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AGMA 930- A05

Reaffirmed September 13, 2017

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Calculated Bending Load Capacity of


Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur
Gears
AGMA 930- A05

AGMA INFORMATION SHEET


(This Information Sheet is NOT an AGMA Standard)
American Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External
Spur Gears
Gear
AGMA 930--A05
Manufacturers
CAUTION NOTICE: AGMA technical publications are subject to constant improvement,
Association
revision or withdrawal as dictated by experience. Any person who refers to any AGMA
technical publication should be sure that the publication is the latest available from the As-
sociation on the subject matter.
[Tables or other self--supporting sections may be referenced. Citations should read: See
AGMA 930--A05, Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External
Spur Gears, published by the American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgom-
ery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, http://www.agma.org.]
Approved January 19, 2005
ABSTRACT
This information sheet describes a procedure for calculating the load capacity of a pair of powder metallurgy
(P/M) external spur gears based on tooth bending strength. Two types of loading are considered: 1) repeated
loading over many cycles; and 2) occasional peak loading. In a separate annex, it also describes an essentially
reverse procedure for establishing an initial design from specified applied loads. As part of the load capacity
calculations, there is a detailed analysis of gear teeth geometry. These have been extended to include useful
details on other aspects of gear geometry such as the calculations for defining gear tooth profiles, including
various fillets.
Published by

American Gear Manufacturers Association


500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314
Copyright © 2005 by American Gear Manufacturers Association
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic
retrieval system or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
ISBN: 1--55589--845--9

ii
AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Contents
Page
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 Definitions and symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3 Fundamental formulas for calculated torque capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4 Design strength values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
5 Combined adjustment factors for strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
6 Calculation diameter, dc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
7 Effective face width, Fe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
8 Geometry factor for bending strength, J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
9 Combined adjustment factors for loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Annexes
A Calculation of spur gear geometry features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
B Calculation of spur gear factor, Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
C Calculation of the stress correction factor, Kf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
D Procedure for initial design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
E Calculation of inverse functions for gear geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
F Test for fillet interference by the tooth of the mating gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
G Calculation examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Tables
1 Symbols and definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2 Reliability factors, KR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3 Manufacturing variation adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved iii


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Foreword
[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, in this document are provided for
informational purposes only and are not to be construed as a part of AGMA Information
Sheet 930--A05, Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External
Spur Gears.]

This information sheet was prepared by the AGMA Powder Metallurgy Gearing Committee
as an initial response to the need for a design evaluation procedure for powder metallurgy
(P/M) gears. The committee anticipates that, after appropriate modification and
confirmation based on application experience, this procedure will become part of a standard
gear rating method for P/M gears. As such, it will serve the same function for P/M gears as
the rating procedure in ANSI/AGMA 2001--C95 for wrought metal gears. Toward this end,
the design evaluation procedure described here closely follows ANSI/AGMA 2001--C95,
with changes made for the special properties of P/M materials, gear proportions, and types
of applications. These design considerations have made it possible to introduce some
simplifications in comparison to the above mentioned standard.
The first draft of AGMA 930--A05 was made in June 1996. It was approved by the AGMA
Technical Division Executive Committee in January 2005.
Suggestions for improvement of this document will be welcome. They should be sent to the
American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria,
Virginia 22314.

iv © AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

PERSONNEL of the AGMA Powder Metallurgy Gearing Committee

Chairman: H. Sanderow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Management & Engineering Technologies


Vice Chairman: Walter D. Badger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Motors Corporation

ACTIVE MEMBERS

T.R. Bednar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation


T.R. Bobak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mG MiniGears North America
D. Bobby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Innovative Sintered Metals
P.A. Crawford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MTD Products, Inc.
J.A. Danaher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . QMP America
F. Eberle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hi--Lex Automative Center
S.T. Haye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Burgess Norton Mfg. Co.
T.M. Horne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GKN Sinter Metals
K. Ko . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pollak Division of Stoneridge
I. Laskin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consultant
D.D. Osti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metal Powder Products Company
E. Reiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Web Gear Services, Ltd.
J.T. Rill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black & Decker, Inc.
R. Rupprecht . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metal Powder Products Company
D. Serdynski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation
G. Wallis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dorst America, Inc.

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved v


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

(This page is intentionally left blank.)

vi © AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

American Gear Manufacturers tooling fall short in testing, it may be possible to use
the same tooling for a design adjusted for greater
Association -- face width.
1.1.4 Limitations
Calculated Bending Load Gears made from all materials and by all processes,
Capacity of Powder including P/M gears, may fail in a variety of modes
other than by tooth bending. This information sheet
Metallurgy (P/M) does not address design features to resist these
other modes of failure, such as excessive wear and
External Spur Gears other forms of tooth surface deterioration.
CAUTION: The calculated load capacity from this pro-
cedure is not to be used for comparison with AGMA rat-
ings of wrought metal gears, even though there are
many similarities in the two procedures.
1 Scope 1.2 Types of gears
This calculation procedure is applied to external spur
1.1 General gears, the type of gear most commonly produced by
1.1.1 Calculation the P/M process.

This information sheet describes a procedure for 1.3 Dimensional limitations


calculating the load capacity of a pair of powder This procedure applies to gears whose dimensions
metallurgy (P/M) gears based on tooth bending conform to those commonly produced by the P/M
strength. Two types of loading are considered: 1) process for load carrying applications:
repeated loading over many cycles; and 2) occasion-
al peak loading. This procedure is to be used on -- Finest pitch: 0.4 mm module;
prepared gear designs which meet the customary -- Maximum active face width: 15 ¢ module, with
gear geometry requirements such as adequate a 65 mm maximum;
backlash, contact ratio greater than 1.0, and ade- -- Minimum number of teeth: 7;
quate top land. An essentially reverse procedure for
establishing an initial design from specified applied -- Maximum outside diameter: 180 mm;
loads is described in annex D. -- Pressure angle: 14.5° to 25°.
1.1.2 Strength properties 1.4 Gear mesh limitations
Fatigue strength and yield strength properties used Some of the calculations apply only to meshing
in these calculations may be taken from previous test conditions expressed as a contact ratio greater than
experience, but may also be derived from published one and less than two. This translates into the
data obtained from standard tests of the materials. requirement that there is at least one pair of
contacting teeth transmitting load and no more than
1.1.3 Application
two pairs.
This procedure is intended for use as an initial
evaluation of a proposed design prior to preparation
of test samples. Such test samples might be 2 Definitions and symbols
machined from P/M blanks or made from P/M tooling
based on the proposed design after it passes this
2.1 Definitions
initial evaluation. Final acceptance of the proposed
design should be based on application testing and The terms used, wherever applicable, conform to
not on these calculations. If samples made from ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90.

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 1


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

2.2 Symbols symbol is introduced, it is defined and discussed in


detail.
The symbols and terms used throughout this infor- NOTE: The symbols and definitions used in this infor-
mation sheet are in basic agreement with the mation sheet may differ from other AGMA documents.
symbols and terms given in AGMA 900--G00, Style The user should not assume that familiar symbols can
Manual for the Preparation of Standards, Informa- be used without a careful study of their definitions.
tion Sheets and Editorial Manuals, and ANSI/AGMA The symbols and terms, along with the clause
1012--F90, Gear Nomenclature, Definitions of Terms numbers where they are first discussed, are listed in
with Symbols. In all cases, the first time that each alphabetical order by symbol in table 1.

Table 1 -- Symbols and definitions

Symbol Terms Units Reference


CA Operating center distance mm Eq 24
d Gear pitch diameter mm Eq 37
dAG Operating pitch diameter of gear mm Eq 25
dAP Operating pitch diameter of pinion mm Eq 24
dc Calculation diameter mm Eq 1
E Modulus of elasticity N/mm2 Eq 38
Fe Effective face width mm Eq 1
Fo Overlapping face width mm Eq 26
Fx Each face width extension, not larger than m mm Eq 27
Fxe1 Effective face width extension at one end mm Eq 26
Fxe2 Effective face width extension at other end mm Eq 26
fqm Factor relating to axis misalignment adjustment -- -- Eq 36
fqv Factor relating to manufacturing variations adjustment -- -- Eq 37
ht Whole depth of gear teeth mm Eq 32
J Geometry factor for bending strength -- -- Eq 28
Jt Geometry factor for bending strength under repeated loading -- -- Eq 1
Jy Geometry factor for bending strength under occasional peak loading -- -- Eq 2
KB Rim thickness factor -- -- Eq 31
Kf Stress concentration factor used in calculating bending geometry factor, -- -- 8.2
J
Kft Stress correction factor for repeated loading -- -- Eq 29
Kfy Stress correction factor for occasional overloads -- -- Eq 30
KL Life factor -- -- Eq 12
KLR Load reversal factor -- -- Eq 12
KLy Life factor at 0.5 ¢ 104 cycles -- -- Eq 13
Kmt Load distribution factor for repeated loading -- -- Eq 31
Kmy Load distribution factor for occasional overloads -- -- Eq 40
Kot Overload factor for repeated loads -- -- Eq 31
Koy Overload factor for occasional overloads -- -- Eq 40
KR Reliability factor -- -- Eq 12
Ks Size factor -- -- Eq 12
KT Temperature factor -- -- Eq 12
Kts Combined adjustment factor for bending fatigue strength -- -- Eq 1
Ktw Combined adjustment factor for repeated tooth loading -- -- Eq 1
Kv Dynamic factor -- -- Eq 31
Ky Yield strength factor -- -- Eq 21
(continued)

2 © AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Table 1 (concluded)
Symbol Terms Units Reference
Kys Combined adjustment factor for yield strength -- -- Eq 2
Kyw Combined adjustment factor for occasional peak loading -- -- Eq 2
kut Conversion factor for ultimate strength to fatigue limit -- -- Eq 5
m Module mm Eq 1
mB Backup ratio -- -- Eq 32
mct Modifying factor due to tooth compliance for repeated loading -- -- Eq 35
mcy Modifying factor due to tooth compliance for occasional overloads -- -- Eq 41
mw Modifying factor due to tooth surface wear -- -- Eq 35
NG Number of teeth of gear -- -- Eq 24
NP Number of teeth of pinion -- -- Eq 24
n Number of tooth load cycles -- -- Eq 14
nu Number of units for which one failure will be tolerated -- -- Eq 20
qm Adjustment due to axis misalignment -- -- Eq 35
qv Adjustment due to manufacturing variations -- -- Eq 35
Sb Bearing span mm Eq 36
SF Safety factor for bending strength -- -- Eq 31
st Design fatigue strength N/mm2 Eq 1
stG Fatigue limit, full reversal, adjusted for G--1 failure rate N/mm2 Eq 3
stT G--10 failure rate fatigue limit (published data) N/mm2 Eq 3
stTG Adjustment in fatigue limit from G--10 to G--1 N/mm2 Eq 3
suG Ultimate tensile strength, adjusted for G--1 N/mm2 Eq 9
suM Minimum ultimate strength listed in MPIF Standard 35 N/mm2 Eq 10
suT Typical ultimate strength (published data) N/mm2 Eq 5
suTG Reduction in ultimate strength from typical to G--1 N/mm2 Eq 9
sy Design yield strength N/mm2 Eq 2
syG Yield strength, adjusted for G--1 N/mm2 Eq 6
syM Minimum yield strength listed in MPIF Standard 35 N/mm2 Eq 7
syT Typical yield strength (published data) N/mm2 Eq 6
syTG Reduction in yield strength from typical to G--1 N/mm2 Eq 6
Tt Torque load capacity for tooth bending under repeated loading Nm Eq 1
Ty Torque load capacity under occasional peak loading Nm Eq 2
tR Rim thickness mm Eq 32
VqT Tooth--to--tooth composite tolerance (or measured variation) mm Eq 39
vt Pitch line velocity m/s Eq 39
Y Tooth form factor -- -- Eq 28

3 Fundamental formulas for calculated formulas and use the lower calculated value. To find
torque capacity the overall load capacity of a pair of non--identical
gears, or of all the gears in the drive train, the
calculated load capacity torque for each gear must
Two types of loading have been identified in 1.1.1. be converted to a power value. This is done by
Each has its own formula for calculated torque multiplying the torque value for each gear by the
capacity, reflecting the corresponding critical materi- corresponding gear speed, generally expressed as
al properties and other factors. To find the load radians per unit time interval. The lowest of all these
capacity of a gear under the combined types of power values becomes the calculated power capac-
loading, calculate the two torque values from the ity of the complete gear pair or drive train.

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 3


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

3.1 Tooth bending under repeated loading 4.1.1 Previous test experience
s t K ts d c F e J t m If there has been previous successful experience in
Tt = (1) the laboratory or field testing of gears from the same
2000 K tw
material of similar density and processing, it may be
where possible to perform reverse calculations to arrive at
Tt is torque load capacity for tooth bending un- an acceptable design fatigue strength. The value
der repeated loading, Nm; derived from this procedure may be overly conserva-
tive unless the test program included a range of load
st is design fatigue strength, N/mm2 (see conditions that bracketed the line between success-
4.1.2.1); ful operation and failure by repeated bending.
Kts is combined adjustment factor for bending 4.1.2 Derived from published data
fatigue strength (see 5.1); When suitable gear test data is not available,
dc is calculation diameter, mm (see clause 6); published data based on standard material testing
methods can be used, but only after adjustments are
Fe is effective face width, mm (see clause 7); made to adapt the fatigue strength values to the
Jt is geometry factor for bending strength un- design procedures of this information sheet. These
der repeated loading (see clause 8); procedures are based on values that correspond to
the following conditions:
m is module, mm;
a) number of test cycles of 107;
Ktw is combined adjustment factor for repeated b) test failure rates projected to “less than 1 in a
tooth loading (see clause 9). 100”, i.e., 1 percent or “G--1” failure rate;
3.2 Tooth bending under occasional peak c) load cycling of zero--to--maximum load (to reflect
loading typical gear tooth load cycling).
s y K ys d c F e J y m 4.1.2.1 Data published as “typical fatigue limit”
Ty = (2)
2000 K yw Such data for P/M materials generally meet condi-
tion (a) of 4.1.2, but not conditions (b) and (c). Values
where
called “typical” generally refer to test results with
Ty is torque load capacity under occasional 50% of the specimens falling below and 50% above
peak loading, Nm; the published value. This corresponds to a “G--50”
sy is design yield strength, N/mm2; failure rate, also known as mean fatigue life.
Data published by the Metal Powder Industries
Kys is combined adjustment factor for yield
Federation (MPIF) [1] has been determined as the
strength;
90% survival stress fatigue limit, using rotating
Kyw is combined adjustment factor for bending fatigue testing. This fatigue limit data is also
occasional peak loading; known as the “G--10” failure rate fatigue life.
Jy is geometry factor for bending strength Rotating bending fatigue testing imposes load
under occasional peak loading. cycling of full--reversal loads. The critical location on
the test specimen is subjected to the maximums of
both tensile and compressive stresses.
Adjustments to meet the conditions of 4.1.2(b) and
4 Design strength values (c) are expressed in the following equations:
s tG = s tT − s tTG (3)
Design strength values depend not only on the P/M where
material composition, and any heat treatment, but
stG is fatigue limit, full--reversal, adjusted for
also on the density achieved during compaction or
G--1 failure rate, N/mm2;
post--sintering repressing.
stT is G--10 failure rate fatigue limit (published
4.1 Fatigue strength, st data), N/mm2;
The value for design fatigue strength can be stTG is the adjustment in fatigue limit from G--10
obtained from alternate sources. to G--1, N/mm2.

4 © AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

The adjustment, stTG, has been estimated for P/M 4.2.1 Previous test experience
steels as 14 N/mm2 from a statistical analysis of If a gear of the same material and similar density and
recently published data [2]. processing has been tested for the load causing
The design fatigue limit, after adjustments, st, is: permanent deflection or breakage of the teeth, it may
be possible to perform reverse calculations to arrive
s tG
st = (4) at a limiting design yield strength.
0.7
4.2.2 Derived from published data
The factor of 0.7 is commonly used to convert from
full--reversal to zero--to--maximum load cycling. For When suitable gear test data is not available,
those gear applications, such as idler or planet published data based on standard material testing
gears, where the gear teeth experience fully revers- methods can be used, but only after an adjustment is
ing loads, this adjustment factor will be corrected made to adapt the yield strength values to the design
through the appropriate choice of load reversal procedures of this information sheet. These proce-
factor, see 5.1.2. dures are based on values that correspond to the
following condition:
4.1.2.2 Data estimated from “typical ultimate
-- test failure rates projected to “less than 1 in a
tensile strength” 100”, i.e., 1% or “G--1” failure rate.
When fatigue limit data is not directly available, it can 4.2.2.1 Derived from “typical yield strength”
be estimated from ultimate tensile strength values. In as--sintered gears, the published data is generally
This estimation process is described below. in the form of a “typical yield strength” based on 0.2%
Convert the typical ultimate tensile strength to the offset. This “typical yield strength”, based on a G--50
G--10 failure rate fatigue limit by the following failure rate, must be converted to a “design yield
expression: strength”, based on a G--1 failure rate. This
adjustment may be represented by the following
s tT = k ut s uT (5) equation:
where s yG = s yT − s yTG (6)

suT is typical ultimate tensile strength value, where


N/mm2; syG is yield strength, adjusted for G--1, N/mm2;
kut is conversion factor for ultimate strength to syT is typical yield strength (published data),
fatigue limit; N/mm2;
For heat treated steel (martensitic syTG is reduction in yield strength from typical to
microstructure): G--1, N/mm2.
The adjustment, syTG, is best determined from test
kut = 0.32
observations. An alternative method is to refer to
For as--sintered steel (pearlite and ferrite mi- MPIF Standard 35, where this step is accomplished
crostructure): for as--sintered materials by the listing of “minimum”
strength values. For these materials:
kut = 0.39
s yG = s yM (7)
For as--sintered steel (ferrite only
microstructure): where

kut = 0.43 syM is “minimum” yield strength listed in MPIF


Standard 35, N/mm2.
Then convert this estimated G--10 failure rate fatigue
The design yield strength is then set equal to this
limit, stT, to the design fatigue limit for zero--to
adjusted yield strength:
maximum loading using equations 3 and 4.
s y = s yG (8)
4.2 Yield strength, sy 4.2.2.2 Derived from “typical ultimate strength”
The value of design yield strength can be obtained In heat treated materials, typical yield strengths are
from one of two sources. approximately the same as typical ultimate

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 5


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

strengths. Design yield strength, sy, may be derived 5.1.1 Life factor, KL
from typical ultimate strength by first converting the The life factor is the ratio of the bending fatigue
typical value for a G--50 failure rate to a design value strength at the required number of tooth load cycles,
with a G--1 failure rate, as in 4.2.2.1. n, to the strength at 107 cycles. It can be estimated
s uG = s uT − s uTG (9) from the following equations:
where For 0 < n < (0.5 × 104),
suG is typical ultimate strength adjusted to the 0.9 s y
K L = K Ly = st (13)
G--1 failure rate, N/mm2.
suT is typical ultimate strength (published data), For (0.5 × 104)≤ n ≤ (1 × 107),
N/mm2; 
K L = 1 + 2.121 K Ly − 1  
suTG is reduction in ultimate strength from typical
to G--1, N/mm2.  
− 0.303 K Ly − 1  log n (14)
The adjustment, suTG, is best determined from test
For n > (1 × 107),
observations. An alternative method is to refer to
MPIF Standard 35, where this step is accomplished KL = 1, for ferrous materials only (15)
for heat treated materials by the listing of “minimum” (for non--ferrous material, consult test data)
strength values. For these materials: where
s uG = s uM (10) n is number of tooth load cycles;

where KLy is life factor at 0.5 ¢ 104 cycles, found from


equation 13 with strength values from
suM is “minimum” ultimate strength listed in 4.1.2.1 or 4.1.2.2 and 4.2.2.1 or 4.2.2.2.
MPIF Standard 35, N/mm2.
5.1.2 Load reversal factor, KLR
The design yield strength is then set equal to this
In 4.1.2.1, the factor of 0.7 was introduced to adjust
adjusted ultimate strength:
the fatigue strength values for the difference in cyclic
s y = s uG (11) loading in material testing from the typical cyclic
loading of gear teeth. In material testing, the load is
fully reversed while in most gear applications the
5 Combined adjustment factors for strength load is zero--to--maximum in one direction only. The
KLR factor reverses this adjustment for those less
typical gear applications in which the gear tooth
This factor is a combination of factors relating to the
loading is bidirectional, as follows:
strength of the P/M gear material under the operating
conditions. Use of such a combined factor helps KLR = 1.0 if load is unidirectional (16)
simplify the fundamental formulas in clause 3. As an
added advantage, this combined factor may be used KLR = 0.7 if load is bidirectional, as (17)
without detailed analysis for subsequent gear de- in idler or planet gears
signs with similar operating conditions. 5.1.3 Size factor, Ks
5.1 Combined factor for bending fatigue In some wrought materials, the stock from which the
strength, Kts gear is machined may have non--uniform material
properties which are related to size. However, with
K L K LR
K ts = (12) P/M materials, the properties of the powder mix are
Ks KT KR independent of the size of the finished gear. The size
where of the P/M gear may influence processing, which in
turn may affect the strength properties at the gear
KL is life factor; teeth, but only through change to other material
KLR is load reversal factor; characteristics such as density and hardness. In that
case, the size effects will be reflected directly in the
Ks is size factor;
fatigue strength value, st, as described in 4.1.
KT is temperature factor; Therefore, for P/M gears, size factor, Ks, is:
KR is reliability factor. Ks = 1 (18)

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

5.1.4 Temperature factor, KT to stresses developed during occasional peak


loading.
This factor reflects any loss of strength properties at
high operating temperatures. This applies to For unhardened materials:
hardened gears for which a temperature over 177°C
Ky = 1.00 (22)
may cause some tempering.
For hardened materials:
For gear blank temperatures below the level at which
strength is affected: Ky = 0.75 (23)
KT = 1 (19)
For gear blank temperatures above the level at 5.2.2 Stress correction factor, Kf
which strength is affected, KT is increased to reflect
This factor is used in the calculation of J, the
the loss in strength. For very low gear blank
geometry factor for bending strength (see clause 8).
temperatures in impact prone applications, KT may
It reflects the increase in local stresses due to sharp
be increased to reflect any reduction in impact
changes in geometry at or near the critical section.
properties.
These increased stresses directly affect the bending
5.1.5 Reliability factor, KR strength under repeated loading. Under occasional
loads, however, local yielding may take place and
This factor accounts for the effect of the typical
the stress concentration has little or no significant
statistical distribution of failures found in fatigue
effect on load capacity. In the AGMA gear rating
testing of materials. Its value is based on the
calculation, this difference is treated by re--
frequency of failures that can be tolerated in the gear
introducing the stress correction factor as a benefi-
application, expressed as no more than one failure in
cial adjustment to the yield strength. In the
some number of units, nu. KR may be estimated from
calculation procedures of this document, a different
the following equation:
and more direct approach is used, and such an
K R = 0.5 + 0.25 log n u (20) adjustment is not needed and is not included in the
where above “combined factor for yield strength”. As
described in clause 8 and annex C, the J factor for
nu is number of units for which one failure will each type of loading is calculated with a stress
be tolerated. correction factor which is appropriately modified to
Some values from this equation, along with equiva- reflect the differences.
lent “G” values, are given in table 2.
5.2 Combined factor for yield strength, Kys
Ky 6 Calculation diameter, dc
K ys = (21)
Ks KT
where The calculation diameter, as used in equations 1 and
2, must agree with the diameter value used in
Ky is yield strength factor;
calculating the Y factor, see annex B. For spur gears,
Ks is size factor (see 5.1.3); it is the same as the operating pitch diameter of the
KT is temperature factor (see 5.1.4). gear for which the torque capacity is to be calculated.
Its value depends on the relative numbers of teeth
5.2.1 Yield strength factor, Ky
and the operating center distance and may be, but is
This factor reflects the difference between the not necessarily, equal to the standard pitch diameter,
response of hardened versus unhardened materials as follows:

Table 2 -- Reliability factors, KR

Requirement of application: nu units Equivalent G--value KR


No more than 1 failure in: 10,000 G--0.01 1.50
1,000 G--0.10 1.25
100 G--1.00 1.00

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AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

