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Experiment No.

1
Aim: Introduction to Local Area Network with its cables, connectors and topologies.
Theory/Description:
What Is a LAN?
A LAN is a high-speed data network that covers a relatively small geographic area. It typically
connects workstations, personal computers, printers, servers, and other devices. LANs offer
computer users many advantages, including shared access to devices and applications, file exchange
between connected users, and communication between users via electronic mail and other
applications.

LAN Protocols and the OSI Reference Model


LAN protocols function at the lowest two layers of the OSI reference model. Following figure
illustrates how several popular LAN protocols map to the OSI reference model.

Figure: Popular LAN Protocols Mapped to the OSI Reference Model

LAN Media-Access Methods


Media contention occurs when two or more network devices have data to send at the same time.
Because multiple devices cannot talk on the network simultaneously, some type of method must be
used to allow one device access to the network media at a time. This is done in two main ways:
carrier sense multiple access collision detects (CSMA/CD) and token passing.

In networks using CSMA/CD technology such as Ethernet, network devices contend for the network
media. When a device has data to send, it first listens to see if any other device is currently using the
network. If not, it starts sending its data. After finishing its transmission, it listens again to see if a
collision occurred. A collision occurs when two devices send data simultaneously. When a collision
happens, each device waits a random length of time before resending its data. In most cases, a

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collision will not occur again between the two devices. Because of this type of network contention,
the busier a network becomes, the more collisions occur. This is why performance of Ethernet
degrades rapidly as the number of devices on a single network increases.

In token-passing networks such as Token Ring and FDDI, a special network packet called a token is
passed around the network from device to device. When a device has data to send, it must wait until
it has the token and then sends its data. When the data transmission is complete, the token is released
so that other devices may use the network media. The main advantage of token-passing networks is
that they are deterministic. In other words, it is easy to calculate the maximum time that will pass
before a device has the opportunity to send data. This explains the popularity of token-passing
networks in some real-time environments such as factories, where machinery must be capable of
communicating at a determinable interval.

For CSMA/CD networks, switches segment the network into multiple collision domains. This
reduces the number of devices per network segment that must contend for the media. By creating
smaller collision domains, the performance of a network can be increased significantly without
requiring addressing changes.

Normally CSMA/CD networks are half-duplex, meaning that while a device sends information, it
cannot receive at the time. While that device is talking, it is incapable of also listening for other
traffic. This is much like a walkie-talkie. When one person wants to talk, he presses the transmit
button and begins speaking. While he is talking, no one else on the same frequency can talk. When
the sending person is finished, he releases the transmit button and the frequency is available to
others.

When switches are introduced, full-duplex operation is possible. Full-duplex works much like a
telephone—you can listen as well as talk at the same time. When a network device is attached
directly to the port of a network switch, the two devices may be capable of operating in full-duplex
mode. In full-duplex mode, performance can be increased, but
not quite as much as some like to claim. A 100-Mbps Ethernet segment is capable of transmitting
200 Mbps of data, but only 100 Mbps can travel in one direction at a time. Because most data
connections are asymmetric (with more data travelling in one direction than the other), the gain is
not as great as many claim. However, full-duplex operation does increase the throughput of most
applications because the network media is no longer shared. Two devices on a full-duplex
connection can send data as soon as it is ready.

Token-passing networks such as Token Ring can also benefit from network switches. In large
networks, the delay between turns to transmit may be significant because the token is passed around
the network.

L A N Tr a n s m i s s i o n M e t h o d s
LAN data transmissions fall into three classifications: unicast, multicast, and broadcast.
In each type of transmission, a single packet is sent to one or more nodes.

In a unicast transmission, a single packet is sent from the source to a destination on a network. First,
the source node addresses the packet by using the address of the destination node. The package is
then sent onto the network, and finally, the network passes the packet to its destination.

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A multicast transmission consists of a single data packet that is copied and sent to a specific subset
of nodes on the network. First, the source node addresses the packet by using a multicast address.
The packet is then sent into the network, which makes copies of the packet and sends a copy to each
node that is part of the multicast address.

A broadcast transmission consists of a single data packet that is copied and sent to all nodes on the
network. In these types of transmissions, the source node addresses the packet by using the broadcast
address. The packet is then sent on to the network, which makes copies of the packet and sends a
copy to every node on the network

LAN Topologies
LAN topologies define the manner in which network devices are organized. Four common LAN
topologies exist: bus, ring, star, and tree. These topologies are logical architectures, but the actual
devices need not be physically organized in these configurations. Logical bus and ring topologies,
for example, are commonly organized physically as a star. A bus topology is a linear LAN
architecture in which transmissions from network stations propagate the length of the medium and
are received by all other stations. Of the three
most widely used LAN implementations, Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 networks—including 100BaseT—
implement a bus topology, which is illustrated in Figure 2-3.

Figure 2-3 Some Networks Implement a Local Bus Topology

A ring topology is a LAN architecture that consists of a series of devices connected to one another
by unidirectional transmission links to form a single closed loop. Both Token Ring/IEEE 802.5 and
FDDI networks implement a ring topology. Figure 2-4 depicts a logical ring topology.

Figure 2-4 Some Networks Implement a Logical Ring Topology

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A star topology is a LAN architecture in which the endpoints on a network are connected to a
common central hub, or switch, by dedicated links. Logical bus and ring topologies are often
implemented physically in a star topology, which is illustrated in Figure 2-5.

A tree topology is a LAN architecture that is identical to the bus topology, except that branches with
multiple nodes are possible in this case. Figure 2-5 illustrates a logical tree topology.

Figure 2-5 A Logical Tree Topology Can Contain Multiple Nodes

LAN Devices
Devices commonly used in LANs include repeaters, hubs, LAN extenders, bridges, LAN switches,
and routers.

Repeaters:
A repeater is a physical layer device used to interconnect the media segments of an extended
network. A repeater essentially enables a series of cable segments to be treated as a single cable.
Repeaters receive signals from one network segment and amplify, retime, and retransmit those
signals to another network segment. These actions prevent signal deterioration caused by long cable
lengths and large numbers of connected devices. Repeaters are incapable of performing complex
filtering and other traffic processing. In addition, all electrical signals, including electrical
disturbances and other errors, are repeated and amplified. The total number of repeaters and network
segments that can be connected is limited due to timing and other issues. Figure 2-6 illustrates a
repeater connecting two network segments.

Figure 2-6 A Repeater Connects Two Network Segments

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Hub:
A hub is a physical layer device that connects multiple user stations, each via a dedicated cable.
Electrical interconnections are established inside the hub. Hubs are used to create a physical star
network while maintaining the logical bus or ring configuration of the LAN. In some respects, a hub
functions as a multiport repeater.

A LAN extender is a remote-access multilayer switch that connects to a host router. LAN extenders
forward traffic from all the standard network layer protocols (such as IP, IPX, and AppleTalk) and
filter traffic based on the MAC address or network layer protocol type. LAN extenders scale well
because the host router filters out unwanted broadcasts and multicasts. However, LAN extenders are
not capable of segmenting traffic or creating security firewalls. Figure 2-7 illustrates multiple LAN
extenders connected to the host router through a WAN.

Figure 2-7 Multiple LAN Extenders Can Connect to the Host Router Through a WAN

Network Media & Connectors


Major types of network cables used in LAN are:
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coaxial (thick and thin)
twisted pair (unshielded and shielded)
fiber-optic

Common media connectors use d in LAN are.:


−Registered Jack 11 (RJ-11)
−Registered Jack 45 (RJ-45)
−Attachment Unit Interface (AUI)
−British Naval Connector (BNC)
−Small Computer System Interface (SCSI)

−Single Mode Fibre-Optic Connector (SC-type and ST-type)

This are the 802.3 Ethernet


standards for LAN:
−10Base2
−10Base5
−10BaseF
−10BaseT
−100Base FX
−100 BaseT

−1000Basex.

These are the basic hardware


Components used in LAN.:
−network interface card (NIC)
−hub
−repeater
−switch
−bridge
−gateway
−wireless access point

Ethernet Repeaters and Hubs


Ethernet hubs and repeaters operate at the Physical Layer of the OSI Reference model and are
defined by IEEE 802.3c/d. They are used to connect together one or more Ethernet cable segments
of any media type. If an Ethernet segment were allowed to exceed the maximum length or the
maximum number of attached systems to the segment, the signal quality would deteriorate. (If
unchecked this would ultimately lead to errors in the data.)

Hubs and repeaters may be used between a pair of segments (see below) to provide signal
amplification and regeneration to restore a good signal level before sending it from one cable
segment to another. By allowing two or more LAN segments to be connected, they allow the
network to span a larger distance. They also provide electrical isolation from failures in the cable or
attached systems, protecting equipment on other LAN segments from the effect of the fault.

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A very important fact about hubs and repeaters is that they allow users to share an Ethernet LAN. A
network of repeaters and hubs is therefore called a "Shared Ethernet" or a "Collision Domain".
The various systems sharing the Ethernet all compete for access using the CSMA/CD access
protocol. This means that only one system is allowed to proceed with a transmission of a frame
within a Collision Domain at any one time. Each system has to share a proportion of the available
network bandwidth.

