PLACE CONCESIVE

Where: Donde. Although:[oldou] Aunque.


Wherever: Donde quiera que. Though: [dou] Aunque.
Even if + subj: Aunque.
MANNER In spite of:A pesar de (que)
Despite: “
As: Como.
As if: Como si.
As though: Como si.
Just as: Tal cual.

CAUSE REASON

Since: Puesto que, ya que. Owing to:(formal) Debido a.


Seeing that: Dado que. Due to: Debido a
As: Como. Because of: (coloq) Por causa d
Because: Porque. Because: Porque.
For: Pues, Porque As: Puesto que, Por que
Cosidering that: Considerando que. Since: Ya que.
In case: Por si (acaso). For: Ya que.

CONSECUTIVE CONTRAST

So: Por lo tanto, así que. Whereas/While: Mientras que


So....that: Tan...que. But: Pero, si no
Such...That: Tan...que. Yet: Sin embargo.
However: Sin embargo.
Nevertheless: No obstante.
Nonetheless: No obstante

Página 47 de 83
LINKING WORDS

1. John has done well in French, but not so well in Maths (however)
2. He was drinking and he was eating at the same time (while)
3. Although it rained, we went to the party (in spite of)
4. I tried to persuade her, I didn’t succeed, however. (although)
5. He didn´t get the job. He had bad manners (because of)
6. Ann felt ill, but insisted on going to work.(in spite of)
7. Although he was leading the race, Hudson lost it (however)
8. Despite the rain, the plane took off (although)
9. He didn´t pass. He hadn´t studied enough (because)
10. He arrived home. He switched the TV on (as soon as)
11. It is a nice day but we are going to stay in. (however)
12. She went out. She had put on her coat (after)
13. She went out. She had put on her coat (before)
14. Although he had money, he couldn´t buy the car (despite)
15. He didn´t come. He didn´t get the job (so)
16. We expected Larry to accept the job, but he didn’t.(however)
17. I like first, but I don’t like catching them myself.(although)
18. Ann felt ill, but insisted on going to work.(however)
19. They studied a lot but they didn´t pass (however)
20. She was dancing and talking to a friend (while)

Página 48 de 83
QUESTION TAGS/TAIL QUESTION (coletillas)

En inglés es frecuente que tras una afirmación o negación, la misma persona añada una pregunta
corta de signo opuesto. Se traducen todas como: ¿verdad? ¿No?

Para las formas afirmativas se construye con la negativa.

 She is Mary, isn’t she?


 You live in Madrid, don’t you?
 She danced a lot, didn’t she?
 Tom has gone, hasn’t he?
 She had drunk, hadn’t she?
 I will go, won’t I?
 She can swim, can’t she?

Para las formas negativas se construye con la positiva.

 She isn’t Mary, Is She?


 You don’t live in Madrid, do you?
 She didn’t dance a lot, did she?
 Tom hasn’t gone, has he?
 She hadn’t drunk, had she?
 I won’t go, will I?
 She can’t swim, can she?

Excepciones:
 I am Peter. Aren’t I?
 Shut up. Won’t you?
 Let´s drink. Shall we?

El sentido de las “question tags” va a depender su pronunciación, si cae la entonación indica


que simplemente se busca el asentimiento de la otra persona, si por el contrario se eleva la
entonación, entonces se trata de una verdadera pregunta.

A veces, también se utilizan para solicitar información o solicitar algo de un modo más cortés.
En estos casos, la oración principal suele ser negativa y la “question tag” afirmativa.

 You don’t have the newspaper. Do you?


 They don’t want to go to the cinema. Do they?

Página 49 de 83
QUESTION TAGS

 She likes it,


 I was drinking,
 They aren’t writing,
 She doesn’t drive,
 He can fly,
 He smoked,
 She’s sleeping,
 She mustn’t go,
 They didn’t go,
 I am Tom,
 You will go,
 They have done it,
 Let´s dance
 She won’t smoke,
 Tom was there,
 They had spoken,
 She has a house,
 They weren’t sleeping,
 You haven’t any Money,
 They haven’t read,
 She is blonde,
 The car is black,
 My brother is very busy,
 Shut up,
 He looks at me,
 They play tennis,
 The children are listening,
 I am hungry,
 I will go to the cinema,
 You were asleep,

Página 50 de 83
USED TO - SOLÍA

I used to smoke a lot but now I don´t Yo solía fumar mucho pero ahora no
I didn´t use to smoke a lot but now I do Yo no solía fumar mucho pero ahora sí
Did you use to smoke a lot? ¿Solías fumar mucho?

THERE USED TO BE - SOLÍA HABER

There used to be a lot of cars on this road solía haber muchos coches en esta carretera
There didn´t use to be a lot of cars on this road No solía haber muchos coches en esta
carretera
Did there use to be a lot of cars on this road? ¿solía haber muchos coches en esta
carretera?

WHAT Y WHO: SUJETO U OBJETO

Las palabras what (Cuál, qué) y Who (quién, quiénes) pueden preguntar por:
 El sujeto: Who is drinking? Quién está bebiendo?
 El objeto: who are you talking to? ¿Con quién estás hablando?

Cuando no se tiene sujeto, porque preguntas por él precisamente, el verbo lleva todos
los cambios, no se pone do/does/did:

Who wrote the letter? Y NO Who did write the letter?


What happens? Y NO What does happen?

SUBJECT AND OBJECT QUESTIONS


1. Someone was singing in the street. Who…..?
2. The detective forgot something. What…?
3. Something has been stolen. What…?
4. Someone won the lottery this weekend? Who…?
5. Sue wants something special for her birthday. What…?
6. The police arrested someone. Who…?
7. Someone is talking to Cory. Who…?
8. She was making something to eat. What…?
9. Someone telephoned you yesterday. Who…?
10. Peter saw someone yesterday. Who….?
11. Someone saw the robbery. Who…?
12. Something happened last night. What…?
13. She has stolen something from the supermarket. What…?
14. Something will fall on the floor. What…?
15. Someone invited Jack to the party. Who…?
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ORACIONES TEMPORALES

Son las que van introducidas por:

When Cuando
As soon as Tan pronto como
Before Antes de
After Después de
Until Hasta

En la frase en la que aparecen estas palabras, se pone siempre el presente y en la otra, el


future:

Cuando vengas, iremos al cine


When you come, we will go to the cinema
Tan pronto como llegues, nos iremos al cine
As soon as you come, we will go to the cinema

ORACIONES TEMPORALES

1. Cuando venga tu madre, le contaré la verdad


2. Te mandaré un correo tan pronto como llegue
3. Mientras estamos cenando, no veas la tele
4. Después de ellos se vayan, haremos los deberes
5. Antes de que te vayas, prepararé la comida