For the pinion: where


2 CA Fx is each face width extension (not larger than
d c = d AP = (24)
N m), mm;
1+ G
NP m is module, mm.
where
dAP is operating pitch diameter of pinion, mm; 8 Geometry factor for bending strength, J
CA is operating center distance, mm;
The geometry factor is a non--dimensional value
NP is number of teeth of pinion; which relates the shape of the gear tooth, along with
NG is number of teeth of gear. some associated geometry conditions, to the tensile
bending stress induced by a unit load applied on the
For the gear:
tooth flank. For spur gears, there are two elements
2 CA which go into its calculation:
d c = d AG = (25)
N
1+ P J= Y (28)
NG Kf
where where
dAG is operating pitch diameter of gear, mm. Y is tooth form factor (see annex B);
Kf is stress correction factor (see annex C).
8.1 Tooth form factor, Y
7 Effective face width, Fe
This factor is dependant only on geometry, with the
addition of a coefficient of friction where the tooth
The effective face width represents the face width sliding friction force may have a significant effect on
capable of resisting bending loads. If the two mating stresses. As part of making this a non--dimensional
gears have the same face widths which are fully factor, the geometry is scaled to a tooth of unit
overlapping, then the effective face width of each is module. The elements of the factor are:
equal to the common face width. If, however, there is
a portion of a face width which extends beyond the -- the location along the tooth flank where the tooth
overlapping width, then this extension may contrib- load will have its greatest effect on bending
ute to resisting the bending load. stress;
-- the proportions of the tooth shape, especially in
The extensions may be present at one or both ends the region of the tooth fillet;
of the face width of either of the mating gears.
-- the diameter used to relate applied torque values
This may be expressed as equations: to a tangential force, by tradition the operating
F e = F o + F xe1 + F xe2 (26) pitch diameter of the gear.

where The calculation for determining the Y factor is


described in annex B with calculation of some of the
Fe is effective face width, mm; required geometry data described in annex A.
Fo is overlapping face width, mm; 8.2 Stress correction factor, Kf
Fxe1 is effective face width extension at one end, This factor is determined by a combination of tooth
mm; geometry, the type of loading, and some property of
Fxe2 is effective face width extension at other the material that determines to what extent it is
end, mm. sensitive to stress concentration. The calculation is
These effective face width extensions may be described in annex C.
estimated as follows: Since the type of loading may be a significant factor,
there will generally be two values considered for
For each extension:
each gear. One, Kft, is for repeated loading and the

F xe = 1 −
Fx
2m
Fx (27) other, Kfy, is for the occasional overload condition.
This leads to two possible values for the J factor:

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

For repeated loading: have already been addressed elsewhere in the


calculations. As for material strength, there have
Jt = Y (29)
been a whole series of adjustments, such as the
K ft
selection of the G--1 values from published data, see
where
clause 4, and the various factors defined in clause 5.
Kft is stress correction factor for repeated Similarly for the level of loading, a number of
loading. adjustments have been introduced, as described in
For occasional overloads: clause 9. Based on concerns for material strength
and loading, unless these adjustments are judged to
Jy = Y (30) be inadequate, the suggested value for the safety
K fy
factor would be one.
where
This first selection may be increased after consider-
Kfy is stress correction factor for occasional ation of the possible results of failure of the gear
overloads. under study. If such failure is likely to be followed by
severe economic loss, or even more importantly, by
injury to those associated with the failed equipment,
9 Combined adjustment factors for loading then the safety factor should reflect the level of the
hazards.
This is a combination of the remaining load capacity Also to be considered is the level of testing that
factors, most of which relate to tooth loading under precedes final acceptance of the design. Because
the operating conditions. The use of such a the P/M process is used to produce gears for mass
combined factor helps simplify the fundamental production, there is generally the need and opportu-
formulas in clause 3. As an added advantage, this nity for extensive testing. This, and the recognition
combined factor may be used without detailed that P/M processes are highly consistent, indicates
analysis for subsequent gear designs with similar that high safety factors are rarely necessary.
operating conditions.
9.1.2 Overload factor for repeated loads, Kot
9.1 Combined adjustment factor for repeated
tooth loading, Ktw This factor allows for two types of repeated over-
(31) loads. One type is the overload that results from
K tw = S F K ot K B K mt K v
operation of the product beyond its nominal rating. If
where the calculated load capacity is going to be compared
SF is safety factor for bending strength; to the load associated with the nominal rating, then
Kot is overload factor for repeated loads; this factor should be adjusted to reflect this potential
KB is rim thickness factor; overload. The other type is the overload resulting
Kmt is load distribution factor for repeated load- from externally applied dynamic loads. Anything in
ing; the drive train that is not steady in its effect on
Kv is dynamic factor. transmitted torque or speed may introduce dynamic
torques. For example, non--steady torques are
9.1.1 Safety factor, SF
associated with driving members like internal com-
A safety factor is commonly introduced into design bustion engines or some types of hydraulic motors.
calculations to provide greater protection against They are also associated with varying drive train
possible failure. This protection may be sought loads such as reciprocating pumps or intermittent
because of concern that some elements of the cutting actions.
design process may have overstated the strength of
The selection of the appropriate value of this factor
the material or may have understated the level of the
may be based on a thorough dynamic analysis of the
loading. Sometimes the added protection against
drive train with all its inertia, compliance and
failure is based on concern for some extremely
damping effects. Most often, however, it will be
severe result of failure.
selected in accordance with past experience with
In selecting a value for safety factor, it is first similar products and with the application of
necessary to recognize that many of these concerns engineering judgement.

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 9


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

9.1.3 Rim thickness factor, KB distribution factor is estimated by considering the


various items which contribute to, or partially offset,
The calculation of bending strength at the tooth fillet,
the effect on tooth bending strength.
as in annex B, presupposes that the material in the
adjacent areas is adequate to support the stressed The common contributing items are:
regions. If the rim thickness under the root circle is
-- misalignment of the gear axes due to manufac-
too small to provide this support, or is itself under turing variations in the geometry of the housing,
stress from transmitting torque from the gear web or bearings, shafts, and any other support features;
spokes, then a rim thickness factor is needed to
compensate for these rim shortcomings. -- manufacturing variations in the geometry of the
tooth surfaces, such as axial runout (wobble) or
The P/M gear is rarely designed with a narrow web non--uniform tooth thickness across the face
and extended rim, as is the common practice in width.
machined or cast wide--face gears. For the typical
The effect of these items on non--uniform load
P/M gear, therefore, the rim thickness factor is set to
distribution increases with the face width of the
one. There is a practice of introducing holes into the
mating gears. In the case of gear axis misalignment,
otherwise solid web of P/M gears to reduce weight
the size of the face width in relation to the bearing
and compaction area. If these holes are placed too
span is often significant. In the case of tooth surface
close to the root circle of the gear teeth, a condition
geometry, the manufacturing variations tend to
similar to a thin rim results. The rim thickness factor
increase as face width becomes larger in relation to
may then be calculated as follows:
gear diameter.
Backup ratio, mB The common items that tend to improve load
t distribution are:
mB = R (32)
ht
-- local tooth compliance in the form of bending or
where twisting of the tooth, combined with contact surface
tR is rim thickness, mm; deformations;
ht is whole depth of gear teeth, mm. -- local tooth surface wear, especially in the early
Rim thickness factor, KB cycles of repeated loading.
For mB ≥ 1.2 The load distribution factor for repeated loads can be
related to these items by the following equation:
KB = 1 (33)
For mB <1.2 K mt = 1 + (q m + q v)m ct × m w (35)

K B = 1.2916 − 3.682 log m B (34) where

9.1.4 Load distribution factor for repeated loads, qm is adjustment due to axis misalignment;
Kmt qv is adjustment due to manufacturing
variations;
This factor accounts for any lack of complete and mct is modifying factor due to tooth compliance;
uniform contact along the axial length of the mating mw is modifying factor due to tooth surface
gear teeth. Such limited contact interferes with a wear.
uniform distribution of the transmitted load. The load
Procedures for selecting approximate values for
tends to concentrate where contact is best, which
these factors are described below. They qualitative-
raises the bending stress at the corresponding
ly consider many of the elements that can influence
positions along the base of the tooth. Adjacent
the effect of non--uniform load distribution. The
portions of the tooth help to support these concen-
quantitative values are only estimates which may be
trated loads and, to some extent, limit the rise in local
used until more appropriate values are developed by
stress.
analytical or experimental methods.
It is generally impractical to precisely evaluate the
9.1.4.1 Axis misalignment adjustment, qm
exact nature of the non--uniform load distribution, its
effect on local bending stress, and the resulting loss This factor recognizes that the extent of axis
in load capacity. Instead, a value for the load misalignment will be influenced by the expected

10 © AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

accuracy of the housing, the type of bearings, and Table 3 -- Manufacturing variation adjustment
the mounting of the gear with respect to bearing
Typical AGMA
locations. It also recognizes that with misalignment
accuracy grade1) fqv
determined by these conditions, its contribution to
Q5 1.0
non--uniform load distribution will increase with face
Q6 0.75
width.
Q7 0.6
Fo Q8 0.4
q m = f qm (36)
Sb Q9 0.3
Q10 0.2
where NOTE:
1) See AGMA 2000--A88.
Fo is overlapping face width, mm;
Sb is bearing span, mm; 9.1.4.3 Tooth compliance modifying factor, mct
fqm is factor relating to axis misalignment
This factor takes into account the compliance of the
adjustment:
material, as indicated by its modulus of elasticity, and
For machined metal housing with rolling
the degree of loading, as indicated by the design
element bearings:
stress.
fqm = 0.1
0.5
For machined metal housing with straddle m ct = 1 − 5 sE
t (38)
mounted sleeve bearings:
fqm = 0.2 where

For machined metal housing with overhung st is design fatigue limit, N/mm2 (see 4.1.2.1);
mounted sleeve bearings: E is modulus of elasticity, N/mm2.
fqm = 0.5 9.1.4.4 Tooth wear modifying factor, mw
For as--cast or molded housing with straddle This factor considers that wear is affected by the
mounted sleeve bearings: hardness of the tooth surfaces, with very slow wear
fqm = 0.6 expected from heat treated P/M materials. Also, the
kind of wear which best corrects for non--uniform
For as--cast or molded housing with over-
contact conditions takes place when each tooth is
hung mounted sleeve bearings:
contacted by only one tooth on the mating gear. This
fqm= 1.0 contact condition is met only when the gear ratio has
9.1.4.2 Manufacturing variations adjustment, qv an integer value.
For one or both gears in as--sintered
This factor considers that P/M process variations condition and with an integer value for gear
from ideal gear geometry are influenced by gear ratio:
proportions. This influence is expressed, for the mw = 0.6
sake of simplicity, in terms of the ratio of face width to For one or both gears in as--sintered condi-
pitch diameter. It also recognizes that gear geometry tion and with a non--integer value for gear
may be substantially improved by a final finishing ratio:
process. mw = 0.8
For both gears in heat treated condition:
Fo
q v = f qv (37) mw = 1.0
d
9.1.5 Dynamic factor, Kv
where
This factor accounts for the added dynamic tooth
Fo is overlapping face width, mm; loads that are developed by the meshing action of
the gears. These loads are influenced by:
d is gear pitch diameter, mm;
fqv is factor relating to manufacturing variations -- imperfections in the geometry of the gear teeth;
adjustment (see table 3). -- speed of the meshing action;

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AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

-- size and mass of the gears. Kv is dynamic factor.


In principle, the appropriate value of this factor may 9.2.1 Safety factor, SF
be derived from a thorough dynamic analysis of the
This factor is generally the same as the safety factor
drive train with consideration of all these influences.
discussed in 9.1.1 for fatigue loading.
In practice, an approximate value may be calculated
from an equation which uses a gear inspection value 9.2.2 Overload factor for occasional overloads,
as the indicator of imperfect geometry and the Koy
pitchline velocity as the meshing speed indicator.
This factor should be based on the types of
The gear inspection most commonly used for P/M occasional overloads that may be applied to the
gears is the gear rolling check, or double flank test, in gears. Some considerations are items such as the
which the test gear is rolled with a master gear. See inertia and time duration of load in the system under
AGMA 2000--A88. One measurement made by this consideration. These may be different from the
inspection is the tooth--to--tooth composite variation, repeated overloads and will generally require a
an approximate indicator of the degree that the gear different factor.
will contribute to exciting dynamic loads. This value,
as expressed by its tolerance, VqT, is part of the 9.2.3 Rim thickness factor, KB
specification of gear quality. If measured values are
The same factor discussed in 9.1.3 is used here.
available, they may be used in place of the tolerance.
Since meshing conditions are determined by the 9.2.4 Load distribution factor for occasional
geometry of both gears, if the tolerances or mea- overloads, Kmy
surements differ between the two, the value used in
The equation used to estimate this factor is:
the following calculations should be the larger.
0.5 K my = 1 + (q m + q v)m cy (41)
K v = 1 + 0.0055 V qT v t  (39)
Note that this equation differs from the equation in
where 9.1.4 in that the modifying factor due to tooth surface
VqT is tooth--to--tooth composite tolerance (or wear has been omitted. Occasional overloads may
measured variation), mm; occur before wear has progressed enough to modify
vt is pitch line velocity, m/s. load distribution. The remaining factors are the
9.2 Combined adjustment factor for occasional same except for mcy, the modifying factor due to
overloads, Kyw tooth compliance which is here estimated by:

K yw = S F K oy K B K my K v (40) 0.5

where
m cy = 1 − 5 sE 
y
(42)

SF is safety factor for bending strength; where


Koy is overload factor for occasional overloads; sy is design yield strength, N/mm2 (see 4.2).
KB is rim thickness factor;
9.2.5 Dynamic factor, Kv
Kmy is load distribution factor for occasional
overloads; The same factor discussed in 9.1.5 is used here.

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Annex A
(informative)
Calculation of spur gear geometry features
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,
Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

A.1 Introduction A.2.2 Data for each gear

The calculation of the spur gear form factor in annex Member designated by final subscript: P = pinion
B requires data describing a number of gear (driver) and G = gear (driven)
geometry features. This annex gives the detailed -- number of teeth, N;
calculations for each of these features as listed -- outside diameter, dO;
below. See A.9 for listing of symbols and terms.
-- tip radius, rr;
For the individual gear: -- tooth thickness (at reference diameter), t;
-- effective outside diameter after tip rounding, see -- root diameter (for circular--arc fillet), dR;
A.3.1; -- fillet radius (for circular--arc fillet), rf;
-- tooth thickness at indicated diameter, see A.4.1; -- basic rack dedendum (for generated trochoid fil-
let), bBR
-- generated trochoid fillet points, see A.4.5;
-- basic rack fillet radius (for generated trochoid fil-
-- minimum fillet radius, see A.4.6; let), rfBR.
-- circular--arc fillet points, see A.5.6. A.2.3 Gear mesh data
For the gear mesh: -- effective operating center distance, CA.
-- operating pitch diameters, see A.7.2; A.3 Tip radius geometry

-- diameters at highest points of single tooth See figure A.1.


loading, see A.8.2.
In addition, this annex supplies some detailed
calculations for features not required by annex B. tO
These have been included because they are con-
nected to the required calculations and are useful for tOR
general reference purposes. rr
For the individual gear:

-- remaining top land after tip rounding, see A.3.2;


dO
-- points on the involute profile, see A.4.2;
tOE
-- bottom land for the circular--arc fillet, see A.5.5.
dOE
For the gear mesh: drC
αrC
-- profile contact ratio, see A.8.4; Figure A.1 -- Tip round
-- form limit clearance (test for tip--fillet
interference), see annex F. A.3.1 Effective outside diameter, dOE

A.2 Input data This is the diameter at which the involute joins in
tangency with the tip round. It is calculated for each
A.2.1 Data common to the mating gears gear in the following steps:
-- module, m; Step 1. Diameter at center of tip round, drC:
-- pressure angle, φ. d rC = d O − 2r r (A.1)

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AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Step 2. Standard pitch diameter, d: a hob. Although such a tool is not actually used to
manufacture a P/M gear, the corresponding basic
d=N×m (A.2)
rack may be used to define the P/M gear trochoid
Step 3. Base circle diameter, dB: fillet.

d B = d(cos φ) (A.3) If the P/M gear is to replace a gear machined by


Step 4. Pressure angle at center of tip round, φrC: another type of tool, such as a gear shaper cutter, the
trochoid described here will be slightly different from
dB the shape of that machined trochoid. Some gears
φ rC = arccos (A.4)
d rC are machined with a protuberance feature on the
tool. The protuberance provides an undercut fillet
Step 5. Pressure angle at effective outside diame-
which can clear the tip of a finishing tool used to
ter, φOE:
modify the involute flank in a secondary operation.


φ OE = arctan tan φ rC +
dB

2r r
(A.5)
This analysis does not cover such a feature, even
when it is used on a hob or other rack shaped
generating tool. It has been omitted because the
Step 6. Effective outside diameter, dOE addition of an undercut condition is rarely needed in
P/M gears.
dB
d OE = (A.6)
cos φ OE A.4.1 Basic rack
A.3.2 Remaining top land, tOR The calculation uses several data items related to
the basic rack. See figure A.2.
This is the width of the outer tip of the gear that
remains after rounding at each corner. The calcula-
A.4.1.1 Specified basic rack proportions
tion is needed only as a check on the design of the
gear. It consists of two steps and uses some of the The following data items define the portion of the
data found in A.3.1. basic rack that helps determine the trochoid fillet:
Step 1. Tooth thickness half--angle, α: -- tooth thickness, tBR;

α= t (A.7) -- dedendum, bBR;


d
Step 2. Remaining top land, tOR -- fillet radius, rfBR.

t OR = d Oα + (inv φ) − tan φ OE + φ rC


These data can be taken from the basic rack
specification. It is customary for standards to specify
(A.8) basic rack proportions for unit module. The above
items would then be calculated by adjusting the unit
If the calculated remaining top land is negative, the
pitch data for the actual module of the gear, m.
two tip radii intersect inside of the selected outside
diameter. To correct this design flaw, one or more of
If a separate basic rack specification is not available,
the following design changes are needed:
values of the first two of these items can be
-- reduce the tip radius; determined from some of the data in A.2, as follows:

-- reduce the outside diameter; Basic rack tooth thickness, according to common
practice:
-- increase the tooth thickness.

A.4 Generated trochoid fillet points t BR = πm (A.9)


2
The trochoid described below is generated by a rack Basic rack dedendum, based on the specified gear
shaped outline rolling on the standard pitch circle of root diameter:
the gear. This rack shaped outline, universally called
a “basic rack”, is often visualized as the outline of an
imaginary rack shaped gear generating tool such as

b BR = 0.5 Nm +
t − t BR
tan φ
− dR  (A.10)

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

L Tooth
C L Space
C

p BR
2
gfBR
Nominal
pitch line

t BR Generating
pitch line
2
φBR
G
Gy
hfBR yRS hyfBR bfBR bBR

rfBR Start of fillet


radius curve

Figure A.2 -- Generating basic rack

The third data item, basic rack fillet radius, can not be Basic rack form dedendum:
determined from other data but must be indepen-
b fBR = b BR − r fBR [1 − (sin φ)] (A.12)
dently specified, as noted in A.2.2. The radius may
be zero, indicating a sharp corner, but is almost The center of the fillet radius is located on the basic
always a greater value, up to one--fourth of the basic rack by its coordinates, gfBR and hfBR, relative to the
rack dedendum or even larger. However, it may not nominal pitch line, as the G--axis, and the tooth
exceed the size of the full round radius. A full round centerline, as the H--axis. See figure A.2. These
basic rack fillet will produce a full round gear fillet, coordinates are calculated as follows:
leaving no part of a root circle between joined fillets.
G--axis coordinate:
This maximum basic rack fillet radius is:
t BR r
πmcosφ g fBR = + b BR − r fBR(tan φ) + fBR
− b BR(sin φ) 2 cos φ
r fBRX = 4 (A.11) (A.13)
1 − (sin φ)
H axis coordinate (measured from the G--axis lo-
A.4.1.2 Calculated basic rack data
cated at the nominal pitch line):
The above data may be used to calculate additional h fBR = b BR − r fBR (A.14)
items of basic rack geometry, namely:
A.4.2 Rack shift
-- basic rack form dedendum;
The generating pitch line on the basic rack, which
-- location of the center of the basic rack fillet ra-
rolls on the generating pitch circle on the gear, is
dius.
commonly offset from the nominal pitch line on the
The basic rack form dedendum, bfBR, refers to the basic rack. The rack shift is the offset distance and,
distance from the basic rack nominal pitch line to the as shown in figure A.2, is positive in the direction
tangent point at the straight line tooth flank and the away from the gear center. This distance is
fillet radius curve. It is calculated as follows: calculated, as follows:

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 15


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Rack shift: conditions. At each basic rack position, there is a


t − t BR straight line connecting three points:
y RS = (A.15)
2(tan φ) -- point of contact (pitch point) between the rack
Since the generating action that defines the trochoid generating pitch line and the gear generating
is based on the basic rack generating pitch line, the pitch circle;
fillet radius center must now be located relative to -- point at the center of the rack fillet radius;
this line, which is labeled as the Gy--axis. See figure
A.2. -- point on the generated trochoid (also on the rack
fillet radius).
Coordinate along the H--axis (measured from the
Gy--axis located at the generating pitchline): The “pitch--point trochoid line”, makes the “pitch--
point polar angle”, θf, with the rack pitch line. Each
h yfBR = h fBR − y RS (A.16) generated point on the trochoid is associated with a
The basic rack form dedendum from equation A.12 value of this angle.
and the rack shift from equation A.15 are used to test
for undercutting as follows: At the start of the trochoid, figure A.3(a), the trochoid
point is on the root circle, and the same point is at the
there is undercutting if: root of the rack fillet radius. The pitch--point trochoid
line is also a radial line of the gear. The pitch--point
bfBR − yRS > d sin2 φ
2 polar angle for this trochoid point on the root circle is:
there is no undercutting if: θ fR = 90° (A.18)
bfBR − yRS ≤ d sin2 φ (A.17)
2 For the typical case of tangency to the involute, the
A.4.3 Trochoid generating limits trochoid ends at the point of tangency, or form
diameter point, see figure A.4(b). The pitch point
The trochoid extends from its “start”, point R on the polar angle for this trochoid point is:
root circle, to its “end”, point F where it connects to
the involute profile. This connection is generally a θ fF = φ (A.19)
tangency, but becomes an intersection in the case of
In the case of undercut gears, the trochoid ends in an
undercutting.
intersection with the involute. The pitch point polar
Figure A.3(a) and (b) show the basic rack positioned angle corresponding to this intersection point is
to generate the limit points for the first two of these slightly larger than the value of equation A.19.

φ
Basic rack
Basic rack θf = 90° rfBR
Generating Generating
pitch line on pitch line on θf = φ
basic rack basic rack
Pitch point
rfBR
Generating
circle on gear
End of trochoid
Start of trochoid at involute
at root circle (point F)
(point R) Generating
circle on gear
(a) Start of trochoid at root circle (b) End of trochoid at involute

Figure A.3 -- Start and end of generated trochoid

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

The exact value of this angle and the subsequent Intermediate points can be found from equally
calculation of the exact values of the coordinates of spaced intermediate values of the pitch point polar
the intersection point are not essential to the fillet angle. The following equation gives the value of the
profile data used in annex B. If the exact coordinates “k--th” point and applies to the intermediate and the
are desired for a complete detailed tooth outline, start and end points:
they must be found by an iterative calculation
searching for the intersection of the trochoid curve θ f1 n f − k  + θ fn( k − 1 )
and the connected involute. The numerical steps in θf =
nf − 1
such a calculation are beyond the scope of this
for (k = 1 to nf) (A.22)
document. However, this intersection may be found
graphically after extending the involute curves. This where
procedure is supplied in A.6.2. nf is number of points along the fillet.

