Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur
Gears

© All Rights Reserved

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Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur
Gears

© All Rights Reserved

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Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur

Gears

AGMA 930- A05

(This Information Sheet is NOT an AGMA Standard)

American Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External

Spur Gears

Gear

AGMA 930--A05

Manufacturers

CAUTION NOTICE: AGMA technical publications are subject to constant improvement,

Association

revision or withdrawal as dictated by experience. Any person who refers to any AGMA

technical publication should be sure that the publication is the latest available from the As-

sociation on the subject matter.

[Tables or other self--supporting sections may be referenced. Citations should read: See

AGMA 930--A05, Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External

Spur Gears, published by the American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgom-

ery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, http://www.agma.org.]

Approved January 19, 2005

ABSTRACT

This information sheet describes a procedure for calculating the load capacity of a pair of powder metallurgy

(P/M) external spur gears based on tooth bending strength. Two types of loading are considered: 1) repeated

loading over many cycles; and 2) occasional peak loading. In a separate annex, it also describes an essentially

reverse procedure for establishing an initial design from specified applied loads. As part of the load capacity

calculations, there is a detailed analysis of gear teeth geometry. These have been extended to include useful

details on other aspects of gear geometry such as the calculations for defining gear tooth profiles, including

various fillets.

Published by

500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria, Virginia 22314

Copyright © 2005 by American Gear Manufacturers Association

All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic

retrieval system or otherwise, without prior written permission of the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America

ISBN: 1--55589--845--9

ii

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Contents

Page

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv

1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2 Definitions and symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

3 Fundamental formulas for calculated torque capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

4 Design strength values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

5 Combined adjustment factors for strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

6 Calculation diameter, dc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

7 Effective face width, Fe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

8 Geometry factor for bending strength, J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

9 Combined adjustment factors for loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Annexes

A Calculation of spur gear geometry features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

B Calculation of spur gear factor, Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

C Calculation of the stress correction factor, Kf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

D Procedure for initial design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

E Calculation of inverse functions for gear geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

F Test for fillet interference by the tooth of the mating gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

G Calculation examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Tables

1 Symbols and definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

2 Reliability factors, KR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

3 Manufacturing variation adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Foreword

[The foreword, footnotes and annexes, if any, in this document are provided for

informational purposes only and are not to be construed as a part of AGMA Information

Sheet 930--A05, Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External

Spur Gears.]

This information sheet was prepared by the AGMA Powder Metallurgy Gearing Committee

as an initial response to the need for a design evaluation procedure for powder metallurgy

(P/M) gears. The committee anticipates that, after appropriate modification and

confirmation based on application experience, this procedure will become part of a standard

gear rating method for P/M gears. As such, it will serve the same function for P/M gears as

the rating procedure in ANSI/AGMA 2001--C95 for wrought metal gears. Toward this end,

the design evaluation procedure described here closely follows ANSI/AGMA 2001--C95,

with changes made for the special properties of P/M materials, gear proportions, and types

of applications. These design considerations have made it possible to introduce some

simplifications in comparison to the above mentioned standard.

The first draft of AGMA 930--A05 was made in June 1996. It was approved by the AGMA

Technical Division Executive Committee in January 2005.

Suggestions for improvement of this document will be welcome. They should be sent to the

American Gear Manufacturers Association, 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 350, Alexandria,

Virginia 22314.

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Vice Chairman: Walter D. Badger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Motors Corporation

ACTIVE MEMBERS

T.R. Bobak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mG MiniGears North America

D. Bobby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Innovative Sintered Metals

P.A. Crawford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MTD Products, Inc.

J.A. Danaher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . QMP America

F. Eberle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hi--Lex Automative Center

S.T. Haye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Burgess Norton Mfg. Co.

T.M. Horne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GKN Sinter Metals

K. Ko . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pollak Division of Stoneridge

I. Laskin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consultant

D.D. Osti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metal Powder Products Company

E. Reiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Web Gear Services, Ltd.

J.T. Rill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black & Decker, Inc.

R. Rupprecht . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metal Powder Products Company

D. Serdynski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation

G. Wallis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dorst America, Inc.

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

American Gear Manufacturers tooling fall short in testing, it may be possible to use

the same tooling for a design adjusted for greater

Association -- face width.

1.1.4 Limitations

Calculated Bending Load Gears made from all materials and by all processes,

Capacity of Powder including P/M gears, may fail in a variety of modes

other than by tooth bending. This information sheet

Metallurgy (P/M) does not address design features to resist these

other modes of failure, such as excessive wear and

External Spur Gears other forms of tooth surface deterioration.

CAUTION: The calculated load capacity from this pro-

cedure is not to be used for comparison with AGMA rat-

ings of wrought metal gears, even though there are

many similarities in the two procedures.

1 Scope 1.2 Types of gears

This calculation procedure is applied to external spur

1.1 General gears, the type of gear most commonly produced by

1.1.1 Calculation the P/M process.

calculating the load capacity of a pair of powder This procedure applies to gears whose dimensions

metallurgy (P/M) gears based on tooth bending conform to those commonly produced by the P/M

strength. Two types of loading are considered: 1) process for load carrying applications:

repeated loading over many cycles; and 2) occasion-

al peak loading. This procedure is to be used on -- Finest pitch: 0.4 mm module;

prepared gear designs which meet the customary -- Maximum active face width: 15 ¢ module, with

gear geometry requirements such as adequate a 65 mm maximum;

backlash, contact ratio greater than 1.0, and ade- -- Minimum number of teeth: 7;

quate top land. An essentially reverse procedure for

establishing an initial design from specified applied -- Maximum outside diameter: 180 mm;

loads is described in annex D. -- Pressure angle: 14.5° to 25°.

1.1.2 Strength properties 1.4 Gear mesh limitations

Fatigue strength and yield strength properties used Some of the calculations apply only to meshing

in these calculations may be taken from previous test conditions expressed as a contact ratio greater than

experience, but may also be derived from published one and less than two. This translates into the

data obtained from standard tests of the materials. requirement that there is at least one pair of

contacting teeth transmitting load and no more than

1.1.3 Application

two pairs.

This procedure is intended for use as an initial

evaluation of a proposed design prior to preparation

of test samples. Such test samples might be 2 Definitions and symbols

machined from P/M blanks or made from P/M tooling

based on the proposed design after it passes this

2.1 Definitions

initial evaluation. Final acceptance of the proposed

design should be based on application testing and The terms used, wherever applicable, conform to

not on these calculations. If samples made from ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90.

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

detail.

The symbols and terms used throughout this infor- NOTE: The symbols and definitions used in this infor-

mation sheet are in basic agreement with the mation sheet may differ from other AGMA documents.

symbols and terms given in AGMA 900--G00, Style The user should not assume that familiar symbols can

Manual for the Preparation of Standards, Informa- be used without a careful study of their definitions.

tion Sheets and Editorial Manuals, and ANSI/AGMA The symbols and terms, along with the clause

1012--F90, Gear Nomenclature, Definitions of Terms numbers where they are first discussed, are listed in

with Symbols. In all cases, the first time that each alphabetical order by symbol in table 1.

CA Operating center distance mm Eq 24

d Gear pitch diameter mm Eq 37

dAG Operating pitch diameter of gear mm Eq 25

dAP Operating pitch diameter of pinion mm Eq 24

dc Calculation diameter mm Eq 1

E Modulus of elasticity N/mm2 Eq 38

Fe Effective face width mm Eq 1

Fo Overlapping face width mm Eq 26

Fx Each face width extension, not larger than m mm Eq 27

Fxe1 Effective face width extension at one end mm Eq 26

Fxe2 Effective face width extension at other end mm Eq 26

fqm Factor relating to axis misalignment adjustment -- -- Eq 36

fqv Factor relating to manufacturing variations adjustment -- -- Eq 37

ht Whole depth of gear teeth mm Eq 32

J Geometry factor for bending strength -- -- Eq 28

Jt Geometry factor for bending strength under repeated loading -- -- Eq 1

Jy Geometry factor for bending strength under occasional peak loading -- -- Eq 2

KB Rim thickness factor -- -- Eq 31

Kf Stress concentration factor used in calculating bending geometry factor, -- -- 8.2

J

Kft Stress correction factor for repeated loading -- -- Eq 29

Kfy Stress correction factor for occasional overloads -- -- Eq 30

KL Life factor -- -- Eq 12

KLR Load reversal factor -- -- Eq 12

KLy Life factor at 0.5 ¢ 104 cycles -- -- Eq 13

Kmt Load distribution factor for repeated loading -- -- Eq 31

Kmy Load distribution factor for occasional overloads -- -- Eq 40

Kot Overload factor for repeated loads -- -- Eq 31

Koy Overload factor for occasional overloads -- -- Eq 40

KR Reliability factor -- -- Eq 12

Ks Size factor -- -- Eq 12

KT Temperature factor -- -- Eq 12

Kts Combined adjustment factor for bending fatigue strength -- -- Eq 1

Ktw Combined adjustment factor for repeated tooth loading -- -- Eq 1

Kv Dynamic factor -- -- Eq 31

Ky Yield strength factor -- -- Eq 21

(continued)

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Table 1 (concluded)

Symbol Terms Units Reference

Kys Combined adjustment factor for yield strength -- -- Eq 2

Kyw Combined adjustment factor for occasional peak loading -- -- Eq 2

kut Conversion factor for ultimate strength to fatigue limit -- -- Eq 5

m Module mm Eq 1

mB Backup ratio -- -- Eq 32

mct Modifying factor due to tooth compliance for repeated loading -- -- Eq 35

mcy Modifying factor due to tooth compliance for occasional overloads -- -- Eq 41

mw Modifying factor due to tooth surface wear -- -- Eq 35

NG Number of teeth of gear -- -- Eq 24

NP Number of teeth of pinion -- -- Eq 24

n Number of tooth load cycles -- -- Eq 14

nu Number of units for which one failure will be tolerated -- -- Eq 20

qm Adjustment due to axis misalignment -- -- Eq 35

qv Adjustment due to manufacturing variations -- -- Eq 35

Sb Bearing span mm Eq 36

SF Safety factor for bending strength -- -- Eq 31

st Design fatigue strength N/mm2 Eq 1

stG Fatigue limit, full reversal, adjusted for G--1 failure rate N/mm2 Eq 3

stT G--10 failure rate fatigue limit (published data) N/mm2 Eq 3

stTG Adjustment in fatigue limit from G--10 to G--1 N/mm2 Eq 3

suG Ultimate tensile strength, adjusted for G--1 N/mm2 Eq 9

suM Minimum ultimate strength listed in MPIF Standard 35 N/mm2 Eq 10

suT Typical ultimate strength (published data) N/mm2 Eq 5

suTG Reduction in ultimate strength from typical to G--1 N/mm2 Eq 9

sy Design yield strength N/mm2 Eq 2

syG Yield strength, adjusted for G--1 N/mm2 Eq 6

syM Minimum yield strength listed in MPIF Standard 35 N/mm2 Eq 7

syT Typical yield strength (published data) N/mm2 Eq 6

syTG Reduction in yield strength from typical to G--1 N/mm2 Eq 6

Tt Torque load capacity for tooth bending under repeated loading Nm Eq 1

Ty Torque load capacity under occasional peak loading Nm Eq 2

tR Rim thickness mm Eq 32

VqT Tooth--to--tooth composite tolerance (or measured variation) mm Eq 39

vt Pitch line velocity m/s Eq 39

Y Tooth form factor -- -- Eq 28

3 Fundamental formulas for calculated formulas and use the lower calculated value. To find

torque capacity the overall load capacity of a pair of non--identical

gears, or of all the gears in the drive train, the

calculated load capacity torque for each gear must

Two types of loading have been identified in 1.1.1. be converted to a power value. This is done by

Each has its own formula for calculated torque multiplying the torque value for each gear by the

capacity, reflecting the corresponding critical materi- corresponding gear speed, generally expressed as

al properties and other factors. To find the load radians per unit time interval. The lowest of all these

capacity of a gear under the combined types of power values becomes the calculated power capac-

loading, calculate the two torque values from the ity of the complete gear pair or drive train.

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

3.1 Tooth bending under repeated loading 4.1.1 Previous test experience

s t K ts d c F e J t m If there has been previous successful experience in

Tt = (1) the laboratory or field testing of gears from the same

2000 K tw

material of similar density and processing, it may be

where possible to perform reverse calculations to arrive at

Tt is torque load capacity for tooth bending un- an acceptable design fatigue strength. The value

der repeated loading, Nm; derived from this procedure may be overly conserva-

tive unless the test program included a range of load

st is design fatigue strength, N/mm2 (see conditions that bracketed the line between success-

4.1.2.1); ful operation and failure by repeated bending.

Kts is combined adjustment factor for bending 4.1.2 Derived from published data

fatigue strength (see 5.1); When suitable gear test data is not available,

dc is calculation diameter, mm (see clause 6); published data based on standard material testing

methods can be used, but only after adjustments are

Fe is effective face width, mm (see clause 7); made to adapt the fatigue strength values to the

Jt is geometry factor for bending strength un- design procedures of this information sheet. These

der repeated loading (see clause 8); procedures are based on values that correspond to

the following conditions:

m is module, mm;

a) number of test cycles of 107;

Ktw is combined adjustment factor for repeated b) test failure rates projected to “less than 1 in a

tooth loading (see clause 9). 100”, i.e., 1 percent or “G--1” failure rate;

3.2 Tooth bending under occasional peak c) load cycling of zero--to--maximum load (to reflect

loading typical gear tooth load cycling).

s y K ys d c F e J y m 4.1.2.1 Data published as “typical fatigue limit”

Ty = (2)

2000 K yw Such data for P/M materials generally meet condi-

tion (a) of 4.1.2, but not conditions (b) and (c). Values

where

called “typical” generally refer to test results with

Ty is torque load capacity under occasional 50% of the specimens falling below and 50% above

peak loading, Nm; the published value. This corresponds to a “G--50”

sy is design yield strength, N/mm2; failure rate, also known as mean fatigue life.

Data published by the Metal Powder Industries

Kys is combined adjustment factor for yield

Federation (MPIF) [1] has been determined as the

strength;

90% survival stress fatigue limit, using rotating

Kyw is combined adjustment factor for bending fatigue testing. This fatigue limit data is also

occasional peak loading; known as the “G--10” failure rate fatigue life.

Jy is geometry factor for bending strength Rotating bending fatigue testing imposes load

under occasional peak loading. cycling of full--reversal loads. The critical location on

the test specimen is subjected to the maximums of

both tensile and compressive stresses.

Adjustments to meet the conditions of 4.1.2(b) and

4 Design strength values (c) are expressed in the following equations:

s tG = s tT − s tTG (3)

Design strength values depend not only on the P/M where

material composition, and any heat treatment, but

stG is fatigue limit, full--reversal, adjusted for

also on the density achieved during compaction or

G--1 failure rate, N/mm2;

post--sintering repressing.

stT is G--10 failure rate fatigue limit (published

4.1 Fatigue strength, st data), N/mm2;

The value for design fatigue strength can be stTG is the adjustment in fatigue limit from G--10

obtained from alternate sources. to G--1, N/mm2.

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

The adjustment, stTG, has been estimated for P/M 4.2.1 Previous test experience

steels as 14 N/mm2 from a statistical analysis of If a gear of the same material and similar density and

recently published data [2]. processing has been tested for the load causing

The design fatigue limit, after adjustments, st, is: permanent deflection or breakage of the teeth, it may

be possible to perform reverse calculations to arrive

s tG

st = (4) at a limiting design yield strength.

0.7

4.2.2 Derived from published data

The factor of 0.7 is commonly used to convert from

full--reversal to zero--to--maximum load cycling. For When suitable gear test data is not available,

those gear applications, such as idler or planet published data based on standard material testing

gears, where the gear teeth experience fully revers- methods can be used, but only after an adjustment is

ing loads, this adjustment factor will be corrected made to adapt the yield strength values to the design

through the appropriate choice of load reversal procedures of this information sheet. These proce-

factor, see 5.1.2. dures are based on values that correspond to the

following condition:

4.1.2.2 Data estimated from “typical ultimate

-- test failure rates projected to “less than 1 in a

tensile strength” 100”, i.e., 1% or “G--1” failure rate.

When fatigue limit data is not directly available, it can 4.2.2.1 Derived from “typical yield strength”

be estimated from ultimate tensile strength values. In as--sintered gears, the published data is generally

This estimation process is described below. in the form of a “typical yield strength” based on 0.2%

Convert the typical ultimate tensile strength to the offset. This “typical yield strength”, based on a G--50

G--10 failure rate fatigue limit by the following failure rate, must be converted to a “design yield

expression: strength”, based on a G--1 failure rate. This

adjustment may be represented by the following

s tT = k ut s uT (5) equation:

where s yG = s yT − s yTG (6)

N/mm2; syG is yield strength, adjusted for G--1, N/mm2;

kut is conversion factor for ultimate strength to syT is typical yield strength (published data),

fatigue limit; N/mm2;

For heat treated steel (martensitic syTG is reduction in yield strength from typical to

microstructure): G--1, N/mm2.

The adjustment, syTG, is best determined from test

kut = 0.32

observations. An alternative method is to refer to

For as--sintered steel (pearlite and ferrite mi- MPIF Standard 35, where this step is accomplished

crostructure): for as--sintered materials by the listing of “minimum”

strength values. For these materials:

kut = 0.39

s yG = s yM (7)

For as--sintered steel (ferrite only

microstructure): where

Standard 35, N/mm2.

Then convert this estimated G--10 failure rate fatigue

The design yield strength is then set equal to this

limit, stT, to the design fatigue limit for zero--to

adjusted yield strength:

maximum loading using equations 3 and 4.

s y = s yG (8)

4.2 Yield strength, sy 4.2.2.2 Derived from “typical ultimate strength”

The value of design yield strength can be obtained In heat treated materials, typical yield strengths are

from one of two sources. approximately the same as typical ultimate

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

strengths. Design yield strength, sy, may be derived 5.1.1 Life factor, KL

from typical ultimate strength by first converting the The life factor is the ratio of the bending fatigue

typical value for a G--50 failure rate to a design value strength at the required number of tooth load cycles,

with a G--1 failure rate, as in 4.2.2.1. n, to the strength at 107 cycles. It can be estimated

s uG = s uT − s uTG (9) from the following equations:

where For 0 < n < (0.5 × 104),

suG is typical ultimate strength adjusted to the 0.9 s y

K L = K Ly = st (13)

G--1 failure rate, N/mm2.

suT is typical ultimate strength (published data), For (0.5 × 104)≤ n ≤ (1 × 107),

N/mm2;

K L = 1 + 2.121 K Ly − 1

suTG is reduction in ultimate strength from typical

to G--1, N/mm2.

− 0.303 K Ly − 1 log n (14)

The adjustment, suTG, is best determined from test

For n > (1 × 107),

observations. An alternative method is to refer to

MPIF Standard 35, where this step is accomplished KL = 1, for ferrous materials only (15)

for heat treated materials by the listing of “minimum” (for non--ferrous material, consult test data)

strength values. For these materials: where

s uG = s uM (10) n is number of tooth load cycles;

equation 13 with strength values from

suM is “minimum” ultimate strength listed in 4.1.2.1 or 4.1.2.2 and 4.2.2.1 or 4.2.2.2.

MPIF Standard 35, N/mm2.

5.1.2 Load reversal factor, KLR

The design yield strength is then set equal to this

In 4.1.2.1, the factor of 0.7 was introduced to adjust

adjusted ultimate strength:

the fatigue strength values for the difference in cyclic

s y = s uG (11) loading in material testing from the typical cyclic

loading of gear teeth. In material testing, the load is

fully reversed while in most gear applications the

5 Combined adjustment factors for strength load is zero--to--maximum in one direction only. The

KLR factor reverses this adjustment for those less

typical gear applications in which the gear tooth

This factor is a combination of factors relating to the

loading is bidirectional, as follows:

strength of the P/M gear material under the operating

conditions. Use of such a combined factor helps KLR = 1.0 if load is unidirectional (16)

simplify the fundamental formulas in clause 3. As an

added advantage, this combined factor may be used KLR = 0.7 if load is bidirectional, as (17)

without detailed analysis for subsequent gear de- in idler or planet gears

signs with similar operating conditions. 5.1.3 Size factor, Ks

5.1 Combined factor for bending fatigue In some wrought materials, the stock from which the

strength, Kts gear is machined may have non--uniform material

properties which are related to size. However, with

K L K LR

K ts = (12) P/M materials, the properties of the powder mix are

Ks KT KR independent of the size of the finished gear. The size

where of the P/M gear may influence processing, which in

turn may affect the strength properties at the gear

KL is life factor; teeth, but only through change to other material

KLR is load reversal factor; characteristics such as density and hardness. In that

case, the size effects will be reflected directly in the

Ks is size factor;

fatigue strength value, st, as described in 4.1.

KT is temperature factor; Therefore, for P/M gears, size factor, Ks, is:

KR is reliability factor. Ks = 1 (18)

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

loading.

This factor reflects any loss of strength properties at

high operating temperatures. This applies to For unhardened materials:

hardened gears for which a temperature over 177°C

Ky = 1.00 (22)

may cause some tempering.

For hardened materials:

For gear blank temperatures below the level at which

strength is affected: Ky = 0.75 (23)

KT = 1 (19)

For gear blank temperatures above the level at 5.2.2 Stress correction factor, Kf

which strength is affected, KT is increased to reflect

This factor is used in the calculation of J, the

the loss in strength. For very low gear blank

geometry factor for bending strength (see clause 8).

temperatures in impact prone applications, KT may

It reflects the increase in local stresses due to sharp

be increased to reflect any reduction in impact

changes in geometry at or near the critical section.

properties.

These increased stresses directly affect the bending

5.1.5 Reliability factor, KR strength under repeated loading. Under occasional

loads, however, local yielding may take place and

This factor accounts for the effect of the typical

the stress concentration has little or no significant

statistical distribution of failures found in fatigue

effect on load capacity. In the AGMA gear rating

testing of materials. Its value is based on the

calculation, this difference is treated by re--

frequency of failures that can be tolerated in the gear

introducing the stress correction factor as a benefi-

application, expressed as no more than one failure in

cial adjustment to the yield strength. In the

some number of units, nu. KR may be estimated from

calculation procedures of this document, a different

the following equation:

and more direct approach is used, and such an

K R = 0.5 + 0.25 log n u (20) adjustment is not needed and is not included in the

where above “combined factor for yield strength”. As

described in clause 8 and annex C, the J factor for

nu is number of units for which one failure will each type of loading is calculated with a stress

be tolerated. correction factor which is appropriately modified to

Some values from this equation, along with equiva- reflect the differences.

lent “G” values, are given in table 2.

5.2 Combined factor for yield strength, Kys

Ky 6 Calculation diameter, dc

K ys = (21)

Ks KT

where The calculation diameter, as used in equations 1 and

2, must agree with the diameter value used in

Ky is yield strength factor;

calculating the Y factor, see annex B. For spur gears,

Ks is size factor (see 5.1.3); it is the same as the operating pitch diameter of the

KT is temperature factor (see 5.1.4). gear for which the torque capacity is to be calculated.

Its value depends on the relative numbers of teeth

5.2.1 Yield strength factor, Ky

and the operating center distance and may be, but is

This factor reflects the difference between the not necessarily, equal to the standard pitch diameter,

response of hardened versus unhardened materials as follows:

No more than 1 failure in: 10,000 G--0.01 1.50

1,000 G--0.10 1.25

100 G--1.00 1.00

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

2 CA Fx is each face width extension (not larger than

d c = d AP = (24)

N m), mm;

1+ G

NP m is module, mm.

where

dAP is operating pitch diameter of pinion, mm; 8 Geometry factor for bending strength, J

CA is operating center distance, mm;

The geometry factor is a non--dimensional value

NP is number of teeth of pinion; which relates the shape of the gear tooth, along with

NG is number of teeth of gear. some associated geometry conditions, to the tensile

bending stress induced by a unit load applied on the

For the gear:

tooth flank. For spur gears, there are two elements

2 CA which go into its calculation:

d c = d AG = (25)

N

1+ P J= Y (28)

NG Kf

where where

dAG is operating pitch diameter of gear, mm. Y is tooth form factor (see annex B);

Kf is stress correction factor (see annex C).