Regenerating Preambles and Repeating Runt Frames


The DPLL in the transceiver can not always lock on to the start of a frame's preamble. Usually this
takes a number of bits to completely synchronise with the Manchester Encoded data. An important
job of a repeater is therefore to reconstruct the preamble. For example, consider a frame sent by X
(above). This frame will be received by the computer Y and the repeater. In each case, the first part
of the preamble will be lost, since the transceiver will not have acquired lock on to the Manchester
Encoded clock signal. If the shortened preamble were to be sent on to computer Z, it may be
insufficient to allow Z to acquire a lock before the start of the frame. The repeater must therefore
reconstruct the full preamble before the frame is sent out of the repeater.

An Ethernet LAN may transport parts of a frame (e.g. as a result of a collision), any under-sized
frame is known as a Runt. A repeater must extend any very short bit sequences (less than 96 bits) to
ensure that they are seen by all computers on the LAN, this ensures proper operation.

Note that since a repeater is responsible for changing the bit timing, and may introduce additional
bits, as above, it can not guarantee that the Inter-Frame Gap (IFG) generated by the sender is
preserved in all cases. It should however not reduce this below 47 bit times.

Collisions and Repeaters


If a repeater sees a collision on a cable segment, the repeater detects this (in the normal way), and
then generates a JAM signal to all connected output ports. This ensures that every computer
connected to the LAN is aware of the collision, and does not try to transmit during the collision
period.

Hubs
Hubs are a form of repeater for an Ethernet LAN which has multiple ports (they are sometimes also
known as "multi-port repeaters" or "active star networks").

Each port of a hub has an RJ-45 connector able to accept a patch cable to connect to a wall outlet.
The other end of the cable is normally connected to a network interface card with a 10BT outlet.

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Many hubs also have an AUI connector which may be used to connect an external transceiver to
which other types of Ethernet Media may be attached. (Sometimes a 10B2 connector is also
provided to allow connection directly to a coaxial cable thin Ethernet network.) Whatever the type of
connector, a single hub is a only able to connect a group of equipments operating at the same speed
(i.e. all equipment connected to a 10BT hub must operate at 10 Mbps).

An Ethernet Hub.

Each port (or interface) allows one piece of equipment to be connected to the hub. In this case the
system connected via the port F is sending a frame of data to the system connected at port C. The
hub is not able to recognise the addresses in the header of a frame,and therefore is unable to identify
which port to send to. Therefore, every frame is sent to every output port. (This is in contrast to a
bridge, switch or router, each of which only forwards a packet if the destination address of the packet
corresponds to a system reachable via the output interface.)

Typical office hub. Much larger hubs are typically used to connect larger groups of users.

Monitoring Segment Performance


Any repeater or hub may optionally monitor the number of collisions which it observes from each
port. If the number rises above a threshold, the repeater / hub may then disable the port (sometimes
called a "partition").

A hub may also monitor the state of the transceiver at each 10BT and 10BF Ethernet port. On these
interfaces, nodes send a unique signal every 16 8 ms. This signal is called an "idle pulse". Receivers
monitor the medium to check that idle pulses are received. If neither an Ethernet frame, or an idle
pulse is received within 50-150 ms, the receiver may assume that the cable is not functioning
correctly. A hub may then disable the port (sometimes called "partition"). A disabled port is made
active again when 2-10 valid idle pulses are received. This can protect other correctly operating ports
from the disruption caused by a faulty NIC, transceiver or hub. The idle pulse is also used in some
pieces of equipment to automatically detect the speed of transmission (10 or 100 Mbps) and
availability of the full duplex mode.

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Examples of Network Equipment

The products featured on these pages are illustrative of the types of equipment which is available.
Exact specs and details of current models are available from each of the manufacturers. This page
does not attempt to compare or contrast the range of products offered by the various manufacturers.
Such a comparison must consider the user needs, the existing equipment in use in the LAN, the
features required and the overall cost.

Desktop Computer Network Interface Cards

Network Interface Cards come with a variety of connectors. The simplest cards allow only one type
of cabling, but combination (combo) cards generally support a range of media types. The most
commonly sold type of card is now the 10/100 Mbps interface card for twisted pair cabling.

A selection of Network Interface cards (NICs) from 3COM

More sophisticated interface cards are also available for network workstations, file servers and other
network computers. These cards usually allow higher throughput, and provide more buffering for
storing frames received or to be transmitted. Some cards support additional layer 2 protocols to
communicate with switches providing enhanced management and traffic control.

Laptop PC Network Interface Cards


A number of suppliers offering Network Interface Card (NIC) for portable computer users. This type
of NIC usually consists of a card (for a PCMCIA / CardBus slot) and a connector cable which
connects the card to the network. The card shown supports 10/100 both 10 Mbps and 100 Mbps
networks, and supports the IEEE Auto-Negotiation standard to automatically configure itself to run
at the highest speed supported by the LAN segment. This dual-mode operation eases the migration
from 10 Mbps Ethernet to 100 Mbps Ethernet providing true "plug and play".

Hardware of SMC CardBus Adaptor


 32-bit CardBus bus-master interface and on-chip DMA powered via 3.3V supply
 IEEE 802.3-standard 100BASE-TX and 10BASE-T

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 IEEE-standard Auto Negotiation for configuration of 10/100 Mbps and half/full-duplex
configuration of 10/100 Mbps and half/full-duplex operation .
 RJ-45 connector provides 100 and 10 Mbps interface with integrated transceivers

The internal architecture of this card is shown below:

Ethernet Repeaters and Transceivers

Repeaters and transceivers conforming to the IEEE 802.3 standards are available from a wide range
of manufacturers.

Ethernet Hubs

Most hubs in current use operate at 10 Mbps. Although some hubs are large devices with a large
number of ports and additional management and security features, by far the majority of hubs in use
have 6-12 ports and are small compact units designed for placing on an office desk.

8-port 3Com Office Connect Hub

To simplify network connections, hubs are often stacked on top of one another.

Large modular hubs are also available for cabling large buildings and generally include extra
features to ease management of the ports. Many modern modular hubs provide bridging / switching
to allow connection between different LANs and different types of media.
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The Linkbuilder MSH, a large modern modular hub manufactured by 3COM.

Ethernet Switches
The emerging popularity of switching products can be viewed as a resurgence of bridge technology
in a simpler, lower-cost, and higher-performance device with many more ports being supported.
Most switches may operate at wire speed, providing much better performance than a traditional
bridge. For example, a single 10 Mbps Ethernet interface can support a maximum theoretical
transmission of 14,880 pps for 64-octet (minimum-size) frames. The switching logic inside the
switch buffers the received frames, identifies the appropriate output port and retransmits the frame
when this port becomes available. The decisions needed by the switch to identify the output port is
based on the destination MAC address contained in each packet. Generally, this forwarding decision
does not consider other information buried deep inside the packet. Unlike a bridge, a switch can
forward data with very low latency, providing performance that is closer to single-LAN performance
than bridged-LAN performance.

Ethernet Switches come in a variety of shapes and forms - ranging from the simplest low cost
devices with a small number of ports to expensive high performance switches with a wealth of
features to control and manage the data transmission in large networks.

A typical mid-range equipment available in 12- and 24-port versions. The LinkSwitch 1000 from
3COM provides wire-speed 10 Mbps on all switched Ethernet ports and a high-speed 100 Mbps Fast
Ethernet "up link" connection towards the network core.

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At the centre (or core) of a large enterprise network, modular switches are often used. Such
equipment is generally connected to less expensive switches or hubs which provide the connections
to individual users. The modular switches provide high speed packet processing and a range of
security / management functions. The modular design allows additional interface card to be added as
the network expands or new types of network (e.g. Gigabit Ethernet) are added.

Viva-Voce Questions:
1.What is computer network ?

2. What is difference between LAN , MAN and WAN ?

3. What is physical address and logical address ?

4. What is switch ?

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Experiment No. 2

Aim: Installation of UTP, Co-axial cable, Cross cable, parallel cable NIC and LAN card.

Theory/Description:
Configuring 3Com's EtherLink 16 (3C507 and 3C507TP) Network Interface Cards:
There are two models of 3Com's 16-bit EtherLink 16 card: the 3C507, and the 3C507TP. Both cards
are 16-bit network interface cards recommended for CNS and ISA PC-based servers; both cards are
supported by VINES 4.11(5), but neither is supported by VINES 5.00(5).

The 3C507 contains a BNC connector for coaxial connection to thinnet networks and an AUI for
connection to an external transceiver; the 3C507TP has a built-in 10BASE-T
transceiver with an RJ-45 jack for direct connection to twisted-pair: you'll need a
TPAU to connect the 3C507 to TTP (telephone twisted-pair), but you don't for
the 3C507TP.

Before installing either card in your server (or workstation), please note these important
considerations:
 You must know both the hub type and mode (10BASE-T or Draft D) of the LAN to which you'll
be connecting before the card's network-related settings can be properly made; and
 Because of a special addressing scheme used by 3Com, no other card in the server or workstation
can use I/O address 100.

This tutorial provides information about all these issues and includes
configuration settings for the Banyan ICA card, which uses I/O address 100 by
default. Refer to Figure 1 or the list below for an overview of the process. You
may wish to leave your existing LAN card in place in case you encounter
problems installing the 3C507; you can remove the existing card at a later date.

Overview of Process
Be sure to plan out settings and configuration information, in advance. Here's a summary:
1. Find out what hub and mode your LAN uses and decide which settings your 3C507TP or your
TPAU should be set to, according to the charts below. Set the jumpers on the 3C507TP.