A.4.4 Fillet point selection A.4.5 Fillet point coordinates

If the trochoid is to be described by a selected These coordinates can be calculated as follows, see
number of points, nf, then the values of equations figure A.4(a), (b) and (c):
A.18 and A.19 become the first and nf --th values of
this angle, or: Step 1. Pitch point polar radius:

θ f1 = θ fR = 90° (A.20) h yfBR


Ãf = + r fBR (A.23)
(A.21) sin θ f
θ fn = θ fF = φ

θf
hyfBR
θfR

Pitch point

rfBR ρf
Basic rack

Point on
trochoid

Generating
Gear center circle on Generating
gear pitch line on
basic rack

Figure A.4(a) -- Generation of fillet point of spur gear tooth

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hyfBR θf
θfR

Pitch point εf
Y d d
2 2

εf gfBR
ρf Basic rack
C
L
εf
(vf, αf)
See fig A.4(c)
X

Generating
Gear center circle on gear Generating
pitch line on
basic rack

Figure A.4(b) -- Generation of fillet point of spur gear tooth

Point on
xf trochoid

Basic
rack
Gear center

yf
αf
X

vf

Figure A.4(c) -- Generation of fillet point of spur gear tooth

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Step 2. Generating roll angle from a pitch point at Step 4. Rectangular coordinates of trochoid point,
tooth centerline to a pitch point at which k--th trochoid relative to gear tooth centerline as the X--axis with
point is generated: the origin at the gear center:

x f = v fcos α f (A.27)

2 g fBR +
h yfBR cosθ f
sinθ f
 y f = v fsin α f (A.28)
εf = radians (A.24)
d A.4.6 Minimum radius along trochoid curve
cos θ f 1 The shape of the trochoid is such that the radius of
NOTE: sin θ f is used in place of tan θ f to permit evalu- curvature varies from point to point. The value of this
ation for θf = 90°. radius at any point is determined by the generating
action of the pitch point polar radius. The minimum
Step 3. Polar coordinates of trochoid point relative to value is used in the stress concentration calculations
tooth centerline, gear center polar radius and gear of annex C. This minimum value, RfN, corresponds
center polar angle: to this radius at the start of the trochoid, where the
trochoid is tangent to the root circle and the pitch

vf =   d
2
2 2
+ Ã f − dÃ fsin θ f (A.25)
point polar angle, θf, is equal to 90°. See figure
A.3(a).
2
à f cos θ f h yfBR
α f = ε f − arcsin radians (A.26) R fN = + r fBR (A.29)
vf 0.5 d + h yfBR

dfc

Space
centerline
dR
sR

θfC

τf
(xfC, yfC)

rf φF

(xf, yf)

θfC
θF dF

X
Tooth centerline

Figure A.5 -- Circular arc fillet

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A.5 Circular--arc in place of trochoid Reduction of the root diameter may help in avoiding
item b).
See figure A.5. It is a common practice in P/M gear
design to introduce a fillet in the form of a single Calculations for determining the size of this full--fillet
circular arc. In this practice, the arc will start at a radius for a specified root diameter are given in
tangent point on the root circle and generally end at a A.5.2. If the root diameter is smaller than the base
tangent point on the involute profile at each side of circle diameter, it is not always possible to fit such a
the tooth space. A fillet of this form simplifies the fillet to the specified conditions. The calculations
manufacture of the compacting tool. The selection of indicate if this limiting condition has been reached.
the fillet type should consider the following (see
A.5.1 Test for minimum fillet radius
figure A.6):
This test is required only if the root diameter is
a) A small radius may increase stress concentration
smaller than the base circle diameter. If the root
and reduce tooth bending strength;
diameter is larger, fillet radii approaching zero will
b) A large radius may introduce interference with meet the geometry condition of tangency to both the
the tip of the mating gear; involute tooth flanks and the root circle.
c) A large radius may lead to fillet arcs intersecting Minimum fillet radius
outside of the root circle;
d2 − d2
d) For root diameters smaller than the base circle di- r fN = B R
; but greater than zero
ameter, a small radius may not give tangent 4d R
(A.30)
points at both the root circle and the involute pro-
file; A.5.2 Full--fillet radius
e) For profiles that must be undercut to avoid inter- Calculation of the full--fillet radius also serves as a
ference with the tip of the mating tooth, there can- test for maximum fillet radius. If the originally
not be tangency to the involute. A more complex specified fillet radius falls between the minimum fillet
fillet form is preferred if interference, on one radius of A.5.1 and the maximum fillet radius
hand, or excessive undercutting, on the other, calculated below, the calculation of fillet features
are to be avoided. may proceed. If the original fillet is smaller than the
minimum, it must be increased to that value subject
Circular--arc fillet (shown to the test in A.8.4. If it is larger than the full--fillet
shallow for clarity) radius fillet, the fillet radius must be reduced to that
Full--fillet radius maximum.
Trochoid fillet without undercutting
Trochoid fillet with undercutting Step 1. Test for the fit of a full--fillet radius fillet:

BTff =  π + d R − α − (inv φ)
N dB
 (A.31)

If BTff is less than 1, the root diameter is smaller than


the base circle diameter and a full--fillet radius fillet
will not fit the specified gear data.
Step 2. Pressure angle along imaginary involute at
the center of the full--fillet radius fillet, φbC:

φ bC = arc sev BT ff (A.32)


NOTE: This equation introduces a new trigometric
Figure A.6 -- Fillets function, the sevolute function, defined as follows:

sev φ = sevolute φ = 1 − inv φ (A.33)


The fillet radius may be selected so that the two fillets cos φ
on adjacent teeth form a single continuous arc, The “arc sev” or inverse of this function may be found
constituting a full--fillet radius fillet. This feature will from tables of the function [9] or by the calculation
dispose of above items a), c) and in some cases d). procedure in annex E.

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Step 3. Diameter at the center of the full--fillet radius A.5.5 Bottom land
fillet, dbC:
The bottom land is the length along the root circle
dB between the start points of the two symmetrical fillets
d bC = (A.34) positioned in the same tooth space.
cos φ bC

Step 4. Value of the full--fillet radius (maximum fillet


N

s R = d R π − θ fC  (A.44)
radius), rfX
A.5.6 Coordinates of points spaced along fillet
r fX = 0.5 d bC − d R (A.35)
Some of these points will be used in calculations
A.5.3 Fillet radius center specified in annex B. They may also be used in the
graphic construction of the complete tooth outline.
The coordinates of the center of fillet radius are
Step 1. Polar angle at the form diameter
found as follows:
θ F = α + (inv φ) − invφ F (A.45)
Step 1. Diameter of gear center circle going through
fillet center Step 2. Fillet construction angle at the form diameter

d fC = d R + 2r f (A.36) τ fF = π + θ F − φ F (A.46)
2
Step 2. Pressure angle along imaginary involute Step 3. Fillet construction angle at the root diameter
through fillet center τ fR = θ fC (A.47)

φ fC = arccos   dB
d fC
(A.37)
Step 4. Fillet construction angles at spaced points
along the fillet

τ fR n f − k  + τ fF( k − 1 )
Step 3. Polar radius at fillet center τf = (A.48)
nf − 1
d fC
à fC = (A.38) for k = 1 to nf
2
where
Step 4. Polar angle at fillet center (relative to tooth
center line) nf is the number of points along the fillet.
Step 5. Coordinates of spaced points along fillet
θ fC = α + (inv φ) − inv φ fC +
dB
 
2r f
x f = x fC − r f cos τ f (A.49)
(A.39)
y f = y fC − r f sin τ f (A.50)
Step 5. Coordinates at fillet center
The coordinates at the nf --th point should match
x fC = Ã fCcos θ fC (A.40) exactly the first point of the involute as calculated
below.
y fC = Ã fCsin θ fC (A.41)
A.6 Involute profile data (see figure A.7)
A.5.4 Form diameter In A.3, the tip radius geometry is defined with its
The form diameter corresponds to the diameter at value of effective outside diameter, dOE. In A.4 or
A.5, the fillet geometry is defined with its value of
which the fillet ends and the “true form” involute
form diameter, dF. (For undercut gears, see A.6.2.) It
profile begins.
is now possible to define the geometry of the involute
Step 1. Pressure angle at the form diameter profile located between these two diameters, dF and
dOE.


φ F = arctan tan φ fC −
dB

2r f
(A.42) A.6.1 Spaced points on the involute profile
After choosing the number of points, ni, which
Step 2. Form diameter includes the start and end points, the following
calculation selects conveniently spaced points and
dB determines their coordinates on the same axes used
dF = (A.43)
cos φ F for the tip radius and fillet geometry.

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AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

ds
2
d
2 (xs, ys)

ts φs
αs
2
2
X
α
αB t
2
φ

inv φ

Base
circle Standard
pitch circle

Figure A.7 -- Tooth profile data

Step 1. Roll angles at the form and effective outside Step 6. Coordinates of the “i--th” point
diameters, which correspond to the start and end di
points. xi = cos α i (A.57)
2


ε F = tan arccos
dB
dF
 (A.51)
d
y i = i sin α i
2
(A.58)

NOTE: The coordinates at the i = 1 point should corre-


 d
ε OE = tan arccos B
d OE
 (A.52) spond exactly with the coordinates of the j = nj point on
the fillet, except for undercut trochoids, as noted in
A.6.2.
Step 2. Roll angles at the “i--th” point along the
involute where i = 1 corresponds to the form A.6.2 Start point on undercut profiles
diameter point and i = ni to the effective outside point. As explained in A.4.3, for undercut trochoid fillets,
the diameter at the end of the fillet and the start of the
ε F n i − i  + ε OE( i − 1 )
εi = (A.53) involute is not readily calculated. However, it can be
ni − 1 determined graphically by finding the intersection of
Step 3. Pressure angle at the “i--th” point the two curves with the involute extended toward the
base circle. This is done by making the form
φ i = arctan ε i (A.54)
diameter value used in A.6.1, step 1, equal to the
Step 4. Diameter at the “i--th” point base circle diameter, or
dB dF ≈ dB (A.59)
di = (A.55)
cos φ i
This will make
Step 5. Polar (or half--tooth) angle at the “i--th” point
εF ≈ 0 (A.60)
α i = t + (inv φ) − inv φ i (A.56) Other steps in the calculation will follow accordingly.
d

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

A.6.3 Selected point on the involute profile The circles of each gear passing through this point
are the operating pitch circles. Their diameters can
If a selected point is identified by the diameter at its be calculated as follows:
location, further information about the involute
profile can be found as follows: 2C A
d AP =
d (A.67)
1 + BG
Step 1. Pressure angle at the selected point d BP

dB 2C A
φ s = arccos (A.61) d AG =
ds d (A.68)
1 + BP
d BG
where
A.8 Contact conditions
ds is the selected diameter and
(d F ≤ d s ≤ d OE). The calculation described below applies to gear
pairs operating with contact ratio values greater than
Step 2. Half--tooth thickness angle at the selected one and smaller than two.
point
A.8.1 Contact limit points on the line of action

α s = t + (inv φ) − inv φ s (A.62) The calculation for each gear’s diameter at the
d
highest point of single tooth contact starts with
Step 3. Circular tooth thickness at the selected point finding the contact limit points along the line of
action. See figure A.8. These points are:
ts = ds αs (A.63)
-- Point 1. Start of contact on a tooth, while contact
Step 4. Coordinates of the selected point continues on the preceding tooth.

ds -- Point 2. Start of “single tooth contact”, as contact


xs = cos α s (A.64)
2 ceases on the preceding tooth.

ds (A.65) -- Point 3. End of single tooth contact, with nominal


ys = sin α s
2 contact starting on the following tooth.

A.7 Operating line of action and pitch circle data -- Point 4. End of contact, with contact continuing
on the following tooth.
The specified operating center distance, CA, and the
These points can be located on each gear with
base circle diameters, dBP and dBG, of the two gears
calculations using the associated roll angles. The
determines these data items.
following calculation of these angles uses data
A.7.1 Operating pressure angle, φA already found in A.3 for the driving and driven gears
and in A.7.
This is the angle of the line of action, the line tangent
Step 1. Roll angles, εAP and εAG at the operating
to the base circles of the two gears. See figure A.8.
pitch diameter of each gear, which are the same as
the roll angle, εA, at the pitch point where the two
φ A = arccos  d BP + d BG
2C A
 (A.66) operating pitch circles are tangent:

ε AP = ε AG = ε A = tan φ A (A.69)
A.7.2 Operating pitch diameters, dAP, dAG
Step 2. Roll angles at effective outside diameters,
The pitch point is the point along the line of action at εOEP, εOEG (see step 5, A.3.1, for values of φOEP,
which the tooth sliding reverses direction, changing φOEG):
from approach to recess action. At this point, there is ε OEP = tan φ OEP (A.70)
no sliding and the tooth contact is instantly pure
rolling. ε OEG = tan φ OEG (A.71)

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AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Base circle
(gear) GEAR (driven)
dAG
dBG
Operating
pitch circle
(gear)
P
dOEG pitch
point

dOG Line of
4
action 3 φA

Approach action: 2
points 1 to P
Recess action: 1
dOP
points P to 4
pB
dOEP

dBP Operating
dAP pitch circle
(pinion)
1. Start of contact (load PINION (driver)
Base circle
shared with previous pair) (pinion)
2. Start of single tooth contact
P. Pitch point (no sliding)
3. End of single tooth contact
4. End of contact (load shared
with following pair)
Figure A.8 -- Gear mesh conditions

Step 3. Roll angles at point 1, ε1P, ε1G: Step 5. Pitch angles, βP, βG:


ε 1P = ε A 1 +
NG
NP
 N
− ε OEG G
NP
(A.72) βP = 2 π
NP (A.76)

but not smaller than zero. βG = 2 π (A.77)


NG
ε 1G = ε OEG (A.73) Step 6. Roll angles at point 2, ε2P, ε2G:


but not greater than: ε A 1 +
NP
NG
 ε 2P = ε 4P − β P
but not smaller than: ε1P
(A.78)

ε 2G = ε 4G + β G (A.79)
Step 4. Roll angles at point 4, ε4P, ε4G:
but not greater than: ε1G
ε 4P = ε OEP (A.74)


but not greater than: ε A 1 +
NG
NP
 Step 7. Roll angles at point 3, ε3P, ε3G:
ε 3P = ε 1P + β P (A.80)
but not greater than: ε4P
ε 4G = ε A N
NG
 N
1 + P − ε OEP P
NG
(A.75)
ε 3G = ε 1G − β G (A.81)
but not smaller than zero. but not smaller than: ε4G.

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

A.8.2 Diameters at contact points diP, diG A.8.4 Profile contact ratio

The diameters at each contact point, with “i” The profile contact ratio, mp, is not required for the
representing each of the points 1, 2, 3 and 4, is calculations of annex B. It is included here for
calculated as follows: reference because it can be readily calculated from
data in A.8.1:
d BP
d iP = (A.82) Step 1. Approach portion of the profile contact ratio,
cosarctan ε iP
mpa:
d BG ε AP − ε 1P
d iG = (A.83) m pa = (A.84)
cosarctan ε iG βP

The diameters at the highest point of single tooth Step 2. Recess portion, mpr:
contact are: ε 4P − ε AP
m pr = (A.85)
βP
-- for the pinion, d3P;
Step 3. Profile contact ratio, mp:
-- for the gear, d2G. (A.86)
m p = m pa + m pr
A.8.3 Limit diameters Generally, the approach and recess portions are
positive values. However, in some special designs,
Limit diameter refers to the diameter at the innermost
one of the two may be zero or negative as long as the
limit of contact by the mating gear, see figure A.8.
other value is large enough to make the total
-- for the pinion positive. For most gear designs, the total profile
dLP = d1P contact ratio is made greater than some established
minimum value larger than one.
-- for the gear
dLG = d4G A.9 Symbols and terms
Table A.1 -- Symbols and terms
Where
Symbol Definition Units first used
bBR Basic rack dedendum (for generated trochoid fillet) mm A.2.2
bfBR Basic rack form dedendum mm A.4.1.2
CA Effective operating center distance mm A.2.3
d Standard pitch diameter mm A.3.1
dAP, dAG Operating pitch diameter, pinion, gear mm A.7.2
dB Base circle diameter mm A.3.1
dbC Diameter at center of full--fillet radius fillet mm A.5.2
dF Form diameter mm A.5.4
dfC Diameter of gear center circle going through fillet center mm A.5.3
di Diameter at contact point mm A.8.2
dL Limit diameter mm A.8.3
dO Outside diameter mm A.2.2
dOE Effective outside diameter mm A.3.1
dR Root diameter (for circular--arc fillet) mm A.2.2
drC Diameter at center of tip round mm A.3.1
gfBR Coordinate along G--axis mm A.4.1.2
hfBR Coordinate along H--axis (measured from G--axis) mm A.4.1.2
hyfBR Coordinate along H--axis (measured from Gy--axis) mm A.4.2
m Module mm A.2.1
mp Profile contact ratio -- -- A.8.4

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Where
Symbol Definition Units first used
mpa Approach portion of profile contact ratio -- -- A.8.4
mpr Recess portion of profile contact ratio -- -- A.8.4
N Number of teeth -- -- A.2.2
nf Number of points along fillet -- -- A.4.4
ni Number of spaced points on involute profile -- -- A.6.1
RfN Minimum radius along trochoid curve mm A.4.6
rf Fillet radius (for circular--arc fillet) mm A.2.2
rfBR Basic rack fillet radius (for generated trochoid fillet) mm A.2.2
rfBRX Maximum basic rack fillet radius mm A.4.1.1
rfN Minimum fillet radius mm A.5.1
rfx Radius of the full--fillet radius fillet mm A.5.2
rr Tip radius mm A.2.2
sR Bottom land mm A.5.5
t Tooth thickness (at reference diameter) mm A.2.2
tBR Basic rack tooth thickness mm A.4.1.1
tOR Remaining top land mm A.3.2
xfC, yfC Coordinates at fillet center mm A.5.3
yRS Rack shift mm A.4.2
α Tooth thickness half--angle radians A.3.2
αf Polar coordinate of trochoid point radians A.4.5
β Pitch angle radians A.8.1
εA Roll angle at operating pitch diameter radians A.8.1
εF Roll angle at form diameter radians A.6.1
εf Generating roll angle radians A.4.5
εOE Roll angle at effective outside diameter radians A.6.1
θF Polar angle at form diameter radians A.5.6
θf Pitch--point polar angle degrees A.4.3
θfC Polar angle at fillet center radians A.5.3
θfF Pitch--point polar angle at form diameter contact degrees A.4.3
θfR Pitch--point polar angle at root diameter contact degrees A.4.3
νf Polar coordinate of trochoid point mm A.4.5
ρf Pitch point polar radius mm A.4.5
ρfC Polar radius at fillet center mm A.5.3
τf Fillet construction angle at spaced points along fillet degrees A.5.6
τfF Fillet construction angle at form diameter degrees A.5.6
τfR Fillet construction angle at root diameter degrees A.5.6
φ Pressure angle degrees A.2.1
φbC Pressure angle along imaginary involute degrees A.5.2
φA Operating pressure angle degrees A.7.1
φfC Pressure angle along imaginary involute through fillet center degrees A.5.3
φOE Pressure angle at effective outside diameter degrees A.3.1
φrC Pressure angle at center of tip round radians A.3.1
φF Pressure angle at form diameter radians A.5.4

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Annex B
(informative)
Calculation of spur gear factor, Y
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,
Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

B.1 Introduction Tangential


tooth force, WA
B.1.1 Description

The form factor is a quantity that relates gear tooth


geometry to the capacity of the gear tooth to resist Transmitted
the bending moment developed by the load applied torque, T Operating pitch
to the tooth. It deals only with geometry (mostly tooth diameter, dA
geometry, but also some aspects of gear mesh WA = 2 T
dA
geometry) without reference to material properties.
Figure B.1 -- Transmitted torque at operating
The role of stress concentration, which is influenced
pitch diameter
by other factors in addition to tooth geometry, is
treated separately in bending strength calculations, B.1.3 Application
see clause 8 and annex C.
A form factor is calculated for each of the pair of
B.1.2 Definition mating external spur gears. The form factors are
used in the calculation of the corresponding bending
The definition given here relates to the definition strength geometry factors, see clause 8. These are
used in other AGMA literature. See reference 3. then used in the fundamental formulas for calculated
This permits the comparison of form factor values as torque capacity, see clause 3.
calculated from the procedures described here with
B.1.4 Alternate methods of determining the form
values from the other AGMA sources.
factor
The form factor for a gear tooth of specified outline is There are experimental and numerical methods for
the ratio of a force to a stress. When the gear determining the relationship between the tooth load
geometry is expressed in terms of unit module and and the maximum stress induced at the tooth fillet.
unit face width, this ratio becomes a non--dimension- One of the experimental methods has been photo--
al quantity. The force referenced in this definition is elasticity studies which reveal stress patterns and
described below. The stress in the definition is the relative stress levels. Another is the use of strain
bending stress at the critical section of the gear tooth gages variously positioned at the gear tooth fillet to
fillet. This section is located where the bending reveal stress levels at each position. The numerical
stress is determined to be at a maximum. methods, made practical by computers, consist of
finite element analysis and its analytical variations.
Torque transmitted by a gear may be represented by
a tangential force acting at a selected radius. It is All of these alternate methods determine the com-
common practice to select the radius of the operating bination of the general bending stress and the effect
pitch circle. This circle derives from the view of the of stress concentration, without clearly distinguish-
gear and its mate as contacting cylinders which roll ing between the two. As noted above, the form factor
without slipping with a speed ratio equal to the gear attempts to evaluate only the influence of gear
ratio. See figures A.8 and B.1. geometry on the relationship between the tooth load
and the general bending stress. This relationship is
The tangential force, WA, calculated from the trans- taken as independent of the type of loading and the
mitted torque and the radius, 0.5 dA, is used as the properties of the material. The effect on bending
force in the form factor definition. The force acting at strength of the highly localized stress concentration
the contact tooth surfaces differs from the force in with its high stress gradient is recognized as
location and direction, as discussed below in B.2.3.1 dependent on load type (steady or repeated) and
and B.2.6.2. material (degree of ductility, brittleness or porosity).

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 27


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

As a result, these alternate methods are not readily used below uses actual gear geometry data and is
adapted to determining the form factor. Instead, they followed by a simple conversion to the traditional
are sometimes used to determine the stress correc- non--dimensional form.
tion (concentration) factor by subtracting a calcu-
B.2.2 Calculation stages
lated form factor, like the one described here, from
the measured or computed combined effect. See The calculation process consists of the following
figure B.2. stages:
-- critical load: selection of location along the con-
tacting tooth surface and selection of direction;
Tooth
load -- critical section: fillet definition and section loca-
tion;
-- bending moments and stress: calculation for unit
critical load;
-- form factor ratio: calculation of force--stress ratio
for critical load with adjustment for tangential load
Critical referenced in the form factor definition;
section
-- non--dimensional factor: conversion to non--di-
Combined stress mensional using module.
Stress Tension Stress concentration B.2.3 Critical load, Wc
distribution
Bending stress The critical load is the load (on the tooth flank) which
at fillet
will produce the maximum tensile stress at the root
fillet. The factors which determine this critical load
Compression are the direction of the load relative to the tooth
outline and the location of the load along the tooth
outline . The relationship between the magnitude of
Figure B.2 -- Combined bending stress with this load, Wc, and the transmitted torque is described
stress concentration in B.2.6.2 and B.3.6.
B.2.3.1 Load direction
B.2 Standard calculation procedure
The load direction is determined first by the geome-
B.2.1 Relationship to AGMA standard gear
try of the active portion of the tooth flank, here
rating calculation
understood to be an involute curve associated with
The calculation procedure presented in this annex the base circle of the gear. Under certain operating
follows the basic principles used in the AGMA gear conditions common in P/M gear applications, the
rating procedure. See [3] and [4] in the bibliography. sliding action between the mating gear teeth will
This AGMA procedure is supplemented here by new influence the load direction.
features applicable to typical P/M gear design and
B.2.3.1.1 Load force normal to tooth flank
operating conditions. The influence of each of these
conditions is explained below as each new calcula- The direction of the load transmitted between gear
tion feature is introduced. teeth is normal to the involute surface of the tooth
flank. If a circle (with its center at the gear axis) is
Another difference from the AGMA standard form
drawn through the load point, the angle between this
factor calculation has been introduced for reason of
normal and a tangent to this circle is the involute
calculation convenience. The AGMA procedure, as
pressure angle, φWc, at that point. As a normal to the
part of obtaining a non--dimensional form factor,
involute, this direction is also tangent to the gear
requires that all related gear geometry data first be
base circle. See figure B.3.
scaled to unit module equivalents. This is a
carry--over from the days that graphical methods This load force direction is assumed in AGMA rating
were used for such calculations and this increase in calculations. It is also used in the first set of
scale helped in graphical accuracy. The procedure calculations below. See figure B.4.

28 © AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

B.2.3.1.2 Friction force tangent to tooth flank these lubrication conditions is not present and a
significant friction force accompanies the normal
The relative motion between mating gear teeth is a tooth force, see figure B.4(b). The role of the friction
combination of rolling and sliding. The rolling action forces is described in B.3.
is generally assumed to offer negligible resistance to
the relative motion and is ignored as a direct Load, Wc
contributor to the load transmitted between the
teeth. The sliding action requires further φWc
consideration because it may introduce a significant
friction force.
Base circle
The AGMA gear rating calculation [3] is properly
used only for those operating conditions in which
some approximation of ideal lubricating conditions Tangency dWc
exist.1) These operating conditions include an
adequate supply of clean lubricant at the gear teeth, Base
an adequate pitch line velocity, and tooth surface circle
geometry accurate enough to permit a well distrib- radius, rB
uted contact area. When these conditions are met, a
film of lubricant is forced into the tooth contact area at
a pressure which nearly or completely separates the
contacting surfaces. The resulting friction force is
then small enough to be ignored in the gear bending
strength calculations. In many gear applications,
and especially in P/M gears with low material density Figure B.3 -- Load normal to involute tooth
and without sealing of the pores, a full complement of flank and tangent to base circle

at dOE Resultant
(see B.2.3.2.1) Friction force
force
at HPSTL Normal force
δφc
(see B.2.3.2.3) φc

Radial φc is load point pressure angle


line δφc is load deviation angle

a) No friction, normal force only, b) With friction, normal and tangent forces, shown with
alternate locations sliding inwards (typical of driven gear during approach
action)
Figure B.4 -- Gear tooth forces

B.2.3.2 Critical location possible from the fillet. This would locate the critical
With the gear tooth treated as a loaded cantilever load at the outside diameter of the gear. However,
beam, the location of the load producing the some common mesh geometry conditions help
maximum fillet bending stress will tend to be as far as move the location somewhat further down on the

_______________________
1) The lubrication port ion of the application clause states, “The ratings determined by these formulas are only valid when
the gear teeth are operated with a lubricant of proper viscosity for the load, gear tooth surface finish, temperature, and
pitch line velocity.”