8.1 Tooth form factor, Y

7 Effective face width, Fe

This factor is dependant only on geometry, with the

addition of a coefficient of friction where the tooth

The effective face width represents the face width sliding friction force may have a significant effect on

capable of resisting bending loads. If the two mating stresses. As part of making this a non--dimensional

gears have the same face widths which are fully factor, the geometry is scaled to a tooth of unit

overlapping, then the effective face width of each is module. The elements of the factor are:

equal to the common face width. If, however, there is

a portion of a face width which extends beyond the -- the location along the tooth flank where the tooth

overlapping width, then this extension may contrib- load will have its greatest effect on bending

ute to resisting the bending load. stress;

-- the proportions of the tooth shape, especially in

The extensions may be present at one or both ends the region of the tooth fillet;

of the face width of either of the mating gears.

-- the diameter used to relate applied torque values

This may be expressed as equations: to a tangential force, by tradition the operating

F e = F o + F xe1 + F xe2 (26) pitch diameter of the gear.

described in annex B with calculation of some of the

Fe is effective face width, mm; required geometry data described in annex A.

Fo is overlapping face width, mm; 8.2 Stress correction factor, Kf

Fxe1 is effective face width extension at one end, This factor is determined by a combination of tooth

mm; geometry, the type of loading, and some property of

Fxe2 is effective face width extension at other the material that determines to what extent it is

end, mm. sensitive to stress concentration. The calculation is

These effective face width extensions may be described in annex C.

estimated as follows: Since the type of loading may be a significant factor,

there will generally be two values considered for

For each extension:

each gear. One, Kft, is for repeated loading and the

F xe = 1 −

Fx

2m

Fx (27) other, Kfy, is for the occasional overload condition.

This leads to two possible values for the J factor:

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

calculations. As for material strength, there have

Jt = Y (29)

been a whole series of adjustments, such as the

K ft

selection of the G--1 values from published data, see

where

clause 4, and the various factors defined in clause 5.

Kft is stress correction factor for repeated Similarly for the level of loading, a number of

loading. adjustments have been introduced, as described in

For occasional overloads: clause 9. Based on concerns for material strength

and loading, unless these adjustments are judged to

Jy = Y (30) be inadequate, the suggested value for the safety

K fy

factor would be one.

where

This first selection may be increased after consider-

Kfy is stress correction factor for occasional ation of the possible results of failure of the gear

overloads. under study. If such failure is likely to be followed by

severe economic loss, or even more importantly, by

injury to those associated with the failed equipment,

9 Combined adjustment factors for loading then the safety factor should reflect the level of the

hazards.

This is a combination of the remaining load capacity Also to be considered is the level of testing that

factors, most of which relate to tooth loading under precedes final acceptance of the design. Because

the operating conditions. The use of such a the P/M process is used to produce gears for mass

combined factor helps simplify the fundamental production, there is generally the need and opportu-

formulas in clause 3. As an added advantage, this nity for extensive testing. This, and the recognition

combined factor may be used without detailed that P/M processes are highly consistent, indicates

analysis for subsequent gear designs with similar that high safety factors are rarely necessary.

operating conditions.

9.1.2 Overload factor for repeated loads, Kot

9.1 Combined adjustment factor for repeated

tooth loading, Ktw This factor allows for two types of repeated over-

(31) loads. One type is the overload that results from

K tw = S F K ot K B K mt K v

operation of the product beyond its nominal rating. If

where the calculated load capacity is going to be compared

SF is safety factor for bending strength; to the load associated with the nominal rating, then

Kot is overload factor for repeated loads; this factor should be adjusted to reflect this potential

KB is rim thickness factor; overload. The other type is the overload resulting

Kmt is load distribution factor for repeated load- from externally applied dynamic loads. Anything in

ing; the drive train that is not steady in its effect on

Kv is dynamic factor. transmitted torque or speed may introduce dynamic

torques. For example, non--steady torques are

9.1.1 Safety factor, SF

associated with driving members like internal com-

A safety factor is commonly introduced into design bustion engines or some types of hydraulic motors.

calculations to provide greater protection against They are also associated with varying drive train

possible failure. This protection may be sought loads such as reciprocating pumps or intermittent

because of concern that some elements of the cutting actions.

design process may have overstated the strength of

The selection of the appropriate value of this factor

the material or may have understated the level of the

may be based on a thorough dynamic analysis of the

loading. Sometimes the added protection against

drive train with all its inertia, compliance and

failure is based on concern for some extremely

damping effects. Most often, however, it will be

severe result of failure.

selected in accordance with past experience with

In selecting a value for safety factor, it is first similar products and with the application of

necessary to recognize that many of these concerns engineering judgement.

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

various items which contribute to, or partially offset,

The calculation of bending strength at the tooth fillet,

the effect on tooth bending strength.

as in annex B, presupposes that the material in the

adjacent areas is adequate to support the stressed The common contributing items are:

regions. If the rim thickness under the root circle is

-- misalignment of the gear axes due to manufac-

too small to provide this support, or is itself under turing variations in the geometry of the housing,

stress from transmitting torque from the gear web or bearings, shafts, and any other support features;

spokes, then a rim thickness factor is needed to

compensate for these rim shortcomings. -- manufacturing variations in the geometry of the

tooth surfaces, such as axial runout (wobble) or

The P/M gear is rarely designed with a narrow web non--uniform tooth thickness across the face

and extended rim, as is the common practice in width.

machined or cast wide--face gears. For the typical

The effect of these items on non--uniform load

P/M gear, therefore, the rim thickness factor is set to

distribution increases with the face width of the

one. There is a practice of introducing holes into the

mating gears. In the case of gear axis misalignment,

otherwise solid web of P/M gears to reduce weight

the size of the face width in relation to the bearing

and compaction area. If these holes are placed too

span is often significant. In the case of tooth surface

close to the root circle of the gear teeth, a condition

geometry, the manufacturing variations tend to

similar to a thin rim results. The rim thickness factor

increase as face width becomes larger in relation to

may then be calculated as follows:

gear diameter.

Backup ratio, mB The common items that tend to improve load

t distribution are:

mB = R (32)

ht

-- local tooth compliance in the form of bending or

where twisting of the tooth, combined with contact surface

tR is rim thickness, mm; deformations;

ht is whole depth of gear teeth, mm. -- local tooth surface wear, especially in the early

Rim thickness factor, KB cycles of repeated loading.

For mB ≥ 1.2 The load distribution factor for repeated loads can be

related to these items by the following equation:

KB = 1 (33)

For mB <1.2 K mt = 1 + (q m + q v)m ct × m w (35)

9.1.4 Load distribution factor for repeated loads, qm is adjustment due to axis misalignment;

Kmt qv is adjustment due to manufacturing

variations;

This factor accounts for any lack of complete and mct is modifying factor due to tooth compliance;

uniform contact along the axial length of the mating mw is modifying factor due to tooth surface

gear teeth. Such limited contact interferes with a wear.

uniform distribution of the transmitted load. The load

Procedures for selecting approximate values for

tends to concentrate where contact is best, which

these factors are described below. They qualitative-

raises the bending stress at the corresponding

ly consider many of the elements that can influence

positions along the base of the tooth. Adjacent

the effect of non--uniform load distribution. The

portions of the tooth help to support these concen-

quantitative values are only estimates which may be

trated loads and, to some extent, limit the rise in local

used until more appropriate values are developed by

stress.

analytical or experimental methods.

It is generally impractical to precisely evaluate the

9.1.4.1 Axis misalignment adjustment, qm

exact nature of the non--uniform load distribution, its

effect on local bending stress, and the resulting loss This factor recognizes that the extent of axis

in load capacity. Instead, a value for the load misalignment will be influenced by the expected

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

accuracy of the housing, the type of bearings, and Table 3 -- Manufacturing variation adjustment

the mounting of the gear with respect to bearing

Typical AGMA

locations. It also recognizes that with misalignment

accuracy grade1) fqv

determined by these conditions, its contribution to

Q5 1.0

non--uniform load distribution will increase with face

Q6 0.75

width.

Q7 0.6

Fo Q8 0.4

q m = f qm (36)

Sb Q9 0.3

Q10 0.2

where NOTE:

1) See AGMA 2000--A88.

Fo is overlapping face width, mm;

Sb is bearing span, mm; 9.1.4.3 Tooth compliance modifying factor, mct

fqm is factor relating to axis misalignment

This factor takes into account the compliance of the

adjustment:

material, as indicated by its modulus of elasticity, and

For machined metal housing with rolling

the degree of loading, as indicated by the design

element bearings:

stress.

fqm = 0.1

0.5

For machined metal housing with straddle m ct = 1 − 5 sE

t (38)

mounted sleeve bearings:

fqm = 0.2 where

For machined metal housing with overhung st is design fatigue limit, N/mm2 (see 4.1.2.1);

mounted sleeve bearings: E is modulus of elasticity, N/mm2.

fqm = 0.5 9.1.4.4 Tooth wear modifying factor, mw

For as--cast or molded housing with straddle This factor considers that wear is affected by the

mounted sleeve bearings: hardness of the tooth surfaces, with very slow wear

fqm = 0.6 expected from heat treated P/M materials. Also, the

kind of wear which best corrects for non--uniform

For as--cast or molded housing with over-

contact conditions takes place when each tooth is

hung mounted sleeve bearings:

contacted by only one tooth on the mating gear. This

fqm= 1.0 contact condition is met only when the gear ratio has

9.1.4.2 Manufacturing variations adjustment, qv an integer value.

For one or both gears in as--sintered

This factor considers that P/M process variations condition and with an integer value for gear

from ideal gear geometry are influenced by gear ratio:

proportions. This influence is expressed, for the mw = 0.6

sake of simplicity, in terms of the ratio of face width to For one or both gears in as--sintered condi-

pitch diameter. It also recognizes that gear geometry tion and with a non--integer value for gear

may be substantially improved by a final finishing ratio:

process. mw = 0.8

For both gears in heat treated condition:

Fo

q v = f qv (37) mw = 1.0

d

9.1.5 Dynamic factor, Kv

where

This factor accounts for the added dynamic tooth

Fo is overlapping face width, mm; loads that are developed by the meshing action of

the gears. These loads are influenced by:

d is gear pitch diameter, mm;

fqv is factor relating to manufacturing variations -- imperfections in the geometry of the gear teeth;

adjustment (see table 3). -- speed of the meshing action;

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

In principle, the appropriate value of this factor may 9.2.1 Safety factor, SF

be derived from a thorough dynamic analysis of the

This factor is generally the same as the safety factor

drive train with consideration of all these influences.

discussed in 9.1.1 for fatigue loading.

In practice, an approximate value may be calculated

from an equation which uses a gear inspection value 9.2.2 Overload factor for occasional overloads,

as the indicator of imperfect geometry and the Koy

pitchline velocity as the meshing speed indicator.

This factor should be based on the types of

The gear inspection most commonly used for P/M occasional overloads that may be applied to the

gears is the gear rolling check, or double flank test, in gears. Some considerations are items such as the

which the test gear is rolled with a master gear. See inertia and time duration of load in the system under

AGMA 2000--A88. One measurement made by this consideration. These may be different from the

inspection is the tooth--to--tooth composite variation, repeated overloads and will generally require a

an approximate indicator of the degree that the gear different factor.

will contribute to exciting dynamic loads. This value,

as expressed by its tolerance, VqT, is part of the 9.2.3 Rim thickness factor, KB

specification of gear quality. If measured values are

The same factor discussed in 9.1.3 is used here.

available, they may be used in place of the tolerance.

Since meshing conditions are determined by the 9.2.4 Load distribution factor for occasional

geometry of both gears, if the tolerances or mea- overloads, Kmy

surements differ between the two, the value used in

The equation used to estimate this factor is:

the following calculations should be the larger.

0.5 K my = 1 + (q m + q v)m cy (41)

K v = 1 + 0.0055 V qT v t (39)

Note that this equation differs from the equation in

where 9.1.4 in that the modifying factor due to tooth surface

VqT is tooth--to--tooth composite tolerance (or wear has been omitted. Occasional overloads may

measured variation), mm; occur before wear has progressed enough to modify

vt is pitch line velocity, m/s. load distribution. The remaining factors are the

9.2 Combined adjustment factor for occasional same except for mcy, the modifying factor due to

overloads, Kyw tooth compliance which is here estimated by:

K yw = S F K oy K B K my K v (40) 0.5

where

m cy = 1 − 5 sE

y

(42)

Koy is overload factor for occasional overloads; sy is design yield strength, N/mm2 (see 4.2).

KB is rim thickness factor;

9.2.5 Dynamic factor, Kv

Kmy is load distribution factor for occasional

overloads; The same factor discussed in 9.1.5 is used here.

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Annex A

(informative)

Calculation of spur gear geometry features

[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,

Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

The calculation of the spur gear form factor in annex Member designated by final subscript: P = pinion

B requires data describing a number of gear (driver) and G = gear (driven)

geometry features. This annex gives the detailed -- number of teeth, N;

calculations for each of these features as listed -- outside diameter, dO;

below. See A.9 for listing of symbols and terms.

-- tip radius, rr;

For the individual gear: -- tooth thickness (at reference diameter), t;

-- effective outside diameter after tip rounding, see -- root diameter (for circular--arc fillet), dR;

A.3.1; -- fillet radius (for circular--arc fillet), rf;

-- tooth thickness at indicated diameter, see A.4.1; -- basic rack dedendum (for generated trochoid fil-

let), bBR

-- generated trochoid fillet points, see A.4.5;

-- basic rack fillet radius (for generated trochoid fil-

-- minimum fillet radius, see A.4.6; let), rfBR.

-- circular--arc fillet points, see A.5.6. A.2.3 Gear mesh data

For the gear mesh: -- effective operating center distance, CA.

-- operating pitch diameters, see A.7.2; A.3 Tip radius geometry

loading, see A.8.2.

In addition, this annex supplies some detailed

calculations for features not required by annex B. tO

These have been included because they are con-

nected to the required calculations and are useful for tOR

general reference purposes. rr

For the individual gear:

dO

-- points on the involute profile, see A.4.2;

tOE

-- bottom land for the circular--arc fillet, see A.5.5.

dOE

For the gear mesh: drC

αrC

-- profile contact ratio, see A.8.4; Figure A.1 -- Tip round

-- form limit clearance (test for tip--fillet

interference), see annex F. A.3.1 Effective outside diameter, dOE

A.2 Input data This is the diameter at which the involute joins in

tangency with the tip round. It is calculated for each

A.2.1 Data common to the mating gears gear in the following steps:

-- module, m; Step 1. Diameter at center of tip round, drC:

-- pressure angle, φ. d rC = d O − 2r r (A.1)

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Step 2. Standard pitch diameter, d: a hob. Although such a tool is not actually used to

manufacture a P/M gear, the corresponding basic

d=N×m (A.2)

rack may be used to define the P/M gear trochoid

Step 3. Base circle diameter, dB: fillet.

Step 4. Pressure angle at center of tip round, φrC: another type of tool, such as a gear shaper cutter, the

trochoid described here will be slightly different from

dB the shape of that machined trochoid. Some gears

φ rC = arccos (A.4)

d rC are machined with a protuberance feature on the

tool. The protuberance provides an undercut fillet

Step 5. Pressure angle at effective outside diame-

which can clear the tip of a finishing tool used to

ter, φOE:

modify the involute flank in a secondary operation.

φ OE = arctan tan φ rC +

dB

2r r

(A.5)

This analysis does not cover such a feature, even

when it is used on a hob or other rack shaped

generating tool. It has been omitted because the

Step 6. Effective outside diameter, dOE addition of an undercut condition is rarely needed in

P/M gears.

dB

d OE = (A.6)

cos φ OE A.4.1 Basic rack

A.3.2 Remaining top land, tOR The calculation uses several data items related to

the basic rack. See figure A.2.

This is the width of the outer tip of the gear that

remains after rounding at each corner. The calcula-

A.4.1.1 Specified basic rack proportions

tion is needed only as a check on the design of the

gear. It consists of two steps and uses some of the The following data items define the portion of the

data found in A.3.1. basic rack that helps determine the trochoid fillet:

Step 1. Tooth thickness half--angle, α: -- tooth thickness, tBR;

d

Step 2. Remaining top land, tOR -- fillet radius, rfBR.

These data can be taken from the basic rack

specification. It is customary for standards to specify

(A.8) basic rack proportions for unit module. The above

items would then be calculated by adjusting the unit

If the calculated remaining top land is negative, the

pitch data for the actual module of the gear, m.

two tip radii intersect inside of the selected outside

diameter. To correct this design flaw, one or more of

If a separate basic rack specification is not available,

the following design changes are needed:

values of the first two of these items can be

-- reduce the tip radius; determined from some of the data in A.2, as follows:

-- reduce the outside diameter; Basic rack tooth thickness, according to common

practice:

-- increase the tooth thickness.

2

The trochoid described below is generated by a rack Basic rack dedendum, based on the specified gear

shaped outline rolling on the standard pitch circle of root diameter:

the gear. This rack shaped outline, universally called

a “basic rack”, is often visualized as the outline of an

imaginary rack shaped gear generating tool such as

b BR = 0.5 Nm +

t − t BR

tan φ

− dR (A.10)

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

L Tooth

C L Space

C

p BR

2

gfBR

Nominal

pitch line

t BR Generating

pitch line

2

φBR

G

Gy

hfBR yRS hyfBR bfBR bBR

radius curve

The third data item, basic rack fillet radius, can not be Basic rack form dedendum:

determined from other data but must be indepen-

b fBR = b BR − r fBR [1 − (sin φ)] (A.12)

dently specified, as noted in A.2.2. The radius may

be zero, indicating a sharp corner, but is almost The center of the fillet radius is located on the basic

always a greater value, up to one--fourth of the basic rack by its coordinates, gfBR and hfBR, relative to the

rack dedendum or even larger. However, it may not nominal pitch line, as the G--axis, and the tooth

exceed the size of the full round radius. A full round centerline, as the H--axis. See figure A.2. These

basic rack fillet will produce a full round gear fillet, coordinates are calculated as follows:

leaving no part of a root circle between joined fillets.

G--axis coordinate:

This maximum basic rack fillet radius is:

t BR r

πmcosφ g fBR = + b BR − r fBR(tan φ) + fBR

− b BR(sin φ) 2 cos φ

r fBRX = 4 (A.11) (A.13)

1 − (sin φ)

H axis coordinate (measured from the G--axis lo-

A.4.1.2 Calculated basic rack data

cated at the nominal pitch line):

The above data may be used to calculate additional h fBR = b BR − r fBR (A.14)

items of basic rack geometry, namely:

A.4.2 Rack shift

-- basic rack form dedendum;

The generating pitch line on the basic rack, which

-- location of the center of the basic rack fillet ra-

rolls on the generating pitch circle on the gear, is

dius.

commonly offset from the nominal pitch line on the

The basic rack form dedendum, bfBR, refers to the basic rack. The rack shift is the offset distance and,

distance from the basic rack nominal pitch line to the as shown in figure A.2, is positive in the direction

tangent point at the straight line tooth flank and the away from the gear center. This distance is

fillet radius curve. It is calculated as follows: calculated, as follows:

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

t − t BR straight line connecting three points:

y RS = (A.15)

2(tan φ) -- point of contact (pitch point) between the rack

Since the generating action that defines the trochoid generating pitch line and the gear generating

is based on the basic rack generating pitch line, the pitch circle;

fillet radius center must now be located relative to -- point at the center of the rack fillet radius;

this line, which is labeled as the Gy--axis. See figure

A.2. -- point on the generated trochoid (also on the rack

fillet radius).

Coordinate along the H--axis (measured from the

Gy--axis located at the generating pitchline): The “pitch--point trochoid line”, makes the “pitch--

point polar angle”, θf, with the rack pitch line. Each

h yfBR = h fBR − y RS (A.16) generated point on the trochoid is associated with a

The basic rack form dedendum from equation A.12 value of this angle.

and the rack shift from equation A.15 are used to test

for undercutting as follows: At the start of the trochoid, figure A.3(a), the trochoid

point is on the root circle, and the same point is at the

there is undercutting if: root of the rack fillet radius. The pitch--point trochoid

line is also a radial line of the gear. The pitch--point

bfBR − yRS > d sin2 φ

2 polar angle for this trochoid point on the root circle is:

there is no undercutting if: θ fR = 90° (A.18)

bfBR − yRS ≤ d sin2 φ (A.17)

2 For the typical case of tangency to the involute, the

A.4.3 Trochoid generating limits trochoid ends at the point of tangency, or form

diameter point, see figure A.4(b). The pitch point

The trochoid extends from its “start”, point R on the polar angle for this trochoid point is:

root circle, to its “end”, point F where it connects to

the involute profile. This connection is generally a θ fF = φ (A.19)

tangency, but becomes an intersection in the case of

In the case of undercut gears, the trochoid ends in an

undercutting.

intersection with the involute. The pitch point polar

Figure A.3(a) and (b) show the basic rack positioned angle corresponding to this intersection point is

to generate the limit points for the first two of these slightly larger than the value of equation A.19.

φ

Basic rack

Basic rack θf = 90° rfBR

Generating Generating

pitch line on pitch line on θf = φ

basic rack basic rack

Pitch point

rfBR

Generating

circle on gear

End of trochoid

Start of trochoid at involute

at root circle (point F)

(point R) Generating

circle on gear

(a) Start of trochoid at root circle (b) End of trochoid at involute

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

The exact value of this angle and the subsequent Intermediate points can be found from equally

calculation of the exact values of the coordinates of spaced intermediate values of the pitch point polar

the intersection point are not essential to the fillet angle. The following equation gives the value of the

profile data used in annex B. If the exact coordinates “k--th” point and applies to the intermediate and the

are desired for a complete detailed tooth outline, start and end points:

they must be found by an iterative calculation

searching for the intersection of the trochoid curve θ f1 n f − k + θ fn( k − 1 )

and the connected involute. The numerical steps in θf =

nf − 1

such a calculation are beyond the scope of this

for (k = 1 to nf) (A.22)

document. However, this intersection may be found

graphically after extending the involute curves. This where

procedure is supplied in A.6.2. nf is number of points along the fillet.

If the trochoid is to be described by a selected These coordinates can be calculated as follows, see

number of points, nf, then the values of equations figure A.4(a), (b) and (c):

A.18 and A.19 become the first and nf --th values of

this angle, or: Step 1. Pitch point polar radius:

Ãf = + r fBR (A.23)

(A.21) sin θ f

θ fn = θ fF = φ

θf

hyfBR

θfR

Pitch point

rfBR ρf

Basic rack

Point on

trochoid

Generating

Gear center circle on Generating

gear pitch line on

basic rack

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hyfBR θf

θfR

Pitch point εf

Y d d

2 2

εf gfBR

ρf Basic rack

C

L

εf

(vf, αf)

See fig A.4(c)

X

Generating

Gear center circle on gear Generating

pitch line on

basic rack

Point on

xf trochoid

Basic

rack

Gear center

yf

αf

X

vf

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Step 2. Generating roll angle from a pitch point at Step 4. Rectangular coordinates of trochoid point,

tooth centerline to a pitch point at which k--th trochoid relative to gear tooth centerline as the X--axis with

point is generated: the origin at the gear center:

x f = v fcos α f (A.27)

2 g fBR +

h yfBR cosθ f

sinθ f

y f = v fsin α f (A.28)

εf = radians (A.24)

d A.4.6 Minimum radius along trochoid curve

cos θ f 1 The shape of the trochoid is such that the radius of

NOTE: sin θ f is used in place of tan θ f to permit evalu- curvature varies from point to point. The value of this

ation for θf = 90°. radius at any point is determined by the generating

action of the pitch point polar radius. The minimum

Step 3. Polar coordinates of trochoid point relative to value is used in the stress concentration calculations

tooth centerline, gear center polar radius and gear of annex C. This minimum value, RfN, corresponds

center polar angle: to this radius at the start of the trochoid, where the

trochoid is tangent to the root circle and the pitch

vf = d

2

2 2

+ Ã f − dÃ fsin θ f (A.25)

point polar angle, θf, is equal to 90°. See figure

A.3(a).