2. Look at your server's Add/Change Card screen. Write down all existing cards and settings listed.

3. Note whether I/O address 100 is already being used. Change the address to something other than
100 and write that down. If the card is a Banyan ICA card, use I/O 120, 140, 160, 180, or other
address.

4. Add the 3C507 or 3C507TP to the Add/Change Card screen by selecting 3Com EtherLink 16
from the scrolling list; enter the settings for the card (see page 4 of this guide).

5. Shut down your server normally.

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6. Open the server case. If you changed a previously installed card from I/O address 100, and that
card requires setting jumper cables on a card, remove the card, reconfigure the jumpers, and
reinstall it.

7. ISA-based server: Install the 3C507 into the server. CNS server: you must configure the card in a
DOS-based machine prior to installing it.

8. Reboot the server (or workstation where you're configuring card for CNS) with DOS boot
diskette. Configure the card using the 3Com507 or 507TP utility.

9. Make sure the settings on the TPAU are correct before connecting to the network.

10.Connect the TTP (telephone twisted pair) to the TPAU or to the RJ-45 port in the 3C507TP.

Configure Card (or TPAU) for 10BASE-T or Draft D


You cannot correctly configure the 3C507TP or a TPAU without knowing your LAN's hub type and
the operating mode of that hub. A misconfigured card may appear to work but there's no guarantee
that it will work consistently -- or that it won't wreak havoc on your LAN: such connectivity
hardware configured incorrectly can "flood" the LAN and severely disrupt local communications.
Your Telecom representative will be able to tell you the hub type and the 10BASE-T version, or you
can try to guess by checking the TPAU on a neighboring workstation: if it's an old ASP300 -- the
kind with only one switch -- then your subnet can only be Draft D and link-integrity cannot be
enabled on the TPAU. (The ASP300 has only one switch, which should always be down.) It's best,
however, to consult with your Telecom representative for a definitive answer. When you have the
information, set the jumpers on the 3C507TP for 10BASE-T or Draft D using the settings in the table
below. Or set the switches on the Ungermann-Bass TPAU that you'll connect to the 3C507.

Switch settings for ASP300


The Ungermann-Bass ASP300 TPAU has only one setting, which is for the SQE (signal quality
error) test feature. This setting should always be down in order to disable that feature.

Switch settings for Ungermann-Bass ASP310 and ASP320 TPAUs for use
with 3C507 Card
Hub model: U-B ASM300 U-B ASM310 U-B ASM320 AT&T StarLAN AT&T StarLAN 10
Ethernet Draft D 10BaseT Draft D 10BaseT Draft D 10BaseT Pre-10BT 10BaseT Pre-10BT 10BaseT
version:
1 SQE Test B na B B (down) B B (down) B (down) na B (down) B (down)
(down) (down) (down)
2 Receive B na B A (up) B A (up) A (up) na A (up) A (up)
Threshold (down) (down) (down)
(RX TH)
3 Link Test A (up) na A (up) B (down) A (up) B (down) A (up) na A (up) B (down)

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Jumper Settings for 3C507TP
Hub U-B ASM300 U-B ASM310 U-B ASM320 AT&T StarLAN AT&T StarLAN 10
model:
Ethernet Draft D 10BaseT Draft D 10Baset Draft D 10BaseT Pre-10BT 10BaseT Pre-10BT 10BaseT
version:
J1 DC Sig off na off off Off off off na off off
J2 Link beat off na off on Off on off na off` on
J3 RX TH low na low norm Low norm norm na norm norm
J4 Eq off na off off Off off off na off off
J6 Xmit norm na norm norm Norm norm norm na norm norm
J7 Impedance 100 na 100 100 100 100 100 ohms na 100 ohms 100 ohms
ohms ohms ohms ohms ohms

Add the 3Com Card to the Server Configuration


After setting the jumpers on the 3C507TP and configuring the card using 3Com's DOS-based utility,
you must add the card to your server's configuration and build Banyan drivers for the card.

1. From the Operator Menu at the server console, select System Maintenance.
The System Maintenance menu will be displayed.

2. Select Configure/Diagnose Server from the System Maintenance menu.

3. Select the Add-a-card function.

4.Select EtherLink 16 from the scrollable list displayed on the Add/Change card screen.
-- If any card on the Add/Change card screen is already set at I/O address 100,change the card's
settings. See the "ICA Card Configuration" instructions below for information about changing the
ICA card's settings.

5.Note all settings on a sheet of a paper. Save the settings by pressing <F10>.
Shut the server down in the normal fashion. When you reboot, Banyan VINES
will build drivers for all the cards.

Configure 3C507 or 3C507TP


The 3C507 comes with a DOS-based utility from 3Com for configuring the card's resources, such as
I/O addresses and interrupt levels: if you're installing the card in a CNS server, you must configure it
in a DOS-based machine prior to installing it in the CNS. If you didn't receive the configuration
utility on disk with your card, you can download it from FsPatches@CTS50@Servers. Filenames for
the configuration utilities are 3C507.EXE and 3C507TP.EXE, respectively. To run the utility, simply
type 3C507 or 3c507tp at the DOS prompt, and follow the instructions onscreen to accept or change
the defaults as needed:

Recommended Settings
Defaults 3C507 3C507TP
I/O Base Address 300 200-3F0, in 10 hex 200-3F0, in 10 hex
increments increments
Interrupt Level 3 Can use 3, 5, 7, 9 10, 11*, Can use 3, 5, 7, 9 10, 11*,
12, or 15 12, or 15
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Transceiver Type On Board External Internal
RAM Base 0d0000 Can use 0c0000, 0c8000, Can use 0c0000, 0c8000,
Address 0d0000, or 0d8000 0d0000, or 0d8000
RAM Size 64 use 16 only use 16 only
ROM Base 0c6000 0c6000 0c6000
Address
ROM Size 0 0 0
Zero wait state Disabled Disabled Disabled
Data mode Turbo Turbo Turbo
 The Adaptec SCSI adapter uses interrupt 11 by default. Don't use interrupt 11 if you have an
Adaptec.

ICA Card Configuration


The 3C507 is hardcoded to use a second I/O address, I/O 100, in addition to
whatever I/O address you configure. According to 3Com, this is necessary so
that the configuration program can locate the card. What this means is that you
cannot use I/O address for any of the your other cards, so when you install the
3C507 in your server or workstation, be sure to check all other cards' I/O
addresses and change any that are set for 100. Since the ICA card's default I/O
address is 100, chances are you will have to change that address when you
install a 3C507 or 3C507TP.

It is recommended that the address be changed to one of the addresses in the


table below at the same time you add the 3Com card: you can change the ICA
card's address on the Banyan Add-A-Card screen, then shut down the server,
remove the ICA card, correct the jumpers to match the settings already entered
in the Add-A-Card screen, put the card back in the server, and reboot. (This
method saves a reboot). Note that there is no jumper #8 in the table or on the
card -- this isn't a typo.

Banyan ICA card: Jumper-block settings for various I/O addresses


Address
Jumper 120 140 160 180
5 down up down Up
6 up down down Up
7 up up up Down
9 up up up Up

Installation of 10/100 Dual-speed Fast Ethernet PCI Adapters :

The 10/100BASE-TX Fast Ethernet PCI Adapter is a 32-bit LAN adapter for use in personal
computers with PCI computer bus slots.

This adapter is a dual-speed adapter and features one RJ-45 connec-tor for either a 10 Mbps IEEE
802.3 or a 100 Mbps IEEE 802.3u Ethernet network connection over unshielded twisted-pair
(UTP) cable. The adapter automatically senses the connection speed, switches to either 10
Mbps or 100 Mbps and indicates the link status on the LEDs.
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The adapter also features Wake on LAN function for ACPI-compliant system.

1.1 Adapter Features


The features of the 10/100 Fast Ethernet PCI adapter are:
• Automatically senses 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps connection
• Supports auto-negotiation for the connection speed and duplex mode
• PCI revision 2.0 or later compliance, 32-bit PCI half-card
• Wake on LAN support
• Three status LEDs
• Optional RPL Boot ROM for network operating systems
• Supports 100BASE-TX connection with UTP Category 5 cabling
• Supports 10BASE-T connection with UTP Category 3, 4, or 5
cabling
Viva-Voce Questions :
1.What is difference between crossover , rollover and straight through cable ?
2. When two switches connected , which type of cable used ?
3.What is NIC ?
4. What is PCI ?

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 17


Experiment No. 3

Aim: To study the network topology and IP Addressing scheme of Institute Network.

Theory/Description:

Types of Toplology

Bus topology
Bus Topology is the simplest of network topologies. In this type of topology, all the nodes (computers as
well as servers) are connected to the single cable (called bus), by the help of interface connectors. This
central cable is the backbone of the network and is known as Bus (thus the name). Every workstation
communicates with the other device through this Bus.

Advantages
Advantages (benefits) of Bus Topology
1) It is easy to set-up and extend bus network.
2) Cable length required for this topology is the least compared to other networks.
3) Bus topology costs very less.
4) Linear Bus network is mostly used in small networks. Good for LAN.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 18


Disadvantages (Drawbacks) of Bus Topology
1) There is a limit on central cable length and number of nodes that can be connected.
2) Dependency on central cable in this topology has its disadvantages. If the main cable (i.e.
bus ) encounters some problem, whole network breaks down.
3) Proper termination is required to dump signals. Use of terminators is must.
4) It is difficult to detect and troubleshoot fault at individual station.
5) Maintenance costs can get higher with time.
6) Efficiency of Bus network reduces, as the number of devices connected to it increases.
7) It is not suitable for networks with heavy traffic.
8) Security is very low because all the computers receive the sent signal from the source.