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 29


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

tooth with a corresponding reduction in the resulting missing. In other designs, identified by contact ratios of
root fillet stresses. See figure B.5. more than two, there are contact intervals at which
three pairs of teeth are engaged, with the remaining in-
terval having two pairs of teeth engaged. The following
remarks do not apply to these conditions, for which the
X appropriate analyses are beyond the scope of this
document.
Critical
load, Wc When the typical overlapping contact is present,
Translated
load there is the potential for the transmitted load to be
φWc
Compressive shared between the two adjacent meshing pairs. If
load
the sharing were equal, the critical load location
Bending dWc would not be at the outermost end of the tooth
load
involute since, at this location, the load itself has
Constant
stress dropped to one--half. The actual nature of such
parabola hfc sharing depends on the accuracy of the involute
αWc profiles and the relative stiffness of each pair of teeth
at that point in their engagement cycle. A detailed
Radial analysis of such conditions is generally too complex
line
for common gear design procedures. As a simplifi-
cation, sharing is assumed when both the driver and
Critical (xfc, yfc)
section at critical fillet driven gear’s tooth--to--tooth composite variation
wfc meets Q8 or better requirements, or in the case
where lesser accuracy prevents load sharing until
Figure B.5 -- Data for stress calculation
initial wearing takes place.

The location is identified by the diameter, dWc, at the If such load sharing is not likely (see B.2.3.2.3), then
critical load point. The factors which determine this the critical load location for each gear is at its
diameter are discussed below. effective outside diameter, as noted in B.2.3.2.1, and
the diameter at the critical load location for each gear
B.2.3.2.1 Outer load location limit is:
The first geometry condition which shifts the critical d Wc = d OE (B.1)
load location from the outside diameter is the tip
B.2.3.2.3 Highest point of single tooth loading
round which is present on nearly all P/M gears. See
figures A.1 and B.4(a). With this tip round, the outer In the typical meshing cycle of a pair of teeth, the
load location limit moves to the point on the tooth at stages of the meshing can be identified by a series of
which the involute flank ends and the tip round points and their corresponding diameters on the two
begins, corresponding to the effective outside diam- gears, here labelled as the “pinion”, P, for the driving
eter, dOE. The calculation of this diameter is gear and the “gear”, G, for the driven gear, see figure
described in A.3.1. A.8:
-- point 1, the start of the mesh cycle, with the pre-
B.2.3.2.2 Tooth load sharing
ceding pair still in mesh; diameters d1P and d1G;
With most spur gear designs, there are two mesh -- point 2, the start of the single pair mesh, with the
conditions at which two adjacent pairs of teeth are preceding pair out of mesh; diameters d2P and
nominally in simultaneous contact. (A pair consists d2G;
of the mating teeth from each of the two meshing
-- point 3, the end of the single pair mesh, with the
gears.) One such condition corresponds to one pair following pair just starting to mesh; diameters d3P
of teeth just starting to contact with the preceding and d3G;
pair still engaged. The second corresponds to the
-- point 4, the end of the mesh cycle; diameters d4P
same pair of teeth nearing the end of contact while
and d4G.
the following pair is already engaged.
For the calculation for these diameters, see annex A.
NOTE: In some gear designs, identified by contact ra-
tios of one or less, these conditions of partial overlap- The selection of points (i.e., 1, 2, 3 or 4) used in
ping of contact between adjacent pairs of teeth is calculating the highest point on each tooth at which

30 © AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

full load is transmitted by only a single pair is represented by the tooth. The location of the
dependent upon the accuracy of the tooth--to--tooth translated force, expressed as its distance, xWcC,
composite variation (see B.2.3.2.2). If both the driver from the gear center along the centerline, may be
and the driven gear’s tooth--to--tooth composite calculated by:
variation meets Q8 or better requirements, then the
Step 1. Once the diameter of the critical load point
points used are Point 3 and Point 2 respectively.
dWc, is established, the xWc and yWc coordinates
Otherwise, Point 4 and Point 1 are respectively used.
may be found as described by the equations in A.6.3.
Therefore if both driver and driven gears meet or In these equations, the point on the involute is
exceed Q8 tooth--to--tooth composite variation re- referenced by the subscript “s” which, for the critical
quirements, load point, will be replaced by the subscript “Wc”.

d WcP = d 3P (B.2) Step 2. Direction angle of critical tooth force, γWc:


and γ Wc = φ Wc − α Wc (B.6)

d WcG = d 2G (B.3) where

If either driver or driven gears do not meet or exceed φWc is pressure angle at critical load point;
Q8 tooth--to--tooth composite variation require-
αWc is half tooth thickness angle at critical load
ments, point.
d WcP = d 4P (B.4)
Step 3. Distance from gear center of translated
and critical tooth force, xWcC:

d WcG = d 1G (B.5) x WcC = x Wc − y Wctan γ Wc (B.7)

B.2.3.3 Translation to tooth centerline B.2.3.4 Force components

To begin the process of calculating the bending The translated critical tooth force can be resolved
moment (see figures B.5 and B.6), the critical load is into two components, one normal to the tooth center
translated to the tooth centerline. The centerline line and the other radial along the tooth centerline.
serves as the neutral axis of the cantilever beam See figure B.6.

yWc

Wc
Wcy γWc

Wcx
Wc xWc sBS
xWcC st
hfc

wfc
sCS

Figure B.6 -- Bending and compressive stress


B.2.3.4.1 Bending component W = W cos γ  (B.8)
cy c Wc
The force component, Wcy, acts to apply a bending where
moment to the tooth, producing a tensile stress at the
tooth fillet on the same side as the critical load. Wc is normal load at critical load point, N.

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 31


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

B.2.3.4.2 Compressive component B.2.4.2 Bending stress factor, fBS

The force component, Wcx, acts toward the root, This factor is the ratio between the bending stress,
producing a compressive stress in the fillet area. sBS, and the original critical tooth load, Wc, for a gear
of unit face width. The calculation is:
W cx = W c sin γ Wc (B.9)
Step 1. Height of the translated load force above the
B.2.4 Critical fillet section fillet section, hf
h f = x WcC − x f (B.10)
Each point on the fillet will define a fillet section
normal to the tooth centerline. The bending compo- Step 2. Width of the fillet section, wf
nent of the translated critical tooth load will produce a w f = 2y f (B.11)
bending stress at this fillet section. This stress will
Step 3. Bending stress at the fillet section, sBS
vary with the location of the section and its size. The
section with the greatest bending stress is desig- Following the basic bending stress equation,
nated as the critical section. Bending Moment
Stress =
B.2.4.1 Types of fillet Section Modulus
for a spur gear of unit face width:
Determination of the critical section requires the
location of the fillet points relative to the gear tooth hf
s BS = 6 W cy (B.12)
coordinate system. The location of points on two wf2
types of fillet geometries are defined in this annex: Substituting from equation B.8,
-- rack generated trochoid (see AGMA 908--B89); hf
s BS = 6 W ccos γ Wc (B.13)
-- circular arc. wf2
Step 4. Bending stress factor, fBS
The generated type of fillet has been omitted
because it is not commonly used in P/M gears. s BS h
f BS = = 6 cos γ Wc f2 = 6cos γ Wc [BT ]
Wc wf
B.2.4.1.1 Rack generated trochoid (B.14)
where
The description of this fillet type is given in A.4. In the
hf
calculation shown, the following data is provided, [BT ] = (B.15)
see figures A.4(b) and A.4(c): wf2
B.2.4.3 Maximum bending stress factor, fBSX
-- angle used to locate points on the fillet, θfR;
The bending stress factor will vary with the fillet
-- rectangular coordinates of fillet points, xf, yf; section selected. Its maximum value corresponds to
the maximum value of the bracketed term in
-- angle at the fillet point, τf.
equation B.15. For either type of fillet, this maximum
B.2.4.1.2 Circular arc can be found by a trial--and--error process, as
follows:
The description of this fillet type is given in A.5. In the
Step 1. Select an initial trial value of θf (trochoidal
calculation shown, the following data is provided:
method) or τf (full circular fillet), the angle used in the
-- angle used to locate points on the fillet, θfC; calculation to locate points on the fillet. This trial
value may be zero, indicating a start at the fillet
-- rectangular coordinates of fillet points, xf, yf; tangency on the root circle. A more efficient trial
-- construction angle at the fillet point, τf. value is the one associated with a slope angle, θf or
τf, equal to 30°.
B.2.4.1.3 Fillet section
Step 2. Calculate the fillet data from this location
The coordinates of the fillet points also describe the angle, particularly the coordinates, xf and yf, and the
fillet section: corresponding dimensions, hf and wf, used in
determining bending stress.
-- xf gives the location of the section;
Step 3. Calculate the bracketed term, BT, in
-- yf gives the half--width of the section. equation B.15.

32 © AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Step 4. Select a slightly larger location angle, repeat B.2.6.1 Ratio for the critical tooth force, AWsc
steps 2 and 3, and note the change in the BT value.
This change will be an increase unless the initial trial This ratio may be calculated directly from the results
value has been too large, in which case the of equation B.18:
calculation should be restarted with a lower initial
value. W
A Wsc = s c
t
Step 5. With successively larger location angles,
repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 until change in BT values = 1 (B.19)
reverses sign from positive, representing increasing 6cosγ Wch fc sinγ
− w Wc
BT , to negative, representing decreasing BT values. w fc 2 fc

Step 6. The maximum value BTX, will lie within the


range of the last three calculations and may be B.2.6.2 Tooth force adjustment
further identified to the desired accuracy by further
Before such a ratio can be used to calculate the
trials within that range.
Y--factor, some adjustment in the tooth force is made.
Step 7. Calculate the maximum bending stress Since the Y--factor is expressed in terms of a
factor, fBSX, using equation B.14 and BTX, the
tangential force acting at the operating pitch circle,
maximum bracketed term, BTX, using equation
the adjustment involves the ratio of this force, WA, to
B.15.
the critical tooth force, Wc. The two forces act
B.2.4.4 Critical section location and size tangent to two different circles but must transmit the
The data, hfc and wfc, describing the location and size same torque. The force ratio is inverse to the ratio of
of the critical section are the corresponding values, hf their diameters. These diameters are the operating
and wf, used in the calculation of BTX. pitch diameter, dA, for the reference force, WA (see
B.2.5 Stress calculation B.1.2 and figure B.1), and the base circle diameter,
dB, for the critical tooth force, Wc. The diameter ratio
These stress calculations are based on the critical is equal to the cosine of the operating pressure
tooth load, Wc. angle, φA, which is calculated in A.7.1. Therefore:
B.2.5.1 Bending tensile stress, sBS
WA d
The bending tensile stress for the critical tooth load is Adjustment ratio, m cA = = B = cos φ A
Wc dA
calculated from equation B.13:
(B.20)
h fc
s BS = 6W ccos γ Wc (B.16)
w fc 2 B.2.6.3 Adjusted force--stress ratio, AWsA
B.2.5.2 Compressive stress, sCS With this adjustment:
The compressive stress under the same conditions
is calculated from the radial component of the A WsA = A Wsc × m cA = A Wsccos φ A
translated critical tooth force acting over the critical
cos φ A (B.21)
fillet section area (with unit gear face width): =
h fc sinγ Wc
sin γWc 6cos γ Wc 2
− w fc
s CS = W c (B.17) w fc
w fc
B.2.5.3 Combined tensile stress, st B.2.7 Non--dimensional Y--factor
The combined tensile stress is the difference be-
To convert the ratio, AWsA, into a non--dimensional
tween the bending tensile and the compressive
Y--factor, all dimensions used to calculate the ratio
stresses, see figure B.6:
must be made non--dimensional. This was already
h fc sin γ Wc done with the unit gear face width specified in the
s t = 6W c cos γ Wc − Wc w fc (B.18)
w fc 2 above calculations. However, the dimensions of hfc
B.2.6 Form factor force--stress ratio, AWs and wfc are actual dimensions of the gear tooth. The
module, m, is used to complete the conversion.
This ratio relates a force acting on the tooth, W, to the
resulting combined tensile stress, st. The particular A WsA
Y= m (B.22)
value depends on the tooth force selected.

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 33


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

B.3 Calculation procedure with friction forces operating pitch circles, see figure A.8. On that figure,
with the pinion driving, approach action takes place
When friction forces are considered, the same basic when the contact goes from point 1 to the pitch point.
calculation procedure is followed with some During approach action, the sliding direction on each
changes: gear tooth is toward its root and the sign in equation
B.23 is plus (+), see figure B.4(b). Recess action
-- the critical load direction, relative to the involute
takes place when the contact goes from the pitch
tooth flank, will change;
point to point 4. During recess action, the sliding
-- the critical load location may change; direction on each gear tooth is toward its tip and the
sign in equation B.23 is minus (--).
-- the critical load magnitude, and therefore the
“tooth force adjustment” will change.
In some gear designs, the outside diameters are
To establish the appropriate critical load information, chosen so that the pitch point lies outside the range
it may be necessary to start with two trial conditions of contact. In these designs there is no reversal of
and then perform double sets of calculations. the sliding direction and the action is all approach or
all recess, generally the latter.
B.3.1 Coefficient of friction
When the sliding action in either of the contacting
In all the equations dealing with friction effects, the
teeth is toward the root, the tooth force direction is
simplifying assumption is made that the coefficient of
such that the bending component is reduced and the
friction is constant over the tooth meshing cycle.
compressive component is increased. These act to
Values will depend on the material combination
reduce the tensile stress at the tooth fillet. When the
(including relative hardness), degree of lubrication,
sliding action is toward the tooth tip, the force
tooth flank surface texture, tooth sliding velocity,
components undergo reverse changes and the fillet
tooth contact pressure, and other factors. Values for
tensile stress is increased. Based on this effect
coefficient of friction may be determined in standard
alone, the critical load direction would come from the
tests, but only apply to the conditions specified in
recess portion of the meshing cycle and the sign in
those tests. These may not closely match the
equation B.23 would be negative. However, this
operating conditions of the gear mesh. With typical
choice is not necessarily correct for all meshing
gear materials and with some continuing form of
conditions, as explained in B.3.3.
lubrication, the coefficient of friction may fall as low
as 0.10, rarely lower. Under less favorable
B.3.3 Critical load location
conditions, it may be as high as 0.30, or even higher.

B.3.2 Critical load direction Without the friction effect, the critical load location is
taken as close to the tooth tip as appropriate for the
Without friction, the critical load direction is always conditions defined in B.2.3.2. This location produces
normal to the involute flank and its direction relative the maximum bending moment at the base of the
to the tooth centerline is determined by the load cantilevered tooth and the maximum tensile stress at
location diameter, as discussed in B.2.3 and its the fillet.
sub--clauses. With friction, the load deviates from
this normal direction. The amount of deviation is During approach action, friction will reduce the
represented by the load deviation angle, δφc de- bending stress level compared to the frictionless
scribed in figure B.4(b), which is determined by the condition. The opposite is true during recess action
coefficient of friction, m, as follows: where the inclusion of frictional effects will increase
δ φc = arctan m (B.23) the bending stress as compared to the frictionless
evaluation.
The direction of the deviation is opposite to the
direction of relative sliding. The sliding direction As a result, when doing the analysis with friction, the
generally changes during the meshing cycle, with selection of the critical load location and the corre-
the change--over taking place when the teeth are sponding sign (+ or --) of δφc to use in equation B.23
contacting at the pitch point, or tangent point of the is based on the criteria as established in table B.1.

34 © AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Table B.1 -- Selection of critical load location points for Y--factor calculation under friction
conditions
Critical Test to de- Sign of δφc
Tooth--to-- load termine Type of ac- Effect of 2nd in equa-
Sign of δφc
Gear to be tooth location to type of ac- tion at crit- action on location tion B.23
in equa-
evaluated accuracy be tion at crit- ical load bending to be for 2nd
tion B.23
level evaluated ical load location stress evaluated1) location
(see A.8.1) location evaluation
Both driver
and driven ε3P ≤ εA Approach Reduces + NA
meet or ex-
ex
Point 3
ceed Q8
require- ε3P > εA Recess Increases -- NA
ments
Driver Either driv-
er or driven ε4P ≤ εA Approach Reduces + NA
do not
meet or ex- Point 4
ceed Q8
require- ε4P > εA Recess Increases -- NA
ments
Both driver
and driven ε2G > εA Approach Reduces + Pitch point --
meet or ex-
ex
Point 2
ceed Q8
require- ε2G ≤ εA Recess Increases -- NA
ments
Driven Either driv-
er or driven ε1G > εA Approach Reduces + Pitch point --
do not
meet or ex- Point 1
ceed Q8
require- ε1G ≤ εA Recess Increases -- NA
ments
NOTE:
1) If the evaluation point on the driver happens to be in approach zone, then the secondary calculation is not required for
the driven gear since the recess condition will not be present near the pitch point.

Note that on the driving gear, only one position needs dure is the same up to step 2 of B.2.3.3. Here,
to be evaluated close to the tooth tip; either Points 3 equation B.6, for the direction angle of the critical
or 4 depending on the tooth--to--tooth accuracy level tooth force, is changed to the following:
of the gear (see B.2.3.2.3). For the driven gear, (B.24)
γ Wc = φ Wc + δ φc − α Wc
either Points 1 or 2 close to the tooth tip need to be
evaluated depending upon the tooth--to--tooth accu- where
racy level of the gear. In addition, the driven gear δφc is load deviation angle (see B.3.2,
may need a secondary position evaluated, which is equation B.23), degrees.
just inside of the operating pitch circle at the start of
recess action where higher friction level dominates. The remaining calculations are the same except for
Both positions (where necessary) need to be used in the tooth force adjustment ratio described in B.2.6.2
separate Y--factor calculations. The position which for non--friction conditions and described in B.3.5 for
results in the lowest Y--factor value will be used in all friction conditions.
subsequent calculations. B.3.5 Tooth force adjustment for friction
conditions
B.3.4 Calculation of Y--factor for friction
conditions In B.2.6.2, a tooth force adjustment is necessary to
allow for the difference between the tooth force value
Once the critical load location and direction are used in the stress calculations and the force value in
selected, as discussed above, the calculation proce- which Y--factors are generally expressed, the former

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 35


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

acting normal to the tooth surface and the latter where


tangent to the operating pitch circle. Under friction
conditions, the tooth force used for stress calcula- dA is operating pitch diameter (see A.7.2),
tions is no longer normal to the tooth surface and this
mm;
difference is reflected in a modified adjustment ratio.
The adjustment ratio, as defined in equation B.20, is φA is operating pressure angle (see A.7.1),
modified to account for friction as follows: degrees.
WA d
m cA =
Wc dA

= Wc cosφ Wc + δ φc 
B.4 Symbols

= 
cos φ A
cos φ Wc
 
cosφ Wc + δ φc (B.25)
See table B.2.

Table B.2 -- Symbols, terms and definitions


Where first
Symbol Definition Units found
AWs Form factor force--stress ratio -- -- B.2.6
dWc Diameter at critical load location mm B.2.3.2.2
dWcP, dWcG Highest point at which full load is transmitted by single pair mm B.2.3.2.3
fBS Bending stress factor -- -- B.2.4.2
fBSX Maximum bending stress factor -- -- B.2.4.3
hf Height of translated load force above fillet section mm B.2.4.2
m Module mm B.2.7
mcA Tooth force adjustment ratio -- -- B.2.6.2
sBS Bending tensile stress at fillet section N/mm2 B.2.4.2
sCS Compressive stress N/mm2 B.2.5.2
st Combined tensile stress N/mm2 B.2.5.3
WA Tangential force acting at operating pitch circle N B.2.6.2
Wc Critical load N B.2.3
Wcx Force component parallel to tooth axis N B.2.3.4.2
Wcy Force component normal to tooth axis N B.2.3.4.1
wf Width of fillet section mm B.2.4.2
xWcC Distance from gear center of translated critical tooth force mm B.2.3.3
xWc, yWc Coordinates of critical load point mm B.2.3.3
Y Non--dimensional Y--factor -- -- B.2.7
αWc Half tooth thickness angle degrees B.2.3.3
δφc Load deviation angle degrees B.3.2
γWc Direction angle of critical tooth force degrees B.2.3.3
φWc Pressure angle at critical load point degrees B.2.3.3
φWc Involute pressure angle degrees B.2.3.1.1
m Coefficient of friction -- -- B.3.2

36 © AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Annex C
(informative)
Calculation of the stress correction factor, Kf
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,
Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

C.1 Introduction C.2.2.1 Rack generated trochoid calculation


fillet radius, rfc
The stress correction factor, Kf, which considers the
The radius of curvature of the trochoid fillet varies
effect of stress concentration at the sharply changing
along the curve, starting from a minimum radius at
cross--section of the tooth at its root fillet, is another
the point of tangency to the root circle. This minimum
component for determining the bending strength
radius, RfN, which is calculated in A.4.6, is used in the
geometry factor, J. The geometry element in stress
further calculations:
concentration is the curvature (radius) at the fillet in
relation to the overall tooth size and shape and the r fc = R fN (C.1)
location of the load. The calculation presented here C.2.2.2 Circular--arc calculation fillet radius, rfc
for this element is the Dolan and Broghamer method
With this type of fillet, the arc radius is used:
as used in other AGMA gear rating calculations.
r fc = r f (C.2)
In calculating the influence of stress concentration C.2.3 Elastic stress concentration factor, Kfs
on gear tooth bending strength, elements other than
The empirical equation used for this calculation is:
geometry must also be considered. These non--ge-
ometry elements are the type of loading (repeated or M
  
L
w w fc
occasional) and the material condition (degree of K fs = H + r fc (C.3)
fc h fc
ductility or brittleness). Together, they can influence
the long term sensitivity of the gear to the initial level where
of stress concentration. H = 0.331 -- 0.436 φ;

These elements are also considered in the AGMA L = 0.324 -- 0.492 φ;


gear rating calculations. Their treatment here M = 0.261 + 0.545 φ;
follows a different format. φ is the specified pressure angle, radians.
C.3 Stress correction factor, Kf
C.2 Elastic stress concentration factor, Kfs
This factor is found by modifying the elastic stress
This factor is based on the assumption of purely concentration factor to reflect the influences of
elastic conditions in the material. The empirical loading and material.
equation used in the calculation is derived from
C.3.1 Notch sensitivity index, q
photoelasticity experiments.
This index has been defined to relate:
C.2.1 Data from form factor calculation a) the actual effect of a notch (sharp change in out-
line) on the strength of a material; to
The following data items are used in the Y form
calculation in annex B: b) the effect that might be predicted solely on the
basis of elastic theory.
-- nominal pressure angle, φ; If the actual effect is represented by the stress
correction factor, Kf, and the elastic theory prediction
-- height of the translated critical force above the
by the elastic stress concentration factor, Kfs, then
critical tooth section, hfc;
the notch sensitivity index, q, is defined as follows:
-- width of the critical fillet section, wfc. Kf − 1
q= (C.4)
K fs − 1
C.2.2 Calculation fillet radius, rfc
If there is no actual effect from the notch (that is, if
The fillet radius is determined by the type of fillet. local yielding or other internal mechanism in the

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AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

material eliminates any weakening due to initial Kft is determined from q “repeated” data in table C.1.
elastic stress concentration), q will equal zero. If, on Kfg is determined from q “occasional overload” data
the other hand, the full weakening due to stress in table C.1.
concentration is present, q will equal one.