2

Ã f cos θ f h yfBR

α f = ε f − arcsin radians (A.26) R fN = + r fBR (A.29)

vf 0.5 d + h yfBR

dfc

Space

centerline

dR

sR

θfC

τf

(xfC, yfC)

rf φF

(xf, yf)

θfC

θF dF

X

Tooth centerline

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A.5 Circular--arc in place of trochoid Reduction of the root diameter may help in avoiding

item b).

See figure A.5. It is a common practice in P/M gear

design to introduce a fillet in the form of a single Calculations for determining the size of this full--fillet

circular arc. In this practice, the arc will start at a radius for a specified root diameter are given in

tangent point on the root circle and generally end at a A.5.2. If the root diameter is smaller than the base

tangent point on the involute profile at each side of circle diameter, it is not always possible to fit such a

the tooth space. A fillet of this form simplifies the fillet to the specified conditions. The calculations

manufacture of the compacting tool. The selection of indicate if this limiting condition has been reached.

the fillet type should consider the following (see

A.5.1 Test for minimum fillet radius

figure A.6):

This test is required only if the root diameter is

a) A small radius may increase stress concentration

smaller than the base circle diameter. If the root

and reduce tooth bending strength;

diameter is larger, fillet radii approaching zero will

b) A large radius may introduce interference with meet the geometry condition of tangency to both the

the tip of the mating gear; involute tooth flanks and the root circle.

c) A large radius may lead to fillet arcs intersecting Minimum fillet radius

outside of the root circle;

d2 − d2

d) For root diameters smaller than the base circle di- r fN = B R

; but greater than zero

ameter, a small radius may not give tangent 4d R

(A.30)

points at both the root circle and the involute pro-

file; A.5.2 Full--fillet radius

e) For profiles that must be undercut to avoid inter- Calculation of the full--fillet radius also serves as a

ference with the tip of the mating tooth, there can- test for maximum fillet radius. If the originally

not be tangency to the involute. A more complex specified fillet radius falls between the minimum fillet

fillet form is preferred if interference, on one radius of A.5.1 and the maximum fillet radius

hand, or excessive undercutting, on the other, calculated below, the calculation of fillet features

are to be avoided. may proceed. If the original fillet is smaller than the

minimum, it must be increased to that value subject

Circular--arc fillet (shown to the test in A.8.4. If it is larger than the full--fillet

shallow for clarity) radius fillet, the fillet radius must be reduced to that

Full--fillet radius maximum.

Trochoid fillet without undercutting

Trochoid fillet with undercutting Step 1. Test for the fit of a full--fillet radius fillet:

BTff = π + d R − α − (inv φ)

N dB

(A.31)

the base circle diameter and a full--fillet radius fillet

will not fit the specified gear data.

Step 2. Pressure angle along imaginary involute at

the center of the full--fillet radius fillet, φbC:

NOTE: This equation introduces a new trigometric

Figure A.6 -- Fillets function, the sevolute function, defined as follows:

The fillet radius may be selected so that the two fillets cos φ

on adjacent teeth form a single continuous arc, The “arc sev” or inverse of this function may be found

constituting a full--fillet radius fillet. This feature will from tables of the function [9] or by the calculation

dispose of above items a), c) and in some cases d). procedure in annex E.

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Step 3. Diameter at the center of the full--fillet radius A.5.5 Bottom land

fillet, dbC:

The bottom land is the length along the root circle

dB between the start points of the two symmetrical fillets

d bC = (A.34) positioned in the same tooth space.

cos φ bC

N

s R = d R π − θ fC (A.44)

radius), rfX

A.5.6 Coordinates of points spaced along fillet

r fX = 0.5 d bC − d R (A.35)

Some of these points will be used in calculations

A.5.3 Fillet radius center specified in annex B. They may also be used in the

graphic construction of the complete tooth outline.

The coordinates of the center of fillet radius are

Step 1. Polar angle at the form diameter

found as follows:

θ F = α + (inv φ) − invφ F (A.45)

Step 1. Diameter of gear center circle going through

fillet center Step 2. Fillet construction angle at the form diameter

d fC = d R + 2r f (A.36) τ fF = π + θ F − φ F (A.46)

2

Step 2. Pressure angle along imaginary involute Step 3. Fillet construction angle at the root diameter

through fillet center τ fR = θ fC (A.47)

φ fC = arccos dB

d fC

(A.37)

Step 4. Fillet construction angles at spaced points

along the fillet

τ fR n f − k + τ fF( k − 1 )

Step 3. Polar radius at fillet center τf = (A.48)

nf − 1

d fC

Ã fC = (A.38) for k = 1 to nf

2

where

Step 4. Polar angle at fillet center (relative to tooth

center line) nf is the number of points along the fillet.

Step 5. Coordinates of spaced points along fillet

θ fC = α + (inv φ) − inv φ fC +

dB

2r f

x f = x fC − r f cos τ f (A.49)

(A.39)

y f = y fC − r f sin τ f (A.50)

Step 5. Coordinates at fillet center

The coordinates at the nf --th point should match

x fC = Ã fCcos θ fC (A.40) exactly the first point of the involute as calculated

below.

y fC = Ã fCsin θ fC (A.41)

A.6 Involute profile data (see figure A.7)

A.5.4 Form diameter In A.3, the tip radius geometry is defined with its

The form diameter corresponds to the diameter at value of effective outside diameter, dOE. In A.4 or

A.5, the fillet geometry is defined with its value of

which the fillet ends and the “true form” involute

form diameter, dF. (For undercut gears, see A.6.2.) It

profile begins.

is now possible to define the geometry of the involute

Step 1. Pressure angle at the form diameter profile located between these two diameters, dF and

dOE.

φ F = arctan tan φ fC −

dB

2r f

(A.42) A.6.1 Spaced points on the involute profile

After choosing the number of points, ni, which

Step 2. Form diameter includes the start and end points, the following

calculation selects conveniently spaced points and

dB determines their coordinates on the same axes used

dF = (A.43)

cos φ F for the tip radius and fillet geometry.

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ds

2

d

2 (xs, ys)

ts φs

αs

2

2

X

α

αB t

2

φ

inv φ

Base

circle Standard

pitch circle

Step 1. Roll angles at the form and effective outside Step 6. Coordinates of the “i--th” point

diameters, which correspond to the start and end di

points. xi = cos α i (A.57)

2

ε F = tan arccos

dB

dF

(A.51)

d

y i = i sin α i

2

(A.58)

d

ε OE = tan arccos B

d OE

(A.52) spond exactly with the coordinates of the j = nj point on

the fillet, except for undercut trochoids, as noted in

A.6.2.

Step 2. Roll angles at the “i--th” point along the

involute where i = 1 corresponds to the form A.6.2 Start point on undercut profiles

diameter point and i = ni to the effective outside point. As explained in A.4.3, for undercut trochoid fillets,

the diameter at the end of the fillet and the start of the

ε F n i − i + ε OE( i − 1 )

εi = (A.53) involute is not readily calculated. However, it can be

ni − 1 determined graphically by finding the intersection of

Step 3. Pressure angle at the “i--th” point the two curves with the involute extended toward the

base circle. This is done by making the form

φ i = arctan ε i (A.54)

diameter value used in A.6.1, step 1, equal to the

Step 4. Diameter at the “i--th” point base circle diameter, or

dB dF ≈ dB (A.59)

di = (A.55)

cos φ i

This will make

Step 5. Polar (or half--tooth) angle at the “i--th” point

εF ≈ 0 (A.60)

α i = t + (inv φ) − inv φ i (A.56) Other steps in the calculation will follow accordingly.

d

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A.6.3 Selected point on the involute profile The circles of each gear passing through this point

are the operating pitch circles. Their diameters can

If a selected point is identified by the diameter at its be calculated as follows:

location, further information about the involute

profile can be found as follows: 2C A

d AP =

d (A.67)

1 + BG

Step 1. Pressure angle at the selected point d BP

dB 2C A

φ s = arccos (A.61) d AG =

ds d (A.68)

1 + BP

d BG

where

A.8 Contact conditions

ds is the selected diameter and

(d F ≤ d s ≤ d OE). The calculation described below applies to gear

pairs operating with contact ratio values greater than

Step 2. Half--tooth thickness angle at the selected one and smaller than two.

point

A.8.1 Contact limit points on the line of action

α s = t + (inv φ) − inv φ s (A.62) The calculation for each gear’s diameter at the

d

highest point of single tooth contact starts with

Step 3. Circular tooth thickness at the selected point finding the contact limit points along the line of

action. See figure A.8. These points are:

ts = ds αs (A.63)

-- Point 1. Start of contact on a tooth, while contact

Step 4. Coordinates of the selected point continues on the preceding tooth.

xs = cos α s (A.64)

2 ceases on the preceding tooth.

ys = sin α s

2 contact starting on the following tooth.

A.7 Operating line of action and pitch circle data -- Point 4. End of contact, with contact continuing

on the following tooth.

The specified operating center distance, CA, and the

These points can be located on each gear with

base circle diameters, dBP and dBG, of the two gears

calculations using the associated roll angles. The

determines these data items.

following calculation of these angles uses data

A.7.1 Operating pressure angle, φA already found in A.3 for the driving and driven gears

and in A.7.

This is the angle of the line of action, the line tangent

Step 1. Roll angles, εAP and εAG at the operating

to the base circles of the two gears. See figure A.8.

pitch diameter of each gear, which are the same as

the roll angle, εA, at the pitch point where the two

φ A = arccos d BP + d BG

2C A

(A.66) operating pitch circles are tangent:

ε AP = ε AG = ε A = tan φ A (A.69)

A.7.2 Operating pitch diameters, dAP, dAG

Step 2. Roll angles at effective outside diameters,

The pitch point is the point along the line of action at εOEP, εOEG (see step 5, A.3.1, for values of φOEP,

which the tooth sliding reverses direction, changing φOEG):

from approach to recess action. At this point, there is ε OEP = tan φ OEP (A.70)

no sliding and the tooth contact is instantly pure

rolling. ε OEG = tan φ OEG (A.71)

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Base circle

(gear) GEAR (driven)

dAG

dBG

Operating

pitch circle

(gear)

P

dOEG pitch

point

dOG Line of

4

action 3 φA

Approach action: 2

points 1 to P

Recess action: 1

dOP

points P to 4

pB

dOEP

dBP Operating

dAP pitch circle

(pinion)

1. Start of contact (load PINION (driver)

Base circle

shared with previous pair) (pinion)

2. Start of single tooth contact

P. Pitch point (no sliding)

3. End of single tooth contact

4. End of contact (load shared

with following pair)

Figure A.8 -- Gear mesh conditions

Step 3. Roll angles at point 1, ε1P, ε1G: Step 5. Pitch angles, βP, βG:

ε 1P = ε A 1 +

NG

NP

N

− ε OEG G

NP

(A.72) βP = 2 π

NP (A.76)

NG

ε 1G = ε OEG (A.73) Step 6. Roll angles at point 2, ε2P, ε2G:

but not greater than: ε A 1 +

NP

NG

ε 2P = ε 4P − β P

but not smaller than: ε1P

(A.78)

ε 2G = ε 4G + β G (A.79)

Step 4. Roll angles at point 4, ε4P, ε4G:

but not greater than: ε1G

ε 4P = ε OEP (A.74)

but not greater than: ε A 1 +

NG

NP

Step 7. Roll angles at point 3, ε3P, ε3G:

ε 3P = ε 1P + β P (A.80)

but not greater than: ε4P

ε 4G = ε A N

NG

N

1 + P − ε OEP P

NG

(A.75)

ε 3G = ε 1G − β G (A.81)

but not smaller than zero. but not smaller than: ε4G.

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

A.8.2 Diameters at contact points diP, diG A.8.4 Profile contact ratio

The diameters at each contact point, with “i” The profile contact ratio, mp, is not required for the

representing each of the points 1, 2, 3 and 4, is calculations of annex B. It is included here for

calculated as follows: reference because it can be readily calculated from

data in A.8.1:

d BP

d iP = (A.82) Step 1. Approach portion of the profile contact ratio,

cosarctan ε iP

mpa:

d BG ε AP − ε 1P

d iG = (A.83) m pa = (A.84)

cosarctan ε iG βP

The diameters at the highest point of single tooth Step 2. Recess portion, mpr:

contact are: ε 4P − ε AP

m pr = (A.85)

βP

-- for the pinion, d3P;

Step 3. Profile contact ratio, mp:

-- for the gear, d2G. (A.86)

m p = m pa + m pr

A.8.3 Limit diameters Generally, the approach and recess portions are

positive values. However, in some special designs,

Limit diameter refers to the diameter at the innermost

one of the two may be zero or negative as long as the

limit of contact by the mating gear, see figure A.8.

other value is large enough to make the total

-- for the pinion positive. For most gear designs, the total profile

dLP = d1P contact ratio is made greater than some established

minimum value larger than one.

-- for the gear

dLG = d4G A.9 Symbols and terms

Table A.1 -- Symbols and terms

Where

Symbol Definition Units first used

bBR Basic rack dedendum (for generated trochoid fillet) mm A.2.2

bfBR Basic rack form dedendum mm A.4.1.2

CA Effective operating center distance mm A.2.3

d Standard pitch diameter mm A.3.1

dAP, dAG Operating pitch diameter, pinion, gear mm A.7.2

dB Base circle diameter mm A.3.1

dbC Diameter at center of full--fillet radius fillet mm A.5.2

dF Form diameter mm A.5.4

dfC Diameter of gear center circle going through fillet center mm A.5.3

di Diameter at contact point mm A.8.2

dL Limit diameter mm A.8.3

dO Outside diameter mm A.2.2

dOE Effective outside diameter mm A.3.1

dR Root diameter (for circular--arc fillet) mm A.2.2

drC Diameter at center of tip round mm A.3.1

gfBR Coordinate along G--axis mm A.4.1.2

hfBR Coordinate along H--axis (measured from G--axis) mm A.4.1.2

hyfBR Coordinate along H--axis (measured from Gy--axis) mm A.4.2

m Module mm A.2.1

mp Profile contact ratio -- -- A.8.4

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Where

Symbol Definition Units first used

mpa Approach portion of profile contact ratio -- -- A.8.4

mpr Recess portion of profile contact ratio -- -- A.8.4

N Number of teeth -- -- A.2.2

nf Number of points along fillet -- -- A.4.4

ni Number of spaced points on involute profile -- -- A.6.1

RfN Minimum radius along trochoid curve mm A.4.6

rf Fillet radius (for circular--arc fillet) mm A.2.2

rfBR Basic rack fillet radius (for generated trochoid fillet) mm A.2.2

rfBRX Maximum basic rack fillet radius mm A.4.1.1

rfN Minimum fillet radius mm A.5.1

rfx Radius of the full--fillet radius fillet mm A.5.2

rr Tip radius mm A.2.2

sR Bottom land mm A.5.5

t Tooth thickness (at reference diameter) mm A.2.2

tBR Basic rack tooth thickness mm A.4.1.1

tOR Remaining top land mm A.3.2

xfC, yfC Coordinates at fillet center mm A.5.3

yRS Rack shift mm A.4.2

α Tooth thickness half--angle radians A.3.2

αf Polar coordinate of trochoid point radians A.4.5

β Pitch angle radians A.8.1

εA Roll angle at operating pitch diameter radians A.8.1

εF Roll angle at form diameter radians A.6.1

εf Generating roll angle radians A.4.5

εOE Roll angle at effective outside diameter radians A.6.1

θF Polar angle at form diameter radians A.5.6

θf Pitch--point polar angle degrees A.4.3

θfC Polar angle at fillet center radians A.5.3

θfF Pitch--point polar angle at form diameter contact degrees A.4.3

θfR Pitch--point polar angle at root diameter contact degrees A.4.3

νf Polar coordinate of trochoid point mm A.4.5

ρf Pitch point polar radius mm A.4.5

ρfC Polar radius at fillet center mm A.5.3

τf Fillet construction angle at spaced points along fillet degrees A.5.6

τfF Fillet construction angle at form diameter degrees A.5.6

τfR Fillet construction angle at root diameter degrees A.5.6

φ Pressure angle degrees A.2.1

φbC Pressure angle along imaginary involute degrees A.5.2

φA Operating pressure angle degrees A.7.1

φfC Pressure angle along imaginary involute through fillet center degrees A.5.3

φOE Pressure angle at effective outside diameter degrees A.3.1

φrC Pressure angle at center of tip round radians A.3.1

φF Pressure angle at form diameter radians A.5.4

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Annex B

(informative)

Calculation of spur gear factor, Y

[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,

Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

tooth force, WA

B.1.1 Description

geometry to the capacity of the gear tooth to resist Transmitted

the bending moment developed by the load applied torque, T Operating pitch

to the tooth. It deals only with geometry (mostly tooth diameter, dA

geometry, but also some aspects of gear mesh WA = 2 T

dA

geometry) without reference to material properties.

Figure B.1 -- Transmitted torque at operating

The role of stress concentration, which is influenced

pitch diameter

by other factors in addition to tooth geometry, is

treated separately in bending strength calculations, B.1.3 Application

see clause 8 and annex C.

A form factor is calculated for each of the pair of

B.1.2 Definition mating external spur gears. The form factors are

used in the calculation of the corresponding bending

The definition given here relates to the definition strength geometry factors, see clause 8. These are

used in other AGMA literature. See reference 3. then used in the fundamental formulas for calculated

This permits the comparison of form factor values as torque capacity, see clause 3.

calculated from the procedures described here with

B.1.4 Alternate methods of determining the form

values from the other AGMA sources.

factor

The form factor for a gear tooth of specified outline is There are experimental and numerical methods for

the ratio of a force to a stress. When the gear determining the relationship between the tooth load

geometry is expressed in terms of unit module and and the maximum stress induced at the tooth fillet.

unit face width, this ratio becomes a non--dimension- One of the experimental methods has been photo--

al quantity. The force referenced in this definition is elasticity studies which reveal stress patterns and

described below. The stress in the definition is the relative stress levels. Another is the use of strain

bending stress at the critical section of the gear tooth gages variously positioned at the gear tooth fillet to

fillet. This section is located where the bending reveal stress levels at each position. The numerical

stress is determined to be at a maximum. methods, made practical by computers, consist of

finite element analysis and its analytical variations.

Torque transmitted by a gear may be represented by

a tangential force acting at a selected radius. It is All of these alternate methods determine the com-

common practice to select the radius of the operating bination of the general bending stress and the effect

pitch circle. This circle derives from the view of the of stress concentration, without clearly distinguish-

gear and its mate as contacting cylinders which roll ing between the two. As noted above, the form factor

without slipping with a speed ratio equal to the gear attempts to evaluate only the influence of gear

ratio. See figures A.8 and B.1. geometry on the relationship between the tooth load

and the general bending stress. This relationship is

The tangential force, WA, calculated from the trans- taken as independent of the type of loading and the

mitted torque and the radius, 0.5 dA, is used as the properties of the material. The effect on bending

force in the form factor definition. The force acting at strength of the highly localized stress concentration

the contact tooth surfaces differs from the force in with its high stress gradient is recognized as

location and direction, as discussed below in B.2.3.1 dependent on load type (steady or repeated) and

and B.2.6.2. material (degree of ductility, brittleness or porosity).

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As a result, these alternate methods are not readily used below uses actual gear geometry data and is

adapted to determining the form factor. Instead, they followed by a simple conversion to the traditional

are sometimes used to determine the stress correc- non--dimensional form.

tion (concentration) factor by subtracting a calcu-

B.2.2 Calculation stages

lated form factor, like the one described here, from

the measured or computed combined effect. See The calculation process consists of the following

figure B.2. stages:

-- critical load: selection of location along the con-

tacting tooth surface and selection of direction;

Tooth

load -- critical section: fillet definition and section loca-

tion;

-- bending moments and stress: calculation for unit

critical load;

-- form factor ratio: calculation of force--stress ratio

for critical load with adjustment for tangential load

Critical referenced in the form factor definition;

section

-- non--dimensional factor: conversion to non--di-

Combined stress mensional using module.

Stress Tension Stress concentration B.2.3 Critical load, Wc

distribution

Bending stress The critical load is the load (on the tooth flank) which

at fillet

will produce the maximum tensile stress at the root

fillet. The factors which determine this critical load

Compression are the direction of the load relative to the tooth

outline and the location of the load along the tooth

outline . The relationship between the magnitude of

Figure B.2 -- Combined bending stress with this load, Wc, and the transmitted torque is described

stress concentration in B.2.6.2 and B.3.6.

B.2.3.1 Load direction

B.2 Standard calculation procedure

The load direction is determined first by the geome-

B.2.1 Relationship to AGMA standard gear

try of the active portion of the tooth flank, here

rating calculation

understood to be an involute curve associated with

The calculation procedure presented in this annex the base circle of the gear. Under certain operating

follows the basic principles used in the AGMA gear conditions common in P/M gear applications, the

rating procedure. See [3] and [4] in the bibliography. sliding action between the mating gear teeth will

This AGMA procedure is supplemented here by new influence the load direction.

features applicable to typical P/M gear design and

B.2.3.1.1 Load force normal to tooth flank

operating conditions. The influence of each of these

conditions is explained below as each new calcula- The direction of the load transmitted between gear

tion feature is introduced. teeth is normal to the involute surface of the tooth

flank. If a circle (with its center at the gear axis) is

Another difference from the AGMA standard form

drawn through the load point, the angle between this

factor calculation has been introduced for reason of

normal and a tangent to this circle is the involute

calculation convenience. The AGMA procedure, as

pressure angle, φWc, at that point. As a normal to the

part of obtaining a non--dimensional form factor,

involute, this direction is also tangent to the gear

requires that all related gear geometry data first be

base circle. See figure B.3.

scaled to unit module equivalents. This is a

carry--over from the days that graphical methods This load force direction is assumed in AGMA rating

were used for such calculations and this increase in calculations. It is also used in the first set of

scale helped in graphical accuracy. The procedure calculations below. See figure B.4.

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

B.2.3.1.2 Friction force tangent to tooth flank these lubrication conditions is not present and a

significant friction force accompanies the normal

The relative motion between mating gear teeth is a tooth force, see figure B.4(b). The role of the friction

combination of rolling and sliding. The rolling action forces is described in B.3.

is generally assumed to offer negligible resistance to

the relative motion and is ignored as a direct Load, Wc

contributor to the load transmitted between the

teeth. The sliding action requires further φWc

consideration because it may introduce a significant

friction force.

Base circle

The AGMA gear rating calculation [3] is properly

used only for those operating conditions in which

some approximation of ideal lubricating conditions Tangency dWc

exist.1) These operating conditions include an

adequate supply of clean lubricant at the gear teeth, Base

an adequate pitch line velocity, and tooth surface circle

geometry accurate enough to permit a well distrib- radius, rB

uted contact area. When these conditions are met, a

film of lubricant is forced into the tooth contact area at

a pressure which nearly or completely separates the

contacting surfaces. The resulting friction force is

then small enough to be ignored in the gear bending

strength calculations. In many gear applications,

and especially in P/M gears with low material density Figure B.3 -- Load normal to involute tooth

and without sealing of the pores, a full complement of flank and tangent to base circle

at dOE Resultant

(see B.2.3.2.1) Friction force

force

at HPSTL Normal force

δφc

(see B.2.3.2.3) φc

line δφc is load deviation angle

a) No friction, normal force only, b) With friction, normal and tangent forces, shown with

alternate locations sliding inwards (typical of driven gear during approach

action)

Figure B.4 -- Gear tooth forces

B.2.3.2 Critical location possible from the fillet. This would locate the critical

With the gear tooth treated as a loaded cantilever load at the outside diameter of the gear. However,

beam, the location of the load producing the some common mesh geometry conditions help

maximum fillet bending stress will tend to be as far as move the location somewhat further down on the

_______________________

1) The lubrication port ion of the application clause states, “The ratings determined by these formulas are only valid when

the gear teeth are operated with a lubricant of proper viscosity for the load, gear tooth surface finish, temperature, and

pitch line velocity.”