Página 52 de 83
EXPRESIONES DE CANTIDAD
A LOT OF,MUCH, MANY
1. How……paintings were stolen from the art gallery?
2. How….money have you got?
3. There were….Manchester United supporters at the football match
4. By the time we got to the front of the cinema queue, there weren´t….tickets left
5. ……..flights were delayed because of the bad weather
6. We´ll have to hurry. We haven´t got….time
7. Tom drinks….milk- one litre a day
8. She is a very quiet person. She doesn´t say….
9. I put….salt in the soup. Perhaps too……
10. It is a boring town. There isn´t…..to do
LITTLE, A LITTLE, FEW, A FEW
1. This town isn´t well-known. …….tourists come here
2. He can´t speak English very well. He only knows….words
3. Hurry up! We´ve got….time
4. She managed to sabe up….money for her holidays.
5. She´s not a good teacher. She´s got…patience with children
6. Tom moved to England……years ago
7. There was only….traffic, so we got to the airport on time
8. This is not the first time. It has happened….times before
9. She had…..hours to wait before her flight, so she went shopping
10. Would you like some more coffee? Yes, please, but only……
MIXED
1. His father died…..years ago
2. He was injured and lost…..blood
3. Don´t disturb. I´ve got……to do
4. The cinema was almost empty. There were ver….people there
5. We didn´t take….photos when we were on holiday
6. He is very shy. He has got very…..friends
7. We didn´t spend……money last summer, only……
8. The village was very small, there were only…houses
9. This car is very expensive. It uses…..petrol
10. He always puts……spices on his food

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SOME, ANY, NO AND COMPOUNDS
1. Ann has bought....new shoes
2. Does......mind if I smoke?
3. The bus was empty. There wasn´t.....on it
4. Would you like....to eat?
5. Do you live....near Jim?
6. Where did you go for your holidays?......We stayed in Torrejón
7. There´s......at the door. Can you go and see who it is?
8. I can´t make the omelette. I haven´t got....eggs
9. We slept under a bridge because we had......to stay
10. Can I have.....milk in my coffee, please?
11. I didn´t say.....Not a word
12. The accident was serious but fortunately .......was injured
13. She is very secretive. She never tells.............
14. I have met........at this party. They all came with me to school
15. You can cash this cheque at.....bank
16. What do you usually have for breakfast?...........I can´t eat so early
17. Why are you looking under the bed? Have you lost......?
18. I can´t find my glasses. I´ve looked for them.........
19. The town was still the same when I returned years later. .....had changed
20. How many cinemas are there here?.......The last one closed last week
21. This is a No parking area.........who parks here will be fined
22. Would you like.....more coffee?
23. The film is great. You can ask......who has seen it
24. Who do you like?..............All of them are stupid
25. If.......has any questions, I´ll answer them now
26. Can you give me.....information about places to see here?
27. ........came to visit me when I was in hospital, I am very sad
28. Ouch! I´ve got........in my eye
29. They haven´t got......children
30. Who did you dance with at the party? I danced with.......All of them.

Página 54 de 83
ARTÍCULOS
A/AN (un, una)
 An se utiliza cuando la siguiente palabra comienza por vocal. An apple
 Nombres singulares contables, indefinido, no sabemos cuál o nos da igual, uno cualquiera. Give
me a book (dame un libro, el que sea)
 Con profesiones. I am a teacher (soy profesora)
 cuando se menciona algo por primera vez. There is a girl. The girl…..
 En exclamaciones con nombres singulares contables (what a nice day!) y con ciertas expresiones
numéricas (50 pence a pound).
THE (el/la/los/las)
 Nombres singulares y plurales, definido, tanto el que habla como el que escucha saben a qué se
refieren.
 Cuando sólo hay uno en el mundo (the Atlantic, The Queen of England).
 Para lugares públicos (sólo algunos) The theatre,The bank
 Nombres de grupos de personas en general, The French, The rich.
Ø (SIN ARTÍCULO)
 Con nombres plurales e incontables, para generalizar. Money is..... (general) Put the money
on..... (específico). Children are very noisy (los niños, en general) The children next door are
noisy (sólo me refiero a los niños de al lado)
 Con exclamaciones con nombres incontables o plurals. (what beautiful eyes).

PUNTOS A TENER EN CUENTA:

1. Palabras como School, Church, University, Hospital:


The School, The Church, the university y the hospital se refieren al edificio simplemente. I
went to the hospital to visit Peter
School, Church, university, hospital, se refieren al lugar de culto, de enseñanza (La
institución y su uso). I went to hospital because I was sick

2. Los nombres de pubs, hoteles, teatros y cines suelen ir con the: The Odeon,The London
Hilton.

3. Agunos nombres geograficos tienen the.


Mares: The Mediterranean
Rios: The Mississipi.
Grupos de isles: The Seychelles.
Grupos de montañas: The Alps.
Desiertos: The Sahara.

4. Los nombres de calles, carreteras, plazas etc no suelen tener artículo, Oxford Street, Hyde
Park, Victoria Station.......

5. No suelen llevar artículo:


Lagos: Lake Victoria
Países: Spain (excepto los plurales) the United States.
Continentes: Asia, Europe.

6. Las siguientes palabras no llevan articulo cuando se refieren en general:


Juegos: Football, Chess.
Asignaturas: Maths, Literature.
Nombres Abstractos: Freedom.
Comidas: Dinner, Breakfast, Lunch.

7. Con ciertas expresiones no se pone el artículo:


At home, to work, by bus/car, in bed, at night

Página 55 de 83
ARTICLES
1. A, AN or THE:
1. I wrote my name at……top of…… page.
2. ……. moon goes round…Earth each 27 days.
3. ……USSR was……first country to send a man into …… space.
4. Did you see….film on….television or at…..cinema?
5. After….lunch we went for a walk by….sea.
6. I am not very hungry. I had…..big breakfast.
7. Peter was ……only person I talked to there.
8. He lives in….small villaje in….country.
9. I never listen to….radio. In fact, I haven´t got…radio
10. It was….beautiful day. ……sun was shining in ….sky.
11. It was…..long voyage. We were at….sea for ….week.
12. Can you turn ….television down, please?
13. Can you play….guitar? I have….guitar at home.
14. When was….telephone invented?
15. That man over there is collecting Money for….blind.
16. ….French are famous for their food.
17. …..rose is my favourite flower.
18. Could you close ….door, please?
19. This is….nice house. Has it got….garden. Yes, ..….garden is very big.
20. Did…the police find……person who stole your bag?

2. THE/NADA
1. Women/the women are better teachers than men/the men.
2. Most people/The most people believe that marriages/the marriages are basis
for our society.
3. They got married but marriage/the marriage was not succesful.
4. Skiing/The skiing is a good sport.
5. Do you know people/the people who live next door?
6. Some children hate school/the school.
7. I like to read in bed/the bed or at the work/work.
8. I took children/the children to school/the school.
9. My sister is very ill at hospital/the hospital. She had an accident when she
was going to church/the church.
10. Where is the university/university? I don´t know, I don´t go to the
university/university.

Página 56 de 83
WORD ORDER (orden de las palabras)

ADVERBS:

1. FRECUENCY ADVERBS: How often?


Always(siempre), never(nunca), sometimes(a veces), often(amenudo), hardly
ever(casi nunca), rarely(pocas veces), usually/normally(normalmente)

1. Modals/ to be- I am never


2. Otro verbo- I never go
3. Compuestos I have never gone
Expresiones de frecuencia: once a week. I go to the dentist twice a
year.