Star topology In Star topology, all the components of network are connected to the central
device called “hub” which may be a hub, a router or a switch. Unlike Bus topology (discussed
earlier), where nodes were connected to central cable, here all the workstations are connected to
central device with a point-to-point connection. So it can be said that every computer is indirectly
connected to every other node by the help of “hub ”.
Star Topology Diagram

Advantages of Star Topology


1) As compared to Bus topology it gives far much better performance, signals don’t necessarily get
transmitted to all the workstations.
2) Easy to connect new nodes or devices. In star topology new nodes can be added easily without
affecting rest of the network. Similarly components can also be removed easily.
3) Centralized management. It helps in monitoring the network.
4) Failure of one node or link doesn’t affect the rest of network. At the same time its easy to detect the
failure and troubleshoot it.
Disadvantages of Star Topology
1) Too much dependency on central device has its own drawbacks. If it fails whole network goes down.
2) The use of hub, a router or a switch as central device increases the overall cost of the network.
3) Performance and as well number of nodes which can be added in such topology is depended on
capacity of central device.

Ring Topology In Ring Topology, all the nodes are connected to each-other in such a way that
they make a closed loop. Each workstation is connected to two other components on either side, and it
communicates with these two adjacent neighbors. Data travels around the network, in one direction.
Sending and receiving of data takes place by the help of TOKEN.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 19


Advantages of Ring Topology
1) This type of network topology is very organized. Each node gets to send the data when it receives an
empty token. This helps to reduces chances of collision. Also in ring topology all the traffic flows in only
one direction at very high speed.
2) Even when the load on the network increases, its performance is better than that of Bus topology.
3) There is no need for network server to control the connectivity between workstations.
4) Additional components do not affect the performance of network.
5) Each computer has equal access to resources.
Disadvantages of Ring Topology
1) Each packet of data must pass through all the computers between source and destination. This makes it
slower than Star topology.
2) If one workstation or port goes down, the entire network gets affected.
3) Network is highly dependent on the wire which connects different components.
4) MAU’s and network cards are expensive as compared to Ethernet cards and hubs.

Mesh Topology In a mesh network topology, each of the network node, computer and other devices,
are interconnected with one another. Every node not only sends its own signals but also relays data from
other nodes. In fact a true mesh topology is the one where every node is connected to every other node in
the network. This type of topology is very expensive as there are many redundant connections, thus it is
not mostly used in computer networks. It is commonly used in wireless networks. Flooding or routing
technique is used in mesh topology.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 20


Mesh Topology Diagram

Advantages of Mesh topology


1) Data can be transmitted from different devices simultaneously. This topology can withstand high
traffic.
2) Even if one of the components fails there is always an alternative present. So data transfer doesn’t get
affected.
3) Expansion and modification in topology can be done without disrupting other nodes.
Disadvantages of Mesh topology
1) There are high chances of redundancy in many of the network connections.
2) Overall cost of this network is way too high as compared to other network topologies.
3) Set-up and maintenance of this topology is very difficult. Even administration of the network is
tough.

IP Address Classes:-
• IP addressing supports five different address classes: A, B, C, D and E. Only classes A, B and C are
available for commercial use.
Class A addresses
1. Class A addresses are designed for large organizations with a large number of hosts or routers. 2. In
this the first octet of the address identifies the network and the next three octets are used to identify the
host. 3. The first bit of first octet is always 0 and the remaining 7 bits are used to identify the network
RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 21
address. 4. The next three octets i.e. 24 bits are used to identify the host. 5. The class support addresses
from 0.0.0.0 to 0.255.255.255 6. The first block of network address starts with 1.0.0.0 and the last block
of network address starts with 127.0.0.0. 7. As there are 7 bits in network address, 2 7 = 128 blocks of
network address are possible. Out of these two network blocks are reserved. Hence total 126 address
blocks are used. 8. Each network blocks can have 2 24--- 2 hosts i.e. 16,777,214 host address. Two
addresses are less as one address is reserved for the broadcast address and one address is reserved for the
network. 9. A block in class A is too large for almost any organization. This means most of the addresses
in class A are wasted and are not used.
Class B address
1. The class B addresses are designed for medium sized organizations with tens of thousands of attached
hosts or routers. 2. In this, the first two octets of the address identify the network and the next two octets
identify the host within the network. 3. The first two bits (high order bits) of first octet are always 1, 0.
Thus the remaining 14 bits identify the network
4. The third and fourth octet i.e. 6 bits are used to identify the host. 5. The first network block of this
class covers the addresses from 128.0.0.0 to 128.0.255.255 (net id 128.0). The last network block of this
class covers addresses from 191.255.255.255 (net id 191.255) 6. The maximum number of network
blocks in class B is 214 = 16384. 7 Each network block in class B can have 2 16--- 2 = 65,534 hosts. 8. A
block in class B is also very large and most of the address in class B is also wasted.
Class C address
1. The class C addresses is designed for small organizations with a small number of attached hosts or
routers. 2. In class C, the first three octets of address are used for network and the last octet is used to
identify the host. 3. The first three bits of first octet are always set to 1, 1, 0. 4. The remaining 24 - 3 = 21
bits are used for network identification and only 8 bits are used for host. 5. In class C, 2 21 = 2,097,152
network blocks are possible. 6. Thus, each block in class C address can have 2 8 - 2 = 254 hosts. 7. The
first block of network covers addresses from 192.0.0.0 to 192.0.0.255. The last block of network covers
the addresses form 223.255.255.0 to 223.255.255.255 8. The class C addresses are too less for many
organizations as it supports only 254 hosts in a network. Following are the classes of IP:- CLASSES
Range Class A 1.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 Class B 128.0.0.0 to 191.255.255.255 Class C 192.0.0.0 to
223.255.255.255 Class D 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255
Class E 240.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 22


Class D address 1. Class D addresses are used for multicast groups (multicasting) 2. The concept
of division of octets into network id and host id does not apply to class D. 3. The first four bits of first
octet in class D are always set to 1,1,1,0. 4. The address range is 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255
Class E address
1. The Class E address is reserved for future use and is experimental. 2. The concept of network id and
host id does not apply on class E also. 3. The first four bits of first octet are always set to 1,1,1,1.

Figure 3.1IP addresses for class A,B,C,D and E

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 23


Experiment No. 4

Aim: Case Study of Ethernet (10 base 5,10 base 2,10 base T)

Theory/Description:
Ethernet is a family of frame-based computer networking technologies for local area networks
(LANs). The name comes from the physical concept of the ether. It defines a number of wiring and
signaling standards for the physical layer, through means of network access at the Media Access
Control (MAC)/Data Link Layer, and a common addressing format.

Ethernet is standardized as IEEE 802.3. The combination of the twisted pair versions of Ethernet for
connecting end systems to the network, along with the fiber optic versions for site backbones, is the
most widespread wired LAN technology. It has been in use from around 1980 to the present, largely
replacing competing LAN standards such as token ring, FDDI, and ARCNET. In recent years, Wi-Fi,
the wireless LAN standardized by IEEE 802.11, is prevalent in home and small office networks and
augmenting Ethernet in larger installations.

10BASE2
10BASE2 (also known as cheapernet, thin ethernet, thinnet or thinwire) is a variant of Ethernet
that uses thin coaxial cable (RG-58 or similar, as opposed to the thicker RG-8 cable used in
10BASE5 networks), terminated with BNC connectors. For many years this was the dominant 10
Mbit/s Ethernet standard, but due to the immense demand for high speed networking, the low cost of
Category 5 Ethernet cable, and the popularity of 802.11 wireless networks, both 10BASE2 and
10BASE5 have become almost obsolete.

10BASE2 cable showing BNC Connector end.

10BASE2 cable with BNC T-Connector.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 24


10BASE2 cable end Terminator.

EAD outlet

Network design
In a 10BASE2 network, each segment of cable is connected to the transceiver (which is usually built
into the network adaptor) using a BNC T-connector, with one segment connected to each arm of the
T. At the physical end of the network a 50 Ohm terminator is required. This is most commonly
connected directly to the T-connector on a workstation though it does not technically have to be.

When wiring a 10BASE2 network, special care has to be taken to ensure that cables are properly
connected to all T-connectors, and appropriate terminators are installed. One, and only one,
terminator must be connected to ground via a ground wire. Bad contacts or shorts are especially
difficult to diagnose, though a time-domain reflectometer will find most problems quickly. A failure
at any point of the network cabling tends to prevent all communications. For this reason, 10BASE2
networks could be difficult to maintain and were often replaced by 10BASE-T networks, which
(provided category 3 cable or better was used) also provided a good upgrade path to 100BASE-TX.
An alternative reliable connection has been established by the introduction of EAD-sockets.

Comparisons to 10BASE-T

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 25


10BASE2 networks cannot generally be extended without breaking service temporarily for existing
users and the presence of many joints in the cable also makes them very vulnerable to accidental or
malicious disruption. There were proprietary wallport/cable systems that claimed to avoid these
problems (e.g. SaferTap) but these never became widespread, possibly due to a lack of
standardization.