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

tooth with a corresponding reduction in the resulting missing. In other designs, identified by contact ratios of

root fillet stresses. See figure B.5. more than two, there are contact intervals at which

three pairs of teeth are engaged, with the remaining in-

terval having two pairs of teeth engaged. The following

remarks do not apply to these conditions, for which the

X appropriate analyses are beyond the scope of this

document.

Critical

load, Wc When the typical overlapping contact is present,

Translated

load there is the potential for the transmitted load to be

φWc

Compressive shared between the two adjacent meshing pairs. If

load

the sharing were equal, the critical load location

Bending dWc would not be at the outermost end of the tooth

load

involute since, at this location, the load itself has

Constant

stress dropped to one--half. The actual nature of such

parabola hfc sharing depends on the accuracy of the involute

αWc profiles and the relative stiffness of each pair of teeth

at that point in their engagement cycle. A detailed

Radial analysis of such conditions is generally too complex

line

for common gear design procedures. As a simplifi-

cation, sharing is assumed when both the driver and

Critical (xfc, yfc)

section at critical fillet driven gear’s tooth--to--tooth composite variation

wfc meets Q8 or better requirements, or in the case

where lesser accuracy prevents load sharing until

Figure B.5 -- Data for stress calculation

initial wearing takes place.

The location is identified by the diameter, dWc, at the If such load sharing is not likely (see B.2.3.2.3), then

critical load point. The factors which determine this the critical load location for each gear is at its

diameter are discussed below. effective outside diameter, as noted in B.2.3.2.1, and

the diameter at the critical load location for each gear

B.2.3.2.1 Outer load location limit is:

The first geometry condition which shifts the critical d Wc = d OE (B.1)

load location from the outside diameter is the tip

B.2.3.2.3 Highest point of single tooth loading

round which is present on nearly all P/M gears. See

figures A.1 and B.4(a). With this tip round, the outer In the typical meshing cycle of a pair of teeth, the

load location limit moves to the point on the tooth at stages of the meshing can be identified by a series of

which the involute flank ends and the tip round points and their corresponding diameters on the two

begins, corresponding to the effective outside diam- gears, here labelled as the “pinion”, P, for the driving

eter, dOE. The calculation of this diameter is gear and the “gear”, G, for the driven gear, see figure

described in A.3.1. A.8:

-- point 1, the start of the mesh cycle, with the pre-

B.2.3.2.2 Tooth load sharing

ceding pair still in mesh; diameters d1P and d1G;

With most spur gear designs, there are two mesh -- point 2, the start of the single pair mesh, with the

conditions at which two adjacent pairs of teeth are preceding pair out of mesh; diameters d2P and

nominally in simultaneous contact. (A pair consists d2G;

of the mating teeth from each of the two meshing

-- point 3, the end of the single pair mesh, with the

gears.) One such condition corresponds to one pair following pair just starting to mesh; diameters d3P

of teeth just starting to contact with the preceding and d3G;

pair still engaged. The second corresponds to the

-- point 4, the end of the mesh cycle; diameters d4P

same pair of teeth nearing the end of contact while

and d4G.

the following pair is already engaged.

For the calculation for these diameters, see annex A.

NOTE: In some gear designs, identified by contact ra-

tios of one or less, these conditions of partial overlap- The selection of points (i.e., 1, 2, 3 or 4) used in

ping of contact between adjacent pairs of teeth is calculating the highest point on each tooth at which

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

full load is transmitted by only a single pair is represented by the tooth. The location of the

dependent upon the accuracy of the tooth--to--tooth translated force, expressed as its distance, xWcC,

composite variation (see B.2.3.2.2). If both the driver from the gear center along the centerline, may be

and the driven gear’s tooth--to--tooth composite calculated by:

variation meets Q8 or better requirements, then the

Step 1. Once the diameter of the critical load point

points used are Point 3 and Point 2 respectively.

dWc, is established, the xWc and yWc coordinates

Otherwise, Point 4 and Point 1 are respectively used.

may be found as described by the equations in A.6.3.

Therefore if both driver and driven gears meet or In these equations, the point on the involute is

exceed Q8 tooth--to--tooth composite variation re- referenced by the subscript “s” which, for the critical

quirements, load point, will be replaced by the subscript “Wc”.

and γ Wc = φ Wc − α Wc (B.6)

If either driver or driven gears do not meet or exceed φWc is pressure angle at critical load point;

Q8 tooth--to--tooth composite variation require-

αWc is half tooth thickness angle at critical load

ments, point.

d WcP = d 4P (B.4)

Step 3. Distance from gear center of translated

and critical tooth force, xWcC:

To begin the process of calculating the bending The translated critical tooth force can be resolved

moment (see figures B.5 and B.6), the critical load is into two components, one normal to the tooth center

translated to the tooth centerline. The centerline line and the other radial along the tooth centerline.

serves as the neutral axis of the cantilever beam See figure B.6.

yWc

Wc

Wcy γWc

Wcx

Wc xWc sBS

xWcC st

hfc

wfc

sCS

B.2.3.4.1 Bending component W = W cos γ (B.8)

cy c Wc

The force component, Wcy, acts to apply a bending where

moment to the tooth, producing a tensile stress at the

tooth fillet on the same side as the critical load. Wc is normal load at critical load point, N.

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The force component, Wcx, acts toward the root, This factor is the ratio between the bending stress,

producing a compressive stress in the fillet area. sBS, and the original critical tooth load, Wc, for a gear

of unit face width. The calculation is:

W cx = W c sin γ Wc (B.9)

Step 1. Height of the translated load force above the

B.2.4 Critical fillet section fillet section, hf

h f = x WcC − x f (B.10)

Each point on the fillet will define a fillet section

normal to the tooth centerline. The bending compo- Step 2. Width of the fillet section, wf

nent of the translated critical tooth load will produce a w f = 2y f (B.11)

bending stress at this fillet section. This stress will

Step 3. Bending stress at the fillet section, sBS

vary with the location of the section and its size. The

section with the greatest bending stress is desig- Following the basic bending stress equation,

nated as the critical section. Bending Moment

Stress =

B.2.4.1 Types of fillet Section Modulus

for a spur gear of unit face width:

Determination of the critical section requires the

location of the fillet points relative to the gear tooth hf

s BS = 6 W cy (B.12)

coordinate system. The location of points on two wf2

types of fillet geometries are defined in this annex: Substituting from equation B.8,

-- rack generated trochoid (see AGMA 908--B89); hf

s BS = 6 W ccos γ Wc (B.13)

-- circular arc. wf2

Step 4. Bending stress factor, fBS

The generated type of fillet has been omitted

because it is not commonly used in P/M gears. s BS h

f BS = = 6 cos γ Wc f2 = 6cos γ Wc [BT ]

Wc wf

B.2.4.1.1 Rack generated trochoid (B.14)

where

The description of this fillet type is given in A.4. In the

hf

calculation shown, the following data is provided, [BT ] = (B.15)

see figures A.4(b) and A.4(c): wf2

B.2.4.3 Maximum bending stress factor, fBSX

-- angle used to locate points on the fillet, θfR;

The bending stress factor will vary with the fillet

-- rectangular coordinates of fillet points, xf, yf; section selected. Its maximum value corresponds to

the maximum value of the bracketed term in

-- angle at the fillet point, τf.

equation B.15. For either type of fillet, this maximum

B.2.4.1.2 Circular arc can be found by a trial--and--error process, as

follows:

The description of this fillet type is given in A.5. In the

Step 1. Select an initial trial value of θf (trochoidal

calculation shown, the following data is provided:

method) or τf (full circular fillet), the angle used in the

-- angle used to locate points on the fillet, θfC; calculation to locate points on the fillet. This trial

value may be zero, indicating a start at the fillet

-- rectangular coordinates of fillet points, xf, yf; tangency on the root circle. A more efficient trial

-- construction angle at the fillet point, τf. value is the one associated with a slope angle, θf or

τf, equal to 30°.

B.2.4.1.3 Fillet section

Step 2. Calculate the fillet data from this location

The coordinates of the fillet points also describe the angle, particularly the coordinates, xf and yf, and the

fillet section: corresponding dimensions, hf and wf, used in

determining bending stress.

-- xf gives the location of the section;

Step 3. Calculate the bracketed term, BT, in

-- yf gives the half--width of the section. equation B.15.

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Step 4. Select a slightly larger location angle, repeat B.2.6.1 Ratio for the critical tooth force, AWsc

steps 2 and 3, and note the change in the BT value.

This change will be an increase unless the initial trial This ratio may be calculated directly from the results

value has been too large, in which case the of equation B.18:

calculation should be restarted with a lower initial

value. W

A Wsc = s c

t

Step 5. With successively larger location angles,

repeat steps 2, 3 and 4 until change in BT values = 1 (B.19)

reverses sign from positive, representing increasing 6cosγ Wch fc sinγ

− w Wc

BT , to negative, representing decreasing BT values. w fc 2 fc

range of the last three calculations and may be B.2.6.2 Tooth force adjustment

further identified to the desired accuracy by further

Before such a ratio can be used to calculate the

trials within that range.

Y--factor, some adjustment in the tooth force is made.

Step 7. Calculate the maximum bending stress Since the Y--factor is expressed in terms of a

factor, fBSX, using equation B.14 and BTX, the

tangential force acting at the operating pitch circle,

maximum bracketed term, BTX, using equation

the adjustment involves the ratio of this force, WA, to

B.15.

the critical tooth force, Wc. The two forces act

B.2.4.4 Critical section location and size tangent to two different circles but must transmit the

The data, hfc and wfc, describing the location and size same torque. The force ratio is inverse to the ratio of

of the critical section are the corresponding values, hf their diameters. These diameters are the operating

and wf, used in the calculation of BTX. pitch diameter, dA, for the reference force, WA (see

B.2.5 Stress calculation B.1.2 and figure B.1), and the base circle diameter,

dB, for the critical tooth force, Wc. The diameter ratio

These stress calculations are based on the critical is equal to the cosine of the operating pressure

tooth load, Wc. angle, φA, which is calculated in A.7.1. Therefore:

B.2.5.1 Bending tensile stress, sBS

WA d

The bending tensile stress for the critical tooth load is Adjustment ratio, m cA = = B = cos φ A

Wc dA

calculated from equation B.13:

(B.20)

h fc

s BS = 6W ccos γ Wc (B.16)

w fc 2 B.2.6.3 Adjusted force--stress ratio, AWsA

B.2.5.2 Compressive stress, sCS With this adjustment:

The compressive stress under the same conditions

is calculated from the radial component of the A WsA = A Wsc × m cA = A Wsccos φ A

translated critical tooth force acting over the critical

cos φ A (B.21)

fillet section area (with unit gear face width): =

h fc sinγ Wc

sin γWc 6cos γ Wc 2

− w fc

s CS = W c (B.17) w fc

w fc

B.2.5.3 Combined tensile stress, st B.2.7 Non--dimensional Y--factor

The combined tensile stress is the difference be-

To convert the ratio, AWsA, into a non--dimensional

tween the bending tensile and the compressive

Y--factor, all dimensions used to calculate the ratio

stresses, see figure B.6:

must be made non--dimensional. This was already

h fc sin γ Wc done with the unit gear face width specified in the

s t = 6W c cos γ Wc − Wc w fc (B.18)

w fc 2 above calculations. However, the dimensions of hfc

B.2.6 Form factor force--stress ratio, AWs and wfc are actual dimensions of the gear tooth. The

module, m, is used to complete the conversion.

This ratio relates a force acting on the tooth, W, to the

resulting combined tensile stress, st. The particular A WsA

Y= m (B.22)

value depends on the tooth force selected.

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

B.3 Calculation procedure with friction forces operating pitch circles, see figure A.8. On that figure,

with the pinion driving, approach action takes place

When friction forces are considered, the same basic when the contact goes from point 1 to the pitch point.

calculation procedure is followed with some During approach action, the sliding direction on each

changes: gear tooth is toward its root and the sign in equation

B.23 is plus (+), see figure B.4(b). Recess action

-- the critical load direction, relative to the involute

takes place when the contact goes from the pitch

tooth flank, will change;

point to point 4. During recess action, the sliding

-- the critical load location may change; direction on each gear tooth is toward its tip and the

sign in equation B.23 is minus (--).

-- the critical load magnitude, and therefore the

“tooth force adjustment” will change.

In some gear designs, the outside diameters are

To establish the appropriate critical load information, chosen so that the pitch point lies outside the range

it may be necessary to start with two trial conditions of contact. In these designs there is no reversal of

and then perform double sets of calculations. the sliding direction and the action is all approach or

all recess, generally the latter.

B.3.1 Coefficient of friction

When the sliding action in either of the contacting

In all the equations dealing with friction effects, the

teeth is toward the root, the tooth force direction is

simplifying assumption is made that the coefficient of

such that the bending component is reduced and the

friction is constant over the tooth meshing cycle.

compressive component is increased. These act to

Values will depend on the material combination

reduce the tensile stress at the tooth fillet. When the

(including relative hardness), degree of lubrication,

sliding action is toward the tooth tip, the force

tooth flank surface texture, tooth sliding velocity,

components undergo reverse changes and the fillet

tooth contact pressure, and other factors. Values for

tensile stress is increased. Based on this effect

coefficient of friction may be determined in standard

alone, the critical load direction would come from the

tests, but only apply to the conditions specified in

recess portion of the meshing cycle and the sign in

those tests. These may not closely match the

equation B.23 would be negative. However, this

operating conditions of the gear mesh. With typical

choice is not necessarily correct for all meshing

gear materials and with some continuing form of

conditions, as explained in B.3.3.

lubrication, the coefficient of friction may fall as low

as 0.10, rarely lower. Under less favorable

B.3.3 Critical load location

conditions, it may be as high as 0.30, or even higher.

B.3.2 Critical load direction Without the friction effect, the critical load location is

taken as close to the tooth tip as appropriate for the

Without friction, the critical load direction is always conditions defined in B.2.3.2. This location produces

normal to the involute flank and its direction relative the maximum bending moment at the base of the

to the tooth centerline is determined by the load cantilevered tooth and the maximum tensile stress at

location diameter, as discussed in B.2.3 and its the fillet.

sub--clauses. With friction, the load deviates from

this normal direction. The amount of deviation is During approach action, friction will reduce the

represented by the load deviation angle, δφc de- bending stress level compared to the frictionless

scribed in figure B.4(b), which is determined by the condition. The opposite is true during recess action

coefficient of friction, m, as follows: where the inclusion of frictional effects will increase

δ φc = arctan m (B.23) the bending stress as compared to the frictionless

evaluation.

The direction of the deviation is opposite to the

direction of relative sliding. The sliding direction As a result, when doing the analysis with friction, the

generally changes during the meshing cycle, with selection of the critical load location and the corre-

the change--over taking place when the teeth are sponding sign (+ or --) of δφc to use in equation B.23

contacting at the pitch point, or tangent point of the is based on the criteria as established in table B.1.

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Table B.1 -- Selection of critical load location points for Y--factor calculation under friction

conditions

Critical Test to de- Sign of δφc

Tooth--to-- load termine Type of ac- Effect of 2nd in equa-

Sign of δφc

Gear to be tooth location to type of ac- tion at crit- action on location tion B.23

in equa-

evaluated accuracy be tion at crit- ical load bending to be for 2nd

tion B.23

level evaluated ical load location stress evaluated1) location

(see A.8.1) location evaluation

Both driver

and driven ε3P ≤ εA Approach Reduces + NA

meet or ex-

ex

Point 3

ceed Q8

require- ε3P > εA Recess Increases -- NA

ments

Driver Either driv-

er or driven ε4P ≤ εA Approach Reduces + NA

do not

meet or ex- Point 4

ceed Q8

require- ε4P > εA Recess Increases -- NA

ments

Both driver

and driven ε2G > εA Approach Reduces + Pitch point --

meet or ex-

ex

Point 2

ceed Q8

require- ε2G ≤ εA Recess Increases -- NA

ments

Driven Either driv-

er or driven ε1G > εA Approach Reduces + Pitch point --

do not

meet or ex- Point 1

ceed Q8

require- ε1G ≤ εA Recess Increases -- NA

ments

NOTE:

1) If the evaluation point on the driver happens to be in approach zone, then the secondary calculation is not required for

the driven gear since the recess condition will not be present near the pitch point.

Note that on the driving gear, only one position needs dure is the same up to step 2 of B.2.3.3. Here,

to be evaluated close to the tooth tip; either Points 3 equation B.6, for the direction angle of the critical

or 4 depending on the tooth--to--tooth accuracy level tooth force, is changed to the following:

of the gear (see B.2.3.2.3). For the driven gear, (B.24)

γ Wc = φ Wc + δ φc − α Wc

either Points 1 or 2 close to the tooth tip need to be

evaluated depending upon the tooth--to--tooth accu- where

racy level of the gear. In addition, the driven gear δφc is load deviation angle (see B.3.2,

may need a secondary position evaluated, which is equation B.23), degrees.

just inside of the operating pitch circle at the start of

recess action where higher friction level dominates. The remaining calculations are the same except for

Both positions (where necessary) need to be used in the tooth force adjustment ratio described in B.2.6.2

separate Y--factor calculations. The position which for non--friction conditions and described in B.3.5 for

results in the lowest Y--factor value will be used in all friction conditions.

subsequent calculations. B.3.5 Tooth force adjustment for friction

conditions

B.3.4 Calculation of Y--factor for friction

conditions In B.2.6.2, a tooth force adjustment is necessary to

allow for the difference between the tooth force value

Once the critical load location and direction are used in the stress calculations and the force value in

selected, as discussed above, the calculation proce- which Y--factors are generally expressed, the former

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

tangent to the operating pitch circle. Under friction

conditions, the tooth force used for stress calcula- dA is operating pitch diameter (see A.7.2),

tions is no longer normal to the tooth surface and this

mm;

difference is reflected in a modified adjustment ratio.

The adjustment ratio, as defined in equation B.20, is φA is operating pressure angle (see A.7.1),

modified to account for friction as follows: degrees.

WA d

m cA =

Wc dA

= Wc cosφ Wc + δ φc

B.4 Symbols

=

cos φ A

cos φ Wc

cosφ Wc + δ φc (B.25)

See table B.2.

Where first

Symbol Definition Units found

AWs Form factor force--stress ratio -- -- B.2.6

dWc Diameter at critical load location mm B.2.3.2.2

dWcP, dWcG Highest point at which full load is transmitted by single pair mm B.2.3.2.3

fBS Bending stress factor -- -- B.2.4.2

fBSX Maximum bending stress factor -- -- B.2.4.3

hf Height of translated load force above fillet section mm B.2.4.2

m Module mm B.2.7

mcA Tooth force adjustment ratio -- -- B.2.6.2

sBS Bending tensile stress at fillet section N/mm2 B.2.4.2

sCS Compressive stress N/mm2 B.2.5.2

st Combined tensile stress N/mm2 B.2.5.3

WA Tangential force acting at operating pitch circle N B.2.6.2

Wc Critical load N B.2.3

Wcx Force component parallel to tooth axis N B.2.3.4.2

Wcy Force component normal to tooth axis N B.2.3.4.1

wf Width of fillet section mm B.2.4.2

xWcC Distance from gear center of translated critical tooth force mm B.2.3.3

xWc, yWc Coordinates of critical load point mm B.2.3.3

Y Non--dimensional Y--factor -- -- B.2.7

αWc Half tooth thickness angle degrees B.2.3.3

δφc Load deviation angle degrees B.3.2

γWc Direction angle of critical tooth force degrees B.2.3.3

φWc Pressure angle at critical load point degrees B.2.3.3

φWc Involute pressure angle degrees B.2.3.1.1

m Coefficient of friction -- -- B.3.2

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Annex C

(informative)

Calculation of the stress correction factor, Kf

[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,

Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

fillet radius, rfc

The stress correction factor, Kf, which considers the

The radius of curvature of the trochoid fillet varies

effect of stress concentration at the sharply changing

along the curve, starting from a minimum radius at

cross--section of the tooth at its root fillet, is another

the point of tangency to the root circle. This minimum

component for determining the bending strength

radius, RfN, which is calculated in A.4.6, is used in the

geometry factor, J. The geometry element in stress

further calculations:

concentration is the curvature (radius) at the fillet in

relation to the overall tooth size and shape and the r fc = R fN (C.1)

location of the load. The calculation presented here C.2.2.2 Circular--arc calculation fillet radius, rfc

for this element is the Dolan and Broghamer method

With this type of fillet, the arc radius is used:

as used in other AGMA gear rating calculations.

r fc = r f (C.2)

In calculating the influence of stress concentration C.2.3 Elastic stress concentration factor, Kfs

on gear tooth bending strength, elements other than

The empirical equation used for this calculation is:

geometry must also be considered. These non--ge-

ometry elements are the type of loading (repeated or M

L

w w fc

occasional) and the material condition (degree of K fs = H + r fc (C.3)

fc h fc

ductility or brittleness). Together, they can influence

the long term sensitivity of the gear to the initial level where

of stress concentration. H = 0.331 -- 0.436 φ;

gear rating calculations. Their treatment here M = 0.261 + 0.545 φ;

follows a different format. φ is the specified pressure angle, radians.

C.3 Stress correction factor, Kf

C.2 Elastic stress concentration factor, Kfs

This factor is found by modifying the elastic stress

This factor is based on the assumption of purely concentration factor to reflect the influences of

elastic conditions in the material. The empirical loading and material.

equation used in the calculation is derived from

C.3.1 Notch sensitivity index, q

photoelasticity experiments.

This index has been defined to relate:

C.2.1 Data from form factor calculation a) the actual effect of a notch (sharp change in out-

line) on the strength of a material; to

The following data items are used in the Y form

calculation in annex B: b) the effect that might be predicted solely on the

basis of elastic theory.

-- nominal pressure angle, φ; If the actual effect is represented by the stress

correction factor, Kf, and the elastic theory prediction

-- height of the translated critical force above the

by the elastic stress concentration factor, Kfs, then

critical tooth section, hfc;

the notch sensitivity index, q, is defined as follows:

-- width of the critical fillet section, wfc. Kf − 1

q= (C.4)

K fs − 1

C.2.2 Calculation fillet radius, rfc

If there is no actual effect from the notch (that is, if

The fillet radius is determined by the type of fillet. local yielding or other internal mechanism in the

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

material eliminates any weakening due to initial Kft is determined from q “repeated” data in table C.1.

elastic stress concentration), q will equal zero. If, on Kfg is determined from q “occasional overload” data

the other hand, the full weakening due to stress in table C.1.

concentration is present, q will equal one.