2. MANNER ADVERBS: (de modo) How?


I speak well.
I speak English (CD) well.

3. TIME ADVERBS: When?


I went to the cinema yesterday.
Yesterday I went to the cinema.

4. PLACE ADVERBS: Where?


I play with them in the park.

5. DEGREE ADVERBS: De grado. Modifican a un adverbio o adjetivo.


She is very tall.

S + V + CD + CI + MODO + L +TIEMPO

I gave Peter (CI) the book (CD).

I gave the book (CD) to Peter (CI).

I gave it (CD) to Peter (CI).

I gave him (CI) the book (CD).

I gave it (CD) to him (CI)

Página 57 de 83
ORDEN DE LOS ADJETIVOS

DETERMI GENERAL/ TA EDAD FORM COL PARTICIPI ORIGE MATE DEFINIT. SUSTANT.
NANTE OPINIÓN MA A OR O N RIAL/ COMPUE.
ÑO SUST
two lovely black leather riding boots
a priceless old Swedish picture
their huge circular swimming pool
Jane´s pretty Victorian writing desk
the dirty old metal garden seat
some cheap black leather shoes
the most beautiful haunting love song
three shiny new computerised iron milking machines

En general, los adjetivos van más cerca del nombre, cuanto más lo definan. Se van alejando de
él cuanto más generales y menos definitorios son. El esquema general es:

GENERALES + DE OPINIÓN + TAMAÑO + EDAD + FORMA + COLOR


+ ORIGEN + MATERIAL + SUSTANTIVO

ORDEN DE LOS ADJETIVOS

Coloca los adjetivos en el orden correcto en la frase:


1. He gave us some bread (Brown, delicious, home-made)
2. A lady suddenly arrived (Little,old,funny)
3. I bought a skirt (silk, striped, blue and White)
4. He was smoking a cigar (fat,revolting, Havana)
5. I´ve got a racket (new,tennis,great,metal)
6. She was wearing a dress (summer,plain,cotton)
7. Thieves stole a painting (French, priceless, Impressionist)
8. He showed me into his room (airy, living,high-ceilinged)
9. He introduced me to his daughter (ten-year-old, Little, pretty)
10. I´ve just met a student (Young, chemistry, very interesting)

Página 58 de 83
INVERSIONS

They are used for special emphasis. We often put adverbs or adverbial phrases at the
beginning on a sentence to make more emphasis. When we use adverbs with a negative
meaning we must invert the subject and verb of the sentence and this produces some
changes.
Se usan para dar énfasis. Se colocan adverbios al comienzo de la frase, que no es su
posición normal, para dar más fuerza a la frase. Si estos adverbios tienen significado
negative, se produce una inversion del sujeto y el verbo y ésto produce cambios.

Adverbs or adverbial phrases:


Hardly/scarcely, Little, in vain, never, nowhere, not only, rarely/seldom, neither
by…nor…, no sooner (past perfect) than, in no way, not until, under no circumstances,
on no account, so + adv, not for one moment

EXAMPLE
I never drink alcoholic drinks
NEVER do I drink alcoholic drinks
I will not go under any circumstances
UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES will I go

INVERSIONS WITH CONDITIONALS

1st If he goes, I will never go


Never will I go if he goes
If you require more information, do not hesítate to contact me
Should you require more information, do not hesitate to contact me

2nd If I lived in the country, I would buy a farm


Were I to live in the country, I would buy a farm

3rd If I had been there, she wouldn´t have died


Had I been there, she wouldn´t have died

Página 59 de 83
EXERCISES
1. The director will never give in to public pressure
2. As son as the meeting started, fighting broke out int he audience
3. Henry didn´t suspect his brother of complicity in the crime for one momento
4. I have never been so surprised in all my life
5. You will not find craftsmanship of such quality anywhere
6. I will never allow such practices to take place again
7. He announced his discovery to the world only when he was certain of his result
8. Good whisky is ready for consumption only after it has matured for ten years
9. This government has deceived the public, and it has deceived itself
10. This door should not be opne under any circumstances
11. The values of our society are at risk, and the very survival of the nation is
threatened
12. This country has never been so threatened before
13. Artists are rarely appreciated while they are still alive
14. Children Little realice that their world of innocence son disappears
15. I didn´t intend to deceive you at any time
16. If I ever told you a lie, I wouldn´t be able to look you inthe eye
17. I respect her opinions, and I admire her carácter greatly as well
18. If you require further information, don´t hesitate to contact me
19. I haven´t had to study since I was at university
20. If I hadn´t witnesses the experiment with my own eyes, I would never have
believed it could be done

Página 60 de 83
PREPOSITIONS

Las preposiciones (with, on, at, for, by, from, of, to...) son palabras que suelen ir
acompañando a sustantivos o a verbos (en gerundio)
Hay varios tipos de preposiciones:

TIEMPO
After: después de
Afterwards: después,
Before: antes de
By: para cuando
During: durante (dice en qué momento)
For: durante (dice cuánto tiempo)
From: desde
Since: desde
To: hasta
Until/till: hasta

At On in

Horas días de la semana the morning


Festividades fechas the afternoon
Fin de semana on time the evening
Night Meses
Noon Años
Midnight estaciones del año
Sunrise a minute/hour/week
Sunset those days
This moment in time (con el tiempo justo)
First
last

EJEMPLOS
She wakes up at 7:00
I´ll see you at three o´clock
I go to church at Christmas
I will go at the weekend
Do you work at night?
I was born in June
The war ended in 1945
I like swimming in the summer
The plane will land in three minutes
The next class is on Monday
I was born on the 21st of June
We will leave on Tuesday morning
Be at home on time
I have lived here for 20 years
She hasn´t written since last June
The doctor´s hours are from nine till five

Página 61 de 83
We go to school from September to June
During the war, a lot of people died
I was in England for two years during the summer
I will finish the report by Tuesday
By the end of the week I will have collected the money

LUGAR

Above: encima (sin tocar la superficie)


Behind: detrás de
Below: debajo de (sin tocar la superficie)
Beside: al lado de
Between: entre (dos cosas)
Among: entre (varias cosas)
In front of: delante de
Opposite: en frente de
Near: cerca de
Next to : próximo a
Under: debajo de
Over: por encima de:
At: en, en el sitio, sin movimiento
On:en, encima
In: en, dentro

At On in

Direcciones the floor a country


Home the wall a town/city
School a page a building
Work the right the Atlantic
A party the left Hilados Street
A meeting the road
The office an island
station the beach

Página 62 de 83
DE DIRECCIÓN

Across: a través de (ej: un río, una calle)

Along: a lo largo de

Down: abajo, hacia abajo


From: de, desde (procedencia)
Into: dentro, hacia dentro
On the way: de camino a
On to: hacia, ahacia encima
Out of; fuera de
Past: pasando por
Through: a través de

To: a, hacia
Towards: hacia
Up: arriba

OTRAS PREPOSICIONES

Of: de, posesión, valor, cantidades, medidas


For: por o para
From: de,origen
About: sobre (tema)
With: con, en compañía de
Without: sin
Against: contra, en contra
By: en (medio de transporte)
Away: fuera, lejos