Appropriate values of q can be selected from table Table C.1 -- Notch sensitivity index, q
C.1. Type of load Type of material
As--sintered Heat--treated
C.3.2 Calculation of stress correction factor, Kf
(ductile) (brittle)
This calculation is made with the following: Repeated 0.5 1.0
Occasional 0.0 0.8
K f = 1 + q  K fs − 1  (C.5) overload

38 © AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Annex D
(informative)
Procedure for initial design
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,
Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

D.1 Introduction 10)if the initial design dimensions exceed space lim-
its or are otherwise inappropriate, repeat the pro-
This information sheet is elsewhere devoted to
cess with a new material selection or other
calculating bending load capacity for a completed
changes in the basic selections.
design of a pair of P/M gears. However, there is often
a need for a reverse of this process. For this, the D.1.1 Iterative design process
objective of a specified bending load capacity has This design procedure can develop into an iterative
already been established. The required procedure process. Design results from one set of calculations
then consists of finding the design of the pair of P/M may lead to changes which call for a new round of
gears which will meet this objective. This annex calculations. As noted in step 9, initial simplified
describes such a design procedure. Like the other design assumptions, when checked at design
parts of this information sheet, it is limited to completion, may prove to be significantly inappropri-
consideration of tooth bending strength and does not ate, thereby requiring revision of some or all of the
deal with issues of wear or other potential limits on design process. Also, as noted in step 10, an initial
gear performance. design selection, such as the P/M material, may lead
The general method for this design procedure to a design of gears which are simply too large, or
consists of the following: otherwise inappropriate, for the application. This will
require a new design selection and a new set of
1) select the appropriate equation from clause 3, design calculations.
which relates all the elements that determine
tooth bending torque capacity; D.1.2 Guidance from previous designs
2) introduce a value for desired torque; Since the design process will make use of some
initial assumptions, it will be advantageous if these
3) introduce an approximate strength value for the
selected material; assumptions can be based on data from previous
designs of P/M gears for similar applications. Where
4) introduce estimated values for adjustment and such guidance is not available, the designer will be
geometry factors; able to use estimates provided in this annex.
5) using appropriate guidelines, establish relation- However, as new designs are completed, some
ships among the remaining geometric elements results should replace the data calculated here.
in the equation: calculation diameter, effective Such changes will aid in future work.
face width, and module;
D.2 Operating conditions
6) assign preliminary values to these elements, ap-
plying appropriate rounding and preferred As with any gear design procedure, it is necessary to
values; start with information on the operating conditions
and associated performance requirements.
7) reevaluate this preliminary design by replacing
estimated values with those calculated by the D.2.1 Loads
various procedures in this information sheet, to
Two types of loading are considered in this informa-
arrive at a calculated load capacity;
tion sheet, repeated loading and occasional peak
8) for small differences between this load capacity loading. When starting with completed gear de-
and the original specified load, introduce minor signs, each has its own load capacity calculation
changes to the design geometry; including separate strength properties for the se-
9) for major differences between the two load val- lected material. It may not be obvious from the start
ues, use the newly calculated factors in place of which load condition will control a new design. The
the original estimates and repeat the remainder more common design control is from repeated
of this initial design procedure; loading and this type of loading is given priority in the

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 39


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

procedure described below. Once an initial design is require an exact value, which may subsequently
established based on repeated loading, it may be impose restrictions on the selection of the exact
checked for occasional peak loading. On the other numbers of teeth in the two gears. Such restrictions
hand, if the occasional peak loads are especially may carry over to the choice of module. More often,
severe or are essentially the only loads, the design only an approximate value of gear ratio is needed,
procedure below can be switched over with appropri- permitting greater freedom in these selections.
ate changes in material design stress and applicable
factors. Gear ratio, mG, is expressed as the ratio of input
speed to output speed, or as the ratio of the number
The required load capacity is typically expressed as of teeth on the output gear to those on the input gear.
a design torque on the gear or output member of the For speed reducing drives, gear ratio is greater than
gear pair, TtdG for repeated loads or TydG for peak one. For speed increasing drives, gear ratio is less
loading. The required design torque on the pinion or than one.
input member of the gear pair, TtdP or TydP, can be
determined from the gear torque value by applica- D.3.3 Materials
tion of the anticipated gear ratio. See D.3.2. The
Many considerations enter into the initial selection of
relationship between the output and input torque
materials. Generally, lower strength materials of
values is also influenced by the friction in the gear
lower cost will be selected when load conditions and
mesh. For the initial design process, this difference
constraints on gear size permit. Prior experience
may be ignored or an estimated value of mesh
with similar applications will often provide guidance
inefficiency may be applied to slightly increase the
as to which materials will best balance strength and
input torque.
cost and still meet any other material property
D.2.2 Speeds requirements.

Speeds of the gears are typically specified starting D.3.4 Gear quality level
with the speed of the driving member and then, by
applying the anticipated gear ratio, to arrive at the This calls for a general understanding of the
speed of the driven member. Exact gear ratio may anticipated level of gear quality. This will play a role
not be known at the start of the design calculations, in establishing one of the design factors. See
but any error in its estimate is likely to be small and D.6.2.3.
will have little effect on the design results. Speed D.4 Space constraints
data will be used in estimating one of the factors in
the design process. See D.6.2.3. When starting the design process, there are general-
ly some limits on the space available for the set of
D.2.3 Other conditions gears. The dimensions implied by these limits will be
A number of other operating conditions play a role in used to help estimate some of the design factors.
establishing various design factors. These are These will not necessarily define the gear sizes in the
discussed as required for estimating values for each completed design.
factor. See D.6.
D.4.1 Diameter limits
D.3 Primary selections of design features
Diameter limits may be expressed in a variety of
A number of selections, some permanent and some ways:
tentative, are needed to continue the design
process. 1) maximum diameter of larger gear, dOGX for
speed reducing drives or dOPX for speed increas-
D.3.1 Type of gears ing drives;
To conform to the scope of this information sheet, the 2) maximum center distance of mating gears, CAX;
spur type of gears has been selected.
3) maximum overall size of mating gears, MoPG.
D.3.2 Gear ratio
The approximate maximum pitch diameters of the
Gear ratio is generally one of the primary specifica- two mating gears, dPX and dGX, can be estimated
tions for the gear design. The application may from each of these limits, using the gear ratio, mG.

40 © AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

For the first form of diameter limit. number of teeth. However, a very low number of
teeth may bring with it some detrimental gear design
For the speed reducing drive:
features such as reduced bending strength and
dGX is slightly smaller than dOGX; (D.1) reduced contact ratio. It is therefore important to
d initially establish a limit on the minimum number of
d PX ≈ mGX (D.2)
G teeth, NN, found most appropriate for the type of
For the speed increasing drive: application. Although the scope of this document
refers to a minimum number of teeth of seven,
dPX is slightly smaller than dOPX (D.3)
practical considerations will often raise this limit.
d GX ≈ d PX × m G (D.4)
D.5.2 Finest pitch
For the second form of diameter limit:
As part of the general objective of making gear
2 C AX systems as small as possible, there is often a
d PX ≈ (D.5)
1 + mG preference for using the finest pitch compatible with
d GX ≈ d PX × m G (D.6) tooth bending strength requirements. However,
there may be design and manufacturing issues
For the third form of diameter limit:
which establish a coarser limit on this pitch. Design
M oPG issues may include concern for low contact ratio
C AX is slightly smaller than (D.7)
2 under some degree of size and center distance
dPX and dGX are as determined by equations D.5 and variations. A manufacturing limit may be imposed by
D.6. the P/M manufacturing process. The manufacturing
facility will often set its own limit of minimum module,
D.4.2 Packaging considerations
mx, as the finest pitch to be used in design. The
The overall gear box package will also be limited by scope refers to a minimum module value of 0.4 for
certain design issues. As noted in 1.3, P/M gears the load capacity calculations, but this may be
have inherent size limitations for both face width and replaced by a larger value, or coarser pitch, to
diameter. Due to manufacturing constraints, P/M comply with these considerations.
gears are also limited in the face width--to--diameter
D.5.3 Minimum pitch diameter
ratio, usually less than 8:1.
Another gear design limit may be indirectly imposed
The gear box package may also be constrained by
by the diameter of the bore through the gear or of an
the type of support provided for the gear and shaft
adjacent hub. These tend to define a minimum root
assemblies. The choice of bearings and mounting
diameter and, thereby, somewhat larger minimum
approaches may limit the width of the gear box.
pitch diameter, dPN or dGN. In the case of the bore,
Finally the gear box package must fit into an overall the minimum root diameter must allow sufficient
product assembly. Certain designs will favor a material in that area. In the case of a hub, P/M
narrow width with larger diameter gears (“pancake tooling practice will dictate the minimum difference
designs”) as compared to more traditional or wider between hub and adjacent root diameter. The
gear boxes with smaller diameter gears, such as minimum root diameter may also be determined by
planetary drive systems or speed reducers. the combination of minimum number of teeth and
finest pitch. See D.5.1 and D.5.2.
D.5 Preliminary geometry restrictions and
guidelines D.5.4 Preferred face--pitch ratio
In addition to size limits, there are other restrictions The selection of face width in P/M gear design is
and guidelines that may be applied. These are often expressed in terms of a preferred or maximum
needed for successful gear designs which are also face--pitch ratio, mFm. This ratio relates face width, F,
compatible with P/M manufacturing processes. to module, m, as follows:
D.5.1 Minimum number of teeth F
m Fm = m (D.8)
It is often the objective to introduce the highest This ratio expresses an approach to selection of gear
possible ratio in each gear set. This typically leads to proportions. In this approach, increases in load
a design of the smaller gear with the fewest possible capacity should be made by proportional increases

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 41


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

in tooth outline and face width, where tooth outline is Accurate determination of these factors for each of
determined by module. This is based in part on an the mating gears requires detailed gear geometry
objective of limiting the overall volume of the gear. A information that is generally not available at the initial
coarser pitch, when also maintaining the same design process. The following simplified estimates
number of teeth, often results in a larger diameter may be used in place of predetermined values.
and a larger cross--sectional area. Therefore, an D.6.2.1 Form factor
increase of load capacity by a coarser pitch alone
results in a greater increase in gear volume than if it Form factor is typically tied to the number of teeth in
is shared by a corresponding increase in face width. the gear. In the pinion, or smaller member of the
mating gears, the number of teeth is often tied to
A value for this ratio for use in design may be taken gear ratio, mG, with a higher ratio (greater than one)
from other successful gear designs. It generally falls leading to fewer teeth and lower form factor, as
in the range of 5 to 10, with the smaller value used reflected in the following equation for the pinion
with tighter axial space limitations. (smaller member):
D.6 Preliminary estimates of factors for repeated Y P = 0.6
m + 0.4 (D.9)
bending G
For the gear (larger member),
Equation 3.1, for calculated load capacity for tooth
bending under repeated loading, calls for the Y G = 1.0 (D.10)
following factors: The final design of the two gears can be optimized to
1) combined adjustment factor for strength, Kts; closely balance the form factors of the two gears,
and the average of the values from the two equations
2) geometry factor, Jt; may be used for both gears.
3) combined adjustment factor for tooth loading, D.6.2.2 Stress correction factor
Ktw.
This factor is derived from two components:
The simplest way to select these factors for initial
-- stress concentration factor, Kft;
design is by reference to values found in prior load
capacity calculations for similar applications. When -- notch sensitivity index, q.
this option is not available, values may be developed Stress concentration factor can be estimated, as
by following the calculation procedures in the follows:
corresponding clauses 5, 8, and 9. Each of these Kft = 1.5 for full round fillets, as introduced in the P/M
procedures call for multiple components, most of tooling;
which are based on application requirements and do
Kft = 2.0 for rack generated fillets, with near sharp
not require any detailed information on the gear
corners on the generating rack.
proportions that have not yet been determined.
Simplified procedures for estimating values of the The value for notch sensitivity index is based on the
remaining factor components are described below. type of loading and material. It may be selected
Values supplied in these descriptions should be directly from table C.1.
taken as trial values and should be replaced for D.6.2.3 Combined adjustment factor for tooth
subsequent estimating needs as indicated by new loading
load capacity calculations. Of the various components of this factor, only the
D.6.1 Combined adjustment factor for strength following have some relationship to gear proportions
and require some guidance in making estimates.
All components of this factor are independent of gear
proportions (see clause 5). Rim thickness factor estimate:
K B = 1.0 (D.11)
D.6.2 Geometry factor, Jt
Load distribution factor estimate:
There are two components of geometry factor, as
K mt = 1.3 (D.12)
defined in 8.2:
Dynamic factor, Kv, may be calculated by equation
-- form factor, Y, as found in annex B; 39, using estimates of its two variables, gear
-- stress correction factor, Kf, as found in annex C. accuracy tolerance and pitchline velocity.

42 © AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

The value of gear accuracy tolerance, VqT, is chosen By successively using two different values for
based on the anticipated level of quality. It will calculation diameter in this equation, a range of
generally range from 79 micrometers for large gears module is found. The two diameters are minimum
with no tooth profile finishing, down to 8 micrometers pinion pitch diameter, dPN, of D.5.3 and maximum
for small gears with profile finishing. pinion pitch diameter, dPX, of D.4.1. If the first value
of module is found to be smaller (or finer pitch) than
Pitchline velocity may be estimated from the operat-
the minimum module, mx, of D.5.2, it should be
ing speeds, see D.2.2, and maximum pitch diame-
replaced by the minimum module.
ters, see D.4.1.
Design module, generally of some standard or
D.7 Calculation of pinion proportions common value, may then be selected from this
In the calculation of bending load capacity, the pinion range. Using this module in equation D.15, a new
is generally the critical member of the gear pair. For corresponding calculation diameter may be found.
matching materials, this results from the pinion’s This diameter can then be used, along with the
lower geometry factor and the higher number of load module value, to establish number of teeth in the
cycles. Therefore, the proportions of the pinion are pinion.
considered first in the initial design process. d (D.16)
N=m
These proportions will be selected by using equation A decimal number of teeth needs to be rounded to
1 in which: the next larger integer, and also be compared to the
-- pinion design torque, TtdP, replaces torque load minimum number of teeth, NN, described in D.5.1.
capacity; An adjusted number of teeth can then be used to find
-- design fatigue strength, st, is derived for the the corresponding pitch diameter. With these
selected material as described in clause 4; selected values of module and calculation diameter,
equation D.13 can be used to solve for the minimum
-- combined adjustment factors and geometry
face width, F.
factor are estimated as described in D.6;
D.8 Calculation of gear proportions
-- remaining factors, calculation diameter, dc, face
width, F, and module, m, all define the gear pro- In most applications, material strength and other
portions and are the unknowns in solving the bending load capacity factors of the gear are larger
equation. than those of the pinion. In such cases, design
proportions of the gear, such as number of teeth and
Equation 1 may be rewritten with a convenient
pitch diameter, can be found from the pinion design
grouping of variables:
by applying the gear ratio. If these factors are lower
1 ≤ s t K ts J t in the gear, the design procedure of D.7 can be
= K RS (D.13)
m dc F 2000 T tdP K tw repeated for the gear to see if changes in module,
The right side factor, KRS, can be evaluated as pitch diameter, or face width are needed. Such
described above. Any combination of left side changes may require corresponding changes to the
variables that equals, or is smaller than, the right side pinion design proportions, but without reducing its
factor, will provide adequate bending strength in an bending load capacity.
initial design. D.9 Design adjustments
The following will assist in arriving at individual After completing the load capacity calculation for
values for the gear proportion variables. each of the gears, as described in this information
sheet, it may be found that the initial design falls
First, replace face width, F, by a combination of short of meeting the required load capacity. For
preferred face--pitch ratio and module, as in D.5.4: small differences, an increase in the face width may
F = m Fm m (D.14) be the only adjustment needed. For a greater
increase, a change using a stronger material will
Then, rewrite the equation with only module as the
avoid major recalculations. When this is not ade-
unknown:
quate, a change to a coarser pitch with correspond-
2 ing diameter increases may be needed to supply the
m1  = d c m Fm K RS (D.15)
added load capacity.

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 43


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Annex E
(informative)
Calculation of inverse functions for gear geometry
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,
Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

E.1 Purpose pressure angle equal to almost 65°, an angle which


is unlikely to be exceeded in any calculations for spur
Some of the calculations in annex A refer to new
gears. For values of the involute function greater
trigonometric functions, namely the involute func-
than 1.0, or if a calculation method that uses a
tion, defined in A.3.2 as:
greater number of iterations is acceptable, replace
inv φ = tan φ − φ (where φ in radians) (E.1) equation E.3 with equation E.4.
and the sevolute function, defined in A.5.2 as: φ 1 = 0.2 π + 0.6 arctan I (E.4)

sev φ = cos1 φ − inv φ (E.2) Second approximation, φ2:

I − inv φ 1
In a variety of gear geometry calculations, it is φ2 = φ1 + (E.5)
2
necessary to solve for the inverse values of these tan φ 1
functions, that is, given the value of the function, to
find the value of the angle. Such calculations may be For successive approximations, use equation E.5
made with the aid of tables available in published after replacing φ1 by the value of the angle found in
gear literature. However, this process is generally the prior approximation.
not suited to calculations made in computer pro-
Table E.1 lists a range of involute values up to 1.0
grams. More convenient methods for finding the
and the “exact” values of the corresponding angles,
inverse values of these functions are described
in both degrees and radians. Alongside each set of
below.
these values are the errors, in radians, associated
E.2 Inverse involute function with each of up to four successive approximations.
Note that for angles up to 36°, these errors are
NOTE: This calculation is not required in any of the
negligible after the second approximation, and for
equations in annex A. It is presented here as an aid to
the reader who will encounter the need in other types of angles up to about 55°, are negligible after the third
gear geometry calculation. approximation. In spur gear calculations, it is
unlikely that angles will exceed 45°.
Many methods for performing this calculation can be
found in the gear literature, with most, but not all, E.3 Inverse sevolute function
capable of providing results with the accuracy
needed in modern calculations. The method shown This calculation is required in equation A.32, in
here will supply the required accuracy. It consists of A.5.2. The method presented here for the inverse
a series of approximations which may be extended sevolute is similar to that shown above in E.2 for the
to achieve even extreme levels of accuracy. Table inverse involute.
E.1 demonstrates that very few iterations are
First approximation, φ1:
needed for most applications.
1∕2
First approximation, φ1: φ 1 = 0.8 ( S − 1 ) + 1.4 ( S − 1 ) (E.6)
1∕3 where
φ 1 = 1.441 ( I ) − 0.374 I (E.3)
where S is the given value of the sevolute function.

I is the given value of the involute function. NOTE: This equation is suitable for values of the sevo-
lute function up to 1.57. This corresponds to values of
Equation E.3 is suitable for values of the involute the pressure angle approaching 90°. A 45° angle is un-
function up to 1.0. This corresponds to values of the likely to be exceeded in any calculations for spur gears.

44 © AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Table E.1 -- Errors in the calculation of the inverse involute function

Involute Exact angle Error (approximate -- exact), radians


value Degrees Radians First Second Third Fourth
0.0010000 8.2406242 0.1438260 --0.0001000 0.0000001 0.0000000 0.0000000
0.0020000 10.3656916 0.1809154 --0.0001088 0.0000001 0.0000000 0.0000000
0.0050000 14.0166548 0.2446368 --0.0000992 0.0000000 0.0000000 0.0000000
0.0100000 17.5767722 0.3067725 --0.0000585 0.0000000 0.0000000 0.0000000
0.0200000 21.9811018 0.3836426 0.0000250 0.0000000 0.0000000 0.0000000
0.0500000 29.3377203 0.5120398 0.0001291 0.0000000 0.0000000 0.0000000
0.1000000 36.1914219 0.6316595 --0.0002065 0.0000001 0.0000000 0.0000000
0.2000000 44.1379468 0.7703525 --0.0024506 0.0000121 0.0000000 0.0000000
0.5000000 55.8643701 0.9750172 --0.0182947 0.0007329 0.0000012 0.0000000
1.0000000 64.8741619 1.1322677 --0.0652677 0.0115850 0.0003466 0.0000003

Second approximation, φ2: Table E.2 lists a range of sevolute values up to 1.5
and the “exact” values of the corresponding angles,


φ 2 = φ 1 + S − sev φ 1 1 + 1 
sin φ 1
in both degrees and radians. Alongside each set of
these values are the errors, in radians, associated
with each of up to three successive approximations.
(E.7) Note that for angles up to 45°, these errors are very
small, possibly negligible after the second approxi-
For successive approximations, use equation E.7 mation and for all angles effectively zero after the
after replacing φ1 by the value of the angle found in third approximation. In spur gear calculations, it is
the prior approximation. unlikely that angles will exceed 45°.

Table E.2 -- Errors in the calculation of the inverse sevolute function

Sevolute Exact angle Error (approximate -- exact), radians


value Degrees Radians First Second Third
1.00100000 2.60090125 0.04539429 --0.00032240 0.00000110 0.00000000
1.00200000 3.70111645 0.06459667 --0.00038676 0.00000109 0.00000000
1.00500000 5.92462045 0.10340413 --0.00040918 0.00000073 0.00000000
1.01000000 8.49638966 0.14828997 --0.00028997 0.00000025 0.00000000
1.02000000 12.25623610 0.21391167 0.00007822 0.00000001 0.00000000
1.05000000 20.16288171 0.35190867 0.00114084 0.00000131 0.00000000
1.10000000 29.83660174 0.52074694 0.00197193 0.00000225 0.00000000
1.20000000 45.05369301 0.78633528 --0.00023625 0.00000002 0.00000000
1.50000000 81.87368867 1.42896544 --0.03901594 0.00006502 0.00000000

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 45


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Annex F
(informative)
Test for fillet interference by the tooth of the mating gear
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,
Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

F.1 Introduction -- tooth thickness at reference diameter, tMG (only


for calculation of tight mesh center distance).
This annex is provided as an aid to the gear designer,
to be used to determine if interference at the fillet of F.3 Center distance and operating pressure
one gear by the tip of the tooth of the mating gear angle
exists. F.3.1 Tight mesh center distance
Annex A provides means for calculating the point by The tight mesh center distance can be calculated
point shape of the fillet of a gear. This shape may be from the gear data above. The equations may be
a trochoid generated by the fillet of a generating made simpler by means of some preliminary calcula-
basic rack or it may be a circular--arc of specified tions.
radius tangent to the root circle and to the involute
tooth flank. Step 1. Pitch (or reference) diameters of the two
gears:
This annex provides means for calculating the
dG = NG m (F.1)
nearby path, point by point, followed by the tip of the
mating gear tooth. Interference is indicated if the d MG = N MG m (F.2)
combined graphical plot of the fillet and tip path Step 2. Reference center distance:
shows an overlap between the two curves. Clear-
ance is indicated if there is a gap between the two d G + d MG
C= (F.3)
curves along their entire corresponding length. If the 2
fillet is a circular--arc, a calculation method showing Step 3. Circular pitch:
interference or clearance is provided, avoiding the pc = π m (F.4)
need for graphical plots.
Step 4. Pressure angle at tight mesh center
F.2 Input data for the graphical plots distance:
F.2.1 Data common to the two gears
-- module, m; 
φ T = inv −1 (invφ) +
pc − tG − t MG
2C
 (F.5)

-- pressure angle, φ;
Step 5. Tight mesh center distance:
-- minimum center distance, CAN.
C (cos φ)
F.2.2 Data for the gear whose fillet is defined CT = (F.6)
cos φT
(with G as the final subscript)
F.3.2 Specified minimum center distance
-- number of teeth, NG;
The test for tip--fillet interference can be made at any
-- tooth thickness at reference diameter, tG;
center distance, keeping in mind that a center
-- coordinates of the point by point data of the fillet, distance smaller than the tight mesh center distance
referenced to an X--axis on the tooth centerline, is not possible. The selected center distance should
xfG, yfG. See A.4.5 or A.5.6. reflect the minimum value, CAN, to be encountered in
F.2.3 Data for the mating gear (with MG as the the assembly of the product. If it has been previously
final subscript) established that this is the same as the tight mesh
center distance, or if the interference analysis is to be
-- number of teeth, NMG; conservative, then the tight mesh center distance
-- outside diameter, dOMG; becomes the specified minimum value, or:
-- tip radius, rrMG; C AN ≥ C T (F.7)

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

F.3.3 Operating pitch diameters

The relative motion between the two gears can be


φ rCMG = arccos  
d BMG
d rCMG
(F.14)

represented by two tangent cylinders rolling on each


other without slipping. The diameters of these 
φ OEMG = arctan tan φ rCMG +
2 r rMG
d BMG

cylinders are the two operating pitch diameters (F.15)
which meet the following conditions: t BMG
α BMG = (F.16)
-- as tangent cylinders, the sum of their radii must d MG
match the specified center distance; Referring to equation A.8 and rearranging terms:
-- as cylinders that roll without slipping while main- α rCBMG = α BMG + inv φ − tan φ OEMG + φ rCMG
taining their rolling ratio, the diameters must be in (F.17)
the same ratio as their numbers of teeth.
F.4 Path of tip of mating gear
These diameters are therefore defined as follows:
In figure F.2, the gear is represented as fixed in
2 N G C AN position while the mating gear is shown in a rotated
d AG = (F.8) position. This arrangement is for convenience, since
NG + NMG
the analysis is concerned with relative position only.
2 N MG C AN The figure also shows the pitch point, PP, the point
d AMG = (F.9)
NG + NMG where the operating pitch circles of the two gears
come together. A line drawn from this pitch point
F.3.4 Adjustments for minimum center distance through the center of the tip radius, point RCMG,
When the minimum center distance is greater than establishes a point on the tip radius, point RMG. This
the tight mesh center distance, the difference is point becomes a point on the path of the tip of the
reflected in the operating pressure angle: mating gear. This path is a curve made up from a
collection of such points, plotted as if they were fixed

φ A = arccos C  (cos φ)
C AN
 (F.10)
on the gear and located near its fillet. These points
are similarly defined as the mating gear continues its
rotation around the gear.
Furthermore, the two gears will operate with back-
lash. Dealing with this backlash in the analysis is F.4.1 Limits of the path
avoided by adjusting the tooth thickness value in the The end points of the path are defined by the end
mating gear. This backlash adjusted tooth thickness points of the tip round on the mating gear, points
is: OEMG and ORMG, shown in figure F.2. For each
point, the corresponding path point appears when
t BMG = p c − t G + 2 C invφ A − (invφ) the mating gear has rotated until the pitch point is
correspondingly positioned. At this position, a
(F.11)
straight line connects three points:
Figure F.1 shows the two gears positioned without
-- the pitch point, PP;
any relative rotation, with the centerline of the mating
gear tooth space in line with the centerline of the -- the center of the mating gear tip radius center,
tooth of the gear. It also shows the tip radius of the point RCMG; and
mating gear and its points of tangency to the -- the selected point on the mating gear tip round,
involute, point OEMG, and to the remaining top land, RMG.
point ORMG, also shown in figure F.2. The center of The rotation angle of the mating gear, γMG, that
the tip radius is located on the mating gear by its corresponds with each of the points can be deter-
radial distance from the gear center, rrCMG, and by its mined from this requirement.
angular location relative to the adjusted tooth
centerline, αrCBMG. These may be calculated as F.4.1.1 Limit for point OE
shown in A.3.1 and A.3.2. Using the new subscripts, The conditions for this limit are based on the mating
equations A.1, A.3, A.4, A.5, A.7 and A.8 become: gear contacting the fixed gear at the point OEMG at a
d rCMG = d OMG − 2 r rMG (F.12) slightly rotated position compared to figure F.2. A
straight line connects the three points as noted
d BMG = d MG (cos φ) (F.13) above.

