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1. What is the purpose of hydrometer analysis? On which physical principles is hydrometer

analysis is founded?

- The hydrometer analysis is the process which can be used on fine-grained soils, silts,

and clays, are graded. This is performed if the grain sizes are too small for sieve

analysis. The principles of this analysis is based on the Law called Stoke’s Law. Stoke’s

Law assumed that dispersed soil particles of various shapes and sizes fall in water under

their own weight as non-interacting spheres.

2. Does hydrometer analysis determine the size of soil particles exactly?

- Our professor told us before doing this experiment that this is easier than doing

experiment 3a. The size soil particles can be determined by using hydrometer analysis.

In this experiment, the large particles will settle quickly followed by the small particles

and every time interval on checking the hydrometer reading. Hence, the maximum size

of diameter of soil remained suspended can be computed.

3. Why do you correct the distance of fall of particles during hydrometer analysis?

- Because the reading varies due to certain factors, and for more accurate results.

4. What physical quantity is read on the stem of a 152H hydrometer? In what unit is this

quantity expressed?

- The mass density which is expressed in grams per liter is the physical quantity than can

be read on the stem of a 152H hydrometer.

5. What corrections are made on the hydrometer reading?

- Meniscus, temperature and dispersing corrections are the corrections that can be made

on the hydrometer reading.

6. What modifications would be required if one wanted to carry out a hydrometer analysis in

a 200 mL cylinder instead of a 100 mL cylinder?

- Only the temperature would require modification.

7. Does the hydrometer go up or down during the sedimentation of soil particles?

- The hydrometer reading decreases as time passes by. Therefore, the hydrometer goes

down during the sedimentation process.

8. What is the purpose of the dispersing agent? Does it use require a correction?

- The purpose of a dispersing agent is to prevent the soil sample or grains from

flocculating. When added to water, the liquid density increases.

9. Is there a correction for the specific gravity of soil particles when one uses a 152H


- It is used to calculate the grain size and percent finer by weight.

10. What physical quantity does the hydrometer measure? At what location does it measure?

- The hydrometer measures the specific gravity of solids and this is located on the stem

when the hydrometer is placed on a graduated cylinder.

11. Why do you measure the water temperature during the hydrometer analysis?

- This is simply because to monitor the changes in temperature of the soil suspension.

The temperature influences the hydrometer volume and the density of the solution due

to thermal expansion and contraction.

12. What is the purpose of the hydrometer calibration? What quantities does it related?

- If the hydrometer is calibrated, proper readings and measurement will be obtained.

13. Why does the meniscus correction always have the same sign? What is this sign?
- Is it because to acquire and ensure correctness in the hydrometer reading. Since the

hydrometer readings increase downward on the stem, it would produce a positive sign.

14. For what reasons do you agitate the suspension at the beginning of the hydrometer test?

- To loosen the sediment at the bottom of the cylinder.

15. What is the usual duration of the hydrometer analysis? Why does the sedimentation part

take so much time?

- The duration of the HA depend on the particles size wanted to be settled down. Hence,

it takes more than 24 hours for the particles to completely settle down. The chemical

and physical properties of the particles of the mixture of water and soil require them to

settle over a period of time.