10BASE2 systems do have a number of advantages over 10BASE-T. They do not need the 10BASE-
T hub, so the hardware cost is very cheap, and wiring can be particularly easy since only a single
wire run is needed, which can be sourced from the nearest computer. These characteristics mean that
10BASE2 is ideal for a small network of two or three machines, perhaps in a home where easily
concealed wiring may be an advantage. For a larger complex office network the difficulties of
tracing poor connections make it impractical. Unfortunately for 10BASE2, by the time multiple
home computer networks became common, the format had already been practically superseded. As a
matter of fact, it is becoming very difficult to find 10BASE2-compatible network cards as distinct
pieces of equipment, and integrated LAN controllers on motherboards don't have the connector,
although the underlying logic may still be present.

10BASE5
10BASE5 (also known as thicknet) is the original "full spec" variant of Ethernet cable, using special
cable similar to RG-8/U coaxial cable. This is a stiff, 0.375 inch (approx. 9.5 mm) diameter cable
with an impedance of 50 ohms, a solid center conductor, a foam insulating filler, a shielding braid,
and an outer jacket. The outer sheath is often yellow-to-orange/brown foam fluorinated ethylene
propylene (for fire resistance) so it frequently is just called "yellow cable", "orange hose", or
sometimes humorously "frozen yellow garden hose". 10BASE5 is obsolete, though due to its
widespread deployment in the early days, some systems may still be in use.

10BASE5 vampire tap Medium Attachment Unit((Transceiver))

Network design
10BASE5 cable is designed to allow transceivers to be added while existing connections are live.
This is achieved using a vampire tap - a device which (with sufficient practice) clamps onto the

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 26


cable, forcing a spike to pierce through the outer shielding to contact the inner conductor while other
spikes bite into the outer conductor. This is often built into the transceiver and a more flexible multi-
wire cable carries the connection between the transceiver and the node. Transceivers can also be
connected by using N connectors at the end of a cable segment.

The maximum practical number of nodes that can be connected to a 10BASE5 segment is limited to
100 and transceivers may be installed only at 2.5 meter intervals. This distance was chosen to not
correspond to the wavelength of the signal; this ensures that the reflections from multiple taps are
not in phase. These suitable points are marked on the cable with black bands. The cable must be one
linear run; T-connections are not allowed. A 50 ohm resistive terminator is required at each end of
the cable.

The transceivers connect to nodes using an interface called Attachment Unit Interface (AUI). This
interface uses a 15 pin, two row D-style connector but with clips instead of the more normal screws
for cable restraint.

Ethernet over twisted pair (10 BASE T)


There are several standards for Ethernet over twisted pair or copper-based computer networking
physical connectivity methods. The currently most widely used of these are 10BASE-T, 100BASE-
TX, and 1000BASE-T(Gigabit Ethernet), running at 10 Mbit/s, 100 Mbit/s, and 1000 Mbit/s (1
Gbit/s) respectively. These three standards all use the same connectors. Higher speed
implementations nearly always support the lower speeds as well, so that in most cases different
generations of equipment can be freely mixed. They use 8 position modular connectors, usually (but
incorrectly) called RJ45 in the context of Ethernet over twisted pair. The cables usually used are
four-pair Category 5 or above twisted pair cable. Each of the three standards support both full duplex
and half-duplex communication. According to the standards, they all operate over distances of 'up to
100 meters'.

Twisted-pair cable used with 10BASE-T

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 27


8P8C plug used with 10BASE-T

The common names of the standards are derived from several aspects of the physical media. The
number refers to the theoretical maximum transmission speed in Megabits per second (Mbit/s). The
BASE is short for baseband, meaning that there is no frequency division multiplexing (FDM) or
other frequency shifting modulation in use; each signal has full control of wire, on a single
frequency. The T designates twisted pair cable, where the pairs of wires are twisted together for
purposes of reducing crosstalk (FEXT and NEXT) when the pulsing direct current goes across the
wires and creates electromagnetic induction effects. Where there are several standards for the same
transmission speed, they are distinguished by a letter or digit following the T, such as TX. Some
higher-speed standards use twin-axial cable, designated by CX.

Cabling
Twisted-pair Ethernet standards are such that the majority of cables can be wired 'straight-through'
(pin 1 to pin 1, pin 2 to pin 2 and so on), but others may need to be wired in the 'crossover' form
(receive to transmit and transmit to receive).

10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX only require two pairs to operate, pins 1 and 2 (transmit or TX), and
pins 3 and 6 (receive or RX). Since 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX need only two pairs and Category
5 cable has four pairs, it is possible, but not standard, to run two network connections (or a network
connection and two phone lines) over a cat 5 cable by using the normally unused pairs in these 10
and 100 Mbit/s configurations. This is not possible with 1000BASE-T since it requires all four pairs
to operate, pins 1 and 2, 3 and 6 — as well as 4 and 5, 7 and 8.

It is conventional to wire cables for 10 or 100 Mbit/s Ethernet to either the T568A or T568B
standards. Since these standards only differ in that they swap the positions of the two pairs used for
transmitting and receiving (TX/RX), a cable with TIA-568A wiring at one end and TIA-568B wiring
at the other will be a crossover cable. The terms used in the explanations of the 568 standards, tip
and ring, refer to older communication technologies, and equate to the positive and negative parts of
the connections.

A 10BASE-T node (such as a PC) that transmits on pins 1/2 and receives on pins 3/6 to a network
device is most often on a "straight-through" cable in the "MDI" wiring pattern where RX goes to RX
and TX goes to TX. A straight-through cable is usually used to connect a node to its network device.
In order for two network devices or two nodes to communicate with each other (such as a switch to
another switch or computer to computer) a crossover cable is often required at speeds of 10 or 100.
If available, connections can be made with a straight-through cable by means of an "MDI-X" port,
RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 28
also known as an “internal crossover” or “embedded crossover” connection. Hub and switch ports
with such internal crossovers are usually labelled as such, with "uplink" or “X”. For example, 3Com
usually labels their ports 1X, 2X, and so on.

To connect two PCs directly together without a switch, an Ethernet crossover cable is often used.
Although many modern Ethernet host adapters can automatically detect another PC connected with a
straight-through cable and then automatically introduce the required crossover, if needed; if one or
neither of the PC does not, then a crossover cable is required. If both devices being connected
support 1000BASE-T according to the standards, they will connect regardless of the cable being
used or how it is wired.

To connect two hubs or switches directly together, a crossover cable can be used, but some hubs and
switches have an “uplink” port used to connect network devices together, or have a way to manually
select MDI or MDI-X on a single port so that a straight-through cable can connect that port to
another switch or hub. Most newer switches have automatic crossover ("auto MDI-X" or "auto-
uplink") on all ports, eliminating the uplink port and the MDI/MDI-X switch, and allowing all
connections to be made with straight-through cables.

100BASE-TX follows the same wiring patterns as 10BASE-T but is more sensitive to wire quality
and length, due to the higher bit rates.

1000BASE-T uses all four pairs bi-directionally and the standard includes auto MDI-X, however
implementation is optional. With the way that 1000BASE-T implements signaling, how the cable is
wired is immaterial in actual usage. The standard on copper twisted pair is IEEE 802.3ab for Cat 5e
UTP, or 4D-PAM5; 4 Directions using PAM (pulse amplitude modulation) with 5 voltages, -2, -1, 0,
+1, and +2 .

Unlike earlier Ethernet standards using broadband and coaxial cable, such as 10BASE5 (thicknet)
and 10BASE2 (thinnet), 10BASE-T does not specify the exact type of wiring to be used but instead
specifies certain "characteristics" which a cable must meet. This was done in anticipation of using
10BASE-T in existing twisted pair wiring systems that may not conform to any specified wiring
standard. Some of the specified characteristics are attenuation, characteristic impedance, timing
jitter, propagation delay, and several types of noise. Cable testers are widely available to check these
parameters to determine if a cable can be used with 10BASE-T. These characteristics are expected to
be met by 100 meters of 24 gauge unshielded twisted-pair cable, and 100 meters is the stated
maximum length for baseband signal runs. However, with high quality cabling, cable runs of 150
meters or longer are often obtained and are considered viable by most technicians familiar with the
10baseT specification, though -- as with all CSMA/CD network environments — the absolute limit
on run length is determined by the size of the collision domain and cable quality. In reality, what
meets the standards may not work, and those that don't meet the standards might work.

100BASE-TX and 1000BASE-T both require a minimum of Category 5 cable (5e or 6 with 1000)
and also specify a maximum cable length of 100 meters. Furthermore while 10BASE-T is more
tolerant of poor wiring such as split pairs, poor terminations and even use of short sections of flat
cable, 100BASE-T is not as much so, and 1000BASE-T is less tolerant still. Since testing of cable is
often limited to checking if it works with Ethernet, running faster speeds over existing cable is often
problematic. This problem is made worse by the fact that Ethernet's autonegotiation takes account
only of the capabilities of the end equipment not of the cable in between.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 29


8P8C modular plug pin positioning

TIA/EIA-568-A T568A Wiring

Pin Pair Wire Color

1 3 tip white/green

2 3 ring green

3 2 tip white/orange

4 1 ring blue

5 1 tip white/blue

6 2 ring orange

7 4 tip white/brown

8 4 ring brown

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 30


TIA/EIA-568-A T568A Wiring

Pin Pair Wire Color

1 3 tip white/green

2 3 ring green

3 2 tip white/orange

4 1 ring blue

5 1 tip white/blue

6 2 ring orange

7 4 tip white/brown

8 4 ring brown

Viva-Voce Questions:
1. What is difference between base band and broadband signals ?
2. Define T568A Wiring color coding .