FRASES PREPOSICIONALES

Las preposiciones pueden combinarse con algunos verbos, nombres y adjetivos para
formar frases preposicioneales. Las más frecuentes son:
Afraid of: asustado de
Ashamed of: avergonzado de
Bark at: ladrar a
Believe in: creer en
Deal with: tratar con
Depend on: depender de
Fall off: caerse de
Forget about: olvidarse de
In danger of: en peligro de

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Knock over: derrotado
Lack of: falta de
Late for: tarde para
Laugh at: reirse de
Leave for: salir hacia
Look at: mirar
Pay for: pagar por
Ready for: preparado para
Responsible for: responsible de
Base on: basado en
Speak about: hablar sobre
Succeed in: tener éxito en
Take care of: tener cuidado de, cuidar
Tell about: contarle (a alguien) sobre
Thank for: agradecer por
Apologize for: disculparse por
Tired of: cansado de
Wait for: esperar a
Write about: escribir sobre
Interested in: interesado en
Be good/bad at: ser bueno/malo en
Suffer from: sufrir algo
Listen to: escuchar
Dream about: soñar con
Think about/of: pensar en
The matter with: el problema con
The idea of: la idea de
Get married to: casarse con
Consist of: consistir en
Fall in love with: enamorarse de
Full of: lleno de

Se han de aprender de memoria, junto a su preposición, porque no tiene explicación.

EXPRESIONES CON PREPOSICIONES

At all: en absoluto
At the age of: a la edad de
By accident: por accidente
By chance: por casualidad
By mistake: por error
By myself: por mí mismo
By the time: para cuando...
Far from: lejos de
For a living: como medio de vida
From time to time: de vez en cuando
In charge of: al cargo de
In my opinion: en mi opinion
Instead of: en vez de
At least: por lo menos

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At last: por fin
Look forward to: esperar (con ganas) Va seguido de gerundio, si es un verbo
Made of: hecho de
Make my mind: decidirme
On duty: trabajando
On the one hand: por un lado
On the other hand: por otro lado
Take advantage of: aprovecharse de
Be up to you: es tu decision

Página 65 de 83
FRASES ÚTILES

In my opinion it…. En mi opinión…


Personally I think… Personalmente opino que…
I believe that… creo que…
I must say that… Debo decir que…
The point is this: La cuestión es esta:
I would like to say… Me gustaría decir que…
As far as I am concerned.. en lo que a mí concierne…
I am no saying that…but… No estoy diciendo que….sino…
I was referring to… Me estaba refiriendo a…
I am afraid I disagree Me temo que estoy en desacuerdo
On the other hand, of course,… Por otro lado, por supuesto,…
That is not entirely true eso no es totalmente verdad
I cannot possibly agree with/
accept that No puedo estar de acuerdo con/aceptar que…
This is my point of view Este es mi punto de vista
In my point of view… Bajo mi punto de vista…
That is an interesting point Es un punto interesante
Before I make my next point antes de exponer mi siguiente punto
I must say that… debo decir que….
I am very fond of… soy muy aficionado a…
I cannot satnd (+gerundio) No puedo soportar
There is no point in(+gerundio) No tiene sentido el…
It is well worth(+gerundio) Vale la pena…
It is no good(+gerundio) Es inútil…
It is no use(+gerundio) No sirve de nada…
It is a waste of time(+gerundio) Es una pérdida de tiempo…
It is a good idea to (+infinitivo) es buena idea…
It is better not to (+infinitivo) Es mejor no…
It is best to(+infinitivo) Lo mejor es
I cannot afford to(+infinitivo) No me puedo permitir el lujo de…
I am afraid to(+infinitivo) Temo…/me da miedo…
You´d better…(+infinitivo) Sería mejor que
I would rather…(+infinitivo) Preferiría
It is not likely to(+infinitivo) No es probable que
This is affected by.. se ve afectado por…
It has contributed to… Ha contribuido a…
Although I… Aunque yo…
In recent years Hoy en día, actualmente
Nowadays Hoy en día, actualmente
Actually, De hecho
However,… sin embargo
Far less Bastante menos
It is a question of Es cuestión de…
Having……does not mean that… Tener….no significa que…
You are supposed to(+infinitivo) Se supone que tú tienes que…..
It is supposed….(+infinitivo) Se supone que…
Besides Además
For example Por ejemplo

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For instance Por ejemplo
Likewise asimismo, igualmente
Similarly De manera similar
By the same token del mismo modo
In/by contrast en contraste con
Conversely a la inversa
On the contrary Por el contrario
In spite of that a pesar de esto
For this reason Por esta razón
Therefore Por consiguiente
Thus De este modo
As a result como resultado
Consequently consecuentemente
Hence De ahí que
All things considered considerando todo
In conclusion en conclusión
Clearly Claramente
Undoubtedly sin duda
In particular En concreto
Such as… Tales como….
Needless tos ay No hace falta decir
Above all sobre todo
On the whole en general
As a general rule como regla general
In a sense en el sentido de
Al least Por lo menos
In other words en otras palabras
That is to say Es decir
In future times en el futuro
As regards to como referencia a
With regard to con referencia a
For my part Por mi parte
As far as…..is concerned en lo que concierne a…
In accordance with De acuerdo con..
Including Incluyendo
Instead of en vez de
Until recently Hasta hace poco
Most of La mayoría de
Since desde, ya que, como
As como, mientras, ya que, porque, cuando
In the long/short run a la larga/a corto plazo
Even Incluso, ni siquiera (frase negativa)
A long-term goal objetivo a largo plazo
I.V.A stands for Las siglas I.V.A significan
At the beginning of al principio de
Summarizing Resumiendo
As recently as Tan reciente como
Man has tended to(+infinitivo) el hombre ha tendido a
The main reason for La principal razón para
According to the text De acuerdo con el texto

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It should nor be considered as No debería ser considerado como
…involves (+gerundio) ..Conlleva…
It provides… Nos da, nos suministra
I do not know whether.. No sé si…
Avoiding Evitando
It is based on.. Se basa en
It happens to be Resulta ser
It depends on Depende de
My knowledge in this matter Mi conocimiento en este tema
I would describe that as Lo describiría como
During the last few years Durante los últimos años
There is no legislation concerning… no hay leyes que tengan que ver con…
The surveys shoe that… Las encuestas muestran que
It causes serious problems Ocasiona graves problemas
As the proverb says Como dice el proverbio
Government sholud ban it el gobierno debería prohibirlo
It is like an addition Es como una adicción
Neither…nor… Ni….ni….
Either…or… O….o….
But Pero, sino
I wish+ pasado Ojalá…
It is about time… Ya es hora de que…
How on earth…? ¿Cómo demonios…?
If only I… Ojalá…
This is the last Straw Es la gota que colma el vaso
Better late tan never Más vale tarde que nunca
It is better not to (+ infinitivo) Es mejor…, más vale…
I have mentioned above Que he mencionado arriba
What is more… lo que es más
To a certain extend Hasta cierto punto
Notwithstanding No obstante
Meanwhile Mientras tanto
Obviously Obviamente
In brief Para resumir
In the first place/Firstly en primer lugar
First of all en primer lugar
To start with Para empezar
Secondly en segundo ugar
Thirdly en tercer lugar
Next lo siguiente
Finally Finalmente, para terminar
Lastly En último lugar
Nevertheless/nonetheless Sin embargo, no obstante
In addition to that Además de eso
Apart from that aparte de eso
Moreover Además
What is more Lo que es más
We hve to learn how to Tenemos que aprender a
It has not been succesful No ha tenido éxito
No matter how much you try No importa cuánto lo intentes