Appropriate values of q can be selected from table Table C.1 -- Notch sensitivity index, q

C.1. Type of load Type of material

As--sintered Heat--treated

C.3.2 Calculation of stress correction factor, Kf

(ductile) (brittle)

This calculation is made with the following: Repeated 0.5 1.0

Occasional 0.0 0.8

K f = 1 + q K fs − 1 (C.5) overload

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Annex D

(informative)

Procedure for initial design

[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,

Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

D.1 Introduction 10)if the initial design dimensions exceed space lim-

its or are otherwise inappropriate, repeat the pro-

This information sheet is elsewhere devoted to

cess with a new material selection or other

calculating bending load capacity for a completed

changes in the basic selections.

design of a pair of P/M gears. However, there is often

a need for a reverse of this process. For this, the D.1.1 Iterative design process

objective of a specified bending load capacity has This design procedure can develop into an iterative

already been established. The required procedure process. Design results from one set of calculations

then consists of finding the design of the pair of P/M may lead to changes which call for a new round of

gears which will meet this objective. This annex calculations. As noted in step 9, initial simplified

describes such a design procedure. Like the other design assumptions, when checked at design

parts of this information sheet, it is limited to completion, may prove to be significantly inappropri-

consideration of tooth bending strength and does not ate, thereby requiring revision of some or all of the

deal with issues of wear or other potential limits on design process. Also, as noted in step 10, an initial

gear performance. design selection, such as the P/M material, may lead

The general method for this design procedure to a design of gears which are simply too large, or

consists of the following: otherwise inappropriate, for the application. This will

require a new design selection and a new set of

1) select the appropriate equation from clause 3, design calculations.

which relates all the elements that determine

tooth bending torque capacity; D.1.2 Guidance from previous designs

2) introduce a value for desired torque; Since the design process will make use of some

initial assumptions, it will be advantageous if these

3) introduce an approximate strength value for the

selected material; assumptions can be based on data from previous

designs of P/M gears for similar applications. Where

4) introduce estimated values for adjustment and such guidance is not available, the designer will be

geometry factors; able to use estimates provided in this annex.

5) using appropriate guidelines, establish relation- However, as new designs are completed, some

ships among the remaining geometric elements results should replace the data calculated here.

in the equation: calculation diameter, effective Such changes will aid in future work.

face width, and module;

D.2 Operating conditions

6) assign preliminary values to these elements, ap-

plying appropriate rounding and preferred As with any gear design procedure, it is necessary to

values; start with information on the operating conditions

and associated performance requirements.

7) reevaluate this preliminary design by replacing

estimated values with those calculated by the D.2.1 Loads

various procedures in this information sheet, to

Two types of loading are considered in this informa-

arrive at a calculated load capacity;

tion sheet, repeated loading and occasional peak

8) for small differences between this load capacity loading. When starting with completed gear de-

and the original specified load, introduce minor signs, each has its own load capacity calculation

changes to the design geometry; including separate strength properties for the se-

9) for major differences between the two load val- lected material. It may not be obvious from the start

ues, use the newly calculated factors in place of which load condition will control a new design. The

the original estimates and repeat the remainder more common design control is from repeated

of this initial design procedure; loading and this type of loading is given priority in the

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

procedure described below. Once an initial design is require an exact value, which may subsequently

established based on repeated loading, it may be impose restrictions on the selection of the exact

checked for occasional peak loading. On the other numbers of teeth in the two gears. Such restrictions

hand, if the occasional peak loads are especially may carry over to the choice of module. More often,

severe or are essentially the only loads, the design only an approximate value of gear ratio is needed,

procedure below can be switched over with appropri- permitting greater freedom in these selections.

ate changes in material design stress and applicable

factors. Gear ratio, mG, is expressed as the ratio of input

speed to output speed, or as the ratio of the number

The required load capacity is typically expressed as of teeth on the output gear to those on the input gear.

a design torque on the gear or output member of the For speed reducing drives, gear ratio is greater than

gear pair, TtdG for repeated loads or TydG for peak one. For speed increasing drives, gear ratio is less

loading. The required design torque on the pinion or than one.

input member of the gear pair, TtdP or TydP, can be

determined from the gear torque value by applica- D.3.3 Materials

tion of the anticipated gear ratio. See D.3.2. The

Many considerations enter into the initial selection of

relationship between the output and input torque

materials. Generally, lower strength materials of

values is also influenced by the friction in the gear

lower cost will be selected when load conditions and

mesh. For the initial design process, this difference

constraints on gear size permit. Prior experience

may be ignored or an estimated value of mesh

with similar applications will often provide guidance

inefficiency may be applied to slightly increase the

as to which materials will best balance strength and

input torque.

cost and still meet any other material property

D.2.2 Speeds requirements.

Speeds of the gears are typically specified starting D.3.4 Gear quality level

with the speed of the driving member and then, by

applying the anticipated gear ratio, to arrive at the This calls for a general understanding of the

speed of the driven member. Exact gear ratio may anticipated level of gear quality. This will play a role

not be known at the start of the design calculations, in establishing one of the design factors. See

but any error in its estimate is likely to be small and D.6.2.3.

will have little effect on the design results. Speed D.4 Space constraints

data will be used in estimating one of the factors in

the design process. See D.6.2.3. When starting the design process, there are general-

ly some limits on the space available for the set of

D.2.3 Other conditions gears. The dimensions implied by these limits will be

A number of other operating conditions play a role in used to help estimate some of the design factors.

establishing various design factors. These are These will not necessarily define the gear sizes in the

discussed as required for estimating values for each completed design.

factor. See D.6.

D.4.1 Diameter limits

D.3 Primary selections of design features

Diameter limits may be expressed in a variety of

A number of selections, some permanent and some ways:

tentative, are needed to continue the design

process. 1) maximum diameter of larger gear, dOGX for

speed reducing drives or dOPX for speed increas-

D.3.1 Type of gears ing drives;

To conform to the scope of this information sheet, the 2) maximum center distance of mating gears, CAX;

spur type of gears has been selected.

3) maximum overall size of mating gears, MoPG.

D.3.2 Gear ratio

The approximate maximum pitch diameters of the

Gear ratio is generally one of the primary specifica- two mating gears, dPX and dGX, can be estimated

tions for the gear design. The application may from each of these limits, using the gear ratio, mG.

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

For the first form of diameter limit. number of teeth. However, a very low number of

teeth may bring with it some detrimental gear design

For the speed reducing drive:

features such as reduced bending strength and

dGX is slightly smaller than dOGX; (D.1) reduced contact ratio. It is therefore important to

d initially establish a limit on the minimum number of

d PX ≈ mGX (D.2)

G teeth, NN, found most appropriate for the type of

For the speed increasing drive: application. Although the scope of this document

refers to a minimum number of teeth of seven,

dPX is slightly smaller than dOPX (D.3)

practical considerations will often raise this limit.

d GX ≈ d PX × m G (D.4)

D.5.2 Finest pitch

For the second form of diameter limit:

As part of the general objective of making gear

2 C AX systems as small as possible, there is often a

d PX ≈ (D.5)

1 + mG preference for using the finest pitch compatible with

d GX ≈ d PX × m G (D.6) tooth bending strength requirements. However,

there may be design and manufacturing issues

For the third form of diameter limit:

which establish a coarser limit on this pitch. Design

M oPG issues may include concern for low contact ratio

C AX is slightly smaller than (D.7)

2 under some degree of size and center distance

dPX and dGX are as determined by equations D.5 and variations. A manufacturing limit may be imposed by

D.6. the P/M manufacturing process. The manufacturing

facility will often set its own limit of minimum module,

D.4.2 Packaging considerations

mx, as the finest pitch to be used in design. The

The overall gear box package will also be limited by scope refers to a minimum module value of 0.4 for

certain design issues. As noted in 1.3, P/M gears the load capacity calculations, but this may be

have inherent size limitations for both face width and replaced by a larger value, or coarser pitch, to

diameter. Due to manufacturing constraints, P/M comply with these considerations.

gears are also limited in the face width--to--diameter

D.5.3 Minimum pitch diameter

ratio, usually less than 8:1.

Another gear design limit may be indirectly imposed

The gear box package may also be constrained by

by the diameter of the bore through the gear or of an

the type of support provided for the gear and shaft

adjacent hub. These tend to define a minimum root

assemblies. The choice of bearings and mounting

diameter and, thereby, somewhat larger minimum

approaches may limit the width of the gear box.

pitch diameter, dPN or dGN. In the case of the bore,

Finally the gear box package must fit into an overall the minimum root diameter must allow sufficient

product assembly. Certain designs will favor a material in that area. In the case of a hub, P/M

narrow width with larger diameter gears (“pancake tooling practice will dictate the minimum difference

designs”) as compared to more traditional or wider between hub and adjacent root diameter. The

gear boxes with smaller diameter gears, such as minimum root diameter may also be determined by

planetary drive systems or speed reducers. the combination of minimum number of teeth and

finest pitch. See D.5.1 and D.5.2.

D.5 Preliminary geometry restrictions and

guidelines D.5.4 Preferred face--pitch ratio

In addition to size limits, there are other restrictions The selection of face width in P/M gear design is

and guidelines that may be applied. These are often expressed in terms of a preferred or maximum

needed for successful gear designs which are also face--pitch ratio, mFm. This ratio relates face width, F,

compatible with P/M manufacturing processes. to module, m, as follows:

D.5.1 Minimum number of teeth F

m Fm = m (D.8)

It is often the objective to introduce the highest This ratio expresses an approach to selection of gear

possible ratio in each gear set. This typically leads to proportions. In this approach, increases in load

a design of the smaller gear with the fewest possible capacity should be made by proportional increases

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

in tooth outline and face width, where tooth outline is Accurate determination of these factors for each of

determined by module. This is based in part on an the mating gears requires detailed gear geometry

objective of limiting the overall volume of the gear. A information that is generally not available at the initial

coarser pitch, when also maintaining the same design process. The following simplified estimates

number of teeth, often results in a larger diameter may be used in place of predetermined values.

and a larger cross--sectional area. Therefore, an D.6.2.1 Form factor

increase of load capacity by a coarser pitch alone

results in a greater increase in gear volume than if it Form factor is typically tied to the number of teeth in

is shared by a corresponding increase in face width. the gear. In the pinion, or smaller member of the

mating gears, the number of teeth is often tied to

A value for this ratio for use in design may be taken gear ratio, mG, with a higher ratio (greater than one)

from other successful gear designs. It generally falls leading to fewer teeth and lower form factor, as

in the range of 5 to 10, with the smaller value used reflected in the following equation for the pinion

with tighter axial space limitations. (smaller member):

D.6 Preliminary estimates of factors for repeated Y P = 0.6

m + 0.4 (D.9)

bending G

For the gear (larger member),

Equation 3.1, for calculated load capacity for tooth

bending under repeated loading, calls for the Y G = 1.0 (D.10)

following factors: The final design of the two gears can be optimized to

1) combined adjustment factor for strength, Kts; closely balance the form factors of the two gears,

and the average of the values from the two equations

2) geometry factor, Jt; may be used for both gears.

3) combined adjustment factor for tooth loading, D.6.2.2 Stress correction factor

Ktw.

This factor is derived from two components:

The simplest way to select these factors for initial

-- stress concentration factor, Kft;

design is by reference to values found in prior load

capacity calculations for similar applications. When -- notch sensitivity index, q.

this option is not available, values may be developed Stress concentration factor can be estimated, as

by following the calculation procedures in the follows:

corresponding clauses 5, 8, and 9. Each of these Kft = 1.5 for full round fillets, as introduced in the P/M

procedures call for multiple components, most of tooling;

which are based on application requirements and do

Kft = 2.0 for rack generated fillets, with near sharp

not require any detailed information on the gear

corners on the generating rack.

proportions that have not yet been determined.

Simplified procedures for estimating values of the The value for notch sensitivity index is based on the

remaining factor components are described below. type of loading and material. It may be selected

Values supplied in these descriptions should be directly from table C.1.

taken as trial values and should be replaced for D.6.2.3 Combined adjustment factor for tooth

subsequent estimating needs as indicated by new loading

load capacity calculations. Of the various components of this factor, only the

D.6.1 Combined adjustment factor for strength following have some relationship to gear proportions

and require some guidance in making estimates.

All components of this factor are independent of gear

proportions (see clause 5). Rim thickness factor estimate:

K B = 1.0 (D.11)

D.6.2 Geometry factor, Jt

Load distribution factor estimate:

There are two components of geometry factor, as

K mt = 1.3 (D.12)

defined in 8.2:

Dynamic factor, Kv, may be calculated by equation

-- form factor, Y, as found in annex B; 39, using estimates of its two variables, gear

-- stress correction factor, Kf, as found in annex C. accuracy tolerance and pitchline velocity.

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

The value of gear accuracy tolerance, VqT, is chosen By successively using two different values for

based on the anticipated level of quality. It will calculation diameter in this equation, a range of

generally range from 79 micrometers for large gears module is found. The two diameters are minimum

with no tooth profile finishing, down to 8 micrometers pinion pitch diameter, dPN, of D.5.3 and maximum

for small gears with profile finishing. pinion pitch diameter, dPX, of D.4.1. If the first value

of module is found to be smaller (or finer pitch) than

Pitchline velocity may be estimated from the operat-

the minimum module, mx, of D.5.2, it should be

ing speeds, see D.2.2, and maximum pitch diame-

replaced by the minimum module.

ters, see D.4.1.

Design module, generally of some standard or

D.7 Calculation of pinion proportions common value, may then be selected from this

In the calculation of bending load capacity, the pinion range. Using this module in equation D.15, a new

is generally the critical member of the gear pair. For corresponding calculation diameter may be found.

matching materials, this results from the pinion’s This diameter can then be used, along with the

lower geometry factor and the higher number of load module value, to establish number of teeth in the

cycles. Therefore, the proportions of the pinion are pinion.

considered first in the initial design process. d (D.16)

N=m

These proportions will be selected by using equation A decimal number of teeth needs to be rounded to

1 in which: the next larger integer, and also be compared to the

-- pinion design torque, TtdP, replaces torque load minimum number of teeth, NN, described in D.5.1.

capacity; An adjusted number of teeth can then be used to find

-- design fatigue strength, st, is derived for the the corresponding pitch diameter. With these

selected material as described in clause 4; selected values of module and calculation diameter,

equation D.13 can be used to solve for the minimum

-- combined adjustment factors and geometry

face width, F.

factor are estimated as described in D.6;

D.8 Calculation of gear proportions

-- remaining factors, calculation diameter, dc, face

width, F, and module, m, all define the gear pro- In most applications, material strength and other

portions and are the unknowns in solving the bending load capacity factors of the gear are larger

equation. than those of the pinion. In such cases, design

proportions of the gear, such as number of teeth and

Equation 1 may be rewritten with a convenient

pitch diameter, can be found from the pinion design

grouping of variables:

by applying the gear ratio. If these factors are lower

1 ≤ s t K ts J t in the gear, the design procedure of D.7 can be

= K RS (D.13)

m dc F 2000 T tdP K tw repeated for the gear to see if changes in module,

The right side factor, KRS, can be evaluated as pitch diameter, or face width are needed. Such

described above. Any combination of left side changes may require corresponding changes to the

variables that equals, or is smaller than, the right side pinion design proportions, but without reducing its

factor, will provide adequate bending strength in an bending load capacity.

initial design. D.9 Design adjustments

The following will assist in arriving at individual After completing the load capacity calculation for

values for the gear proportion variables. each of the gears, as described in this information

sheet, it may be found that the initial design falls

First, replace face width, F, by a combination of short of meeting the required load capacity. For

preferred face--pitch ratio and module, as in D.5.4: small differences, an increase in the face width may

F = m Fm m (D.14) be the only adjustment needed. For a greater

increase, a change using a stronger material will

Then, rewrite the equation with only module as the

avoid major recalculations. When this is not ade-

unknown:

quate, a change to a coarser pitch with correspond-

2 ing diameter increases may be needed to supply the

m1 = d c m Fm K RS (D.15)

added load capacity.

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Annex E

(informative)

Calculation of inverse functions for gear geometry

[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,

Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

is unlikely to be exceeded in any calculations for spur

Some of the calculations in annex A refer to new

gears. For values of the involute function greater

trigonometric functions, namely the involute func-

than 1.0, or if a calculation method that uses a

tion, defined in A.3.2 as:

greater number of iterations is acceptable, replace

inv φ = tan φ − φ (where φ in radians) (E.1) equation E.3 with equation E.4.

and the sevolute function, defined in A.5.2 as: φ 1 = 0.2 π + 0.6 arctan I (E.4)

I − inv φ 1

In a variety of gear geometry calculations, it is φ2 = φ1 + (E.5)

2

necessary to solve for the inverse values of these tan φ 1

functions, that is, given the value of the function, to

find the value of the angle. Such calculations may be For successive approximations, use equation E.5

made with the aid of tables available in published after replacing φ1 by the value of the angle found in

gear literature. However, this process is generally the prior approximation.

not suited to calculations made in computer pro-

Table E.1 lists a range of involute values up to 1.0

grams. More convenient methods for finding the

and the “exact” values of the corresponding angles,

inverse values of these functions are described

in both degrees and radians. Alongside each set of

below.

these values are the errors, in radians, associated

E.2 Inverse involute function with each of up to four successive approximations.

Note that for angles up to 36°, these errors are

NOTE: This calculation is not required in any of the

negligible after the second approximation, and for

equations in annex A. It is presented here as an aid to

the reader who will encounter the need in other types of angles up to about 55°, are negligible after the third

gear geometry calculation. approximation. In spur gear calculations, it is

unlikely that angles will exceed 45°.

Many methods for performing this calculation can be

found in the gear literature, with most, but not all, E.3 Inverse sevolute function

capable of providing results with the accuracy

needed in modern calculations. The method shown This calculation is required in equation A.32, in

here will supply the required accuracy. It consists of A.5.2. The method presented here for the inverse

a series of approximations which may be extended sevolute is similar to that shown above in E.2 for the

to achieve even extreme levels of accuracy. Table inverse involute.

E.1 demonstrates that very few iterations are

First approximation, φ1:

needed for most applications.

1∕2

First approximation, φ1: φ 1 = 0.8 ( S − 1 ) + 1.4 ( S − 1 ) (E.6)

1∕3 where

φ 1 = 1.441 ( I ) − 0.374 I (E.3)

where S is the given value of the sevolute function.

I is the given value of the involute function. NOTE: This equation is suitable for values of the sevo-

lute function up to 1.57. This corresponds to values of

Equation E.3 is suitable for values of the involute the pressure angle approaching 90°. A 45° angle is un-

function up to 1.0. This corresponds to values of the likely to be exceeded in any calculations for spur gears.

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

value Degrees Radians First Second Third Fourth

0.0010000 8.2406242 0.1438260 --0.0001000 0.0000001 0.0000000 0.0000000

0.0020000 10.3656916 0.1809154 --0.0001088 0.0000001 0.0000000 0.0000000

0.0050000 14.0166548 0.2446368 --0.0000992 0.0000000 0.0000000 0.0000000

0.0100000 17.5767722 0.3067725 --0.0000585 0.0000000 0.0000000 0.0000000

0.0200000 21.9811018 0.3836426 0.0000250 0.0000000 0.0000000 0.0000000

0.0500000 29.3377203 0.5120398 0.0001291 0.0000000 0.0000000 0.0000000

0.1000000 36.1914219 0.6316595 --0.0002065 0.0000001 0.0000000 0.0000000

0.2000000 44.1379468 0.7703525 --0.0024506 0.0000121 0.0000000 0.0000000

0.5000000 55.8643701 0.9750172 --0.0182947 0.0007329 0.0000012 0.0000000

1.0000000 64.8741619 1.1322677 --0.0652677 0.0115850 0.0003466 0.0000003

Second approximation, φ2: Table E.2 lists a range of sevolute values up to 1.5

and the “exact” values of the corresponding angles,

φ 2 = φ 1 + S − sev φ 1 1 + 1

sin φ 1

in both degrees and radians. Alongside each set of

these values are the errors, in radians, associated

with each of up to three successive approximations.

(E.7) Note that for angles up to 45°, these errors are very

small, possibly negligible after the second approxi-

For successive approximations, use equation E.7 mation and for all angles effectively zero after the

after replacing φ1 by the value of the angle found in third approximation. In spur gear calculations, it is

the prior approximation. unlikely that angles will exceed 45°.

value Degrees Radians First Second Third

1.00100000 2.60090125 0.04539429 --0.00032240 0.00000110 0.00000000

1.00200000 3.70111645 0.06459667 --0.00038676 0.00000109 0.00000000

1.00500000 5.92462045 0.10340413 --0.00040918 0.00000073 0.00000000

1.01000000 8.49638966 0.14828997 --0.00028997 0.00000025 0.00000000

1.02000000 12.25623610 0.21391167 0.00007822 0.00000001 0.00000000

1.05000000 20.16288171 0.35190867 0.00114084 0.00000131 0.00000000

1.10000000 29.83660174 0.52074694 0.00197193 0.00000225 0.00000000

1.20000000 45.05369301 0.78633528 --0.00023625 0.00000002 0.00000000

1.50000000 81.87368867 1.42896544 --0.03901594 0.00006502 0.00000000

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Annex F

(informative)

Test for fillet interference by the tooth of the mating gear

[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,

Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

for calculation of tight mesh center distance).

This annex is provided as an aid to the gear designer,

to be used to determine if interference at the fillet of F.3 Center distance and operating pressure

one gear by the tip of the tooth of the mating gear angle

exists. F.3.1 Tight mesh center distance

Annex A provides means for calculating the point by The tight mesh center distance can be calculated

point shape of the fillet of a gear. This shape may be from the gear data above. The equations may be

a trochoid generated by the fillet of a generating made simpler by means of some preliminary calcula-

basic rack or it may be a circular--arc of specified tions.

radius tangent to the root circle and to the involute

tooth flank. Step 1. Pitch (or reference) diameters of the two

gears:

This annex provides means for calculating the

dG = NG m (F.1)

nearby path, point by point, followed by the tip of the

mating gear tooth. Interference is indicated if the d MG = N MG m (F.2)

combined graphical plot of the fillet and tip path Step 2. Reference center distance:

shows an overlap between the two curves. Clear-

ance is indicated if there is a gap between the two d G + d MG

C= (F.3)

curves along their entire corresponding length. If the 2

fillet is a circular--arc, a calculation method showing Step 3. Circular pitch:

interference or clearance is provided, avoiding the pc = π m (F.4)

need for graphical plots.

Step 4. Pressure angle at tight mesh center

F.2 Input data for the graphical plots distance:

F.2.1 Data common to the two gears

-- module, m;

φ T = inv −1 (invφ) +

pc − tG − t MG

2C

(F.5)

-- pressure angle, φ;

Step 5. Tight mesh center distance:

-- minimum center distance, CAN.

C (cos φ)

F.2.2 Data for the gear whose fillet is defined CT = (F.6)

cos φT

(with G as the final subscript)

F.3.2 Specified minimum center distance

-- number of teeth, NG;

The test for tip--fillet interference can be made at any

-- tooth thickness at reference diameter, tG;

center distance, keeping in mind that a center

-- coordinates of the point by point data of the fillet, distance smaller than the tight mesh center distance

referenced to an X--axis on the tooth centerline, is not possible. The selected center distance should

xfG, yfG. See A.4.5 or A.5.6. reflect the minimum value, CAN, to be encountered in

F.2.3 Data for the mating gear (with MG as the the assembly of the product. If it has been previously

final subscript) established that this is the same as the tight mesh

center distance, or if the interference analysis is to be

-- number of teeth, NMG; conservative, then the tight mesh center distance

-- outside diameter, dOMG; becomes the specified minimum value, or:

-- tip radius, rrMG; C AN ≥ C T (F.7)

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

φ rCMG = arccos

d BMG

d rCMG

(F.14)

other without slipping. The diameters of these

φ OEMG = arctan tan φ rCMG +

2 r rMG

d BMG

cylinders are the two operating pitch diameters (F.15)

which meet the following conditions: t BMG

α BMG = (F.16)

-- as tangent cylinders, the sum of their radii must d MG

match the specified center distance; Referring to equation A.8 and rearranging terms:

-- as cylinders that roll without slipping while main- α rCBMG = α BMG + inv φ − tan φ OEMG + φ rCMG

taining their rolling ratio, the diameters must be in (F.17)

the same ratio as their numbers of teeth.

F.4 Path of tip of mating gear

These diameters are therefore defined as follows:

In figure F.2, the gear is represented as fixed in

2 N G C AN position while the mating gear is shown in a rotated

d AG = (F.8) position. This arrangement is for convenience, since

NG + NMG

the analysis is concerned with relative position only.