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AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Tooth C
L

rrCMG To mating
Point ORMG at gear center
remaining top land αrCBMG
Tip radius, rrMG To mating
Point OEMG at effective gear center
outside diameter Tooth pitch
Point RCMG -- Center angle, βMG
of tip round
Tooth CL Space C
L (mating gear)
(gear)

Circular tooth
thickness (mating
gear), tBMG
Standard pitch
circle (mating gear)
Operating pitch
circle (gear), dAG

Operating pitch circle


(mating gear), dAMG

Figure F.1 -- Gear and mating gear (with tooth thickness increased) in tight mesh at specific center
distance

Pitch point To mating


PP gear center
γMG
Point
Rotation angle, Tooth CL MG
RCMG
MG
To mating
Tooth CL gear center
(mating gear) αrCBMG

Point β MG
ORMG 2
Point
γG Common cent-
RMG
erline rotation
angle (G) Point OEMG Space C
L MG

Tooth CL
(gear)

Operating pitch
diameter (gear)

Operating pitch
diameter (mating
gear)

Figure F.2 -- Mating gear rotated around a fixed gear

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

The mating gear rotation angle that corresponds to Step 2. Find the x, y coordinates of the pitch point
the limit point OEMG is defined as γOEMG such that: and mating gear center referenced to the gear axes.
γ OEMG = φ OEMG − φ A − α OEBMG (F.18) x PPj = 0.5 d AG cos γ rjG (F.26)
y PPj = 0.5 d AG sin γ rjG (F.27)
where
x CMGj = C AN cos γ rjG (F.28)
αOEBMGis the half tooth thickness angle at the ef- y CMGj = C AN sin γ rjG (F.29)
fective outside diameter such that:
Step 3. Find the x, y coordinates of the center of the
α OEBMG = α BMG + invφ − invφ OEMG (F.19) mating gear tip radius.
F.4.1.2 Limit for point OR x rCMGj = x CMGj − 0.5d rCMG

At this limit condition, the mating gear has been × cosγ rjG + γ rjMG + α rCBMG (F.30)
rotated to a position which places the point ORMG y rCMGj = y CMGj − 0.5 d rCMG
on the straight line connecting the centers of the two
gears. The rotation angle of the mating gear for this × sinγ rjG + γ rjMG + α rCBMG (F.31)
limit is:
where
γ ORMG = − α rCBMG (F.20) drCMG is the diameter to the tip radius center --
F.4.2 Path point selection see equation A.1.
Step 4. Find the x, y coordinates of the point on the
A convenient complement of path points may be mating gear tip radius.
calculated from these limit values of mating gear
rotation angles with approximately equally spaced Distance of center of tip radius from pitch point
intermediate values. The following equation gives
the value of each rotation angle γrjMG for each value j à rPPj =  x PPj − x rCMGj 
2

+ y PPj − y rCMGj 
2

to the total number of angles, n. (F.32)


Therefore at the OR point, where j=1
γ r1MG = γ ORMG (F.21)
x rj = x PPj − Ã rPPj + r rMG
à rPPj x PPj − x rCMGj

(F.33)
and at the OE point, where j = n
γ rnMG = γ ORMG (F.22) y rj = y PPj −  Ã rPPj + r rMG
à rPPj  y PPj − y rCMGj
At all intermediate points, (F.34)
γ r1MG ( n − j ) + γ rnMG ( j − 1 ) F.5 Test for path point interference
γ rjMG = (F.23)
(n − 1 ) As noted in F.1, the test for interference can be made
for (j = 2 to n -- 1) by graphically plotting these points alongside the
points used to define the gear fillet. If the fillet was
F.4.3 Calculation of path points projected on the
defined by a circular--arc of radius rf, with its center at
“fixed” gear
xfC, yfC as described in A.5.3, a numerical test may
Step 1. For each γrjMG, calculate the corresponding be applied.
value of the rotation angle on the gear, γrjG, using the For each of the path points from F.4.3, calculate its
following equation: distance from the fillet arc center:


γ rjG = γ rjMG +
β MG
2
 N MG
NG
(F.24) z fCj =  2
x rj − x fC + y rj − y fC
2
(F.35)

where If any of these distance values is larger than the fillet


radius, rf, interference is present.
βMG is the tooth pitch angle at the mating gear.
If the fillet was defined by a trochoid curve as
β MG = 360 (F.25) described in A.4, the numerical test would be more
N MG complex and is beyond the scope of this document.

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 49


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Annex G
(informative)
Calculation examples
[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,
Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

G.1 Purpose C--2 Stress correction factor (see G.4.2)


The calculation examples in this annex serve the D -- calculate the design strength, st, equations 3
dual purpose of helping to clarify the procedures though 10 (see G.5).
explained in this document and providing a test case E -- calculate the combined adjustment factor for
for any computer programs prepared for these strength, Ks, equations 11 through 18 (see G.6).
procedures. The following sections begin with a flow
diagram illustrating the various steps and their F -- calculate the operating pitch diameter, dc,
proper order to determine the load capacity of a P/M equation 19 (use results from equations A.67
gear. This is followed with a detailed example and A.68, see G.7).
problem using a gear mesh assuming friction in the G -- calculate the effective face width, Fe, equa-
system. The final example describes the calcula- tions 20 through 21 (see G.8).
tions to test for fillet interference.
H -- calculate the geometry factor, J, equations
G.1.1 Sequence of calculations 22 through 24 (use results from step B and step
C above, see G.9).
Due to the multiple steps required in determining the
load capacity, the following sequence outlines these I -- calculate the combined adjustment factor for
steps in a preferred order to ensure all elements of loading, Kw, equations 25 through 33 (see G.10).
the calculation are considered. The goal is to
J -- determine the module, m, from the gear data
calculate all seven factors required for determining
table.
the result of equation 1 or 2.
K -- calculate the load capacity using the seven
Before any calculations begin, list all pertinent gear
items determined in steps D, E, F, G, H, I, J
data as illustrated by the data entries in table G.1. above (see G.11).
A -- calculate gear geometry per annex A,
G.1.2 Source of example data
equations A.1 through A.85.
A--1 Tip radius geometry (see G.2.1) The first example uses test gear data provided by the
A--2 Generated trochoid fillet points (see Center for Powder Metallurgy Technology (CPMT).
G.2.2) CPMT conducted a three year single tooth bending
A--3 Circular--arc in place of trochoid (see fatigue test program using P/M gears manufactured
G.2.3) with a variety of materials and processing conditions.
One such set of processing conditions was selected
A--4 Involute profile data (see G.2.4)
for this calculation example.
A--5 Operating line of action and pitch circle
data (see G.2.5) G.2 Annex A -- Calculation of spur gear
A--6 Contact conditions (see G.2.6) geometry features
B -- calculate form factor, Y, equations B.1 Gear from gear test program (see table G.1).
through B.19.
G.2.1 Tip radius geometry (see A.3).
B--1 Critical load location (see G.3.1)
B--2 Critical fillet section (see G.3.2) G.2.1.1 Effective outside diameter (see A.3.1):
B--3 Maximum bending stress (see G.3.3)
Step 1. Diameter at the center of the tip round, drC
B--4 Non--dimensional Y factor (see G.3.4)
(figure G.1)
C -- calculate the stress concentration factor, Kf,
equations C.1 through C.5. d rC = d O − 2 r r (A.1)
C--1 Elastic stress concentration factor (see = 85.3440 − 2 (0.7620)
G.4.1) = 83.8200 mm

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Table G.1 -- Gear data

Feature Symbol Pinion Gear Mesh


Number of teeth N 24 40
Module m 3.1750 3.1750
Pressure angle φ 20.000 20.000
Outside diameter dO 85.3440 131.2418
Root diameter dR 69.9262 116.5352
Tip radius rr 0.7620 0.7620
Arc tooth thickness t 5.7277 4.2469
Fillet radius rf 1.3513 1.6993
Center distance CA 101.7270
Face width F 12.7000 12.0000
Tooth--to--tooth VqT 25.4 micrometers
Rim thickness tR 9.9441
Material FL--4405--125HT
Fatigue limit G--10 stT 290 N/mm2
Ultimate tensile suT 930 N/mm2
strength
Young’s Modulus E 135,000 N/mm2
Number of load n 5.0 × 106
cycles
(unidirectional)
Number of units for nu 10,000
which one failure will
be tolerated
AGMA Quality Qv 9
Pinion is mounted in a machined housing with sleeve bearings
Bearing span = 24.00
Pitch line velocity = 7.62 m/sec

Step 2. Standard pitch diameter, d Step 3. Base circle diameter, dB (figure G.2)

d=Nm (A.2) d B = d (cos φ) (A.3)


= (24)(3.1750)
= 76.2000 cos(20.0000)
= 76.2000 mm
= 71.6046 mm

rr

d/2 dB/2

φ
drc dO

Figure G.1 Figure G.2

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AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Step 4. Pressure angle at center of tip round, φrC a = r B tan φ rC


(figure G.3)
(a + r r )
tan φ OE = rB
φ rC = arccos   dB
d rC
(A.4)
=
rB tan φrC + rr
rB
= arccos 71.6046
83.8200
  r
= tan φ rC + r r
B
= arccos(0.85427) 2r
= tan φ rC + r
dB
= 31.3213 degrees
= 0.5467 radians 
φ OE = arctan tanφ rC +
2r r
dB

φrC
r
cos φ rC = r B
rC
Step 6. Effective outside diameter, dOE
d
rrC cos φ rC = B
d rC

φrC
rB
φ rC = arccos   dB
d rC
d OE =
dB
cosφ OE
(A.6)

= 71.6046
cos(32.2028)
Figure G.3 = 84.6222 mm

Step 5. Pressure angle at effective outside diame-


ter, φOE (figure G.4) G.2.1.2 Remaining top land, tOR (see A.3.2)


φ OE = arctan tan φ rC +
2 rr
dB
 (A.5)
Step 1. Tooth thickness half angle, α


= arctan tan(31.3213) +
2(0.762)
71.6046
 α= t
d
(A.7)

= arctan (0.62980) = 5.7277


76.2000
= 32.2028 degrees = 0.07517 radians

Step 2. Remaining top land, tOR


φOE

a
φrC t OR = d Oα + (inv φ) − tan φ OE + φ rC
(A.8)
= 85.3440 [0.07517 + inv (20.0000)
φOE
− tan (32.2028) + 0.5417]
= 0.5913 mm

rB G.2.2 Generated trochoid fillet points (see A.4)

NOTE: The example gear selected for these calcula-


tions has a circular--arc fillet. The following trochoid fil-
let calculations are used to demonstrate the use of the
formulas in this section and are not used elsewhere in
Figure G.4 the example calculations.

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

G.2.2.1 Specified basic rack proportions (see Maximum basic rack fillet radius, rfBRX (figure G.6)
A.4.1.1)
cosφ
πm − b BR sin φ (A.11)
Basic rack tooth thickness, tBR (figure G.5) 4
r fBRX =
1 − sin φ
t BR = π m
2
π (3.1750)
(A.9)
π3.1750
cos 20.0000
4
− 4.1540(sin 20.0000)
= =
2 1 − sin 20.0000
= 4.9873 mm = 2.3433 − 1.4208
0.6580
Basic rack dedendum, bBR
= 1.4020 mm


b Br = 0.5 N m +
t − t BR
tan φ
− dR  (A.10) G.2.2.2 Calculated basic rack data (see A.4.1.2)

Basic rack form dedendum, bfBR (figure G.7)



= 0.5 24 (3.1750) + 5.7277 − 4.9873
tan 20.0000 b fBR = b BR − r fBR(1 − sin φ) (A.12)
− 69.9262  = 4.1540 − 1.3513 (1 − sin(20.0000))
= 0.5(76.200 + 2.0342 − 69.9262) = 4.1540 − 1.3513 (0.6580)
= 4.1540 mm = 3.2649 mm

t BR t − t BR
2 b=
2 tan φ
Nominal pitch line

φ Generating pitch line

t bBR
2

dR
c= a = d = Nm
2 2 2

Figure G.5
Nominal Nominal pitch line
pitch line
Generating b fBR = b BR −  r fBR − r fBR sin φ 
pitch line
b fBR = b BR − r fBR(1 − sin φ)
bfBR
bBR φ
rfBRX rfBR

Figure G.6
Figure G.7

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 53


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Coordinate along the G--axis, gfBR (figure G.8) G.2.2.3 Rack shift (see A.4.2 and figure G.10)
t r t − t BR
g fBR = BR + b BR − r fBR tan φ + fBR (A.13) y RS = (A.15)
2 cos φ 2 tan φ
= 4.9873 + 4.1540 − 1.3513 tan20.0000 = 5.7277 − 4.9873
2 2 tan (20.0000)
+ 1.3513
cos20.0000 = 1.0171 mm
= 2.4937 + 1.0201 + 1.4380
= 4.9518 mm t BR
2
gfBR φ
Nominal pitch line
t BR
Generating pitch line
2

yRS
φ
t
b rfBR
2
a
φ
Figure G.10

Figure G.8 Coordinate along H--axis (measured from Gy--axis),


hyfBR (figure G.11)
t BR
g fBR = +a+b h yfBR = h fBR − y RS (A.16)
2
a = b BR − r fBR tan φ = 2.8027 − 1.0171
r = 1.7856 mm
b = fBR
cos φ
t r Nominal pitch line
g fBR = BR + b BR − r fBR tan φ + fBR
2 cos φ yRS Generating pitch line
Coordinate along the H--axis, hfBR (figure G.9)
h fBR = b BR − r fBR (A.14)
= 4.1540 − 1.3513 hfBR hyfBR
= 2.8027 mm
Nominal pitch line

Figure G.11
hfBR
bBR Test for undercutting:

If bfBR − yRS > dsin2 φ; there is


2
rfBR undercutting.
If bfBR − yRS ≤ dsin2 φ; there is no
2
Figure G.9 undercutting. (A.17)

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

d sin 2 φ = 76.2000 (sin(20.0000)) 2 G.2.2.5 Fillet point coordinates (see A.4.5)


2 2
Step 1. Pitch point polar radius, ρf (figure G.12)
= 4.4569
bfBR − yRS = 3.2649 − 1.0171 h yfBR
Ãf = + r fBR (A.23)
= 2.2478 sin θ f
therefore, there is no undercutting. f1:
G.2.2.4 Fillet point selection (see A.4.4)
à f1 = 1.7856 + 1.3513 = 3.1369 mm
θ f1 n f − k  + θ fn( k − 1 ) (A.22)
sin(90.0000)
θf = f5:
nf − 1
For k = 1 to nf à f15 = 1.7856 + 1.3513 = 3.4369 mm
sin(58.8889)
nf = 10
f10:
θ f1 = 90.0000 degrees (A.20)
1.7856 + 1.3513 = 6.5720 mm
à f10 =
θ fn = φ = 20.0000 degrees (A.20) sin(20.0000)
k = 1: Step 2. Generating roll angle, εf (figure G.13)

θ f1 =
90.0000(10 − 1) + 20.0000(1 − 1)
10 − 1
= 90.0000 degrees

2 g fBR +
h yfBR cosθ f
sinθ f

εf = (A.24)
k = 5: d
f1:
90.0000(10 − 5) + 20.0000(5 − 1)

 
θ f5 =
10 − 1
= 58.8889 degrees 2 4.9518 + 1.7856  cos90.0000
sin90.0000
k = 10:
ε f1 =
76.2000
90.0000(10 − 10) + 20.0000(10 − 1)
θ f10 = = 0.1300 radians
10 − 1
= 20.0000 degrees = 7.4466 degrees

hyfBR θf

Pitch point
Y

Basic rack
rfBR ρf

Point on Generating
trochoid pitch line on
basic rack
X

Generating
Gear center circle on gear

Figure G.12

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 55


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

hyfBR θf

Y d Pitch point
2 εf
d
2
gfBR
εf Basic
rack C
L
εf

X
Generating
Gear Generating
pitch line on
center circle on gear
basic rack

Figure G.13

f5: f1:


2 4.9518 + 1.7856  cos58.8889
sin58.8889
 v f1 =  76.2000
2

2
+ 3.1369 2 − 76.2000


1/2
ε f5 = × (3.1369)(sin 90.000) = 34.9631
76.2000
= 0.1583 radians
3.1369 cos(90.0000)
= 9.0672 degrees α f1 = 7.4466 − arcsin
34.9631
f10: = 7.4466 degrees


2 4.9518 + 1.7856  cos20.0000
sin20.0000
 f5:

ε f3 =
76.2000
v f5 =  76.2000
2

2
+ 3.4369 2 − 76.2000


1/2
= 0.2587 radians
= 14.8243 degrees × (3.4369)(sin 58.8889) = 35.2023

Step 3. Polar coordinates of trochoid relative to 3.4369 cos(58.8889)


tooth centerline and gear center, vf, αf (figure G.14) α f5 = 9.0672 − arcsin
35.2023
= 6.1756 degrees
1∕2

vf =  
d
2
2
+ à 2f − d à f sin θ f  (A.25)
f10:


cos φ
α f = ε f − arcsin à f v f  (A.26)
v f10 =  76.2000
2

2
+ 6.5720 2 − 76.2000


1/2
f
× (6.5720)(sin 20.0000) = 36.3802

NOTE: 
arcsin à f
cos θ f
vf  calculates a value in
6.5720 cos20.0000
α f5 = 14.8243 − arcsin
degrees. This must be converted to radians or εf must 36.3802
be converted to degrees before using in the formula. = 5.0507 degrees

56 © AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

θf

Y d x Pitch point
2
a
b
Ãf
θf
βf εf
Basic rack
vf
αf
X
Generating Generating
Gear circle on gear pitch line on
center basic rack

v 2f = a 2 + b 2
1∕2
v f =  a 2 + b 2

a= d−x
2
x = Ã f sin θ f
a = d − Ã f sin θ f
2
b = Ã f cos θ f
 
a 2 + b 2 = d − Ã f sin θ f + Ã 2 cos 2 θ f
2 2
2
= d
2
 − d − d + Ã 2f sin 2 θ f + Ã 2f cos 2 θ f
2 sin θ f 2 sin θ f
2
= d  − dà f sin θ f + à 2fsin 2 θ f + cos 2 θ f
2
2
= d  + à 2f − dà f sin θ f
2
1∕2

vf =  
d
2
2
+ à 2f − dà f sin θ f 
α f = εf − βf
 θ
β f = arcsin à f cos v f
f

 θ
α f = ε f − arcsin à f cos v f
f

Figure G.14

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AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Step 4. Rectangular coordinates of trochoid, G.2.2.6 Minimum radius along trochoid curve
xf, yf (figure G.15) (table G.2) (see A.4.6)
2
x f = v f cos α f (A.27) h yfBR
(A.29)
R fN = + r fBR
0.5 d + h yfBR
y f = v f sin α f (A.28)
= 1.7856 2 + 1.3513
f1: 0.5(76.2) + 1.7856
= 1.4312 mm
x f1 = 34.9631 cos(7.4466) = 34.6682 mm G.2.3 Circular--arc in place of trochoid (see
A.5)
y f1 = 34.9631 sin(7.4466) = 4.5313 mm
G.2.3.1 Test for minimum fillet radius (see
f5:
A.5.1)
x f5 = 35.2023 cos(6.1756) = 34.9980 mm d2 − d2
B R (A.30)
r fN =
4d R
y f5 = 35.2023 sin(6.1756) = 3.7869 mm
2 2
f10: = 71.6046 − 69.9262
4(69.9262)
= 0.8493 mm
x f10 = 36.3802 cos(5.0507) = 36.2390 mm
G.2.3.2 Full--fillet radius (see A.5.2):
y f10 = 36.3802 sin(5.0507) = 3.2028 mm
Step 1. Test for the fit of a full--fillet radius

BTff = 
π + d R − α − invφ
N dB
 (A.31)

Y
Point on

= π + 69.9262 − 0.07517 − inv 20°
24 71.6046

xf trochoid Basic = 1.01739
Gear center rack [BTff] > 1; Full--fillet radius will work.
αf yf
X Step 2. Pressure angle at the center of the full fillet
vf radius, φbC (figure G.16)

φ bC = arc sev BT ff (A.32)


Figure G.15 = arc sev (1.01739)

Table G.2

θf (deg) θf (rad) ρf εf (deg) εf (rad) vf αf (rad) αf (deg) xf yf


90.0000 1.570796 3.136900 0.129969 7.446647 34.96310 0.129969 7.446647 34.66822 4.531320
82.2222 1.435048 3.153479 0.136370 7.813418 34.97814 0.124169 7.114339 34.70884 4.332036
74.4444 1.299300 3.204792 0.143015 8.194134 35.02314 0.118473 6.788001 34.77764 4.139596
66.6667 1.163553 3.295940 0.150185 8.604941 35.09790 0.112981 6.473354 34.87413 3.956977
58.8889 1.027805 3.436874 0.158252 9.067192 35.20228 0.107784 6.175596 34.99800 3.786917
51.1111 0.892057 3.64534 0.167770 9.612497 35.33678 0.102959 5.899133 35.14965 3.631826
43.3333 0.756309 3.953301 0.179644 10.292830 35.50372 0.098563 5.647224 35.33141 3.493678
35.5556 0.620562 4.422018 0.195538 11.203490 35.71030 0.094624 5.421567 35.55055 3.374018
27.7778 0.484814 5.182699 0.218942 12.544430 35.97804 0.091143 5.222084 35.82871 3.274593
20.0000 0.349066 6.572045 0.258732 14.824260 36.38024 0.088152 5.050726 36.23898 3.202832

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Imaginary involute
through fillet center
Step 4. Radius of the full--fillet radius (maximum fillet
Base radius), rfX
circle
Root r fX = 0.5 d bC − d R (A.35)
diameter
φbC = 0.5 (73.0396 − 69.9262)
= 1.5567 mm
G.2.3.3 Fillet radius center (see A.5.3):

Step 1. Diameter of gear center circle going through


fillet center, dfC (figure G.17)
d fC = d R + 2r f (A.36)
= 69.9262 + 2(1.3513)
= 72.6288 mm
Figure G.16
First approximation:
1∕2 rf rf
φ 1 = 0.8( S − 1 ) + 1.4( S − 1 ) (E.4)
1∕2
= 0.8(1.01739 − 1) + 1.4(1.01739 − 1)
= 0.198532 radians = 11.3750 degrees
Figure G.17
S is the given value of the sevolute function
Step 2. Pressure angle along imaginary involute
Second approximation:
through fillet center, φfC (figure G.18)

φ 2 = φ 1 + S − sev φ 1 1 + 1 
sin φ 1
(E.5)
φ fC = arccos   dB
d fC
(A.37)
= 0.198532 + (1.017390 − sev 0.198532 rad)

× 1+ 1  
= arccos 71.6046
72.6288

sin 11.3750
= 9.6336 degrees
= 0.198532 + (1.017390
Step 3. Polar radius at fillet center, ρfC
−  1 
− inv (0.198532 rad)  d fC
cos 0.198532 rad à fC = = 72.6288 = 36.3144 mm (A.38)
2 2
× 6.070233
Step 4. Polar angle at fillet center (relative to tooth
= 0.198552 radians = 11.3762 degrees
centerline), θfC
Step 3. Diameter at the center of the full--fillet radius,
dbC 2r f
θ fC = α + inv φ − inv φ fC + (A.39)
dB dB
d bC = (A.34) = 0.07517 + inv (20°) − inv(9.6336°)
cos φ bC

71.6046 2(1.3513)
= +
cos 11.3762 71.6046

= 73.0396 mm = 0.1262 radians = 7.2314 degrees

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AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Imaginary involute G.2.3.6 Coordinates of points spaced along


through fillet center fillet (see A.5.6)
Base Step 1. Polar angle at the form diameter, θF
circle
θ F = α + (invφ) − invφ F (A.45)
Root
φfC diameter = 0.07517 + inv 20° − inv 7.5194°
= 0.0893 radians = 5.1172 degrees
Step 2. Fillet construction angle at the form
diameter, τfF