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As everybody knows como todo el mundo sabe
It is a well-known fact Es un hecho muy conocido que
It is true that es verdad que
Never make the mistake of No cometas nunca el error de
It is connected to Está relacionado con
Somehow De algún modo
And so on etecétera
Lest Por miedo a que, para que no
To+ infinitivo Para + verbo
In order to+ infinitivo Para + verbo
So as to+ infinitivo Para + verbo
So that + sujeto +verbo Para + verbo

Página 69 de 83
TENSES

PRESENT PRESENT PRESENT PRESENT


SIMPLE CONTINUOUS PERFECT PERFECT
CONTINUOUS
I eat/she eats I am eating I have eaten I have been eating
I don´t eat You are eating She has eaten She has been eating
She doesn´t eat She is eating I haven´t eaten I haven´t been eating
Do I eat? I am not eating She hasn´t eaten She hasn´t been eating
Does she eat? You aren´t eating Have I eaten? Have I been eating?
She isn´t eating Has she eaten? Has she been eating?
Am I eating?
Are you eating?
Is she eating?
Yo como Yo estoy comiendo Yo he comido Yo he estado comiendo

PAST SIMPLE PAST PAST PERFECT PAST PERFECT


CONTINUOUS CONTINUOUS
I ate/she ateI didn´t eat I was eating I had eaten I had been eating
She didn´t eat You were eating She had eaten She had been eating
Did I eat? She was eating I hadn´t eaten I hadn´t been eating
Did she eat? I wasn´t eating She hadn´t eaten She hadn´t been eating
I /she worked You weren´t eating Had I eaten? Had I been eating?
I/she didn´t work She wasn´teating Had she eaten? Had she been eating?
Did I/She work? Was I eating?
Were you eating?
Was she eating?
Yo comí/comía Yo estaba Yo había/hube comido Yo había/hube estado
Yo trabajé/trabajaba comiendo/comía comiendo

FUTURE SIMPLE FUTURE CONTINUOUS FUTURE FUTURE PREFECT


PERFECT CONTINUOUS
I will eat/shewill eat I will be eating I will have eaten I will have been eating
I won´t eat You will be eating She will have eaten She will have been eating
She won´t eat She will be eating I won´t have eaten I won´t have been eating
Will I eat? I won´t be eating She won´t have She won´t have been
Will she eat? You won´t be eating eaten eating
She won´t be eating Will I have eaten? Will I have been eating?
Will I be eating? Will she have eaten? Will she have been
Will you be eating? eating?
Will she be eating?
Yo comeré Yo estaré comiendo Yo habré comido Yo habré estado
comiendo

GOING TO FORM
I am going to eat/she is going to eat/you are going to eat
I am not going to eat/she isn´t going to eat/you aren´t going to eat
Am I going to eat?/Is she going toe at?/Are you going to eat?

Yo voy a comer

Página 70 de 83
LISTA DE VERBOS IRREGULARES

INFINIT. PAST PAST TRAD. INFINIT PAST PAST TRAD.


SIMPLE PATICIPLE . SIMPLE PATICIP.
BE WAS/WERE BEEN SER/ESTAR LOSE LOST LOST PERDER
BEAT BEAT BEATEN BATIR, MAKE MADE MADE HACER
GOLPEAR FABRICAR
BECOME BECAME BECOME LLEGAR A MEAN MEANT MEANT SIGNIFICAR
SER
BEGIN BEGAN BEGUN COMENZAR MEET MET MET REUNIRSE
BEND BENT BENT DOBLAR PAY PAID PAID PAGAR
BET BET BET APOSTAR PUT PUT PUT PONER
BITE BIT BITTEN MORDER READ READ READ LEER
BLOW BLEW BLOWN SOPLAR RIDE RODE RIDDEN MONTAR
BREAK BROKE BROKEN ROMPER RING RANG RUNG LLAMAR
BRING BROUGHT BROUGHT TRAER RISE ROSE RISEN SUBIR
BUILD BUILT BUILT CONSTRUIR RUN RAN RUN CORRER
BURST BURST BURST ESTALLAR SAY SAID SAID DECIR
BUY BOUGHT BOUGHT COMPRAR SEE SAW SEEN VER
CATCH CAUGHT CAUGHT COGER SEEK SOUGHT SOUGHT BUSCAR
CHOOSE CHOSE CHOSEN ELEGIR SELL SOLD SOLD VENDER
COME CAME COME VENIR SEND SENT SENT ENVIAR
COST COST COST COSTAR SET SET SET ESTABLECER
CUT CUT CUT CORTAR SEW SEWED SEWN COSER
DEAL DEALT DEALT TRATAR SHAKE SHOOK SHAKEN AGITAR
DIG DUG DUG CAVAR SHINE SHONE SHONE BRILLAR
DO DID DONE HACER SHOOT SHOT SHOT DISPARAR
DRAW DREW DRAWN DIBUJAR SHOW SHOWED SHOWN MOSTRAR
DRINK DRANK DRUNK BEBER SHRINK SHRANK SHRUNK ENCOGER
DRIVE DROVE DRIVEN CONDUCIR SHUT SHUT SHUT CERRAR
EAT ATE EATEN COMER SING SANG SUNG CANTAR
FALL FELL FALLEN CAER SINK SANK SUNK HUNDIR
FEED FED FED ALIMENTAR SIT SAT SAT SENTARSE
FEEL FELT FELT SENTIR SLEEP SLEPT SLEPT DORMIR
FIGHT FOUGHT FOUGHT LUCHAR SPEAK SPOKE SPOKEN HABLAR
FIND FOUND FOUND ENCONTRAR SPEND SPENT SPENT GASTAR
FLY FLEW FLOWN VOLAR SPLIT SPLIT SPLIT PARTIR(DOS)
FORBID FORBADE FORBIDDEN PROHIBIR SPREA SPREAD SPREAD EXTENDER
D
FORGET FORGOT FORGOTTEN OLVIDAR SPRING SPRANG SPRUNG SALTAR
FORGIVE FORGAVE FORGIVEN PERDONAR STAND STOOD STOOD ESTAR DE PIE
FREEZE FROZE FROZEN CONGELAR STEAL STOLE STOLEN ROBAR
GET GOT GOT OBTENER STICK STUCK STUCK PEGAR
GIVE GAVE GIVEN DAR STING STUNG STUNG PICAR
GO WENT GONE IR STINK STANK STUNK APESTAR
GROW GREW GROWN CRECER, STRIKE STRUCK STRUCK GOLPEAR
CULTIVAR
HANG HUNG HUNG COLGAR SWEAR SWORE SWORN JURAR
HAVE HAD HAD TENER, SWEEP SWEPT SWEPT BARRER
TOMAR
HEAR HEARD HEARD OÍR SWIM SWAM SWUM NADAR
HIDE HID HIDDEN ESCONDER SWING SWUNG SWUNG BALANCEAR
HIT HIT HIT GOLPEAR TAKE TOOK TAKEN TOMAR,COGER
HOLD HELD HELD SOSTENER TEACH TAUGHT TAUGHT ENSEÑAR
HURT HURT HURT HERIR TEAR TORE TORN RASGAR
KEEP KEPT KEPT GUARDAR TELL TOLD TOLD DECIR,CONTAR
KNOW KNEW KNOWN SABER THINK THOUGHT THOUGHT PENSAR,CREER
LAY LAID LAID COLOCAR THROW THREW THROWN LANZAR
LEAD LED LED GUIAR UNDER UNDERST UNDERSTO ENTENDER
STAND OOD OD
LEAVE LEFT LEFT DEJAR, SALIR WAKE WOKE WOKEN DESPERTARSE
LEND LENT LENT PRESTAR WEAR WORE WORN LLEVAR
PUESTO
LET LET LET PERMITIR WIN WON WON GANAR
LIE LAY LAIN TUMBARSE WIND WOUND WOUND DAR CUERDA
LIGHT LIT LIT ENCENDER WRITE WROTE WRITTEN ESCRIBIR