2 N MG C AN The figure also shows the pitch point, PP, the point

d AMG = (F.9)

NG + NMG where the operating pitch circles of the two gears

come together. A line drawn from this pitch point

F.3.4 Adjustments for minimum center distance through the center of the tip radius, point RCMG,

When the minimum center distance is greater than establishes a point on the tip radius, point RMG. This

the tight mesh center distance, the difference is point becomes a point on the path of the tip of the

reflected in the operating pressure angle: mating gear. This path is a curve made up from a

collection of such points, plotted as if they were fixed

φ A = arccos C (cos φ)

C AN

(F.10)

on the gear and located near its fillet. These points

are similarly defined as the mating gear continues its

rotation around the gear.

Furthermore, the two gears will operate with back-

lash. Dealing with this backlash in the analysis is F.4.1 Limits of the path

avoided by adjusting the tooth thickness value in the The end points of the path are defined by the end

mating gear. This backlash adjusted tooth thickness points of the tip round on the mating gear, points

is: OEMG and ORMG, shown in figure F.2. For each

point, the corresponding path point appears when

t BMG = p c − t G + 2 C invφ A − (invφ) the mating gear has rotated until the pitch point is

correspondingly positioned. At this position, a

(F.11)

straight line connects three points:

Figure F.1 shows the two gears positioned without

-- the pitch point, PP;

any relative rotation, with the centerline of the mating

gear tooth space in line with the centerline of the -- the center of the mating gear tip radius center,

tooth of the gear. It also shows the tip radius of the point RCMG; and

mating gear and its points of tangency to the -- the selected point on the mating gear tip round,

involute, point OEMG, and to the remaining top land, RMG.

point ORMG, also shown in figure F.2. The center of The rotation angle of the mating gear, γMG, that

the tip radius is located on the mating gear by its corresponds with each of the points can be deter-

radial distance from the gear center, rrCMG, and by its mined from this requirement.

angular location relative to the adjusted tooth

centerline, αrCBMG. These may be calculated as F.4.1.1 Limit for point OE

shown in A.3.1 and A.3.2. Using the new subscripts, The conditions for this limit are based on the mating

equations A.1, A.3, A.4, A.5, A.7 and A.8 become: gear contacting the fixed gear at the point OEMG at a

d rCMG = d OMG − 2 r rMG (F.12) slightly rotated position compared to figure F.2. A

straight line connects the three points as noted

d BMG = d MG (cos φ) (F.13) above.

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Tooth C

L

rrCMG To mating

Point ORMG at gear center

remaining top land αrCBMG

Tip radius, rrMG To mating

Point OEMG at effective gear center

outside diameter Tooth pitch

Point RCMG -- Center angle, βMG

of tip round

Tooth CL Space C

L (mating gear)

(gear)

Circular tooth

thickness (mating

gear), tBMG

Standard pitch

circle (mating gear)

Operating pitch

circle (gear), dAG

(mating gear), dAMG

Figure F.1 -- Gear and mating gear (with tooth thickness increased) in tight mesh at specific center

distance

PP gear center

γMG

Point

Rotation angle, Tooth CL MG

RCMG

MG

To mating

Tooth CL gear center

(mating gear) αrCBMG

Point β MG

ORMG 2

Point

γG Common cent-

RMG

erline rotation

angle (G) Point OEMG Space C

L MG

Tooth CL

(gear)

Operating pitch

diameter (gear)

Operating pitch

diameter (mating

gear)

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

The mating gear rotation angle that corresponds to Step 2. Find the x, y coordinates of the pitch point

the limit point OEMG is defined as γOEMG such that: and mating gear center referenced to the gear axes.

γ OEMG = φ OEMG − φ A − α OEBMG (F.18) x PPj = 0.5 d AG cos γ rjG (F.26)

y PPj = 0.5 d AG sin γ rjG (F.27)

where

x CMGj = C AN cos γ rjG (F.28)

αOEBMGis the half tooth thickness angle at the ef- y CMGj = C AN sin γ rjG (F.29)

fective outside diameter such that:

Step 3. Find the x, y coordinates of the center of the

α OEBMG = α BMG + invφ − invφ OEMG (F.19) mating gear tip radius.

F.4.1.2 Limit for point OR x rCMGj = x CMGj − 0.5d rCMG

At this limit condition, the mating gear has been × cosγ rjG + γ rjMG + α rCBMG (F.30)

rotated to a position which places the point ORMG y rCMGj = y CMGj − 0.5 d rCMG

on the straight line connecting the centers of the two

gears. The rotation angle of the mating gear for this × sinγ rjG + γ rjMG + α rCBMG (F.31)

limit is:

where

γ ORMG = − α rCBMG (F.20) drCMG is the diameter to the tip radius center --

F.4.2 Path point selection see equation A.1.

Step 4. Find the x, y coordinates of the point on the

A convenient complement of path points may be mating gear tip radius.

calculated from these limit values of mating gear

rotation angles with approximately equally spaced Distance of center of tip radius from pitch point

intermediate values. The following equation gives

the value of each rotation angle γrjMG for each value j Ã rPPj = x PPj − x rCMGj

2

+ y PPj − y rCMGj

2

Therefore at the OR point, where j=1

γ r1MG = γ ORMG (F.21)

x rj = x PPj − Ã rPPj + r rMG

Ã rPPj x PPj − x rCMGj

(F.33)

and at the OE point, where j = n

γ rnMG = γ ORMG (F.22) y rj = y PPj − Ã rPPj + r rMG

Ã rPPj y PPj − y rCMGj

At all intermediate points, (F.34)

γ r1MG ( n − j ) + γ rnMG ( j − 1 ) F.5 Test for path point interference

γ rjMG = (F.23)

(n − 1 ) As noted in F.1, the test for interference can be made

for (j = 2 to n -- 1) by graphically plotting these points alongside the

points used to define the gear fillet. If the fillet was

F.4.3 Calculation of path points projected on the

defined by a circular--arc of radius rf, with its center at

“fixed” gear

xfC, yfC as described in A.5.3, a numerical test may

Step 1. For each γrjMG, calculate the corresponding be applied.

value of the rotation angle on the gear, γrjG, using the For each of the path points from F.4.3, calculate its

following equation: distance from the fillet arc center:

γ rjG = γ rjMG +

β MG

2

N MG

NG

(F.24) z fCj = 2

x rj − x fC + y rj − y fC

2

(F.35)

radius, rf, interference is present.

βMG is the tooth pitch angle at the mating gear.

If the fillet was defined by a trochoid curve as

β MG = 360 (F.25) described in A.4, the numerical test would be more

N MG complex and is beyond the scope of this document.

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Annex G

(informative)

Calculation examples

[This annex is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of AGMA 930--A05,

Calculated Bending Load Capacity of Power Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears.]

The calculation examples in this annex serve the D -- calculate the design strength, st, equations 3

dual purpose of helping to clarify the procedures though 10 (see G.5).

explained in this document and providing a test case E -- calculate the combined adjustment factor for

for any computer programs prepared for these strength, Ks, equations 11 through 18 (see G.6).

procedures. The following sections begin with a flow

diagram illustrating the various steps and their F -- calculate the operating pitch diameter, dc,

proper order to determine the load capacity of a P/M equation 19 (use results from equations A.67

gear. This is followed with a detailed example and A.68, see G.7).

problem using a gear mesh assuming friction in the G -- calculate the effective face width, Fe, equa-

system. The final example describes the calcula- tions 20 through 21 (see G.8).

tions to test for fillet interference.

H -- calculate the geometry factor, J, equations

G.1.1 Sequence of calculations 22 through 24 (use results from step B and step

C above, see G.9).

Due to the multiple steps required in determining the

load capacity, the following sequence outlines these I -- calculate the combined adjustment factor for

steps in a preferred order to ensure all elements of loading, Kw, equations 25 through 33 (see G.10).

the calculation are considered. The goal is to

J -- determine the module, m, from the gear data

calculate all seven factors required for determining

table.

the result of equation 1 or 2.

K -- calculate the load capacity using the seven

Before any calculations begin, list all pertinent gear

items determined in steps D, E, F, G, H, I, J

data as illustrated by the data entries in table G.1. above (see G.11).

A -- calculate gear geometry per annex A,

G.1.2 Source of example data

equations A.1 through A.85.

A--1 Tip radius geometry (see G.2.1) The first example uses test gear data provided by the

A--2 Generated trochoid fillet points (see Center for Powder Metallurgy Technology (CPMT).

G.2.2) CPMT conducted a three year single tooth bending

A--3 Circular--arc in place of trochoid (see fatigue test program using P/M gears manufactured

G.2.3) with a variety of materials and processing conditions.

One such set of processing conditions was selected

A--4 Involute profile data (see G.2.4)

for this calculation example.

A--5 Operating line of action and pitch circle

data (see G.2.5) G.2 Annex A -- Calculation of spur gear

A--6 Contact conditions (see G.2.6) geometry features

B -- calculate form factor, Y, equations B.1 Gear from gear test program (see table G.1).

through B.19.

G.2.1 Tip radius geometry (see A.3).

B--1 Critical load location (see G.3.1)

B--2 Critical fillet section (see G.3.2) G.2.1.1 Effective outside diameter (see A.3.1):

B--3 Maximum bending stress (see G.3.3)

Step 1. Diameter at the center of the tip round, drC

B--4 Non--dimensional Y factor (see G.3.4)

(figure G.1)

C -- calculate the stress concentration factor, Kf,

equations C.1 through C.5. d rC = d O − 2 r r (A.1)

C--1 Elastic stress concentration factor (see = 85.3440 − 2 (0.7620)

G.4.1) = 83.8200 mm

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Number of teeth N 24 40

Module m 3.1750 3.1750

Pressure angle φ 20.000 20.000

Outside diameter dO 85.3440 131.2418

Root diameter dR 69.9262 116.5352

Tip radius rr 0.7620 0.7620

Arc tooth thickness t 5.7277 4.2469

Fillet radius rf 1.3513 1.6993

Center distance CA 101.7270

Face width F 12.7000 12.0000

Tooth--to--tooth VqT 25.4 micrometers

Rim thickness tR 9.9441

Material FL--4405--125HT

Fatigue limit G--10 stT 290 N/mm2

Ultimate tensile suT 930 N/mm2

strength

Young’s Modulus E 135,000 N/mm2

Number of load n 5.0 × 106

cycles

(unidirectional)

Number of units for nu 10,000

which one failure will

be tolerated

AGMA Quality Qv 9

Pinion is mounted in a machined housing with sleeve bearings

Bearing span = 24.00

Pitch line velocity = 7.62 m/sec

Step 2. Standard pitch diameter, d Step 3. Base circle diameter, dB (figure G.2)

= (24)(3.1750)

= 76.2000 cos(20.0000)

= 76.2000 mm

= 71.6046 mm

rr

d/2 dB/2

φ

drc dO

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

(figure G.3)

(a + r r )

tan φ OE = rB

φ rC = arccos dB

d rC

(A.4)

=

rB tan φrC + rr

rB

= arccos 71.6046

83.8200

r

= tan φ rC + r r

B

= arccos(0.85427) 2r

= tan φ rC + r

dB

= 31.3213 degrees

= 0.5467 radians

φ OE = arctan tanφ rC +

2r r

dB

φrC

r

cos φ rC = r B

rC

Step 6. Effective outside diameter, dOE

d

rrC cos φ rC = B

d rC

φrC

rB

φ rC = arccos dB

d rC

d OE =

dB

cosφ OE

(A.6)

= 71.6046

cos(32.2028)

Figure G.3 = 84.6222 mm

ter, φOE (figure G.4) G.2.1.2 Remaining top land, tOR (see A.3.2)

φ OE = arctan tan φ rC +

2 rr

dB

(A.5)

Step 1. Tooth thickness half angle, α

= arctan tan(31.3213) +

2(0.762)

71.6046

α= t

d

(A.7)

76.2000

= 32.2028 degrees = 0.07517 radians

φOE

a

φrC t OR = d Oα + (inv φ) − tan φ OE + φ rC

(A.8)

= 85.3440 [0.07517 + inv (20.0000)

φOE

− tan (32.2028) + 0.5417]

= 0.5913 mm

tions has a circular--arc fillet. The following trochoid fil-

let calculations are used to demonstrate the use of the

formulas in this section and are not used elsewhere in

Figure G.4 the example calculations.

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

G.2.2.1 Specified basic rack proportions (see Maximum basic rack fillet radius, rfBRX (figure G.6)

A.4.1.1)

cosφ

πm − b BR sin φ (A.11)

Basic rack tooth thickness, tBR (figure G.5) 4

r fBRX =

1 − sin φ

t BR = π m

2

π (3.1750)

(A.9)

π3.1750

cos 20.0000

4

− 4.1540(sin 20.0000)

= =

2 1 − sin 20.0000

= 4.9873 mm = 2.3433 − 1.4208

0.6580

Basic rack dedendum, bBR

= 1.4020 mm

b Br = 0.5 N m +

t − t BR

tan φ

− dR (A.10) G.2.2.2 Calculated basic rack data (see A.4.1.2)

= 0.5 24 (3.1750) + 5.7277 − 4.9873

tan 20.0000 b fBR = b BR − r fBR(1 − sin φ) (A.12)

− 69.9262 = 4.1540 − 1.3513 (1 − sin(20.0000))

= 0.5(76.200 + 2.0342 − 69.9262) = 4.1540 − 1.3513 (0.6580)

= 4.1540 mm = 3.2649 mm

t BR t − t BR

2 b=

2 tan φ

Nominal pitch line

t bBR

2

dR

c= a = d = Nm

2 2 2

Figure G.5

Nominal Nominal pitch line

pitch line

Generating b fBR = b BR − r fBR − r fBR sin φ

pitch line

b fBR = b BR − r fBR(1 − sin φ)

bfBR

bBR φ

rfBRX rfBR

Figure G.6

Figure G.7

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Coordinate along the G--axis, gfBR (figure G.8) G.2.2.3 Rack shift (see A.4.2 and figure G.10)

t r t − t BR

g fBR = BR + b BR − r fBR tan φ + fBR (A.13) y RS = (A.15)

2 cos φ 2 tan φ

= 4.9873 + 4.1540 − 1.3513 tan20.0000 = 5.7277 − 4.9873

2 2 tan (20.0000)

+ 1.3513

cos20.0000 = 1.0171 mm

= 2.4937 + 1.0201 + 1.4380

= 4.9518 mm t BR

2

gfBR φ

Nominal pitch line

t BR

Generating pitch line

2

yRS

φ

t

b rfBR

2

a

φ

Figure G.10

hyfBR (figure G.11)

t BR

g fBR = +a+b h yfBR = h fBR − y RS (A.16)

2

a = b BR − r fBR tan φ = 2.8027 − 1.0171

r = 1.7856 mm

b = fBR

cos φ

t r Nominal pitch line

g fBR = BR + b BR − r fBR tan φ + fBR

2 cos φ yRS Generating pitch line

Coordinate along the H--axis, hfBR (figure G.9)

h fBR = b BR − r fBR (A.14)

= 4.1540 − 1.3513 hfBR hyfBR

= 2.8027 mm

Nominal pitch line

Figure G.11

hfBR

bBR Test for undercutting:

2

rfBR undercutting.

If bfBR − yRS ≤ dsin2 φ; there is no

2

Figure G.9 undercutting. (A.17)

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

2 2

Step 1. Pitch point polar radius, ρf (figure G.12)

= 4.4569

bfBR − yRS = 3.2649 − 1.0171 h yfBR

Ãf = + r fBR (A.23)

= 2.2478 sin θ f

therefore, there is no undercutting. f1:

G.2.2.4 Fillet point selection (see A.4.4)

Ã f1 = 1.7856 + 1.3513 = 3.1369 mm

θ f1 n f − k + θ fn( k − 1 ) (A.22)

sin(90.0000)

θf = f5:

nf − 1

For k = 1 to nf Ã f15 = 1.7856 + 1.3513 = 3.4369 mm

sin(58.8889)

nf = 10

f10:

θ f1 = 90.0000 degrees (A.20)

1.7856 + 1.3513 = 6.5720 mm

Ã f10 =

θ fn = φ = 20.0000 degrees (A.20) sin(20.0000)

k = 1: Step 2. Generating roll angle, εf (figure G.13)

θ f1 =

90.0000(10 − 1) + 20.0000(1 − 1)

10 − 1

= 90.0000 degrees

2 g fBR +

h yfBR cosθ f

sinθ f

εf = (A.24)

k = 5: d

f1:

90.0000(10 − 5) + 20.0000(5 − 1)

θ f5 =

10 − 1

= 58.8889 degrees 2 4.9518 + 1.7856 cos90.0000

sin90.0000

k = 10:

ε f1 =

76.2000

90.0000(10 − 10) + 20.0000(10 − 1)

θ f10 = = 0.1300 radians

10 − 1

= 20.0000 degrees = 7.4466 degrees

hyfBR θf

Pitch point

Y

Basic rack

rfBR ρf

Point on Generating

trochoid pitch line on

basic rack

X

Generating

Gear center circle on gear

Figure G.12

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

hyfBR θf

Y d Pitch point

2 εf

d

2

gfBR

εf Basic

rack C

L

εf

X

Generating

Gear Generating

pitch line on

center circle on gear

basic rack

Figure G.13

f5: f1:

2 4.9518 + 1.7856 cos58.8889

sin58.8889

v f1 = 76.2000

2

2

+ 3.1369 2 − 76.2000

1/2

ε f5 = × (3.1369)(sin 90.000) = 34.9631

76.2000

= 0.1583 radians

3.1369 cos(90.0000)

= 9.0672 degrees α f1 = 7.4466 − arcsin

34.9631

f10: = 7.4466 degrees

2 4.9518 + 1.7856 cos20.0000

sin20.0000

f5:

ε f3 =

76.2000

v f5 = 76.2000

2

2

+ 3.4369 2 − 76.2000

1/2

= 0.2587 radians

= 14.8243 degrees × (3.4369)(sin 58.8889) = 35.2023

tooth centerline and gear center, vf, αf (figure G.14) α f5 = 9.0672 − arcsin

35.2023

= 6.1756 degrees

1∕2

vf =

d

2

2

+ Ã 2f − d Ã f sin θ f (A.25)

f10:

cos φ

α f = ε f − arcsin Ã f v f (A.26)

v f10 = 76.2000

2

2

+ 6.5720 2 − 76.2000

1/2

f

× (6.5720)(sin 20.0000) = 36.3802

NOTE:

arcsin Ã f

cos θ f

vf calculates a value in

6.5720 cos20.0000

α f5 = 14.8243 − arcsin

degrees. This must be converted to radians or εf must 36.3802

be converted to degrees before using in the formula. = 5.0507 degrees

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

θf

Y d x Pitch point

2

a

b

Ãf

θf

βf εf

Basic rack

vf

αf

X

Generating Generating

Gear circle on gear pitch line on

center basic rack

v 2f = a 2 + b 2

1∕2

v f = a 2 + b 2

a= d−x

2

x = Ã f sin θ f

a = d − Ã f sin θ f

2

b = Ã f cos θ f

a 2 + b 2 = d − Ã f sin θ f + Ã 2 cos 2 θ f

2 2

2

= d

2

− d − d + Ã 2f sin 2 θ f + Ã 2f cos 2 θ f

2 sin θ f 2 sin θ f

2

= d − dÃ f sin θ f + Ã 2fsin 2 θ f + cos 2 θ f

2

2

= d + Ã 2f − dÃ f sin θ f

2

1∕2

vf =

d

2

2

+ Ã 2f − dÃ f sin θ f

α f = εf − βf

θ

β f = arcsin Ã f cos v f

f

θ

α f = ε f − arcsin Ã f cos v f

f

Figure G.14

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Step 4. Rectangular coordinates of trochoid, G.2.2.6 Minimum radius along trochoid curve

xf, yf (figure G.15) (table G.2) (see A.4.6)

2

x f = v f cos α f (A.27) h yfBR

(A.29)

R fN = + r fBR

0.5 d + h yfBR

y f = v f sin α f (A.28)

= 1.7856 2 + 1.3513

f1: 0.5(76.2) + 1.7856

= 1.4312 mm

x f1 = 34.9631 cos(7.4466) = 34.6682 mm G.2.3 Circular--arc in place of trochoid (see

A.5)

y f1 = 34.9631 sin(7.4466) = 4.5313 mm

G.2.3.1 Test for minimum fillet radius (see

f5:

A.5.1)

x f5 = 35.2023 cos(6.1756) = 34.9980 mm d2 − d2

B R (A.30)

r fN =

4d R

y f5 = 35.2023 sin(6.1756) = 3.7869 mm

2 2

f10: = 71.6046 − 69.9262

4(69.9262)

= 0.8493 mm

x f10 = 36.3802 cos(5.0507) = 36.2390 mm

G.2.3.2 Full--fillet radius (see A.5.2):

y f10 = 36.3802 sin(5.0507) = 3.2028 mm

Step 1. Test for the fit of a full--fillet radius

BTff =

π + d R − α − invφ

N dB

(A.31)

Y

Point on

= π + 69.9262 − 0.07517 − inv 20°

24 71.6046

xf trochoid Basic = 1.01739

Gear center rack [BTff] > 1; Full--fillet radius will work.