3. Define T568B Wiring color coding .

4. What is difference between 10BaseT and 10BaseTX cabling ?

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 31


RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 32
Experiment No. 5
Aim: Installation and working of Net meeting and Remote Desktop.

Theory/Description:

Setting up Microsoft NetMeeting


To use NetMeeting you will need the following:

i. A PC or a Mac running Virtual PC with a sound-card, microphone and speakers (a headphone


with an attached microphone is easier)
ii. Minimum 90MHz processor
iii. 16 megabytes (MB) of RAM for Microsoft Windows 95, Windows 98
24 megabytes (MB) of RAM for Microsoft Windows NT version 4.0 (Microsoft Windows
NT 4.0 Service Pack 3 or later is required to enable sharing programs on Windows NT.)
iv. Microsoft Internet Explorer version 4.01 or later (please note that version 4.0 is not enough
- it must be 4.01 or later)
v. A good internet connection (28.8 kbps modem or faster)

Installing Microsoft NetMeeting 3.01.


follow these steps.

Note: If you are using Windows XP you already have NetMeeting installed. Go to C:\Program
Files\NetMeeting and double-click on the conf.exe file there; that will install NetMeeting. If
conf.exe does not yet exist on your computer please install NetMeeting from your Windows XP CD-
ROM - the version of NetMeeting available below will not install on Windows XP.

When it asks you "Open [or run] this file from its current location" or "Save to disk", choose "Save
this file from its current location" and remember where you are saving it onto your hard disk.

When it has finished downloading onto your hard-drive, find the file again (it will be called
nm301.exe) and double-click on it. When it asks you if you want to install NetMeeting answer
"Yes", then click on "Next" or "Finish" to all of the questions.

When this has finished, start NetMeeting. You can do this by going to "Start" (in the bottom left-
hand corner of your screen), then "Programs". NetMeeting should appear in the list of programs
on your computer.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 33


(On some computers you may have to look in "Start" - "Programs" - "Accessories" -
"Communications"). Click on the NetMeeting icon when you have found it. You will then
see the following window:

Click on the "Next" button. You will then see the following window:

Enter your name, e-mail address etc., and click on "Next". You will then see the following
window:

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 34


Make sure that the "Log on to the directory server when NetMeeting starts" button is ticked,
and select ils.netmeeting.co.uk from the drop-down menu. Then click on "Next". You will then see:

Choose the correct modem speed, and click "Next". You will then see:

All of this is fine, so click "Next" again! You will then see:

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 35


This tells you that NetMeeting will set up your audio for you. Please click "Next", even if you don't
have audio. If you don't have audio at this time you can still make use of the text-chat features, and
add audio at a later date. The next screen you see will be:

NetMeeting will automatically find the best setting for you, so just click "Next" (the settings on
your computer may look different than on the photo above.)

When you see this, first click on "Test". You should be able to hear music now. If you can't hear
music, make sure your speakers are turned on and the volume is turned up. When you have heard the
music, click "Stop":

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 36


After you have clicked "Stop", click "Next", and you will see:

Now speak into your microphone; NetMeeting will set the correct microphone volume for you.
Then click "Next". You will see:

This means you are finished, and are now ready to use NetMeeting. Click on "Finish", and
NetMeeting will start.You are now ready to call our reception or join our chat area.

Viva-Voce Questions:
1. What is NetMeeting ?
2. What do you mean by Remote Desktop ?

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 37


Experiment No. 6
Aim: Installation and working with Telnet (Terminal Network).

Theory/Description:
In Windows, Remote Desktop allows you to access your computer from a remote location. To take
advantage of this feature, the computer you want to use as the host (e.g., the computer to which you
will connect from a remote location) must be running Windows XP Professional and you must have
administrative rights to enable Remote Desktop. Additionally, the Windows computer from which
you want to connect (the client) must be running the Remote Desktop Communications client
software. This is automatically installed by default on all computers running Windows XP. To enable
and establish a remote connection to your host computer, you must follow these steps:

 Enable the Remote Desktop feature on your host computer


 Install Remote Desktop Communications client software on your client computer
 Open a connection

Enable the Remote Desktop feature on your host computer


1. In Windows XP Professional, from the Start menu, select Control Panel (or Settings, and
then Control Panel). Double-click System.

2. Select the Remote tab. Select Allow users to connect remotely to this computer.
3. To enable Remote Desktop connections for any users you want to be able to access the
computer remotely, click Select Remote Users... . In most cases, all administrators of the
computer will already have access. Also, please note that each user who wants remote access
must have a password assigned to his or her account.
4. When you are finished, click OK. Your computer will now be able to accept incoming
Remote Desktop connections.

Install Remote Desktop Communications client software on your client


computer
Before you can connect to your host computer, you must install Remote Desktop Communications
client software on your client computer. In Windows XP, the default installation options
automatically install the Remote Desktop Communications client, so you may be able to skip these
steps. In Windows 95, 98, Me, NT, and 2000, you must install the client if you have not already done
so. To install Remote Desktop Communications client software:

1. Insert your Windows XP installation CD into the CD-ROM drive of your client computer.

2. On the screen that appears, select Perform additional tasks, then Set up Remote Desktop
Connection.
RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 38
3. Follow the instructions that appear on your screen to complete the installation process.

Note: At Indiana University, all Student Technology Center (STC) workstations running Windows
XP have the Remote Desktop Communications client installed. You cannot connect to an STC
computer using Remote Desktop, but you can connect from an STC computer to your host computer.

If the above process is unsuccessful or if you no longer have your Windows XP installation CD, you
can download a copy of the Remote Desktop Connection Communications software.

Open a connection
If you have enabled your Windows XP Professional computer to accept remote connections and you
have installed the client software on your client computer (if necessary), follow these steps to
establish a Remote Desktop connection:

1.Depending upon your network configuration and system requirements, you may first have to
establish a VPN connection to your host computer's network.

At IU, if you are on campus attempting to connect to your home computer in campus housing or
Greek housing, you must first make a VPN connection. For instructions, see In Windows XP, how do
I make a VPN connection to the IU network?

1.From the Start menu, select Programs or All Programs. Select Accessories, then
Communications, and then Remote Desktop Connection.

2.In the space next to "Computer:", type the name or IP address for your host computer. Click
Connect.

Note: If you would like to adjust any of your connection settings such as screen size, login
information, availability of local hard drives and printers, or keyboard and sound behavior, click
Options before clicking Connect.

1.In the Log On to Windows dialog box, type your username, password, and domain (if required).
Click OK.

2.Once you are connected, you can use your remote computer as if you were sitting in front of it.
When you are finished, in the Remote Desktop Connection window, select Start, then Shut Down.

3.In the Shut Down Windows dialog box, from the drop-down menu, select Log Off username,
where username is your username on the remote computer. Click OK.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 39


Get started using Remote Desktop with Windows XP Professional:
Remote Desktop, included with Windows XP Professional, enables you to connect to your computer
across the Internet from virtually any computer, Pocket PC, or Smartphone. Once connected,
Remote Desktop gives you mouse and keyboard control over your computer while showing you
everything that's happening on the screen. With Remote Desktop, you can leave your computer
at the office without losing access to your files, applications, and e-mail. Your sales force will be
able to access the latest pricing sheet from on the road by using Remote Desktop in Windows
XP Professional.

With Remote Desktop, you can connect to your work computer from home and access all of your
programs, files, and network resources as though you were actually sitting in front of your computer
at work.

You need three things to create a remote location:

1.Microsoft Windows XP Professional must be installed on the computer containing the files and
programs that you want to access from a remote computer. The computer must also be part of a
corporate network in which Remote Desktop connections are permitted. This computer is known as
the host.
2. The remote computer must be running Windows 95 or later. This computer must also have the
Remote Desktop Connection client software installed. The remote computer is known as the client.
3. Both computers must be connected to the Internet through a VPN connection.
Note: If you're not connecting to the host computer through a VPN, you'll need to use the actual IP
address of the host computer instead of the computer name.
To set up the Remote Desktop, start with the host computer, which in this example is your work
computer
1. Verify that you are signed in as the administrator
2. Click Start, click Control Panel, and then click Performance and Maintenance.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 40


3. Click System.

4. Click the Remote tab, select the Allow users to connect remotely to this computer check
box, and then click OK.

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Next, make sure you have Windows Firewall set up to allow exceptions.

1. In the Control Panel, click Security Center.

2. Under Manage security settings for, click Windows Firewall.

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3. Make sure the Don't allow exceptions check box is not selected.

4. Click the Exceptions tab, and verify that the Remote Desktop check box is selected.

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5.Click OK, and then close the Windows Security Center window.
Your host computer is now set up to allow remote access.

You will need the name of the host computer.

6.In Control Panel, click Performance and Maintenance, click System, and then click the
Computer Name tab

1.Write down the full computer name, and then click OK.

2.Close Control Panel.

3.Leave this computer running, locked, and connected to the corporate network with Internet access.

Connect your remote computer to the host computer


To connect your home computer, which is the client (or remote) computer to your work (or host)
computer

1.On your home computer, click Start, point to All Programs, and then point to Accessories

2. In the Accessories menu, point to Communications, and then click Remote Desktop
Connection.
RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 44
3. In the Computer box, type the computer name of your host computer, which you wrote down
earlier.

4. Click Connect.

5. When the Log On to Windows dialog box appears, type your user name, password, and
domain (if required), and then click OK.