Página 71 de 83
ABBREVIATIONS
1. Rd. Road.
2. St. Street.
3. Sq. Square.
4. # 24. Number (American).
5. Nº 24. Number (British).
6. C/O. Care of.
7. Attn. Attention.
8. eg. For example.
9. Etc. And so on.
10. i.e. That is.
11. Plc. Public Limited Company.
12. Ltd. Limited.
13. Co. And Company.
14. Corp. Corporation.
15. Inc. Incorporated.
16. P&P. Postage and packing.
17. VAT. Value Added Tax.
18. c.c. Carbon copy.
19. enc. Enclosed.
20. P.S. Postscript.
21. @. At.
22. $ 30 ea. Each.
23. © Copyright.
24. Appel ® Macintosh (TM) Registered trade mark.
25. WISIWYG What you see is what you get.
26. CWO. Cash with order.
27. COD. Cash on delivery.
28. CIF. Cost, insurance, freight.
29. PAYE. Pay as you earn.
30. p/e ratio Price/earning ratio.
31. P&L account. Profit and less account.
32. a.s.a.p As soon as possible

Página 72 de 83
NUMERALS

Cardinals Ordinals
1. one 1st (the first)
2. two 2nd (the second)
3. three 3rd (the third)
4. four 4th (the fourth)
5. five 5th (the fifth)
6. six 6th (the sixth)
7. seven 7th (the seventh)
8. eight 8th (eighth)
9. nine 9th (the ninth)
10. ten 10th (the tenth)
11. eleven 11th (the eleventh)
12. twelve 12th (the twelfth)
13. thirteen 13th (the thirteenth)
14. fourteen 14th (the fourteenth)
15. fifteen 15th (the fifteenth)
16. sixteen 16th (the sixteenth)
17. seventeen 17th (the seventeenth)
18. eighteen 18th (the eighteenth)
19. nineteen 19th (the nineteenth)
20. twenty 20th (the twentieth)
21. twenty-one 21st (the twenty-first)
22. twenty-two 22nd (the twenty-second)
23. twenty-three 23rd (the twenty-third)
30. thirty 30th (the thirtieth)
31. thirty-one 31st (the thirty-first)
32. thirty-two 32nd (the thirty-second)
33. thirty-three 33rd (the thirty-third)
40. forty 40th (the fortieth)
50. fifty 50th (the fiftieth)
60. sixty 60th (the sixtieth)
70. seventy 70th (the seventieth)
80. eighty 80th (the eightieth)
90. ninety 90th (the ninetieth)
100. a (one) hundred 100th (the (one) hundredth)
101. one hundred and one 101st the (one) hundred and first
102. two hundred and two 102nd the (one) hundred and second
200. two hundred 200th (the two hundredth)
300. three hundred 300th (the three hundredth)
400. four hundred 400th (the four hundredth)
1.000 a (one) thousand 1.000th (the (one) thousandth)
2.000 two thousand 2.000th (the two thousandth)

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100.000 a (one) hundred thousand 100.000th (the one hundred (thousandth)
1.000.000 a (one) million 1.000.000th (the (one) millionth)

CARDINAL NUMBERS
1. "And" is used after hundred, thousand, million, if followed by one of the first 99 numbers as:
122 - One hundred and twenty-two.
2044 - Two thousand and forty-four.
1.965.716 - One million nine hundred and sixty-five thousand seven hundred and sixteen.

2."A" is more usual than "one" before hundred, thousand when these numbers stand alone:

a hundred a thousand

But when other numbers are added "one" is more usual:


104 - one hundred and four or a hundred and four
11.100 - eleven thousand one hundred

3. O may be either nought(naught), oh or zero.


We say: 3 degrees below (under) zero and
nine oh five (905) for an address, for example.

ORDINAL NUMBERS
1. Ordinal numbers are used to denote the date of the month, as:
Today is the first of June.
Yesterday was the thirty-first of May.

2. They are used for fractions:

1/3: a third 7/8: seven-eighths

3. They are also used to denote the succession of rulers:


Henry III: Henry, the Third
George VI: George, the Sixth

4. When ordinal numbers are expressed in figures the last two letters of the written word must be
added:
first - 1st
forty-second - 42nd
eightieth - 80th

5. In compound ordinal numbers the rule about "and" is the same as for compound cardinal
numbers:
23rd - the twenty-third
123rd - the hundred and twenty-third
Don't forget that only the last number (in compound ordinal numbers) takes the ordinal form.

6. The article "the" normally precedes ordinal numbers:


The thirty-first day.
The fortieth visitor.

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DATES

A. The days of the week:


Sunday (Sun.) - Monday (Mon.) - Tuesday (Tues.)
Wednesday (Wed.) - Thursday (Thurs.) - Friday (Fri.)
Saturday (Sat.)

B. The months of the year:

January (Jan.) July


February (Feb.) August (Aug.)
March (Mar.) September (Sept.)
April (Apr.) October (Oct.)
May November (Nov.)
June December (Dec.)

C. How to express a date


1. Dates are expressed by ordinal numbers, so, when reading or speaking, we say:
April the twentieth or The twentieth of April

They can be written in a variety of ways:

April 20 April 20th


20th April 20th of April
20 April

2. When reading or speaking we use the term "hundred" but not "thousand". The year 1968 would
be read as:
nineteen hundred and sixty-eight or more commonly; nineteen sixty-eight.

But the years 1900 and 1908 can only be read as:
nineteen hundred.
nineteen hundred and eight.

3. To say April 10 1968, we have 4 alternatives:


April the tenth, nineteen hundred and sixty-eight.
April the tenth, nineteen sixty-eight.
The tenth of April, nineteen hundred and sixty-eight.
The tenth of April, nineteen sixty-eight.

Página 75 de 83
TELLING THE TIME

What time is it?


What is the time?

(3:00) It is three o'clock.