τ fF = π + θ F − φ F (A.46)
2
= π + 0.0893 − 0.13124
2
= 1.5289 radians = 87.5977 degrees
Step 3. Fillet construction angle at the root diameter,
τfR
Figure G.18
τ fR = θ fC = 7.2314 degrees (A.47)
Step 5. Coordinates at fillet center, xfC, yfC Step 4. Fillet construction angles at spaced points
along the fillet, τf
x fC = Ã fCcos θ fc (A.40)
τ fR n f − k  + τ fF( k − 1 )
= 36.3144 cos (7.2314) = 36.0256 τf = (A.48)
nf − 1
y fC = Ã fCsin θ fc (A.41) For k = 1 to nf, nf = 10
= 36.3144 sin (7.2314) = 4.5711 k = 1:
7.2314(10 − 1) + 87.5977(1 − 1)
G.2.3.4 Form diameter (see A.5.4) τ f1 =
10 − 1
= 7.2314 degrees
Step 1. Pressure angle at the form diameter, φF
k = 5:
7.2314(10 − 5) + 87.5977(5 − 1)


φ F = arctan tan φ fC −
2  r f
dB
 (A.42)
τ f5 =
10 − 1
= 42.9498 degrees
k = 10:

= arctan tan (9.6336) −
2 (1.3513)
71.6046
 7.2314(10 − 10) + 87.5977(10 − 1)
τ f1 =
10 − 1
= 0.13124 radians = 7.5194 degrees = 87.5977 degrees
Step 5. Coordinates of spaced points along fillet, xf,
Step 2. Form diameter, dF yf (table G.3)
x f = x fC − r fcos τ f (A.49)
dB
dF = = 71.6046 = 72.2257 mm y f = y fC − r fsin τ f (A.50)
cos φ F cos 7.5194
(A.43)
f1:
G.2.3.5 Bottom land (see A.5.5) x f1 = 36.0256 − 1.3513(cos 7.2314) = 34.6850 mm
y f1 = 4.5711 − 1.3513(sin 7.2314) = 4.4010 mm

s R = d R π − θ fC
N
 (A.44) f5:
x f5 = 36.0256 − 1.3513cos 42.9498 = 35.0365 mm

= 69.9262 π − 0.1262 = 0.3286 mm
24
 y f5 = 4.5711 − 1.3513(sin 42.9498) = 3.6504 mm

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

f10: i5:
x f10 = 36.0255 − 1.3513cos 87.5977 = 35.9689 mm 0.1320(10 − 5) + 0.6298(5 − 1)
ε1 =
10 − 1
y f10 = 4.5711 − 1.3513(sin 87.5977) = 3.2210 mm
= 0.3532 radians
i10:
Table G.3
0.1320(10 − 10) + 0.6298(10 − 1)
ε1 =
f τf xf yf 10 − 1
1 7.2314 34.6850 4.4010 = 0.6298 radians
2 16.1610 34.7276 4.1950 Step 3. Pressure angle at the “i--th” Point, φi
3 25.0906 34.8018 3.9981 φ i = arctan ε i (A.54)
4 34.0202 34.9055 3.8151 i1:
5 42.9498 35.0365 3.6504
φ i = arctan (0.1320) = 7.5195 degrees
6 51.8794 35.1914 3.5081
i5:
7 60.8090 35.3665 3.3915
8 69.7385 35.5576 3.3035 φ 5 = arctan (0.3532) = 19.4555 degrees
9 78.6681 35.7600 3.2462 i10:
10 87.5977 35.9689 3.2210 φ 10 = arctan (0.6298) = 32.2028 degrees
Step 4. Diameter at the “i--th” point, di

G.2.4 Involute profile data (see A.6) dB


di = (A.55)
cos φ i
G.2.4.1 Spaced points on the involute profile
i1:
(see A.6.1)
di = 71.6046 = 72.2257 mm
Step 1. Roll angles at the form and effective outside cos(7.5195)
diameters, εF, εOE i5:


ε F = tan arccos
dB
dF
 (A.51)
di = 71.6046 = 75.9407 mm
cos(19.4555)
i10:

= tan arccos 71.6046
72.2257
 di =71.6046 = 84.6222 mm
cos(32.2028)
= 0.1320 radians Step 5. Polar (or half tooth) angle at the “i--th” point,


ε OE = tan arccos
dB
d OE
 (A.52)
αi

α i = t + inv φ − inv φ i (A.56)


d

= tan arccos 71.6046  = 5.7277 + inv (20°) − inv φ i
84.6222 76.2000
= 0.6298 radians = 0.0752 + 0.0149
− tan φ i − φ i radians
Step 2. Roll angles at the “i--th” point, εi
= 0.0901 − tan φ i + φ i
ε F n i − 1  + ε OE( i − 1 )
εi = (A.53) i1:
ni − 1
For i = 1 to ni, ni = 10 α 1 = 0.0901 − tan(7.5195) + 0.13124
= 0.0893 radians = 5.1172 degrees
i1:
i5:
0.1320(10 − 1) + 0.6298(1 − 1)
ε1 = α 5 = 0.0901 − tan(19.4555) + 0.33956
10 − 1
= 0.1320 radians = 0.0764 radians = 4.3768 degrees

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 61


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

i10: Step 1. Pressure angle at the selected point, φS

α 10 = 0.0901 − tan(32.2028) + 0.56204 dB


φ S = arccos (A.61)
dS
= 0.0223 radians = 1.2785 degrees
S 1:
Step 6. Coordinates of the “i--th” point, xi, yi
(table G.4)
φ S1 = arccos 71.6046 = 7.5196 degrees
72.2257
di
xi = cos α i (A.57) S 2:
2
d φ S2 = arccos 71.6046 = 19.4554 degrees
y i = i sin α i (A.58) 75.9407
2
S 3:
i1:
φ S3 = arccos 71.6046 = 32.2027 degrees
x 1 = 72.2257 cos 5.1172 = 35.9689 mm 84.6222
2 Step 2. Half--tooth thickness angle at the selected
y 1 = 72.2257 sin 5.1172 = 3.2210 mm point, αS
2
i5: α S = t + inv φ − inv φ S (A.62)
d
x 5 = 75.9407 cos 4.3768 = 37.8596 mm = 5.7277 + inv (20°) − inv φ S
2 76.2000
y5 = 75.9407 sin 4.3768 = 2.8977 mm = 0.0752 + 0.0149
2
− tan φ S − φ S radians
i10:
= 0.0901 − tan φ S + φ S
x 10 = 84.6222 cos 1.2785 = 42.3006 mm S 1:
2
y 10 = 84.6222 sin 1.2785 = 0.9441 mm α S1 = 0.0901 − tan (7.5196) + 0.13124
2
= 0.0893 radians = 5.1772 degrees
G.2.4.2 Selected point on the involute profile
(see A.6.3) S 2:
α S2 = 0.0901 − tan (19.4554) + 0.33956
Selected diameters, dS1, dS2, dS3:
= 0.0764 radians = 4.3768 degrees
d S1 = 72.2257 mm S 3:
d S2 = 75.9407 mm α S3 = 0.0901 − tan (32.2027) + 0.56204
d S3 = 84.6222 mm = 0.0223 radians = 1.2785 degrees

Table G.4

f εf (rad) φf df αf (rad) αf (deg) xf yf


1 0.1320 7.5195 72.2257 0.0893 5.1172 35.9689 3.2210
2 0.1873 10.6091 72.8499 0.0879 5.0378 36.2842 3.1986
3 0.2426 13.6377 73.6820 0.0855 4.8972 36.7065 3.1450
4 0.2979 16.5905 74.7150 0.0817 4.6809 37.2329 3.0486
5 0.3532 19.4555 75.9407 0.0764 4.3768 37.8596 2.8977
6 0.4086 22.2227 77.3501 0.0694 3.9749 38.5820 2.6809
7 0.4639 24.8850 78.9332 0.0605 3.4681 39.3943 2.3874
8 0.5192 27.4374 80.6798 0.0498 2.8513 40.2900 2.0067
9 0.5745 29.8769 82.5796 0.0370 2.1218 41.2615 1.5287
10 0.6298 32.2028 84.6222 0.0223 1.2785 42.3006 0.9441

62 © AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Step 3. Circular tooth thickness at the selected G.2.5.2 Operating pitch diameters (see A.7.2)
point, tS
2 CA
t S = d Sα S (A.63) d AP =
d (A.67)
1 + BG
S 1: d BP
t S1 = 72.2257 × 0.0893 = 6.4506 mm 2(101.7270)
=
S 2: 1 + 119.3410
71.6046
t S2 = 75.9407 × 0.0764 = 5.8010 mm = 76.2953
S 3: 2 CA
d AG =
t S3 = 84.6222 × 0.0223 = 1.8883 mm d (A.68)
1 + BP
d BG
Step 4. Coordinates of the selected point, xS, yS
2(101.7270)
d =
x S = S cos α S
2
(A.64) 1 + 71.6046
119.3410
d
y S = S sin α S (A.65) = 127.1588 mm
2
G.2.6 Contact conditions (see A.8)
S 1:
Point 1 = Start of contact at any one tooth
x S1 = 72.2257 cos 5.1172 = 35.9689 mm
2
Point 2 = Start of single tooth contact
y S1 = 72.2257 sin 5.1172 = 3.2210 mm
2 Point 3 = End of single tooth contact
S 2:
Point 4 = End of contact of any one tooth
x S2 = 75.9407 cos 4.3768 = 37.8596 mm G.2.6.1 Contact limit points on the line of
2
action (see A.8.1)
y S2 = 75.9407 sin 4.3768 = 2.8977 mm
2
Step 1. Roll angles at the operating pitch diameters,
S 3: εAP and εAG
x S3 = 84.6222 cos 1.2785 = 42.3006 mm ε A = ε AP = ε AG = tan φ A (A.69)
2
= tan 20.1956 = 0.3678 radians
y S3 = 84.6222 sin 1.2785 = 0.9441 mm
2 Step 2. Roll angles at effective outside diameters,
G.2.5 Operating line--of--action and pitch circle εOEP, εOEG
data (see A.7)
ε OEP = tan φ OEP = tan 32.2028 (A.70)
dG = NG m (A.2)
= 0.6298 radians
= 40 (3.175) Determine φOEG
= 127.0000 mm Step a. Diameter at center of tip round for the
d BG = d G cos φ (A.3) gear, drC
= 127.0000 cos 20° d rC = d O − 2 r r (A.1)
= 119.3410 mm = 131.2418 − 2(0.7620)
G.2.5.1 Operating pressure angle (see A.7.1) = 129.7178 mm
Step b. Pressure angle at center of tip round,
φ A = arccos BP
d + d BG
2 CA
 (A.66) φrC
dB

= arccos 71.6046 + 119.3410
2(101.7270)
 φ rC = arccos
d rC
(A.4)

= 20.1956 degrees = arccos 119.3410 = 23.0732 degrees


129.7178

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 63


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Step c. Pressure angle at effective outside


β G = 2 π = 2π = 0.1571 radians (A.77)
diameter, φOEG NG 40

φ OEG = arctan tan φ rC + dB



2r r
(A.5)
Step 6. Roll angles at point 2, ε2P, ε2G
ε 2P = ε 4P − β P = 0.6298 − 0.2618 (A.78)


= arctan tan 23.0732 +
2(0.7620)
119.3410
 = 0.3680 radians
But not smaller than ε1P (0.2497); Remains the
= 23.6896 degrees same (0.3680)

ε OEG = tan φ OEG (A.71) ε 2G = ε 4G + β G = 0.2107 + 0.1571 (A.79)

= tan 23.6896 = 0.4388 radians = 0.3677 radians


Step 3. Roll angles at point 1, ε1P, ε1G But not greater than ε1G (0.4388); Remains the
same (0.3677)


ε 1P = ε A 1 +
NG
NP
 N
− ε OEG G
NP
(A.72) Step 7. Roll angles at point 3, ε3P, ε3G
ε 3P = ε 1P + β P = 0.2497 + 0.2618 (A.80)
= 0.36781 + 40 − 0.4388 40 = 0.5115 radians
24 24
But not greater than ε4P (0.6298); Remains the same
= 0.2497 radians (0.5115)
But not smaller than zero; Remains the same
ε 3G = ε 1G − β G = 0.4388 − 0.1571 (A.81)
(0.2497)
= 0.2817 radians
ε 1G = ε OEG = 0.4388 radians (A.73)
But not smaller than ε4G (0.2107); Remains the
But not greater than: same (0.2817)


εA 1 +
NP
NG
 G.2.6.2 Diameters at contact points (see A.8.2)
d BP
d iP = (A.82)
  cosarctan ε iP
0.3678 1 + 24 = 0.58850
40
d BG
Remains the same (0.4388) d iG = (A.83)
cosarctan ε iG
Step 4. Roll angles at point 4, ε4P, ε4G
Point 1:
ε 4P = ε OEP = 0.6298 radians (A.74)
d 1P = 71.6046 = 73.8023 mm
But not greater than: cos (arctan 0.2497)


εA 1 +
NG
NP
 d 1G = 119.3409
cos(arctan 0.4388)
= 130.3226 mm

Point 2:

0.3678 1 + 40 = 0.98083
24
 d 2P = 71.6046 = 76.2992 mm
cos(arctan 0.3680)
Remains the same (0.6298)
d 2G = 119.3409 = 127.1548 mm

ε 4G = ε A 1 +
NP
NG
 N
− ε OEP P
NG
(A.75) Point 3:
cos (arctan 0.3677)

71.6046
40

= 0.3678 1 + 24 − 0.6298 24
40
   d 3P =
cos(arctan 0.5115)
= 80.4264 mm

d 3G = 119.3409 = 123.9849 mm
= 0.2107 radians cos(arctan 0.2817)
But not smaller than zero; Remains the same
Point 4:
(0.2107)
d 4P = 71.6046 = 84.6222 mm
Step 5. Pitch angles, βP, βG
cos(arctan 0.6298)
β P = 2 π = 2π = 0.2618 radians (A.76) d 4G = 119.3409 = 121.9604 mm
NP 24 cos(arctan 0.2107)

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

The diameters of the highest point of single tooth Half--tooth thickness angle of dWc; αWc:
contact are:
α Wc = t + inv φ − inv φ Wc (A.62)
For the pinion, d3P (80.4264) d
= 5.7277 + inv 20° − inv φ Wc
For the gear, d2G (127.1548) 76.2000
G.2.6.3 Limit diameters (see A.8.3) = 0.0752 + 0.0149

For the pinion, dLP = d1P (73.8023) − tan φ Wc − φ Wc(radians)

For the gear, dLP = d4G (121.9604) = 0.0901 − tan (27.0876) + 0.4728
= 0.05139 (radians)
G.2.6.4 Profile contact ratio (see A.8.4)
= 2.9442 degrees
Step 1. Approach portion of the profile contact ratio,
mpa Circular tooth thickness at dWc; tWc:
ε AP − ε 1P t Wc = d Wc α Wc (A.63)
m pa = (A.84)
βP = 80.4264 (0.05139)
= 4.1328 mm
= 0.3678 − 0.2497 = 0.4514
0.2618 Coordinates at dWc; xWc, yWc:
Step 2. Recess portion of the profile contact ratio,
mpr
ε − ε AP
x Wc =   d Wc
2
cos α Wc (A.64)
m pr = 4P (A.85)
βP
 
= 80.4264 cos(2.9442)
2
= 0.6298 − 0.3678 = 1.0006
0.2618 = 40.1601 mm
Step 3. Profile contact ratio, mp
m p = m pa + m pr (A.86) y Wc =   d Wc
2
sin α Wc (A.65)
= 0.4514 + 1.0006 = 1.4521
G.3 Annex B -- Calculation of spur gear form  
= 80.4264 sin(2.9442)
2
factor, Y
= 2.0655 mm
G.3.1 Highest point of single tooth loading
(see B.2.3.2.3) If considering the effects of friction, see G.12.

From table G.1, the tooth--to--tooth quality level of Step 2: Direction angle of critical tooth force, γWc:
each gear is Q9 which exceeds the Q8 level per γ Wc = φ Wc − α Wc (B.6)
B.2.3.2.3. Therefore:
= 27.0876 − 2.9442
d WcP = d 3P (B.2)
= 24.1433 degrees
= 80.4264 mm
d WcG = d 2G Step 3: Distance of translated critical tooth force,
(B.3)
xWcC
= 127.1548 mm
G.3.1.1 Translation to tooth centerline (see x WcC = x Wc − y Wctan γ Wc (B.7)
B.2.3.3) = 40.1601 − 2.0655 tan (24.1433)
Step 1: Determine coordinate points, xWc, yWc: = 39.2343 mm
Pressure angle at dWc; φWc: G.3.1.2 Force components (see B.2.3.4)

φ Wc = arccos   d BP
d Wc
(A.61)
Bending component, Wcy:

W cy = W c cos γ Wc (B.8)



= arccos 71.6046
80.4264
 = W c cos(24.1433)
= 0.4728 radians = 27.0876 degrees = 0.9125 W c

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AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Compressive component, Wcx: Step 4: Bending stress factor, fBS:


hf
W cx = W c sin γ Wc (B.9) f BS = 6 cos γ Wc (B.14)
w 2f
= W c sin(24.1433) hf
= 6(cos(24.1433))
= 0.4090 W c w 2f
hf
G.3.2 Critical fillet section (see B.2.4) = 5.4752
w 2f

G.3.2.1 Bending stress factor, fBS (see B.2.4.2) G.3.2.2 Maximum bending stress factor (see
B.2.4.3)
Step1: Height of the translated load force above the Step 1: Select an initial trial value of τf:
fillet section, hf:
Select τf = 30°
h f = x WcC − x f (B.10) Step 2: Calculate fillet data from this location angle,
= 39.2343 − x f xf, yf, hf, wf:

x f = x fC − r f cos τ f (A.49)
xf varies depending on the location in the fillet.
Reference equation A.49 and table G.5 for = 36.0255 − 1.3513 (cos 30.0000)
values. = 34.8553 mm
y f = y fC − r f sin τ f (A.50)
Step 2: Width of the fillet section, wf:
= 4.5711 − 1.3513 (sin 30.0000)
wf = 2 yf (B.11) = 3.8955 mm
h f = x WcC − x f (B.10)
yf varies depending on the location in the fillet.
Reference equation A.50 and table G.5 for = 39.2343 − 34.8553
values. = 4.3790 mm
wf = 2 yf (B.11)
Step 3: Bending stress at the fillet section, sBS:
= 2 (3.8955)
= 7.7910 mm
hf
s BS = 6 W ccos γ Wc (B.13) Step 3: Calculate the bracketed term, BT:
w 2f
hf
hf BT = (B.15)
= 6 W c (cos(24.1433)) w 2f
w 2f
hf = 4.37902
= 5.4752 W c 7.7910
w 2f
= 0.0721
Table G.5

f xf yf hf wf sBS fBS
1 34.6850 4.4011 4.5493 8.8021 0.3215 Wc 0.3215
2 34.7276 4.1950 4.5067 8.3901 0.3505 Wc 0.3505
3 34.8018 3.9981 4.4325 7.9963 0.3796 Wc 0.3796
4 34.9055 3.8151 4.3288 7.6302 0.4071 Wc 0.4071
5 35.0365 3.6504 4.1978 7.3009 0.4312 Wc 0.4312
6 35.1914 3.5081 4.0429 7.0161 0.4497 Wc 0.4497
7 35.3665 3.3915 3.8678 6.7829 0.4603 Wc 0.4603
8 35.5576 3.3035 3.6767 6.6069 0.4612 Wc 0.4612
9 35.7600 3.2462 3.4743 6.4924 0.4513 Wc 0.4513
10 35.9689 3.2210 3.2654 6.4421 0.4308 Wc 0.4308

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Step 4: Select a slightly larger location angle and Step 7: Calculate the maximum bending stress
repeat steps 2 and 3: factor, fBSX:

τ f = 35° f BSX = 6 cos γ Wc BTX (B.14)


x f = 36.0255 − 1.3513 (cos 35.0000) = 6 (cos 24.1433) 0.084394
= 34.9186 mm
= 0.4621
y f = 4.5711 − 1.3513 (sin 35.0000) G.3.3 Stress calculation (see B.2.5)
= 3.7961 mm
Bending tensile stress, sBS:
h f = 39.2343 − 34.9186
= 4.3157 mm h fc
s BS = 6 W c cos γ Wc (B.16)
w 2fc
w f = 2 (3.7961)
= f BSX W c
= 7.5921 mm
= 0.4621 W c
BT = 4.31572
7.5921 Compressive stress, sCS:
= 0.0749 sin γ Wc
Is BT larger than the previous value? s CS = W c w fc (B.17)

Yes. = W c sin 24.1433


6.6733
Step 5: Repeat steps 2--4 with successively larger
= 0.0613 W c
angles until BT changes from increasing to
decreasing (table G.6). Combined tensile stress, st:

The maximum value of BT is between 65 and 70


degrees.
h
s t = 6 W ccos γ Wc fc −
w 2
fc

sin γ Wc
w fc Wc  (B.18)

Step 6: Repeat step 5 with smaller angle increments


6.6733

= 6 W ccos 24.1433 3.75842 − sin 24.1433 W c
6.6733

between 65 and 70 degrees (table G.7).
= 0.4621 W c − 0.0613 W c
The maximum value of BT is at 66.0 degrees. This is
the location of the critical section. = 0.4008 W c

Table G.6

τf xf yf hf wf BT Decreasing?
35 34.9186 3.7961 4.3157 7.5921 0.074872 No
40 34.9904 3.7025 4.2439 7.4051 0.077394 No
45 35.0700 3.6156 4.1643 7.2313 0.079636 No
50 35.1570 3.5360 4.0774 7.0720 0.081526 No
55 35.2505 3.4642 3.9838 6.9285 0.082990 No
60 35.3499 3.4009 3.8844 6.8018 0.083962 No
65 35.4545 3.3465 3.7798 6.6929 0.084381 No
70 35.5634 3.3013 3.6709 6.6027 0.084204 Yes

Table G.7

τf xf yf hf wf BT Decreasing?
65.0 35.4545 3.3465 3.7798 6.6929 0.084381 No
65.5 35.4652 3.3415 3.7691 6.6830 0.084391 No
66.0 35.4759 3.3367 3.7584 6.6733 0.084394 No
66.5 35.4867 3.3319 3.7476 6.6639 0.084392 Yes

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AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

G.3.3.1 Form factor force--stress ratio (see B.2.6) Elastic stress concentration factor, Kfs:
M
Ratio for the critical tooth force, AWsc: w
K fs = H + r fc
fc
 
L
  w fc
h fc
(C.3)

W 0.15226
A Wsc = s c
t
(B.19) = 0.17881 + 6.6733
1.3513
 
Wc 0.45124
=
0.4008 W c × 6.6733
3.7584

= 2.4951 = 1.8312
H = 0.331 − 0.436 φ
Adjustment ratio, mcA: = 0.331 − 0.436 (0.34907)
= 0.17881
m cA = cos φ A (B.20) L = 0.324 − 0.492 φ
= 0.324 − 0.492 (0.34907)
= cos 20.1956
= 0.15226
= 0.9385 M = 0.261 + 0.545 φ
Adjusted force--stress ratio, AWsA: = 0.261 + 0.545 (0.34907)
= 0.45124
A WsA = A Wsc m cA (B.21) G.4.2 Stress correction factor (see C.3)

= 2.4951 (0.9385) Notch sensitivity index, q:

= 2.3417 Selected from table C.1:


q = 1.0 for repeated loading
G.3.4 Non--dimensional Y--factor (see B.2.7)
= 0.8 for occasional peak overloading

A WsA Calculation of stress concentration factor, Kft, Kfy:


Y= (B.22)
m K ft = 1 + q  K fs − 1  (C.5)
= 2.3417 = 1 + 1 (1.8312 − 1)
3.1750
= 0.7375 = 1.8312 for repeated loading
or
G.4 Calculation of stress correction factor, Kf
K fy = 1 + 0.8 (1.8312 − 1)
G.4.1 Elastic stress concentration factor (see = 1.6650 for occasional peak overloading
C.2) G.5 Fundamental formulas for calculated
torque capacity
Calculation fillet radius, rfc: Tooth bending under repeated loading (see
3.1):
Rack generated trochoid calculation fillet radius, s t K ts d c F e J t m
rfc: Tt = (1)
2000 K tw
r fc = R fN (C.1) Tooth bending under occasional peak loading
= 1.4312 mm (from equation A.29) (see 3.2):
s y K ys d c F e J y m
NOTE: The example gear selected for these Ty = (2)
2000 K yw
calculations has a circular--arc fillet. This value is used
for the demonstration of the use of the formula for a tro- G.5.1 Design strength values (see clause 4):
choid fillet and is not used elsewhere in the example Design fatigue limit from published data, st:
calculations.
s tT = 290 N∕mm 2 from MPIF Standard 35
Circular--arc calculation fillet radius, rfc: s tG = s tT − s tTG (3)
r fc = r f (C.2) = 290 − 14
= 1.3513 mm = 276 N∕mm 2