The Remote Desktop window opens, and you see the desktop settings, files, and programs that
are on your host computer, which in this example is your work computer. Your host computer
remains locked, and nobody can access it without a password. In addition, no one will be able to
see the work you are doing remotely.

To end your Remote Desktop session:

1. Click Start, and then click Log Off at the bottom of the Start menu.
2. When prompted, click Log Off.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 45


Viva-Voce Questions :
1. What is difference between telnet and remote login ?

2.What is application of telnet ?

3. write basic command of telnet.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 46


Experiment No. 7
Aim: Installation and working with FTP (File Transfer Protocol).

Theory/Description:
Creating and Configuring FTP Sites in Windows Server 2003
In this article we'll walk you through the steps of creating FTP sites in Windows Server 2003
using both Internet Services Manager and scripts. The tutorial will also will explain how to perform
common administration tasks involving FTP sites and also how to implement FTP User Isolation, a
new feature of Windows Server 2003 enables users to have their own separate FTP home directories.

Internet Information Services 6 (IIS 6) is a powerful platform for building and hosting web sites for
both the Internet and corporate intranets. IIS 6 is also equally useful for setting up FTP sites for
either public or corporate use, and in this article we''ll walk through the process of creating and
configuring FTP sites using both the GUI (IIS Manager) and scripts included in Windows Server
2003. The specific tasks we''ll walk through in this article are:

 Creating an FTP Site


 Controlling Access to an FTP Site
 Configuring FTP Site Logging
 Stopping and Starting FTP Sites
 Implementing FTP User Isolation

For sake of interest, we''ll again explain these tasks in the context of a fictitious company called
TestCorp as it deploys FTP sites for both its corporate intranet and for anonymous users on the
Internet.

Preliminary Steps
As mentioned in the previous article, IIS is not inst alled by default during a standard installation of
Windows Server 2003, and if you installed IIS using Manage Your Server as described in the
previous article this installs the WWW service but not the FTP service. So before we can create FTP
sites we first have to install the FTP service on our IIS machine. To do this, we need to add an
additional component to the Application Server role we assigned our machine when we used Manage
Your Server to install IIS.

Begin by opening Add or Remove Programs in Control Panel and selecting Add/Remove Windows
Components. Then select the checkbox for Application Server:

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 47


Click Details and select the checkbox for Internet Information Services (IIS):

Click Details and select the checkbox for File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Services.

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Click OK twice and then Next to install the FTP service. During installation you''ll need to insert
your Windows Server 2003 product CD or browse to a network distribution point where the
Windows Server 2003 setup files are located. Click Finish when the wizard is done.

Creating an FTP Site

As with web sites, the simplest approach to identifying each FTP site on your machine is to assign
each of them a separate IP address, so let''s say that our server has three IP addresses (172.16.11.210,
172.16.11.211 and 172.16.11.212) assigned to it. Our first task will be to create a new FTP site for
the Human Resources department, but before we do that let''s first examine the Default FTP Site that
was created when we installed the FTP service on our machine. Open IIS Manager in Administrative
Tools, select FTP Sites in the console tree, and right-click on Default FTP Site and select Properties:

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 49


Just like the Default Web Site, the IP address for the Default FTP Site is set to All Unassigned. This
means any IP address not specifically assigned to another FTP site on the machine opens the Default
FTP Site instead, so right now opening either ftp://172.16.11.210, ftp://172.16.11.211 or
ftp://172.16.11.212 in Internet Explorer will display the contents of the Default FTP Site.

Let''s assign the IP address 172.16.11.210 for the Human Resources FTP site and make D:\HR the
folder where its content is located. To create the new FTP site, right-click on the FTP Sites node and
select New --> FTP Site. This starts the FTP Site Creation Wizard. Click Next and type a description
for the site:

Click Next and specify 172.16.11.210 as the IP address for the new site:

Click Next and select Do not isolate users, since this will be a site that anyone (including guest
users) will be free to access:

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Click Next and specify C:\HR as the location of the root directory for the site:

Click Next and leave the access permissions set at Read only as this site will only be used for
downloading forms for present and prospective employees:

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 51


Click Next and then Finish to complete the wizard. The new Human Resources FTP site can now be
seen in IIS Manager under the FTP Sites node:

To view the contents of this site, go to a Windows XP desktop on the same network and open the
URL ftp://172.16.11.210 using Internet Explorer:

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Note in the status bar at the bottom of the IE window that you are connected as an anonymous user.
To view all users currently connected to the Human Resources FTP site, right-click on the site in
Internet Service Manager and select Properties, then on the FTP Site tab click the Current Sessions
button to open the FTP User Sessions dialog:

Note that anonymous users using IE are displayed as IEUser@ under Connected Users.

Now let''s create another FTP site using a script instead of the GUI. We''ll create a site called Help
and Support with root directory C:\Support and IP address 172.16.11.211:

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Here's the result of running the script:

The script we used here is Iisftp.vbs, which like Iisweb.vbs is one of several IIS administration
scripts available when you install IIS on Windows Server 2003. Onceq you create a new FTP site
using this script you can further configure the site using IIS Manager in the usual way.

Controlling Access to an FTP Site


Just like for web sites, there are four ways you can control access to FTP sites on IIS: NTFS
Permissions, IIS permissions, IP address restrictions, and authentication method. NTFS permissions
are always your first line of defense but we can't cover them in detail here. IIS permissions are
specified on the Home Directory tab of your FTP site's properties sheet:

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 54


Note that access permissions for FTP sites are much simpler (Read and Write only) than they are for
web sites, and by default only Read permission is enabled, which allows users to download files
from your FTP site. If you allow Write access, users will be able to upload files to the site as well.
And of course access permissions and NTFS permissions combine the same way they do for web
sites.

Like web sites, IP address restrictions can be used to allow or deny access to your site by clients that
have a specific IP address, an IP address in a range of addresses, or a specific DNS name. These
restrictions are configured on the Directory Security tab just as they are for web sites.

FTP sites also have fewer authentication options than web sites, as can be seen by selecting the
Security Accounts tab:

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By default Allow anonymous connections is selected, and this is fine for public FTP sites on the
Internet but for private FTP sites on a corporate intranet you may want to clear this checkbox to
prevent anonymous access to your site. Clearing this box has the result that your FTP site uses Basic
Authentication instead, and users who try to access the site are presented with an authentication
dialog box:

Note that Basic Authentication passes user credentials over the network in clear text so this means
FTP sites are inherently insecure (they don't support Windows integrated authentication). So if you're
going to deploy a private FTP site on your internal network make sure you close ports 20 and 21 on
your firewall to block incoming FTP traffic from external users on the Internet.

Configuring FTP Site Logging


As with web sites, the default logging format for FTP sites is the W3C Extended Log File Format,
and FTP site logs are stored in folders named
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%SystemRoot%\system32\LogFiles\MSFTPSVCnnnnnnnnnn

where nnnnnnnnnn is the ID number of the FTP site. And just as with web sites, you can use the
Microsoft Log Parser, part of the IIS 6.0 Resource Kit Tools, to analyze these FTP site logs.

Stopping and Starting FTP Sites


If an FTP site becomes unavailable you may need to restart it to get it working again, which you can
do using IIS Manager by right-clicking on the FTP site and selecting Stop and then Start. From the
command-line you can type net stop msftpsvc followed by net start msftpsvc or use iisreset to
restart all IIS services. Remember that restarting an FTP site is a last resort as any users currently
connected to the site will be disconnected.

Implementing FTP User Isolation


Finally, let's conclude by looking at how to implement the new FTP User Isolation feature of IIS in
Windows Server 2003. When an FTP site uses this feature, each user accessing the site has an FTP
home directory that is a subdirectory under the root directory for the FTP site, and from the
perspective of the user their FTP home directory appears to be the top-level folder of the site. This
means users are prevented from viewing the files in other users' FTP home directories, which has the
advantage of providing security for each user's files.

Let's create a new FTP site called Staff that makes use of this new feature, using C:\Staff Folders as
the root directory for the site and 172.16.11.212 for the site's IP address. Start the FTP Site Creation
Wizard as we did previously and step through it until you reach the FTP User Isolation page and
select the Isolate users option on this page:

Continue with the wizard and be sure to give users both Read and Write permission so they can
upload and download files.