(3:00) It is three o'clock sharp.
(3:00) It is three o'clock on the dot.
(3:10) It is ten minutes past three.
(3:10) It is ten past three.
(3:10) It is three-ten.
(3:15) Is it fifteen minutes past three.
(3:15) It is fifteen past three.
(3:15) It is three-fifteen.
(3:15) It is a quarter past three.
(3:30) It is thirty minutes past three.
(3:30) It is thirty past three.
(3:30) It is three-thirty.
(3:30) It is half past three.
(3:25) It is twenty-five minutes past three.
(3:35) It is thirty-five past three.
(3:35) It is three thirty-five.
(3:35) It is twenty-five minutes to four.
(3:35) It is twenty-five to four.
(3:45) It is fifteen minutes to four.
(3:45) It is fifteen to four.
(3:45) It is a quarter to four.
(3:45) It is forty-five past three.
(3:45) It is three forty-five.

REMARKS:
1. Before noon we write "am" (Ante-Meridian) after the time.
6:30 half past six am.
But after noon we write "p.m." (Post-Meridian).
6:30 half past six p.m.

2. 12:00 - That may be: twelve o'clock, midday, noon or


midnight without am or p.m.

Página 76 de 83
LETTERS AND EMAILS

GENERAL FORMAL ESPAÑOL


SALUDO Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms López, Estimado Sr/Sra López:
Dear Sir/s/Madam/s, Muy señor/señora mío/mía;
Estimado/a….
Dear Juan, Querido Juan:
CONTACTO Thank you for your email Gracias por su email del
PREVIO of…
Further to your last email,… Como respuesta a su último
email,...
We apologise for not getting Le pedimos disculpas por no
in contact with you before habernos puesto en contacto con
now VD antes.
MOTIVO DEL We are writing in connection Le escribimos en relación a…
MAIL with…
We are writing with regard Le escribimos en relación a…
to…
In reply to your email, here Como respuesta a su email, aquí…
are
Your name was give to us Nos dio su nombre….
by…
We would like to point out Nos gustaría resaltar que…
DAR INFORM. We are writing to let you Le escribimos para informarle de
know that.. que…
We are able to confirm that… Podemos confirmarle que…
We are delighted to tell you Nos complace comunicarle que …
that…
We regret to inform you Lamentamos informarle de que…
that…
ADJUNTOS Please find attached my Le adjunto mi informe
report
We are sending you….as a Le enviamos…en archivo PDF
PDF file
PETICIONES Could you give us some ¿Nos podría informar sobre…?
DE INFORM. information about…?
We would like to know… Nos gustaría saber…
We are interested in Estamos interesados en recibir..
receiving…
PETICIONES We would be grateful if you Le agradeceríamos si pudiese…
GENERAL could…
Thank you in advance for Muchas gracias por adelantado
your help in this matter. por su ayuda en este asunto
OFRECER Would you like me/us to….? ¿Quiere Vd que nosotros..?
AYUDA Let me/us know whether you Hágame saber si quiere que
would like me/us to… nosotros….

Página 77 de 83
NUEVO We will contact you again Nos pondremos en contacto con
CONTACTO shortly Vds en breve
COMENTARIOS Thank you in advance for Gracias por adelantado por su
FINALES your help ayuda
Do not hesitate to contact us No dude en ponerse en contacto
again if you require any con nosotros si necesita más
further information información

Please feel free to contact us Por favor, no dude en ponerse en


if you have any questions contacto con nosotros si tiene
alguna pregunta

DESPEDIDA We look forward to hearing Esperamos tener noticias suyas


from you
Give my regards to… Recuerdos para/un saludo para
Best wishes/ Best regards Un saludo

CITAS FORMAL ESPAÑOL


MOTIVOS We are writing to you to arrange a Le escribimos para concertar una
PARA time for our meeting hora para nuestra reunión
ESCRIBIR What time would be convenient for ¿A qué hora le vendría bien?
you?
SUGERIR Could we meet on (day) in (the ¿Podríamos reunirnos el (día) por
HORA/LUGAR morning…) at (time)? (la mañana..) a las (hora)?
DECIR I would be able to attend the Podría asistir a la reunión el
CUÁNDO meeting on Friday morning viernes por la mañana
ESTÁS/NO I am out of the office until 2 p.m Estaré fuera de la oficina hasta las
ESTÁS LIBRE 2 de la tarde
Any time after that would be fine A cualquier hora después me
vendría bien
I am afraid I cannot manage next Me temo que no puedo el próximo
Monday lunes
CONFIRMAR I would like to confirm… Me gustaría confirmar..
That would be fine. I will call/email Me vendría bien. Le
you tomorrow to confirm the llamaré/mandaré un correo
details.
mañana para confirmar los detalles
CAMBIAR LA This is to let you know that I will Le escribo para informarle de que
CITA not be able to attend the meeting no podré asistir a la reunión del
next Thursday
próximo jueves
I wonder if we could move it to… ¿Sería posible cambiarla al..?
I apologize for any inconvenience Pido disculpas por cualquier
caused
inconveniente causado
INVITACIÓN FORMAL ESPAÑOL
INVITAR We would be very pleased if you Nos complacería si pudiese asistir
could come to… a…

Página 78 de 83
We would like to invite you to…/to Nos gustaría invitarle a…/a asistir
attend our… a nuestro…
Please let us know if you will be Le rogamos nos confirme sus
able to attend our… asistencia
PREPARACIÓN Before the meeting it would be Antes de la reunión sería de
useful if you could prepare/bring.. utilidad si pudiera preparar/traer…
ACEPTAR Thank you for your kind invitation. Muchas gracias por su amable
I would be delighted to attend invitación. Estaré encantado de
asistir
RECHAZAR Thank you for your kind invitation. Muchas gracias por su amable
Unfortunately, I have another invitación. Desafortunadamente,
appointment on that day. Please
accept my apologies
tengo otra cita ese día. Por favor,
I hope we will have the opportunity acepte mis disculpas.
to meet on another occasion in the Espero que tengamos la
near future oportunidad de reunirnos en otra
ocasión en el futuro.
COMERCIAL FORMAL ESPAÑOL
PEDIR We met last Friday on your Nos conocimos el viernes pasado
INFORM. stand at the Munich Trade en su stand de la Feria de Munich
CLIENTE: Fair Hemos conseguido su dirección
CONTACTO We are emailing you off your por medio de su página Web, a
PREVIO website, which we found través del Google
through Google
RAZONES We are Somos fabricantes/proveedores
manufactures/suppliers of… de…
We are interested in… Estamos interesados en…
PETICIONES We would be grateful if you Le agradeceríamos si nos pudiera
GENERALES could give us some dar información sobre …
information about…
Please send us information Por favor, envíenos información
about your product range and su gama de productos y precios
prices
PETICIONES In particular, we would like to En concreto, nos interesaría
CONCRETAS know... saber…
Please send us full details of Por favor, envíenos información
your prices, discounts, terms detallada de sus precios,
of payment and delivery descuentos, formas de pago y
times. plazos de entrega
Could you also say whether ¿Nos podría también informar de
there is any minimum order si hay un pedido mínimo?
CIERRE An early reply would be Le agradeceríamos una respuesta
greatly appreciated rápida
We look forward to an early En espera de una respuesta rápida
reply
DAR INFORM. Thank you for your email of Gracias por su email del (fecha)
PROVEEDOR (date) inquiring about… pidiendo información sobre…
We can quote you a Price Le podemos ofrecer un precio
of… CIF/FOB Madrid de…CIF/FOB Madrid