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

s tG For n = 5.0 × 106:


st = (4)
0.7
= 276

K L = 1 + 2.121 K Ly − 1   (14)
0.7
= 394 N∕mm 2  
− 0.303 K Ly − 1  log n

Design fatigue limit (estimated from ultimate tensile = 1 + [2.121(1.96467 − 1)]


stress), st: − [0.303(1.96467 − 1)] log5.0 × 10 6
s tT = 930 N∕mm 2 from MPIF Standard 35 = 1 + 2.046 − 0.292 (6.699)
s tT = k ut s uT (5) = 1.090
= 0.32 (930) For n > 1 × 107:
= 298 N∕mm 2 KL = 1 (15)
s tG = s tT − s tTG (3) NOTE: The above load cycle is used for the demon-
= 298 − 14 stration of the use of the formula example and is not
used elsewhere in the example.
= 284 N∕mm 2
s Load reversal factor, KLR:
s t = tG (4)
0.7 Unidirectional loading
= 284 K LR = 1.0 (16)
0.7
= 406 N∕mm 2 Size factor, KS:
NOTE: The material selected for these calculations KS = 1 (18)
has available published data. This value is used for the
demonstration of the use of the formula for material Temperature factor, KT:
without published fatigue data and is not used else- (19)
KT = 1
where in the example calculations.
Reliability factor, KR:
Yield strength (from ultimate tensile strength), sy,
since the example material is heat treated: K R = 0.5 + 0.25 log n u (20)
= 0.5 + 0.25 log(10, 000)
s uM = 860 N∕mm 2 (from MPIF Standard 35)
= 1.5
s uG = s uM = 860 N∕mm 2 (10) Combined factor for bending fatigue strength:

S y = S uG = 860 N∕mm 2 (11) K L K LR


K ts = (12)
KS KT KR
G.6 Combined adjustment factors for strength
(see clause 5): (1.090)(1.0)
=
(1)(1)(1.5)
K L K LR
K ts = (12) = 0.727
KS KT KR
Yield strength factor, Ky:
Ky
K ys = (21) Ky = 0.75 (hardened material) (23)
KS KT
Combined factor for yield strength, Kys:
Life factor, KL:
Ky
For n < 0.5 × 104: K ys = (21)
KS KT
sy
K L = K Ly = 0.9 s
t
(13) = 0.75
(1)(1)

394
 
= 0.9 860 = 1.96467 = 0.75
NOTE: The above load cycle is used for the demon-
G.7 Calculation diameter (see clause 6)
stration of the use of the formula example and is not d C = d AP (24)
used elsewhere in the example calculations other than
for the value of KLy. = 76.2953 mm (from equation A.67)

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AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

G.8 Effective face width (see clause 7) since m B ≥ 1.2, K B = 1 (33)

Effective face width extensions, Fxe1, Fxe2: Load distribution factor for repeated loading, Kmt:

K mt = 1 + (q m + q v)m ct m w


F xe1 = 1 − Fx
2m

Fx (27)
f qm F o
(35)

qm = (36)

= 1 − 0.3500
(2)(3.175)
0.3500 Sb
0.2(12.0000)
=
24.0000
= (1 − 0.055) 0.3500
= 0.100
= 0.331 mm (37)
f qv F o
F xe2 = F xe1 qv =
d
= 0.331 mm 0.3(12.0000)
=
Effective face width, Fe: 76.2000
F e = F O + F xe1 + F xe2 (26) = 0.047
0.5
= 1 − 5 
= 12.0000 + 0.331 + 0.331 s t
m ct (38)
= 12.6620 mm E
0.5
G.9 Geometry factor for bending strength (see
clause 8)
=1−5 135394000
= 0.730
Jt = Y (28) m w = 1.0
K ft
Load distribution factor for repeated loading, Kmt:
= 0.7375
1.8312
K mt = 1 + (q m + q v)m ct m w (35)
= 0.403
K mt = 1 + [(0.100 + 0.047)(0.730 × 1.0)]
Jy = Y (30)
K fy
= 1.107
= 0.7375 Dynamic factor, Kv:
1.6650
= 0.443 1∕2

G.10 Combined adjustment factors for loading 


K v = 1 + 0.0055 V qTv t
1∕2
 (39)
(see clause 9) 1∕2

K tw = S F K ot K B K mt K V (31) 
= 1 + 0.0055 × 25.4 × (7.62) 
1∕2

K yw = S F K oy K B K my K V (40) = 1.177
Safety factor SF: Load distribution factor for occasional overloads,
Kmy:
SF = 1 for this example.
0.5
Overload factor for repeated loads, Kot: m cy = 1 − 5
Sy
E
 (42)
Kot = 1 for this example
0.5
Overload factor for occasional overloading, Koy: =1−5 135860000
Koy = 1 for this example = 0.6009
Rim thickness factor, KB: K my = 1 + (q m + q u) m cy (41)
tR = 1 + [(0.1 + 0.047) 0.6009]
mB = (32)
ht
tR = 1.088
= Combined adjustment factor for loading:
0.5 d O − d R
K tw = S F K ot K B K mt K V (31)
= 9.9441
0.5 (85.3440 − 69.9262) = (1) (1) (1) (1.107) (1.177)
= 1.290 = 1.303

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Combined adjustment factor for occasional over- A secondary location will not need to be
loads evaluated.
K yw = S F K oy K B K my K v (40) NOTE: For this example, we will continue the
calculations for the driver only.
= (1) (1) (1) (1.088) (1.177)
Step 2.
= 1.281
G.11 Returning to the fundamental formula for δ φc = − arctan 0.25 (B.23)
calculating torque capacity = − 14.03624 degrees
Tooth bending under repeated loading: Use equation B.24 instead of B.4 to determine the
direction angle of critical tooth force, γWc.
S K dc Fe Jt m
T t = t ts (1) γ Wc = φ Wc + δ φc − α Wc (B.24)
2000 K tw
= 27.0876 − 14.03624 − 2.9442
(394)(0.727)(76.2953)(12.662)(0.403)(3.175)
=
2000(1.303) = 10.1072 degrees
= 135.9 Nm Step 3.
Tooth bending under occasional overloads
x WcC = x Wc − y Wc tan γ Wc (B.7)
S y K ys d c F e J t m
Ty =
2000 K yw
= 40.1601 − 2.0655 tan (10.1072)

860 0.7576.295312.6620.4433.175 = 39.7919 degrees


=
2000 1.281 W cy = W c cos γ Wc (B.8)
= 342.1 Nm
= W c cos(10.1072)
G.12 Calculation of load capacity -- effect of
friction = 0.9845 W c
W cx = W c sin γ Wc (B.9)
Using the gear data and load conditions from the
previous example in section G.2, the effect of friction = W c sin(10.1072)
is now added. The following calculations add the
= 0.1755 W c
effect of a coefficient of friction of 0.25.
Calculate the bending stress factor,
Step 1. Determination of critical load locations and
h f = x WcC − x f (B.10)
sign of δφc in equation B.23 per table B.1.
For both gears, the minimum tooth--to--tooth = 39.7919 − x f
accuracy level is Q9, which exceeds the Q8 where xf varies depending on the location on the
requirements. As a result, fillet.
For the driver wf = 2 yf (B.11)
The critical load location is at point 3. where yf varies depending on the location on the
fillet.
εA = 0.3678 radians from G.2.6.1, step 1,
equation A.69
ε3P = 0.5115 radians from G.2.6.1, step 7,
s BS = 6 W c cos γ Wc hf
w 2f
(B.13)
equation A.80
Since ε3P > εA, we have recess action at the
critical point and the sign of δφc will be negative.
= 6 W c cos 10.1072 hf
w 2f
For the driven
The critical load location is at point 2.
= 5.9070 W c  hf
w 2f
ε2G = 0.3677 radians from G.2.6.1, step 6, f BS = 6 cos γ Wc [ BT ] (B.14)
equation A.79
= 6 cos 10.1072 [BT ]
Since ε2G < εA, we have recess action at the
critical point and the sign of δφc will be negative = 5.9070 [BT ]

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AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Calculate the maximum bending stress,


Step 1. Select an initial trial value of τf. BT = hf
w 2f
(B.15)

Select τ f = 30°
Step 2. Calculate fillet data from this location angle, = 4.9366 2
(7.7910)
xf, yf, hf, wf:
= 0.081328
x f = x fC − r f cos τ f (A.49)
= 36.0255 − 1.3513 cos(30.0000) Step 4. Repeat these calculations for slightly higher
values of the location angle, repeating steps 2 and 3
= 34.8552 mm
above. Continue this iterative process with succes-
y f = y fC − r f sin τ f (A.50) sively larger values of the location angle until the
= 4.5711 − 1.3513 (sin 30.0000) bracketed term, BT, changes from increasing to
decreasing. The angle where this change occurs is
= 3.8955 mm the location of the critical section. See table G.8.
h f = x WcC − x f (B.10)
The maximum value for BT occurred at 68.79°. This
= 39.7919 − 34.8552
is the location of the critical section. For best
= 4.9367 mm accuracy, select an algorithm which increments τf by
wf = 2 yf (B.11) 0.01 degrees or smaller..
= 2 (3.8955) Step 5. Calculate the maximum bending stress
= 7.7910 mm factor
The inclusion of the effect of friction has changed the
f BSX = 6 cos γ Wc [ BTX ] (B.14)
value for hf.
Step 3. Calculate the bracketed term, BT, from = 6 (cos 10.1072) (0.09702137)
equation B.14: = 0.5731

Table G.8

τf xf yf hf wf BT Decreasing
30 34.8552 3.8955 4.9367 7.7910 0.081328
35 34.9186 3.7960 4.8733 7.5920 0.084549 No
40 34.9903 3.7025 4.8016 7.4050 0.087566 No
50 35.1569 3.5359 4.6350 7.0718 0.092681 No
60 35.3499 3.4008 4.4420 6.8016 0.096019 No
65 35.4544 3.3464 4.3375 6.6928 0.096833 No
67 35.4975 3.3272 4.2944 6.6544 0.096981 No
68 35.5193 3.3182 4.2726 6.6364 0.097012 No
68.3 35.5259 3.3156 4.2660 6.6312 0.097015 No
68.6 35.5324 3.3130 4.2595 6.6260 0.097019 No
68.7 35.5346 3.3121 4.2573 6.6242 0.097021 No
68.8 35.5368 3.3113 4.2551 6.6226 0.097018 Yes
68.79 35.5366 3.3113 4.2553 6.6226 0.097023 Max BT

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Step 6. Calculate the stresses for the critical tooth Calculate the elastic stress concentration factor, Kfs
load M
Bending tensile stress, sBS from equation B.13
above:
w
K fs = H + r fc
fc
 
L
 
w fc
h fc
(C.3)

The values for rfc, H, L and M are as in the previous


s BS = 6 W c cos γ Wc 
hf
w 2f
(B.13)
calculation from G.4.1.
Therefore

= 6W c cos(10.1072) 4.25532
6.6226
  
K fs = 0.17881 + 6.6226
1.3513

0.15226
6.6226
4.2553

0.45124

= 1.7340
= 0.5731 W c
Find the stress concentration factors Kft and Kfy
Compressive stress, sCS: following the method shown in G.4.2.

s CS = W c  sin γ Wc
w fc  (B.17)
Again, using q = 1.0 for repeated loading
= 0.8 for occasional peak overloading
For repeated loading

= W c sin 10.1072
6.6226

K ft = 1 + q  K fs − 1  (C.5)
= 0.0265 W c
= 1 + 1 (1.7340 − 1)
Combined tensile stress, st:
= 1.734
s t = s BS − s CS (B.18) For occasional peak overloading
= 0.5731 W c − 0.0265 W c K fy = 1 + q  K fs − 1  (C.5)
= 0.5466 W c = 1 + 0.8 (1.7340 − 1)
Step 7. Calculate the form factor force--stress ratio = 1.5872
Ratio for the critical tooth force, AWsc Calculate the geometry factor following G.9.

W Jt = Y
A Wsc = s c (B.19) K ft (29)
t

=
Wc = 0.5917
0.5466 W c 1.734
= 1.8295 = 0.3412 for repeated loading
Adjustment ratio, mcA Jy = Y (30)
K fy

m cA =  cos φ A
cos φ Wc
 
cos φ Wc + δ φc  (B.25) = 0.5917
1.5872

 
= cos 20.1956 cos27.0876 − 14.03624
cos 27.0876
= 0.3728 for occasional peak overloading
Calculate torque capacity following G.5.
= 1.0269 Tooth bending under repeated loading:
Adjusted force--stress ratio, AWsA S t K ts d c F e J t m
Tt = (1)
A WsA = A Wsc m cA (B.21) 2000 K tw
= 1.8295 (1.0269) The only terms affected by friction compared to the
frictionless condition are Jt and Kfs.
= 1.8787
(394)(0.727)(76.2953)(12.662)(0.3412)(3.175)
Step 8. Calculate the non--dimensional Y factor Tt =
2000 (1.303)
A WsA = 115.0 Nm
Y= m (B.22)
The inclusion of the 0.25 coefficient of friction has
= 1.8787 reduced the load capacity of this gear to only 84.6%
3.175 of the capacity calculated without the effect of this
= 0.5917 friction factor.

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 73


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

G.13 Test for fillet interference:


Gear specifications as defined by table G.1. 
φ T = inv −1 inv φ +
pc − tG − tMG
2C
 (F.5)

Consider the 24 tooth pinion to be the part whose


fillet we are examining in this example. We will use
the test case where the fillet was created as a

= inv −1 inv 20° +
9.9746 − 5.7277 − 4.2469
2 101.6

circular--arc. Also, for the purpose of this example,
= inv −1 0.0149
we will increase the outside diameter of the mating
gear (40 tooth) from 131.2418 as shown in table G.1 = 20 degrees
to 133.3 mm in order to create intentional fillet
interference. NOTE: In this example, the sum of the thickness of the
teeth for both gears is equal to the circular pitch. There-
Therefore fore, the pressure angle at the tight mesh center dis-
d OMG = 133.3 mm tance is equal to the pressure angle of the mesh, and
the tight mesh center distance happens to be equal to
G.13.1 Center distance and operating pressure the reference center distance.
angle
Step 5. Tight mesh center distance
G.13.1.1 Find tight mesh center distance
C (cos φ)
CT = (F.6)
Step 1. Pitch diameters of both gears cos φT
From table G.1 (cos 20°)
= 101.6
m = 3.175 (cos 20°)
NG = 24 = 101.6 mm

NMG = 40 G.13.1.2 Select center distance, CAN, to perform


the evaluation
dG = NG m (F.1)

= (24)(3.175) From table G.1, the operating center distance CA is


101.727 mm. Table G.1 does not specify whether
= 76.2 mm this center distance is a minimum that the mesh is
d MG = N MG m (F.2) likely to encounter. For the purpose of this example,
let us assume it is the minimum center distance.
= (40)(3.175)
Since this is greater than the tight mesh center
= 127.0 mm distance, CT, we will choose to do the evaluation at
Step 2. Reference center distance this distance.

d G + d MG Therefore,
C= (F.3)
2 C AN = 101.727 mm (F.7)

= 76.2 + 127.0 G.13.1.3 Find operating pitch diameters


2
= 101.6 mm 2 N G C AN
d AG = (F.8)
Step 3. Circular pitch NG + NMG
pc = π m (F.4) (2)(24)(101.727)
= π (3.175) =
(24 + 40)
= 9.9746 mm = 76.2953 mm
Step 4. Pressure angle at tight mesh center distance
2 N MG C AN
d AMG = (F.9)
From table G.1 NG + NMG
tG = 5.7277 mm (2)(40)(101.727)
=
tMG = 4.2469 mm (24 + 40)
φ = 20° = 127.1588 mm

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

G.13.1.4 Adjustments for center distance G.13.1.4.6 Find the pressure angle at the
effective outside diameter of the mating gear
G.13.1.4.1 Find operating pressure angle

φ OEMG = arctan tan φ rCMG +
2 r rMG
d BMG

(F.15)

φ A = arccos C (cos φ)
C AN
 (F.10)

= arctan tan 25.091° +
2(0.762)

119.341

= arccos 101.6
(cos 20°)
101.727
 = 25.6882 degrees
G.13.1.4.7 Find the half tooth angle for the
= 20.19561 degrees backlash adjusted tooth thickness of the mating
gear
G.13.1.4.2 Find the backlash adjusted tooth
t BMG
thickness α BMG = (F.16)
d MG

t BMG = p c − t G + 2C inv φA − (inv φ) (F.11) = 4.3398


127.0
= 9.9746 − 5.7277 = 0.03417 radians
+ 2 (101.6) [(inv(20.19561°) − inv(20°)] G.13.1.4.8 Find the angular location relative to
= 4.2469 + 203.2 [(0.015361) − (0.014904)] the adjusted tooth centerline
= 4.3398 mm   + φrCMG
α =α + inv φ − tan φ
rCBMG BMG OEMG
(F.17)
From table G.1 for the mating gear.
= 0.03417 + inv(20°) − tan(25.6882°) + 0.43792

r rMG = 0.7620 mm = 0.00598 radians

= 0.3426 degrees
G.13.1.4.3 Find the diameter of the center of the
tip round of the mating gear G.13.2 Path of tip of gear
G.13.2.1 Find the half tooth thickness angle at
d rCMG = d OMG − 2 r rMG (F.12) the effective outside diameter of the mating gear
= 133.3 − (2)(0.7620) α OEBMG = α BMG + inv φ − inv φ OEMG (F.19)
= 131.776 mm
= 0.03417 + inv(20°) − inv(25.6882°)
G.13.1.4.4 Find the base circle diameter of = 0.016404 radians
mating gear = 0.93996 degrees
G.13.2.2 Find the limit point for OE
d BMG = d MG cos φ (F.13)
γ OEMG = φ OEMG − φ A − α OEBMG (F.18)
= 127.0 cos 20°
= 119.3410 mm = 25.6882° − 20.19561° − 0.93996°
= 4.55263 degrees
G.13.1.4.5 Find the pressure angle at the center G.13.2.3 Find the limit point for OR
of the tip round for the mating gear
γ ORMG = − α rCBMG (F.20)

φ rCMG = arccos  d BMG


d rCMG
 (F.14)
= − 0.00598 radians
G.13.2.4 Point path selection
For this example pick 5 total points on path, j = 1 to 5.

= arccos 119.341
131.776
 (A greater number may be needed to be studied in a
specific application to ensure that there are no
= 0.43792 radians overlapping conditions.)
= 25.091 degrees
Therefore, n = 5.

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 75


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

At point ORMG General form


γ r1MG = γ ORMG = − 0.00598 radians (F.21) x PPj = 0.5 d AG cos γ rjG (F.26)
= − 0.3426 degrees = 0.5 (76.2953) cos γ rjG
At point OEMG (F.27)
y PPj = 0.5 d AG sin γ rjG
γ r5MG = γ OEMG = 4.55263 degrees (F.22)
= 0.5 (76.2953) sin γ rjG
For points j = 2 to 4
x CMGj = C AN cos γ rjG (F.28)
γ ( n − j ) + γ rnMG( j − 1 )
γ rjMG = r1MG (F.23) = (101.727) cos γ rjG
(n − 1 )
For j = 2 y CMGj = C AN sin γ rjG (F.29)

− 0.3426°(5 − 2) + 4.55263°(2 − 1) = (101.7237) sin γ rjG


γ r2MG =
(5 − 1)
Substitute in for each value of γrjG from table G.9.
= 0.8811 degrees Results are shown in table G.9.

For other values of j, see table G.9. Step 3. Find the x, y coordinate of the mating gear tip
radius for each point, j.
G.13.2.5 Find the tooth pitch angle at the mating
gear General form
x rCMGj = x CMGj − 0.5d rCMG (F.30)
β MG = 360° (F.25)
N MG
× cosγ rjG + γ rjMG + α rCBMG
= 360°
40 y rCMGj = y CMGj − 0.5d rCMG (F.31)
= 9.0 degrees × sinγ rjG + γ rjMG + α rCBMG
G.13.2.6 Calculation of path points projected on
the “fixed” gear For j = 1

Step 1. General form of the equation. x rCMGj = (100.9841) − 0.5(131.776)

× cos(6.92866° + (− 0.3428°) + 0.3426°)


 β
γ rjG = γ rjMG + MG
2
 N MG
NG
(F.24) = (100.9841) − 65.888 cos(6.92846°)

= 35.5772 mm
For j = 1
and

γ r1G = − 0.3426° + 9.0° 40
2 24
 (F.24) y rCMGj = (12.2717) − 0.5(131.776)

= 6.92865 degrees × sin(6.9286° + (− 0.3428°) + 0.3426°)

For other values of j, see table G.9. = (12.2717) − 65.888 cos(6.92846°)

Step 2. Find the x, y coordinates of the pitch point = 4.3236 mm


and mating gear center referenced to the gear axes. For other values of j, see table G.9.

Table G.9 -- Summarized table of steps -- results rounded off

γrjMG γrjG xPPj yPPj xCMGj yCMGj xrCMGj yrCMGj ρrPPj xrj yj zpfCj Does
interference
exist
--0.3426° 6.9287° 37.8690 4.6019 100.9841 12.2717 35.5772 4.3236 2.3086 34.8209 4.2315 1.2516 No
0.8811° 8.9684° 37.6812 5.9468 100.4833 15.8582 35.6351 4.1992 2.6909 35.0557 3.7043 1.3007 No
2.1049° 11.0082° 37.4457 7.2843 99.8552 19.4247 35.7759 4.0928 3.6019 35.4226 3.4176 1.3016 No
3.3288° 13.0480° 37.1627 8.6125 99.1006 22.9666 35.9980 4.0114 4.7462 35.8110 3.2727 1.3160 No
4.5526° 15.0877° 36.8326 9.9297 98.2203 26.4793 36.2992 3.9625 5.9911 36.2314 3.2035 1.3830 Yes

76 © AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved


AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Step 4. Find the x, y coordinates of the point on the


mating gear tip radius for each point j.

y rj = 4.6019 − 2.3086 + 0.762
2.3086

× (4.6019 − 4.3234)
General form of the equations
= 4.2315 mm

à rPPJ =  x PPj − x rCMGj


2

+ y PPj − y rCMGj 
2 For other values of j, see table G.9.
G.13.3 Test for path point interference
(F.32)
As indicated in the problem statement, it is assumed
in this example that the 24 tooth gear has a full round
x rj = x PPj − Ã rPPj + r rMG
à rPPj  x PPj − x rCMGj fillet region instead of a trochoid shaped region.

(F.33) The coordinate (xfc, yfc) for the fillet radius center has
previously been calculated (see A.40 and A.41) as
(36.0256, 4.5711).
y rj = y PPj − Ã rPPj + r rMG
à rPPj  y PPj − y rCMGj To test for path point interference, we use the
(F.34) following:

For j = 1 z fCj =  2
x rj − x fC + y rj − y fC
2
(F.35)

à = (37.8690 − 35.5773)2 + (4.6019 − 4.3234)2 For j = 1


rPPj

= 2.3086 mm z fC1 = 34.8209 − 36.02562 + 4.2315 − 4.57112


= 1.2516
x rj = 37.8690 − 2.3086 + 0.762 Since (zfC1 = 1.2516) < (rf = 1.3513), no fillet
2.3086
interference exists at the point j = 1.
× (37.8690 − 35.5772)
For other values of j, see table G.9. Notice that
= 34.8209 mm interference does exist at j = 5.

© AGMA 2005 ---- All rights reserved 77


AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Bibliography

The following documents are either referenced in the text of AGMA 930--A05, Calculated Bending Load
Capacity of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears, or indicated for additional information.

1. MPIF Standard 35, Material Standards for culating Geometry Factors for Spur and Helical
P/M Structural Parts, 1997 edition. Gears
2. Sanderow, H.I., Spirko, J.R. and Friedhoff, 6. AGMA 2000--A88, Gear Classification and
T.B., Fatigue Properties of P/M Materials: Relation- Inspection Handbook -- Tolerances And Measuring
ship of RBF and AF Results to Material--Processing Methods For Unassembled Spur And Helical Gears
Parameters, Advances in Powder Metallurgy and (Including Metric Equivalents)
Particulate Materials, 1997, Vol. 2, MPIF, Princeton,
NJ, 1997, pgs. 13--117. 7. ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90, Gear Nomencla-
3. ANSI/AGMA 2001--D04, Fundamental Rat- ture, Definitions of Terms with Symbols
ing Factors And Calculation Methods For Involute 8. AGMA 900--G00, Style Manual for the Prep-
Spur And Helical Gear Teeth aration of Standards, Information Sheets and
4. AGMA 908--B89, Geometry Factors for De- Editorial Manuals
termining the Pitting Resistance and Bending
Strength of Spur, Helical and Herringbone Gear 9. ANSI B92.1--1970, Involute Splines and
Teeth. Inspection, table 109.

5. AGMA 918--A93, A Summary of Numerical 10. 98FTM2, Mesh Friction in Gearing, C.M.
Examples Demonstrating the Procedures for Cal- Denny, October 1998.

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