αf yf

X Step 2. Pressure angle at the center of the full fillet

vf radius, φbC (figure G.16)

Figure G.15 = arc sev (1.01739)

Table G.2

90.0000 1.570796 3.136900 0.129969 7.446647 34.96310 0.129969 7.446647 34.66822 4.531320

82.2222 1.435048 3.153479 0.136370 7.813418 34.97814 0.124169 7.114339 34.70884 4.332036

74.4444 1.299300 3.204792 0.143015 8.194134 35.02314 0.118473 6.788001 34.77764 4.139596

66.6667 1.163553 3.295940 0.150185 8.604941 35.09790 0.112981 6.473354 34.87413 3.956977

58.8889 1.027805 3.436874 0.158252 9.067192 35.20228 0.107784 6.175596 34.99800 3.786917

51.1111 0.892057 3.64534 0.167770 9.612497 35.33678 0.102959 5.899133 35.14965 3.631826

43.3333 0.756309 3.953301 0.179644 10.292830 35.50372 0.098563 5.647224 35.33141 3.493678

35.5556 0.620562 4.422018 0.195538 11.203490 35.71030 0.094624 5.421567 35.55055 3.374018

27.7778 0.484814 5.182699 0.218942 12.544430 35.97804 0.091143 5.222084 35.82871 3.274593

20.0000 0.349066 6.572045 0.258732 14.824260 36.38024 0.088152 5.050726 36.23898 3.202832

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Imaginary involute

through fillet center

Step 4. Radius of the full--fillet radius (maximum fillet

Base radius), rfX

circle

Root r fX = 0.5 d bC − d R (A.35)

diameter

φbC = 0.5 (73.0396 − 69.9262)

= 1.5567 mm

G.2.3.3 Fillet radius center (see A.5.3):

fillet center, dfC (figure G.17)

d fC = d R + 2r f (A.36)

= 69.9262 + 2(1.3513)

= 72.6288 mm

Figure G.16

First approximation:

1∕2 rf rf

φ 1 = 0.8( S − 1 ) + 1.4( S − 1 ) (E.4)

1∕2

= 0.8(1.01739 − 1) + 1.4(1.01739 − 1)

= 0.198532 radians = 11.3750 degrees

Figure G.17

S is the given value of the sevolute function

Step 2. Pressure angle along imaginary involute

Second approximation:

through fillet center, φfC (figure G.18)

φ 2 = φ 1 + S − sev φ 1 1 + 1

sin φ 1

(E.5)

φ fC = arccos dB

d fC

(A.37)

= 0.198532 + (1.017390 − sev 0.198532 rad)

× 1+ 1

= arccos 71.6046

72.6288

sin 11.3750

= 9.6336 degrees

= 0.198532 + (1.017390

Step 3. Polar radius at fillet center, ρfC

− 1

− inv (0.198532 rad) d fC

cos 0.198532 rad Ã fC = = 72.6288 = 36.3144 mm (A.38)

2 2

× 6.070233

Step 4. Polar angle at fillet center (relative to tooth

= 0.198552 radians = 11.3762 degrees

centerline), θfC

Step 3. Diameter at the center of the full--fillet radius,

dbC 2r f

θ fC = α + inv φ − inv φ fC + (A.39)

dB dB

d bC = (A.34) = 0.07517 + inv (20°) − inv(9.6336°)

cos φ bC

71.6046 2(1.3513)

= +

cos 11.3762 71.6046

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through fillet center fillet (see A.5.6)

Base Step 1. Polar angle at the form diameter, θF

circle

θ F = α + (invφ) − invφ F (A.45)

Root

φfC diameter = 0.07517 + inv 20° − inv 7.5194°

= 0.0893 radians = 5.1172 degrees

Step 2. Fillet construction angle at the form

diameter, τfF

τ fF = π + θ F − φ F (A.46)

2

= π + 0.0893 − 0.13124

2

= 1.5289 radians = 87.5977 degrees

Step 3. Fillet construction angle at the root diameter,

τfR

Figure G.18

τ fR = θ fC = 7.2314 degrees (A.47)

Step 5. Coordinates at fillet center, xfC, yfC Step 4. Fillet construction angles at spaced points

along the fillet, τf

x fC = Ã fCcos θ fc (A.40)

τ fR n f − k + τ fF( k − 1 )

= 36.3144 cos (7.2314) = 36.0256 τf = (A.48)

nf − 1

y fC = Ã fCsin θ fc (A.41) For k = 1 to nf, nf = 10

= 36.3144 sin (7.2314) = 4.5711 k = 1:

7.2314(10 − 1) + 87.5977(1 − 1)

G.2.3.4 Form diameter (see A.5.4) τ f1 =

10 − 1

= 7.2314 degrees

Step 1. Pressure angle at the form diameter, φF

k = 5:

7.2314(10 − 5) + 87.5977(5 − 1)

φ F = arctan tan φ fC −

2 r f

dB

(A.42)

τ f5 =

10 − 1

= 42.9498 degrees

k = 10:

= arctan tan (9.6336) −

2 (1.3513)

71.6046

7.2314(10 − 10) + 87.5977(10 − 1)

τ f1 =

10 − 1

= 0.13124 radians = 7.5194 degrees = 87.5977 degrees

Step 5. Coordinates of spaced points along fillet, xf,

Step 2. Form diameter, dF yf (table G.3)

x f = x fC − r fcos τ f (A.49)

dB

dF = = 71.6046 = 72.2257 mm y f = y fC − r fsin τ f (A.50)

cos φ F cos 7.5194

(A.43)

f1:

G.2.3.5 Bottom land (see A.5.5) x f1 = 36.0256 − 1.3513(cos 7.2314) = 34.6850 mm

y f1 = 4.5711 − 1.3513(sin 7.2314) = 4.4010 mm

s R = d R π − θ fC

N

(A.44) f5:

x f5 = 36.0256 − 1.3513cos 42.9498 = 35.0365 mm

= 69.9262 π − 0.1262 = 0.3286 mm

24

y f5 = 4.5711 − 1.3513(sin 42.9498) = 3.6504 mm

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

f10: i5:

x f10 = 36.0255 − 1.3513cos 87.5977 = 35.9689 mm 0.1320(10 − 5) + 0.6298(5 − 1)

ε1 =

10 − 1

y f10 = 4.5711 − 1.3513(sin 87.5977) = 3.2210 mm

= 0.3532 radians

i10:

Table G.3

0.1320(10 − 10) + 0.6298(10 − 1)

ε1 =

f τf xf yf 10 − 1

1 7.2314 34.6850 4.4010 = 0.6298 radians

2 16.1610 34.7276 4.1950 Step 3. Pressure angle at the “i--th” Point, φi

3 25.0906 34.8018 3.9981 φ i = arctan ε i (A.54)

4 34.0202 34.9055 3.8151 i1:

5 42.9498 35.0365 3.6504

φ i = arctan (0.1320) = 7.5195 degrees

6 51.8794 35.1914 3.5081

i5:

7 60.8090 35.3665 3.3915

8 69.7385 35.5576 3.3035 φ 5 = arctan (0.3532) = 19.4555 degrees

9 78.6681 35.7600 3.2462 i10:

10 87.5977 35.9689 3.2210 φ 10 = arctan (0.6298) = 32.2028 degrees

Step 4. Diameter at the “i--th” point, di

di = (A.55)

cos φ i

G.2.4.1 Spaced points on the involute profile

i1:

(see A.6.1)

di = 71.6046 = 72.2257 mm

Step 1. Roll angles at the form and effective outside cos(7.5195)

diameters, εF, εOE i5:

ε F = tan arccos

dB

dF

(A.51)

di = 71.6046 = 75.9407 mm

cos(19.4555)

i10:

= tan arccos 71.6046

72.2257

di =71.6046 = 84.6222 mm

cos(32.2028)

= 0.1320 radians Step 5. Polar (or half tooth) angle at the “i--th” point,

ε OE = tan arccos

dB

d OE

(A.52)

αi

d

= tan arccos 71.6046 = 5.7277 + inv (20°) − inv φ i

84.6222 76.2000

= 0.6298 radians = 0.0752 + 0.0149

− tan φ i − φ i radians

Step 2. Roll angles at the “i--th” point, εi

= 0.0901 − tan φ i + φ i

ε F n i − 1 + ε OE( i − 1 )

εi = (A.53) i1:

ni − 1

For i = 1 to ni, ni = 10 α 1 = 0.0901 − tan(7.5195) + 0.13124

= 0.0893 radians = 5.1172 degrees

i1:

i5:

0.1320(10 − 1) + 0.6298(1 − 1)

ε1 = α 5 = 0.0901 − tan(19.4555) + 0.33956

10 − 1

= 0.1320 radians = 0.0764 radians = 4.3768 degrees

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

φ S = arccos (A.61)

dS

= 0.0223 radians = 1.2785 degrees

S 1:

Step 6. Coordinates of the “i--th” point, xi, yi

(table G.4)

φ S1 = arccos 71.6046 = 7.5196 degrees

72.2257

di

xi = cos α i (A.57) S 2:

2

d φ S2 = arccos 71.6046 = 19.4554 degrees

y i = i sin α i (A.58) 75.9407

2

S 3:

i1:

φ S3 = arccos 71.6046 = 32.2027 degrees

x 1 = 72.2257 cos 5.1172 = 35.9689 mm 84.6222

2 Step 2. Half--tooth thickness angle at the selected

y 1 = 72.2257 sin 5.1172 = 3.2210 mm point, αS

2

i5: α S = t + inv φ − inv φ S (A.62)

d

x 5 = 75.9407 cos 4.3768 = 37.8596 mm = 5.7277 + inv (20°) − inv φ S

2 76.2000

y5 = 75.9407 sin 4.3768 = 2.8977 mm = 0.0752 + 0.0149

2

− tan φ S − φ S radians

i10:

= 0.0901 − tan φ S + φ S

x 10 = 84.6222 cos 1.2785 = 42.3006 mm S 1:

2

y 10 = 84.6222 sin 1.2785 = 0.9441 mm α S1 = 0.0901 − tan (7.5196) + 0.13124

2

= 0.0893 radians = 5.1772 degrees

G.2.4.2 Selected point on the involute profile

(see A.6.3) S 2:

α S2 = 0.0901 − tan (19.4554) + 0.33956

Selected diameters, dS1, dS2, dS3:

= 0.0764 radians = 4.3768 degrees

d S1 = 72.2257 mm S 3:

d S2 = 75.9407 mm α S3 = 0.0901 − tan (32.2027) + 0.56204

d S3 = 84.6222 mm = 0.0223 radians = 1.2785 degrees

Table G.4

1 0.1320 7.5195 72.2257 0.0893 5.1172 35.9689 3.2210

2 0.1873 10.6091 72.8499 0.0879 5.0378 36.2842 3.1986

3 0.2426 13.6377 73.6820 0.0855 4.8972 36.7065 3.1450

4 0.2979 16.5905 74.7150 0.0817 4.6809 37.2329 3.0486

5 0.3532 19.4555 75.9407 0.0764 4.3768 37.8596 2.8977

6 0.4086 22.2227 77.3501 0.0694 3.9749 38.5820 2.6809

7 0.4639 24.8850 78.9332 0.0605 3.4681 39.3943 2.3874

8 0.5192 27.4374 80.6798 0.0498 2.8513 40.2900 2.0067

9 0.5745 29.8769 82.5796 0.0370 2.1218 41.2615 1.5287

10 0.6298 32.2028 84.6222 0.0223 1.2785 42.3006 0.9441

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Step 3. Circular tooth thickness at the selected G.2.5.2 Operating pitch diameters (see A.7.2)

point, tS

2 CA

t S = d Sα S (A.63) d AP =

d (A.67)

1 + BG

S 1: d BP

t S1 = 72.2257 × 0.0893 = 6.4506 mm 2(101.7270)

=

S 2: 1 + 119.3410

71.6046

t S2 = 75.9407 × 0.0764 = 5.8010 mm = 76.2953

S 3: 2 CA

d AG =

t S3 = 84.6222 × 0.0223 = 1.8883 mm d (A.68)

1 + BP

d BG

Step 4. Coordinates of the selected point, xS, yS

2(101.7270)

d =

x S = S cos α S

2

(A.64) 1 + 71.6046

119.3410

d

y S = S sin α S (A.65) = 127.1588 mm

2

G.2.6 Contact conditions (see A.8)

S 1:

Point 1 = Start of contact at any one tooth

x S1 = 72.2257 cos 5.1172 = 35.9689 mm

2

Point 2 = Start of single tooth contact

y S1 = 72.2257 sin 5.1172 = 3.2210 mm

2 Point 3 = End of single tooth contact

S 2:

Point 4 = End of contact of any one tooth

x S2 = 75.9407 cos 4.3768 = 37.8596 mm G.2.6.1 Contact limit points on the line of

2

action (see A.8.1)

y S2 = 75.9407 sin 4.3768 = 2.8977 mm

2

Step 1. Roll angles at the operating pitch diameters,

S 3: εAP and εAG

x S3 = 84.6222 cos 1.2785 = 42.3006 mm ε A = ε AP = ε AG = tan φ A (A.69)

2

= tan 20.1956 = 0.3678 radians

y S3 = 84.6222 sin 1.2785 = 0.9441 mm

2 Step 2. Roll angles at effective outside diameters,

G.2.5 Operating line--of--action and pitch circle εOEP, εOEG

data (see A.7)

ε OEP = tan φ OEP = tan 32.2028 (A.70)

dG = NG m (A.2)

= 0.6298 radians

= 40 (3.175) Determine φOEG

= 127.0000 mm Step a. Diameter at center of tip round for the

d BG = d G cos φ (A.3) gear, drC

= 127.0000 cos 20° d rC = d O − 2 r r (A.1)

= 119.3410 mm = 131.2418 − 2(0.7620)

G.2.5.1 Operating pressure angle (see A.7.1) = 129.7178 mm

Step b. Pressure angle at center of tip round,

φ A = arccos BP

d + d BG

2 CA

(A.66) φrC

dB

= arccos 71.6046 + 119.3410

2(101.7270)

φ rC = arccos

d rC

(A.4)

129.7178

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

β G = 2 π = 2π = 0.1571 radians (A.77)

diameter, φOEG NG 40

2r r

(A.5)

Step 6. Roll angles at point 2, ε2P, ε2G

ε 2P = ε 4P − β P = 0.6298 − 0.2618 (A.78)

= arctan tan 23.0732 +

2(0.7620)

119.3410

= 0.3680 radians

But not smaller than ε1P (0.2497); Remains the

= 23.6896 degrees same (0.3680)

Step 3. Roll angles at point 1, ε1P, ε1G But not greater than ε1G (0.4388); Remains the

same (0.3677)

ε 1P = ε A 1 +

NG

NP

N

− ε OEG G

NP

(A.72) Step 7. Roll angles at point 3, ε3P, ε3G

ε 3P = ε 1P + β P = 0.2497 + 0.2618 (A.80)

= 0.36781 + 40 − 0.4388 40 = 0.5115 radians

24 24

But not greater than ε4P (0.6298); Remains the same

= 0.2497 radians (0.5115)

But not smaller than zero; Remains the same

ε 3G = ε 1G − β G = 0.4388 − 0.1571 (A.81)

(0.2497)

= 0.2817 radians

ε 1G = ε OEG = 0.4388 radians (A.73)

But not smaller than ε4G (0.2107); Remains the

But not greater than: same (0.2817)

εA 1 +

NP

NG

G.2.6.2 Diameters at contact points (see A.8.2)

d BP

d iP = (A.82)

cosarctan ε iP

0.3678 1 + 24 = 0.58850

40

d BG

Remains the same (0.4388) d iG = (A.83)

cosarctan ε iG

Step 4. Roll angles at point 4, ε4P, ε4G

Point 1:

ε 4P = ε OEP = 0.6298 radians (A.74)

d 1P = 71.6046 = 73.8023 mm

But not greater than: cos (arctan 0.2497)

εA 1 +

NG

NP

d 1G = 119.3409

cos(arctan 0.4388)

= 130.3226 mm

Point 2:

0.3678 1 + 40 = 0.98083

24

d 2P = 71.6046 = 76.2992 mm

cos(arctan 0.3680)

Remains the same (0.6298)

d 2G = 119.3409 = 127.1548 mm

ε 4G = ε A 1 +

NP

NG

N

− ε OEP P

NG

(A.75) Point 3:

cos (arctan 0.3677)

71.6046

40

= 0.3678 1 + 24 − 0.6298 24

40

d 3P =

cos(arctan 0.5115)

= 80.4264 mm

d 3G = 119.3409 = 123.9849 mm

= 0.2107 radians cos(arctan 0.2817)

But not smaller than zero; Remains the same

Point 4:

(0.2107)

d 4P = 71.6046 = 84.6222 mm

Step 5. Pitch angles, βP, βG

cos(arctan 0.6298)

β P = 2 π = 2π = 0.2618 radians (A.76) d 4G = 119.3409 = 121.9604 mm

NP 24 cos(arctan 0.2107)

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

The diameters of the highest point of single tooth Half--tooth thickness angle of dWc; αWc:

contact are:

α Wc = t + inv φ − inv φ Wc (A.62)

For the pinion, d3P (80.4264) d

= 5.7277 + inv 20° − inv φ Wc

For the gear, d2G (127.1548) 76.2000

G.2.6.3 Limit diameters (see A.8.3) = 0.0752 + 0.0149

For the gear, dLP = d4G (121.9604) = 0.0901 − tan (27.0876) + 0.4728

= 0.05139 (radians)

G.2.6.4 Profile contact ratio (see A.8.4)

= 2.9442 degrees

Step 1. Approach portion of the profile contact ratio,

mpa Circular tooth thickness at dWc; tWc:

ε AP − ε 1P t Wc = d Wc α Wc (A.63)

m pa = (A.84)

βP = 80.4264 (0.05139)

= 4.1328 mm

= 0.3678 − 0.2497 = 0.4514

0.2618 Coordinates at dWc; xWc, yWc:

Step 2. Recess portion of the profile contact ratio,

mpr

ε − ε AP

x Wc = d Wc

2

cos α Wc (A.64)

m pr = 4P (A.85)

βP

= 80.4264 cos(2.9442)

2

= 0.6298 − 0.3678 = 1.0006

0.2618 = 40.1601 mm

Step 3. Profile contact ratio, mp

m p = m pa + m pr (A.86) y Wc = d Wc

2

sin α Wc (A.65)

= 0.4514 + 1.0006 = 1.4521

G.3 Annex B -- Calculation of spur gear form

= 80.4264 sin(2.9442)

2

factor, Y

= 2.0655 mm

G.3.1 Highest point of single tooth loading

(see B.2.3.2.3) If considering the effects of friction, see G.12.

From table G.1, the tooth--to--tooth quality level of Step 2: Direction angle of critical tooth force, γWc:

each gear is Q9 which exceeds the Q8 level per γ Wc = φ Wc − α Wc (B.6)

B.2.3.2.3. Therefore:

= 27.0876 − 2.9442

d WcP = d 3P (B.2)

= 24.1433 degrees

= 80.4264 mm

d WcG = d 2G Step 3: Distance of translated critical tooth force,

(B.3)

xWcC

= 127.1548 mm

G.3.1.1 Translation to tooth centerline (see x WcC = x Wc − y Wctan γ Wc (B.7)

B.2.3.3) = 40.1601 − 2.0655 tan (24.1433)

Step 1: Determine coordinate points, xWc, yWc: = 39.2343 mm

Pressure angle at dWc; φWc: G.3.1.2 Force components (see B.2.3.4)

φ Wc = arccos d BP

d Wc

(A.61)

Bending component, Wcy:

= arccos 71.6046

80.4264

= W c cos(24.1433)

= 0.4728 radians = 27.0876 degrees = 0.9125 W c

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

hf

W cx = W c sin γ Wc (B.9) f BS = 6 cos γ Wc (B.14)

w 2f

= W c sin(24.1433) hf

= 6(cos(24.1433))

= 0.4090 W c w 2f

hf

G.3.2 Critical fillet section (see B.2.4) = 5.4752

w 2f

G.3.2.1 Bending stress factor, fBS (see B.2.4.2) G.3.2.2 Maximum bending stress factor (see

B.2.4.3)

Step1: Height of the translated load force above the Step 1: Select an initial trial value of τf:

fillet section, hf:

Select τf = 30°

h f = x WcC − x f (B.10) Step 2: Calculate fillet data from this location angle,

= 39.2343 − x f xf, yf, hf, wf:

x f = x fC − r f cos τ f (A.49)

xf varies depending on the location in the fillet.

Reference equation A.49 and table G.5 for = 36.0255 − 1.3513 (cos 30.0000)

values. = 34.8553 mm

y f = y fC − r f sin τ f (A.50)

Step 2: Width of the fillet section, wf:

= 4.5711 − 1.3513 (sin 30.0000)

wf = 2 yf (B.11) = 3.8955 mm

h f = x WcC − x f (B.10)

yf varies depending on the location in the fillet.

Reference equation A.50 and table G.5 for = 39.2343 − 34.8553

values. = 4.3790 mm

wf = 2 yf (B.11)

Step 3: Bending stress at the fillet section, sBS:

= 2 (3.8955)

= 7.7910 mm

hf

s BS = 6 W ccos γ Wc (B.13) Step 3: Calculate the bracketed term, BT:

w 2f

hf

hf BT = (B.15)

= 6 W c (cos(24.1433)) w 2f

w 2f

hf = 4.37902

= 5.4752 W c 7.7910

w 2f

= 0.0721

Table G.5

f xf yf hf wf sBS fBS

1 34.6850 4.4011 4.5493 8.8021 0.3215 Wc 0.3215

2 34.7276 4.1950 4.5067 8.3901 0.3505 Wc 0.3505

3 34.8018 3.9981 4.4325 7.9963 0.3796 Wc 0.3796

4 34.9055 3.8151 4.3288 7.6302 0.4071 Wc 0.4071

5 35.0365 3.6504 4.1978 7.3009 0.4312 Wc 0.4312

6 35.1914 3.5081 4.0429 7.0161 0.4497 Wc 0.4497

7 35.3665 3.3915 3.8678 6.7829 0.4603 Wc 0.4603

8 35.5576 3.3035 3.6767 6.6069 0.4612 Wc 0.4612

9 35.7600 3.2462 3.4743 6.4924 0.4513 Wc 0.4513

10 35.9689 3.2210 3.2654 6.4421 0.4308 Wc 0.4308

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Step 4: Select a slightly larger location angle and Step 7: Calculate the maximum bending stress

repeat steps 2 and 3: factor, fBSX:

x f = 36.0255 − 1.3513 (cos 35.0000) = 6 (cos 24.1433) 0.084394

= 34.9186 mm

= 0.4621

y f = 4.5711 − 1.3513 (sin 35.0000) G.3.3 Stress calculation (see B.2.5)

= 3.7961 mm

Bending tensile stress, sBS:

h f = 39.2343 − 34.9186

= 4.3157 mm h fc

s BS = 6 W c cos γ Wc (B.16)

w 2fc

w f = 2 (3.7961)

= f BSX W c

= 7.5921 mm

= 0.4621 W c

BT = 4.31572

7.5921 Compressive stress, sCS:

= 0.0749 sin γ Wc

Is BT larger than the previous value? s CS = W c w fc (B.17)

6.6733

Step 5: Repeat steps 2--4 with successively larger

= 0.0613 W c

angles until BT changes from increasing to

decreasing (table G.6). Combined tensile stress, st:

degrees.

h

s t = 6 W ccos γ Wc fc −

w 2

fc

sin γ Wc

w fc Wc (B.18)

6.6733

= 6 W ccos 24.1433 3.75842 − sin 24.1433 W c

6.6733

between 65 and 70 degrees (table G.7).

= 0.4621 W c − 0.0613 W c

The maximum value of BT is at 66.0 degrees. This is

the location of the critical section. = 0.4008 W c

Table G.6

τf xf yf hf wf BT Decreasing?

35 34.9186 3.7961 4.3157 7.5921 0.074872 No

40 34.9904 3.7025 4.2439 7.4051 0.077394 No

45 35.0700 3.6156 4.1643 7.2313 0.079636 No

50 35.1570 3.5360 4.0774 7.0720 0.081526 No

55 35.2505 3.4642 3.9838 6.9285 0.082990 No

60 35.3499 3.4009 3.8844 6.8018 0.083962 No

65 35.4545 3.3465 3.7798 6.6929 0.084381 No

70 35.5634 3.3013 3.6709 6.6027 0.084204 Yes

Table G.7

τf xf yf hf wf BT Decreasing?

65.0 35.4545 3.3465 3.7798 6.6929 0.084381 No

65.5 35.4652 3.3415 3.7691 6.6830 0.084391 No

66.0 35.4759 3.3367 3.7584 6.6733 0.084394 No

66.5 35.4867 3.3319 3.7476 6.6639 0.084392 Yes

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

G.3.3.1 Form factor force--stress ratio (see B.2.6) Elastic stress concentration factor, Kfs:

M

Ratio for the critical tooth force, AWsc: w

K fs = H + r fc

fc

L

w fc

h fc

(C.3)

W 0.15226

A Wsc = s c

t

(B.19) = 0.17881 + 6.6733

1.3513

Wc 0.45124

=

0.4008 W c × 6.6733

3.7584

= 2.4951 = 1.8312

H = 0.331 − 0.436 φ

Adjustment ratio, mcA: = 0.331 − 0.436 (0.34907)

= 0.17881

m cA = cos φ A (B.20) L = 0.324 − 0.492 φ

= 0.324 − 0.492 (0.34907)

= cos 20.1956

= 0.15226

= 0.9385 M = 0.261 + 0.545 φ

Adjusted force--stress ratio, AWsA: = 0.261 + 0.545 (0.34907)

= 0.45124

A WsA = A Wsc m cA (B.21) G.4.2 Stress correction factor (see C.3)

q = 1.0 for repeated loading

G.3.4 Non--dimensional Y--factor (see B.2.7)

= 0.8 for occasional peak overloading

Y= (B.22)

m K ft = 1 + q K fs − 1 (C.5)

= 2.3417 = 1 + 1 (1.8312 − 1)

3.1750

= 0.7375 = 1.8312 for repeated loading

or

G.4 Calculation of stress correction factor, Kf

K fy = 1 + 0.8 (1.8312 − 1)

G.4.1 Elastic stress concentration factor (see = 1.6650 for occasional peak overloading

C.2) G.5 Fundamental formulas for calculated

torque capacity

Calculation fillet radius, rfc: Tooth bending under repeated loading (see

3.1):

Rack generated trochoid calculation fillet radius, s t K ts d c F e J t m

rfc: Tt = (1)

2000 K tw

r fc = R fN (C.1) Tooth bending under occasional peak loading

= 1.4312 mm (from equation A.29) (see 3.2):

s y K ys d c F e J y m

NOTE: The example gear selected for these Ty = (2)

2000 K yw

calculations has a circular--arc fillet. This value is used

for the demonstration of the use of the formula for a tro- G.5.1 Design strength values (see clause 4):

choid fillet and is not used elsewhere in the example Design fatigue limit from published data, st:

calculations.

s tT = 290 N∕mm 2 from MPIF Standard 35

Circular--arc calculation fillet radius, rfc: s tG = s tT − s tTG (3)

r fc = r f (C.2) = 290 − 14

= 1.3513 mm = 276 N∕mm 2

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

st = (4)

0.7

= 276

K L = 1 + 2.121 K Ly − 1 (14)

0.7

= 394 N∕mm 2

− 0.303 K Ly − 1 log n

stress), st: − [0.303(1.96467 − 1)] log5.0 × 10 6

s tT = 930 N∕mm 2 from MPIF Standard 35 = 1 + 2.046 − 0.292 (6.699)

s tT = k ut s uT (5) = 1.090

= 0.32 (930) For n > 1 × 107:

= 298 N∕mm 2 KL = 1 (15)

s tG = s tT − s tTG (3) NOTE: The above load cycle is used for the demon-

= 298 − 14 stration of the use of the formula example and is not

used elsewhere in the example.

