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1.

SIMPLE PRESENT
 Fuction : the present perfect tense is used to describe action that began in the
past and continues into the present has just been completed at the moment of
utterance
 Adverb of time : never,ever,before,yet,already
 Formulation
Have : i,you,we,they
Has : she,he,it

 Verbal
( + ) Subject + have/has + verb 3 + object
Joni has worked in eka hospital for 3 years
( - ) Subject + have/has + not + verb3 + Object
I have not done assigment
( ? ) Have/has + subject + verb3 + object
Have you eaten ?

 Nominal
( + ) Subject + have/has + been + nominal
I have been at home since afternoon
( - ) Subject + have/has + not + been + nominal
I have not been a nurse
( ? ) Have/has + subject + been + nominal
Have you been at home ?

2. PAST TENSE
 Function : to telll activity in the past
 Adverb of time : yesterday,last day week, last mount,last year,this
morning,this afternoon, this evening,two days ago
 Formulation
 Verbal
( + ) Subject + verb 2 + object
A doctor checked patients last night
( - ) Subject + did + not + verb 1 + object
A doctor did not come to hospital last night
( ? ) Did + subject + verb 1 + object
Did a doctor come last night ?
 Nominal
Was : i, she,he,it
Were : you,we,they
( + ) Subject + to be ( was/were )
She was at home last night
( - ) Subject + to be ( was/were ) + not
I was not a teacher 3 years ago

1
( ? ) To be ( was/were ) + subject
Were you at home last night ?

3. PRESENT PERFECT
 Fuction : to express habits general truths, repeated actions or unchanging
situations, emotion and wishes
 Adverb of time : hour,day,week,mouth,year
 Formulation
Have : i,you,we, they
Has : she, he,it
 Verbal
( + ) Subject + have/has + verb 3 + object
Dedi has worked in tabrani hospital for 3 years
( - ) Subject + have/has + not + verb 3 + object
I have not done assigment
( ? ) Have/has + subject + verb 3 + object
Have you eaten ?

 Nominal
( + ) S + have/has + been + nominal
I have been at home since afternoon
( - ) S + have/has + not + been + nominal
I have not been a nurse
( ? ) Have/ has + subject + been + nominal
Have you been at home ?

4. SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINUES

 Fuction : The present continuous tense expresses an activity that is in progress


at the moment of speaking. It began in the recent past, is continuing at present,
and will probably end at some point in the past.
 Adverb of time : now,right now, today,this morning
 Formulation
( + ) Subject + to be ( am/is/are ) + verb ing
- I + am + verb ing
- You/they/we/ + are + verb ing
- She/he/it + verb ing
1 am reading a newspaper
( - ) Subject + to be ( am/is/are ) + not + verb ing
- I + am not + verb ing
- You/they/we + are not + verb ing
- She/he/it + is + not + verb ing
( ? ) To be ( am/is/are ) + subject + verb ing
- Am + i + verb ing + ?

2
- Are + you /they/we + verb ing + ?
- Is + she/he/it + verb ing
Are they cleaning the room ?

5. PRESENT FUTURE
 Fuction : The future perfect tense refers to a completed action in the future.
When we use this tense we are projecting ourselves forward into the future and
looking back at an action that will be completed some time later than now. It is
most often used with a time expression.
 Adverb of time : tomorrow, next week,next time, next year
 Formulation
 Verbal
( + ) Subject + will/shall + verb 1 + object
He will watch his pavorite movie
( - ) Subject + will/shall + not + verb 1 + object
He will not wacth his pavorite movie
( ? ) will/shall + subject + verb 1 + object
Is he will eat at restourant tonight
 Nominal
( + ) Subject + will/shall + be + complement
Tono will be at home tonight
( - ) Subject + will/shall + not + be + complement
Tono will not be at home tonight
( ? ) will/shall + subject + be + complement
Will tono be at home tonight ?

6. PAST CONTINUES TENSE


 Fuction : Past Continuous Tense is used to indicate an action that occurs
during a particular moment in the past.
 Adverb of time : yesterday,last week ,last year,last month,last time
 Formulation
( + ) Subject + be ( was/were ) + present participle ( V ing ) + object
They were buying japanese comic books yesterday
( - ) Subject + be ( was/were ) + not + present participle ( V ing ) + object
They were not buying japanese comic books yesterday
( ? ) Be ( was/were ) + Subject + present participle ( V Ing ) + object
Was he coming to my house last week ?