Página 79 de 83
We can deliver by Podemos hacer la entrega para el
(date)/within (period) (fecha)/ en (período de tiempo)
The goods will be shipped La mercancía será enviada 3 días
three days from receipt of a tras la recepción de un pedido en
firm order firme
We can offer a discount Le podemos ofrecer un descuento
of…on orders over… de… para pedidos mayores de…
We require payment by bank Requerimos el pago mediante
transfer/letter of credit transferencia bancaria/ carta de
crédito
Our normal procedure… Nuestro procedimiento habitual
es…
Our normal terms for first-time Para clientes nuevos nuestros
customers are.. términos habituales son
We can supply the ítems you Podemos suministrarle los
require.. artículos que nos pide
I am attaching our current catalogue Le adjunto nuestro catálogo
and Price list as a PDF file vigente y lista de precios en
archivo PDF
We dispatch the goods within 24 Entregamos la mercancía en 24
hours of a firm order and our horas tras el pedido en firme y
mínimum order is $100
nuestro pedido mínimo es de $100
I am afraid that model is no longer Me temo que ese modelo ya no
available está disponible
If you need any further information Si necesita más información no
do not hesítate to contact us. My dude en ponerse en contacto con
direct line is…
nosotros. Mi línea directa es…
May I call you at your convenience? ¿Le podría llamar cuando a Vd le
vega bien?
PEDIDOS FORMAL ESPAÑOL
HACER UN Thank you for your recent email. Gracias por su email. Aceptamos
PEDIDO We accept your quotation. su oferta.
(CLIENTE) Our completed order is attached, Nuestro pedido completo está
and we give full bank details below adjunto y le damos los datos
bancarios más abajo
Please acknowledge receipt of this Por favor, confirmen la recepción
order del pedido

CINFIRMAR Your order has been received Su pedido ha sido recibido.


PEDIDO We can confirm that your goods Le confirmamos que le hemos
have been shipped
(PROVEEDOR) enviado la mercancía.
You can track shipping details on Puede consultar los detalles del
our Website envío en nuestra página Web

Due to an exceptional demand these Debido a una excepcional


ítems are temporarily out of stock demanda, estos artículos están
agotados en stock temporalmente

Página 80 de 83
We hope to be able to ship your Esperamos poder enviarle su
order within….days and will keep pedido en…días y le
you fully informed.
mantendremos informado en todo
momento.
We apologize for any Le pedimos disculpas por
inconvenience this may cause cualquier inconveniente que esto
We are confident that the goods will
le pueda causar
meet your expectations.

Should there be any questions,


Estamos seguros de que la
please do not hesitate to contact me, mercancía será de su total
either by email or phone satisfacción

Si tiene alguna pregunta, por


favor, no dude en contactar
conmigo por email o teléfono
RECLAMAR We are writing concerning a Le escribimos en relación al pago
UN PAGO payment o $....for invoice de….$ de la factura nº….que está
(PROVEEDOR) no….which is now overdue impagada en este momento
According to our records, the De acuerdo con nuestros datos, la
sum of $.....is still outstanding cantidad de ….$ todavía está
on your account impagada en su cuenta
Please send a bank transfer to Por favor, envíenos transferencia
settle the account. If you have bancaria para hacer frente a la
already dealt with this matter, deuda. Si ya ha solucionado este
pleas disregard this mail. asunto, por favor, no tenga en
consideración este mail.
We wish to draw your Deseamos llamar su atención
attention to our previous sobre los email que le hemos
emails of (dates) about the enviado con fechas…. Referidos al
overdue payment on your impago que tiene Vd en su cuenta
account
We are very concerned that Estamos muy preocupados ante la
the matter has not yet dejadez que Vd muestra en este
received your attention asusto
Unless we receive payment A menos que recibamos el pago en
within seven days, we shall 7 días, no nos quedará más opción
have no alternative but to take que emprender acciones legales
legal action

In the meantime, your Mientras se soluciona el problema,


existing credit facilities have sus facilidades crediticias han sido
been suspended revocadas
QUEJAS
(CLIENTE) I am writing in connection Les escribo en relación con mi
with my order… pedido…
I am writing to complain Les escribo para quejarme del mal
about the poor service we servicio que hemos recibido de su
received from you company empresa

Página 81 de 83
We are writing to draw you Les escribimos para llamar su
attention to the negative atención por la actitud tan negativa
attitude of some of your de algunos de sus empleados
employees/staff

Nuestro pedido con fecha del 16


Our order dated 16 September de septiembre especificaba
clearly stated that we wanted claramente que queríamos 1.000
1,000 items, however you… artículos. Sin embargo, ustedes….
The good were La mercancía era
faulty/damaged/in poor defectuosa/estaba dañada/en malas
conditions condiciones
There seems to be an error in Parece que ha habido un error en
the invoice la factura
The product we ordered has El producto que pedimos no ha
still not been delivered sido entregado aún a pesar de la
despite our pone call to you llamada de teléfono que les
hicimos
The product we received was El producto que recibimos estaba
well below the standard we muy por debajo en calidad de lo
expected que esperábamos
Please replace the faulty Por favor, envíenos la mercancía
goods as son as posible para reemplazar la defectuosa tan
(a.s.a.p) pronto como sea posible
We must insit on an Insistimos en que se nos
immediate replacement/ full reemplace la mercancía
refund inmediatamente/nos devuelvan el
dinero inmediatamente
Unless we receive the goods A menos que recibamos la
by the end of this week, we mercancía para finales de esta
will have no choice but to semana, no tendremos más
cancel our order remedio que cancelar nuestro
pedido
We hope you will deal with Esperamos que solucionen este
this matter promptly as it is asunto rápidamente, ya que nos
causing us considerable está causando muchos
inconvenience inconvenientes
DISCULPAS We are writing in relation to Le escribimos en relación a su
(PROVEEDOR) your recent complaint queja
Please accept our sincere Por favor, acepte nuestras más
apologies sinceras disculpas
We would like to apologize Nos gustaría disculparnos por los
for the inconvenience you inconvenientes que le hemos
have suffered causado
We appreciate that this has Reconocemos que esto le ha
caused you considerable causado muchos inconvenientes
inconvenience, but we cannot pero de ningún modo aceptamos
accept any responsibility in responsabilidad alguna en el
this matter asusto

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We will send replacement of Le enviaremos los artículos de
the items/give you a refund nuevo/le devolveremos el dinero
immediately inmediatamente

We are having a temporary


problem with Estamos teniendo problemas
con….de manera temporal
We can assure you that this Le podemos asegurar que no
will not happen again volverá a ocurrir
Please, accept my assurance Por favor, acepte mi palabra de
that this will not happen again que no volverá a ocurrir
We hope you willl continue to Esperamos que siga usando
use our services in the near nuestros servicios en un futuro
future próximo

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