= 284 N∕mm 2

s Load reversal factor, KLR:

s t = tG (4)

0.7 Unidirectional loading

= 284 K LR = 1.0 (16)

0.7

= 406 N∕mm 2 Size factor, KS:

NOTE: The material selected for these calculations KS = 1 (18)

has available published data. This value is used for the

demonstration of the use of the formula for material Temperature factor, KT:

without published fatigue data and is not used else- (19)

KT = 1

where in the example calculations.

Reliability factor, KR:

Yield strength (from ultimate tensile strength), sy,

since the example material is heat treated: K R = 0.5 + 0.25 log n u (20)

= 0.5 + 0.25 log(10, 000)

s uM = 860 N∕mm 2 (from MPIF Standard 35)

= 1.5

s uG = s uM = 860 N∕mm 2 (10) Combined factor for bending fatigue strength:

K ts = (12)

KS KT KR

G.6 Combined adjustment factors for strength

(see clause 5): (1.090)(1.0)

=

(1)(1)(1.5)

K L K LR

K ts = (12) = 0.727

KS KT KR

Yield strength factor, Ky:

Ky

K ys = (21) Ky = 0.75 (hardened material) (23)

KS KT

Combined factor for yield strength, Kys:

Life factor, KL:

Ky

For n < 0.5 × 104: K ys = (21)

KS KT

sy

K L = K Ly = 0.9 s

t

(13) = 0.75

(1)(1)

394

= 0.9 860 = 1.96467 = 0.75

NOTE: The above load cycle is used for the demon-

G.7 Calculation diameter (see clause 6)

stration of the use of the formula example and is not d C = d AP (24)

used elsewhere in the example calculations other than

for the value of KLy. = 76.2953 mm (from equation A.67)

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Effective face width extensions, Fxe1, Fxe2: Load distribution factor for repeated loading, Kmt:

F xe1 = 1 − Fx

2m

Fx (27)

f qm F o

(35)

qm = (36)

= 1 − 0.3500

(2)(3.175)

0.3500 Sb

0.2(12.0000)

=

24.0000

= (1 − 0.055) 0.3500

= 0.100

= 0.331 mm (37)

f qv F o

F xe2 = F xe1 qv =

d

= 0.331 mm 0.3(12.0000)

=

Effective face width, Fe: 76.2000

F e = F O + F xe1 + F xe2 (26) = 0.047

0.5

= 1 − 5

= 12.0000 + 0.331 + 0.331 s t

m ct (38)

= 12.6620 mm E

0.5

G.9 Geometry factor for bending strength (see

clause 8)

=1−5 135394000

= 0.730

Jt = Y (28) m w = 1.0

K ft

Load distribution factor for repeated loading, Kmt:

= 0.7375

1.8312

K mt = 1 + (q m + q v)m ct m w (35)

= 0.403

K mt = 1 + [(0.100 + 0.047)(0.730 × 1.0)]

Jy = Y (30)

K fy

= 1.107

= 0.7375 Dynamic factor, Kv:

1.6650

= 0.443 1∕2

K v = 1 + 0.0055 V qTv t

1∕2

(39)

(see clause 9) 1∕2

K tw = S F K ot K B K mt K V (31)

= 1 + 0.0055 × 25.4 × (7.62)

1∕2

K yw = S F K oy K B K my K V (40) = 1.177

Safety factor SF: Load distribution factor for occasional overloads,

Kmy:

SF = 1 for this example.

0.5

Overload factor for repeated loads, Kot: m cy = 1 − 5

Sy

E

(42)

Kot = 1 for this example

0.5

Overload factor for occasional overloading, Koy: =1−5 135860000

Koy = 1 for this example = 0.6009

Rim thickness factor, KB: K my = 1 + (q m + q u) m cy (41)

tR = 1 + [(0.1 + 0.047) 0.6009]

mB = (32)

ht

tR = 1.088

= Combined adjustment factor for loading:

0.5 d O − d R

K tw = S F K ot K B K mt K V (31)

= 9.9441

0.5 (85.3440 − 69.9262) = (1) (1) (1) (1.107) (1.177)

= 1.290 = 1.303

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Combined adjustment factor for occasional over- A secondary location will not need to be

loads evaluated.

K yw = S F K oy K B K my K v (40) NOTE: For this example, we will continue the

calculations for the driver only.

= (1) (1) (1) (1.088) (1.177)

Step 2.

= 1.281

G.11 Returning to the fundamental formula for δ φc = − arctan 0.25 (B.23)

calculating torque capacity = − 14.03624 degrees

Tooth bending under repeated loading: Use equation B.24 instead of B.4 to determine the

direction angle of critical tooth force, γWc.

S K dc Fe Jt m

T t = t ts (1) γ Wc = φ Wc + δ φc − α Wc (B.24)

2000 K tw

= 27.0876 − 14.03624 − 2.9442

(394)(0.727)(76.2953)(12.662)(0.403)(3.175)

=

2000(1.303) = 10.1072 degrees

= 135.9 Nm Step 3.

Tooth bending under occasional overloads

x WcC = x Wc − y Wc tan γ Wc (B.7)

S y K ys d c F e J t m

Ty =

2000 K yw

= 40.1601 − 2.0655 tan (10.1072)

=

2000 1.281 W cy = W c cos γ Wc (B.8)

= 342.1 Nm

= W c cos(10.1072)

G.12 Calculation of load capacity -- effect of

friction = 0.9845 W c

W cx = W c sin γ Wc (B.9)

Using the gear data and load conditions from the

previous example in section G.2, the effect of friction = W c sin(10.1072)

is now added. The following calculations add the

= 0.1755 W c

effect of a coefficient of friction of 0.25.

Calculate the bending stress factor,

Step 1. Determination of critical load locations and

h f = x WcC − x f (B.10)

sign of δφc in equation B.23 per table B.1.

For both gears, the minimum tooth--to--tooth = 39.7919 − x f

accuracy level is Q9, which exceeds the Q8 where xf varies depending on the location on the

requirements. As a result, fillet.

For the driver wf = 2 yf (B.11)

The critical load location is at point 3. where yf varies depending on the location on the

fillet.

εA = 0.3678 radians from G.2.6.1, step 1,

equation A.69

ε3P = 0.5115 radians from G.2.6.1, step 7,

s BS = 6 W c cos γ Wc hf

w 2f

(B.13)

equation A.80

Since ε3P > εA, we have recess action at the

critical point and the sign of δφc will be negative.

= 6 W c cos 10.1072 hf

w 2f

For the driven

The critical load location is at point 2.

= 5.9070 W c hf

w 2f

ε2G = 0.3677 radians from G.2.6.1, step 6, f BS = 6 cos γ Wc [ BT ] (B.14)

equation A.79

= 6 cos 10.1072 [BT ]

Since ε2G < εA, we have recess action at the

critical point and the sign of δφc will be negative = 5.9070 [BT ]

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Step 1. Select an initial trial value of τf. BT = hf

w 2f

(B.15)

Select τ f = 30°

Step 2. Calculate fillet data from this location angle, = 4.9366 2

(7.7910)

xf, yf, hf, wf:

= 0.081328

x f = x fC − r f cos τ f (A.49)

= 36.0255 − 1.3513 cos(30.0000) Step 4. Repeat these calculations for slightly higher

values of the location angle, repeating steps 2 and 3

= 34.8552 mm

above. Continue this iterative process with succes-

y f = y fC − r f sin τ f (A.50) sively larger values of the location angle until the

= 4.5711 − 1.3513 (sin 30.0000) bracketed term, BT, changes from increasing to

decreasing. The angle where this change occurs is

= 3.8955 mm the location of the critical section. See table G.8.

h f = x WcC − x f (B.10)

The maximum value for BT occurred at 68.79°. This

= 39.7919 − 34.8552

is the location of the critical section. For best

= 4.9367 mm accuracy, select an algorithm which increments τf by

wf = 2 yf (B.11) 0.01 degrees or smaller..

= 2 (3.8955) Step 5. Calculate the maximum bending stress

= 7.7910 mm factor

The inclusion of the effect of friction has changed the

f BSX = 6 cos γ Wc [ BTX ] (B.14)

value for hf.

Step 3. Calculate the bracketed term, BT, from = 6 (cos 10.1072) (0.09702137)

equation B.14: = 0.5731

Table G.8

τf xf yf hf wf BT Decreasing

30 34.8552 3.8955 4.9367 7.7910 0.081328

35 34.9186 3.7960 4.8733 7.5920 0.084549 No

40 34.9903 3.7025 4.8016 7.4050 0.087566 No

50 35.1569 3.5359 4.6350 7.0718 0.092681 No

60 35.3499 3.4008 4.4420 6.8016 0.096019 No

65 35.4544 3.3464 4.3375 6.6928 0.096833 No

67 35.4975 3.3272 4.2944 6.6544 0.096981 No

68 35.5193 3.3182 4.2726 6.6364 0.097012 No

68.3 35.5259 3.3156 4.2660 6.6312 0.097015 No

68.6 35.5324 3.3130 4.2595 6.6260 0.097019 No

68.7 35.5346 3.3121 4.2573 6.6242 0.097021 No

68.8 35.5368 3.3113 4.2551 6.6226 0.097018 Yes

68.79 35.5366 3.3113 4.2553 6.6226 0.097023 Max BT

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

Step 6. Calculate the stresses for the critical tooth Calculate the elastic stress concentration factor, Kfs

load M

Bending tensile stress, sBS from equation B.13

above:

w

K fs = H + r fc

fc

L

w fc

h fc

(C.3)

s BS = 6 W c cos γ Wc

hf

w 2f

(B.13)

calculation from G.4.1.

Therefore

= 6W c cos(10.1072) 4.25532

6.6226

K fs = 0.17881 + 6.6226

1.3513

0.15226

6.6226

4.2553

0.45124

= 1.7340

= 0.5731 W c

Find the stress concentration factors Kft and Kfy

Compressive stress, sCS: following the method shown in G.4.2.

s CS = W c sin γ Wc

w fc (B.17)

Again, using q = 1.0 for repeated loading

= 0.8 for occasional peak overloading

For repeated loading

= W c sin 10.1072

6.6226

K ft = 1 + q K fs − 1 (C.5)

= 0.0265 W c

= 1 + 1 (1.7340 − 1)

Combined tensile stress, st:

= 1.734

s t = s BS − s CS (B.18) For occasional peak overloading

= 0.5731 W c − 0.0265 W c K fy = 1 + q K fs − 1 (C.5)

= 0.5466 W c = 1 + 0.8 (1.7340 − 1)

Step 7. Calculate the form factor force--stress ratio = 1.5872

Ratio for the critical tooth force, AWsc Calculate the geometry factor following G.9.

W Jt = Y

A Wsc = s c (B.19) K ft (29)

t

=

Wc = 0.5917

0.5466 W c 1.734

= 1.8295 = 0.3412 for repeated loading

Adjustment ratio, mcA Jy = Y (30)

K fy

m cA = cos φ A

cos φ Wc

cos φ Wc + δ φc (B.25) = 0.5917

1.5872

= cos 20.1956 cos27.0876 − 14.03624

cos 27.0876

= 0.3728 for occasional peak overloading

Calculate torque capacity following G.5.

= 1.0269 Tooth bending under repeated loading:

Adjusted force--stress ratio, AWsA S t K ts d c F e J t m

Tt = (1)

A WsA = A Wsc m cA (B.21) 2000 K tw

= 1.8295 (1.0269) The only terms affected by friction compared to the

frictionless condition are Jt and Kfs.

= 1.8787

(394)(0.727)(76.2953)(12.662)(0.3412)(3.175)

Step 8. Calculate the non--dimensional Y factor Tt =

2000 (1.303)

A WsA = 115.0 Nm

Y= m (B.22)

The inclusion of the 0.25 coefficient of friction has

= 1.8787 reduced the load capacity of this gear to only 84.6%

3.175 of the capacity calculated without the effect of this

= 0.5917 friction factor.

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Gear specifications as defined by table G.1.

φ T = inv −1 inv φ +

pc − tG − tMG

2C

(F.5)

fillet we are examining in this example. We will use

the test case where the fillet was created as a

= inv −1 inv 20° +

9.9746 − 5.7277 − 4.2469

2 101.6

circular--arc. Also, for the purpose of this example,

= inv −1 0.0149

we will increase the outside diameter of the mating

gear (40 tooth) from 131.2418 as shown in table G.1 = 20 degrees

to 133.3 mm in order to create intentional fillet

interference. NOTE: In this example, the sum of the thickness of the

teeth for both gears is equal to the circular pitch. There-

Therefore fore, the pressure angle at the tight mesh center dis-

d OMG = 133.3 mm tance is equal to the pressure angle of the mesh, and

the tight mesh center distance happens to be equal to

G.13.1 Center distance and operating pressure the reference center distance.

angle

Step 5. Tight mesh center distance

G.13.1.1 Find tight mesh center distance

C (cos φ)

CT = (F.6)

Step 1. Pitch diameters of both gears cos φT

From table G.1 (cos 20°)

= 101.6

m = 3.175 (cos 20°)

NG = 24 = 101.6 mm

the evaluation

dG = NG m (F.1)

101.727 mm. Table G.1 does not specify whether

= 76.2 mm this center distance is a minimum that the mesh is

d MG = N MG m (F.2) likely to encounter. For the purpose of this example,

let us assume it is the minimum center distance.

= (40)(3.175)

Since this is greater than the tight mesh center

= 127.0 mm distance, CT, we will choose to do the evaluation at

Step 2. Reference center distance this distance.

d G + d MG Therefore,

C= (F.3)

2 C AN = 101.727 mm (F.7)

2

= 101.6 mm 2 N G C AN

d AG = (F.8)

Step 3. Circular pitch NG + NMG

pc = π m (F.4) (2)(24)(101.727)

= π (3.175) =

(24 + 40)

= 9.9746 mm = 76.2953 mm

Step 4. Pressure angle at tight mesh center distance

2 N MG C AN

d AMG = (F.9)

From table G.1 NG + NMG

tG = 5.7277 mm (2)(40)(101.727)

=

tMG = 4.2469 mm (24 + 40)

φ = 20° = 127.1588 mm

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

G.13.1.4 Adjustments for center distance G.13.1.4.6 Find the pressure angle at the

effective outside diameter of the mating gear

G.13.1.4.1 Find operating pressure angle

φ OEMG = arctan tan φ rCMG +

2 r rMG

d BMG

(F.15)

φ A = arccos C (cos φ)

C AN

(F.10)

= arctan tan 25.091° +

2(0.762)

119.341

= arccos 101.6

(cos 20°)

101.727

= 25.6882 degrees

G.13.1.4.7 Find the half tooth angle for the

= 20.19561 degrees backlash adjusted tooth thickness of the mating

gear

G.13.1.4.2 Find the backlash adjusted tooth

t BMG

thickness α BMG = (F.16)

d MG

127.0

= 9.9746 − 5.7277 = 0.03417 radians

+ 2 (101.6) [(inv(20.19561°) − inv(20°)] G.13.1.4.8 Find the angular location relative to

= 4.2469 + 203.2 [(0.015361) − (0.014904)] the adjusted tooth centerline

= 4.3398 mm + φrCMG

α =α + inv φ − tan φ

rCBMG BMG OEMG

(F.17)

From table G.1 for the mating gear.

= 0.03417 + inv(20°) − tan(25.6882°) + 0.43792

= 0.3426 degrees

G.13.1.4.3 Find the diameter of the center of the

tip round of the mating gear G.13.2 Path of tip of gear

G.13.2.1 Find the half tooth thickness angle at

d rCMG = d OMG − 2 r rMG (F.12) the effective outside diameter of the mating gear

= 133.3 − (2)(0.7620) α OEBMG = α BMG + inv φ − inv φ OEMG (F.19)

= 131.776 mm

= 0.03417 + inv(20°) − inv(25.6882°)

G.13.1.4.4 Find the base circle diameter of = 0.016404 radians

mating gear = 0.93996 degrees

G.13.2.2 Find the limit point for OE

d BMG = d MG cos φ (F.13)

γ OEMG = φ OEMG − φ A − α OEBMG (F.18)

= 127.0 cos 20°

= 119.3410 mm = 25.6882° − 20.19561° − 0.93996°

= 4.55263 degrees

G.13.1.4.5 Find the pressure angle at the center G.13.2.3 Find the limit point for OR

of the tip round for the mating gear

γ ORMG = − α rCBMG (F.20)

d rCMG

(F.14)

= − 0.00598 radians

G.13.2.4 Point path selection

For this example pick 5 total points on path, j = 1 to 5.

= arccos 119.341

131.776

(A greater number may be needed to be studied in a

specific application to ensure that there are no

= 0.43792 radians overlapping conditions.)

= 25.091 degrees

Therefore, n = 5.

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

γ r1MG = γ ORMG = − 0.00598 radians (F.21) x PPj = 0.5 d AG cos γ rjG (F.26)

= − 0.3426 degrees = 0.5 (76.2953) cos γ rjG

At point OEMG (F.27)

y PPj = 0.5 d AG sin γ rjG

γ r5MG = γ OEMG = 4.55263 degrees (F.22)

= 0.5 (76.2953) sin γ rjG

For points j = 2 to 4

x CMGj = C AN cos γ rjG (F.28)

γ ( n − j ) + γ rnMG( j − 1 )

γ rjMG = r1MG (F.23) = (101.727) cos γ rjG

(n − 1 )

For j = 2 y CMGj = C AN sin γ rjG (F.29)

γ r2MG =

(5 − 1)

Substitute in for each value of γrjG from table G.9.

= 0.8811 degrees Results are shown in table G.9.

For other values of j, see table G.9. Step 3. Find the x, y coordinate of the mating gear tip

radius for each point, j.

G.13.2.5 Find the tooth pitch angle at the mating

gear General form

x rCMGj = x CMGj − 0.5d rCMG (F.30)

β MG = 360° (F.25)

N MG

× cosγ rjG + γ rjMG + α rCBMG

= 360°

40 y rCMGj = y CMGj − 0.5d rCMG (F.31)

= 9.0 degrees × sinγ rjG + γ rjMG + α rCBMG

G.13.2.6 Calculation of path points projected on

the “fixed” gear For j = 1

β

γ rjG = γ rjMG + MG

2

N MG

NG

(F.24) = (100.9841) − 65.888 cos(6.92846°)

= 35.5772 mm

For j = 1

and

γ r1G = − 0.3426° + 9.0° 40

2 24

(F.24) y rCMGj = (12.2717) − 0.5(131.776)

and mating gear center referenced to the gear axes. For other values of j, see table G.9.

γrjMG γrjG xPPj yPPj xCMGj yCMGj xrCMGj yrCMGj ρrPPj xrj yj zpfCj Does

interference

exist

--0.3426° 6.9287° 37.8690 4.6019 100.9841 12.2717 35.5772 4.3236 2.3086 34.8209 4.2315 1.2516 No

0.8811° 8.9684° 37.6812 5.9468 100.4833 15.8582 35.6351 4.1992 2.6909 35.0557 3.7043 1.3007 No

2.1049° 11.0082° 37.4457 7.2843 99.8552 19.4247 35.7759 4.0928 3.6019 35.4226 3.4176 1.3016 No

3.3288° 13.0480° 37.1627 8.6125 99.1006 22.9666 35.9980 4.0114 4.7462 35.8110 3.2727 1.3160 No

4.5526° 15.0877° 36.8326 9.9297 98.2203 26.4793 36.2992 3.9625 5.9911 36.2314 3.2035 1.3830 Yes

AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION AGMA 930--A05

mating gear tip radius for each point j.

y rj = 4.6019 − 2.3086 + 0.762

2.3086

× (4.6019 − 4.3234)

General form of the equations

= 4.2315 mm

2

+ y PPj − y rCMGj

2 For other values of j, see table G.9.

G.13.3 Test for path point interference

(F.32)

As indicated in the problem statement, it is assumed

in this example that the 24 tooth gear has a full round

x rj = x PPj − Ã rPPj + r rMG

Ã rPPj x PPj − x rCMGj fillet region instead of a trochoid shaped region.

(F.33) The coordinate (xfc, yfc) for the fillet radius center has

previously been calculated (see A.40 and A.41) as

(36.0256, 4.5711).

y rj = y PPj − Ã rPPj + r rMG

Ã rPPj y PPj − y rCMGj To test for path point interference, we use the

(F.34) following:

For j = 1 z fCj = 2

x rj − x fC + y rj − y fC

2

(F.35)

rPPj

= 1.2516

x rj = 37.8690 − 2.3086 + 0.762 Since (zfC1 = 1.2516) < (rf = 1.3513), no fillet

2.3086

interference exists at the point j = 1.

× (37.8690 − 35.5772)

For other values of j, see table G.9. Notice that

= 34.8209 mm interference does exist at j = 5.

AGMA 930--A05 AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Bibliography

The following documents are either referenced in the text of AGMA 930--A05, Calculated Bending Load

Capacity of Powder Metallurgy (P/M) External Spur Gears, or indicated for additional information.

1. MPIF Standard 35, Material Standards for culating Geometry Factors for Spur and Helical

P/M Structural Parts, 1997 edition. Gears

2. Sanderow, H.I., Spirko, J.R. and Friedhoff, 6. AGMA 2000--A88, Gear Classification and

T.B., Fatigue Properties of P/M Materials: Relation- Inspection Handbook -- Tolerances And Measuring

ship of RBF and AF Results to Material--Processing Methods For Unassembled Spur And Helical Gears

Parameters, Advances in Powder Metallurgy and (Including Metric Equivalents)

Particulate Materials, 1997, Vol. 2, MPIF, Princeton,

NJ, 1997, pgs. 13--117. 7. ANSI/AGMA 1012--F90, Gear Nomencla-

3. ANSI/AGMA 2001--D04, Fundamental Rat- ture, Definitions of Terms with Symbols

ing Factors And Calculation Methods For Involute 8. AGMA 900--G00, Style Manual for the Prep-

Spur And Helical Gear Teeth aration of Standards, Information Sheets and

4. AGMA 908--B89, Geometry Factors for De- Editorial Manuals

termining the Pitting Resistance and Bending

Strength of Spur, Helical and Herringbone Gear 9. ANSI B92.1--1970, Involute Splines and

Teeth. Inspection, table 109.

5. AGMA 918--A93, A Summary of Numerical 10. 98FTM2, Mesh Friction in Gearing, C.M.

Examples Demonstrating the Procedures for Cal- Denny, October 1998.

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AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

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- Fatigue Life Analysis of RIMS (Using FEA)Diunggah olehraghavgmail
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