Now let's say you have two users, Bob Smith (bsmith) and Mary Jones (mjones) who have accounts
in a domain whose pre-Windows 2000 name is TESTTWO. To give these users FTP home
RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 57
directories on your server, first create a subfolder named \TESTTWO beneath \Staff Folders (your
FTP root directory). Then create subfolders \bsmith and \mjones beneath the \Accounts folder. Your
folder structure should now look like this:

C:\Staff Folders
\TESTTWO
\bsmith
\mjones

To test FTP User Isolation let's put a file name Bob's Document.doc in the \bsmith subfolder and
Mary's Document.doc in the \mjones subfolder. Now go to a Windows XP desktop and open Internet
Explorer and try to open ftp://172.16.11.212, which is the URL for the Staff FTP site we just created.
When you do this an authentication dialog box appears, and if you're Bob then you can enter your
username (using the DOMAIN\username form) and password like this:

When Bob clicks the Log On button the contents of his FTP home directory are displayed:

Note that when you create a new FTP site using FTP User Isolation, you can't convert it to an
ordinary FTP site (one that doesn't have FTP User Isolation enabled). Similarly, an ordinary FTP site
can't be converted to one using FTP User Isolation.
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We still need to explore one more option and that's the third option on the FTP User Isolation page of
the FTP Site Creation Wizard, namely Isolate users using Active Directory. Since we've run out of IP
addresses let's first delete the Help and Support FTP site to free up 172.16.11.211. One way we can
do this is by opening a command prompt and typing iisftp /delete "Help and Support" using the
iisftp.vbs command script. Then start the FTP Site Creation Wizard again and select the third option
mentioned above (we'll name this new site Management):

Click Next and enter an administrator account in the domain, the password for this account, and the
full name of the domain:

Click Next and confirm the password and complete the wizard in the usual way. You'll notice that
you weren't prompted to specify a root directory for the new FTP site. This is because when you use
this approach each user's FTP home directory is defined by two environment variables: %ftproot%
which defines the root directory and can be anywhere including a UNC path to a network share on
another machine such as \\test220\docs, and %ftpdir% which can be set to %username% so that for
example Bob Smith's FTP home directory would be \\test220\docs\bsmith and this folder would have
to be created beforehand for him. You could set these environment variables using a logon script and
assign the script using Group Policy, but that's beyond the scope of this present article.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 59


Viva-Voce Questions:
1. What is FTP ?
2. What is difference between FTP and TFTP ?

3. Explain steps for FTP connection establishment ?

4. What is difference between connection less and connection oriented ?

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 60


Experiment No. 8

Aim: Installation and Computers via serial or Parallel ports and enable the computers to share disk
and printer port.

Theory/Description:

Changing Parallel PCI Port Address Range to 378

Useful for scanners, etc.) Applies to Windows 95/98/Me

1) Go to Control Panel Add Remove Programs and uninstall everything related to your scanner and
printer from here.

2) Shut down and reboot into the BIOS setup on your computer. Enter the Integrated Peripheral
menu and change your computer's parallel port address to 3bc or 278. Save these new settings and
exit the BIOS and boot into Windows. Consult your motherboard's manual for instructions how to
enter the BIOS setup and where to find the setting for your motherboard's parallel port address.

3) As you are booting up (before you see the Win98 Splash Screen), tap the F8 key. This will take
you to the Windows Startup Menu. If you do not see the Startup Menu before the splash screen, then
you missed it and you must boot back into Windows, then reboot normally and tap that F8 key until
you get to the Windows Startup Menu by tapping the F8 key.

4) Choose Safe Mode (number 3) and boot into Windows Safe Mode.

5) Once you are in Safe Mode go to Device Manager by right-clicking on My Computer then
Properties then click the Device Manager tab.

6) In Ports COM and LPT, double-click the Lava Parallel PCI and enter resources. Click Set
Configuration Manually and then uncheck Use Automatic Settings.

7) Double-click the words Input Output Range and delete the settings in there and type the following
settings in there instead: 0378-037F
then click OK

8) Double-click the words Interrupt Request and type in 10. Click OK.

9) Click OK for the Lava Parallel PCI.

10) If there is more than one reference to the Lava Parallel PCI in Ports COM and LPT then perform
steps 6-9 for the other references to the Lava Parallel PCI also.

11) Exit out of Device Manager and let Windows reboot in Normal mode.

12) Once you are back into Windows reinstall the software for your scanner and printer.
RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 61
Parallel Port Installation

Introduction
Use these instructions to install the parallel port board in your NC200, NC400, or
NC900 network computer. After you check the contents of the kit and read the
electrostatic precautions, begin the installation procedure.

Kit contents
This field installation kit includes the following:
• One parallel port board;
• One ribbon cable;
• Two jacknuts;
• One self-adhesive clear plastic insulation bumper; and
• These installation instructions.

Tools required
Installation of the parallel port kit requires these tools:
•#2 phillips screwdriver;
•3/16" nutdriver; and
• small diagonal cutters.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 62


Electrostatic precautions
This product contains components that are highly sensitive to electrostatic discharge.
To protect these components from damage and to maintain product reliability, take the
following precautions when handling the circuit boards:
• Leave the board in its static-shielded bag until you are ready to install it.
• Handle all circuit boards in a static-protected area capable of controlling static
charge on conductive materials, people, and non-conductive materials.
Static-protected areas include non-static table tops and non-static floor mats.
• Use the anti-static wrist strap, if available.
• Handle the circuit boards only by the edges. Avoid touching the printed wires on
the back of any circuit board as much as possible.

Installing the parallel port board


1. Set the standby/on or power switch to standby or 0.
2. NC200/NC900: Remove the cable cover from the rear of the logic
module as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Removing the NC200/NC900 cable cover

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 63


3. Disconnect the AC power. NC200/NC900: Unplug the power supply from the AC power
outlet, then disconnect the power supply connector from the rear panel. NC400: Unplug the AC line
cord from the rear panel.
4. Disconnect as many other cables as necessary to easily reach the rear of
the logic
module.

5.Remove the logic module cover as shown in Figure 2 above (NC200/NC900) or


as shown in Figure 3 below (NC400).
6. NC400: Remove the plastic blank that covers the cabinet opening for the parallel port
board as shown in Figure 4. Use a pair of thin diagonal pliers to cut the bridges that
support the blank cover.

7. Use available anti-static precautions.


8. Remove the circuit board from the protective package.
9. Plug the ribbon cable into the socket on the main logic board as
showninthe Figure 5 inset.
10. Attach the parallel port board to the rear panel as shown in Figure 5.
Use the 3/16" nutdriver to tighten the jacknuts. The figure shows
installation in the NC200/NC900; installation in the NC400 is essentially
the same.

Figure 5. Installing the parallel port board

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 64


11. For NC200/NC900 models, attach the clear plastic insulation bumper to the
underside of the chassis cover to prevent the parallel port board from rubbing
against the cover’s metal frame. To do this, flip the chassis cover upside-down,
as shown in Figure 6.
12. Use the nutdriver or a similar tool to flatten the one tab near the indicated knob
on the underside of the chassis cover Ê. (The other tabs will not affect the
parallel port.) Make sure that the tab is flush with the rest of the sheet metal.
13. Peel off the protective backing from the self-adhesive insulating bumper and
press the bumper onto the metal underside of the chassis cover near the flattened tab Ë.
Placement of the insulating bumper does not have to be precise; anywhere within a
finger’s width of the flattened tab will suffice.

Figure 7. Installing the NC200/NC900 cable cover

14. Re-install the logic module cover.


15. Connect the cable from the printer or other parallel device to the parallel port.
16. Connect all cables to the rear panel that were disconnected at the
beginning of the procedure. Connect the power supply to the logic module
before plugging it into the AC power outlet.
17. NC200/NC900: Replace the cable cover, routing the cables out the
slots in the cover sides as shown in Figure 7.

18. Verify the installation using the procedure that follows.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 65


RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 66
Verification
To verify that the thin client is operating correctly after installing the parallel port board:
1. Set the standby/on or on/off switch to on (1) and watch for the Boot Monitor
screen to appear.
2. Press any keyboard key before the thin client completes the boot process.
Pressing any key before the boot process is complete stops the process and
transfers control to the Boot Monitor. The following message appears on the
display:
Type HELP for a list of commands BOOT> _
3. At the BOOT> prompt type report and verify that “parallel” is listed in the
options. If it is not listed in the options, check the installation of the board as follows:
- make sure contacts on the flat cable face in the proper direction.
- make sure the cable is inserted fully in the socket and the clip pushed all
the way down.
- check both ends of the flat cable.
If, after checking the installation, “parallel” is still not listed in the reported options, contact your
NCD representative.
4. Proceed to Using a local printer on page 10, which explains the software changes
required to set up the parallel printer port.

Using a local printer

NOTE: The information in this section requires editing the xp.cnf or ts.tcf file,
which is a
system administration function.
This section briefly explains how to configure the host and the thin client to operate a local printer.
To use a local printer:
1. Set up a local print queue for the spooler using the following commands in the
remote configuration file (xp.cnf or ts.tcf). When printing, a printer queue on the
host forwards the print request to a local queue on the thin client.
enable_print_spooler
spooler_size
spooler_local_queue
Refer to Chapter 2, Remote Configuration, in the Network Computer Reference Manual, or the
Remote Configuration topic in the ThinStream Administration help system for information about
these commands.
2. Reboot the thin client to read and update the new print queue and serial port
settings.
3. On the host, create a new queue pointing to the thin client’s local print queue. If
your host has a specialized system administration tool (such as IBM’s SMIT or
Hewlett-Packard’s SAM), use it to add the queue. Refer to your host
documentation for information about creating print queues.

Example
The following example shows the steps for setting up a local print queue on a network computer and
UNIX host that does not have a specialized system administration tool.
1. Set up the local print queue on the network computer using the following xp.cnf
commands.
enable_print_spooler YES
spooler_size 8096
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spooler_local_queue lp PP0
2. Reboot the network computer to read and update the xp.cnf file.
3. On the host, edit the /etc/printcap file to create a new queue pointing to the
network computer’s local print queue. If your host has a specialized system
administration tool (such as Hewlett-Packard’s SAM and IBM’s SMIT), use it to add the queue.
Using the lp queue specified in the spooler_local_queue command above, the entry in
/etc/printcap would look like this:
user1_queue:\
:lp=:\
:rm=sierra:\
:rp=lp:\
:sd=/usr/spool/lpd/user1_queue:\ :mx=8096:\
:lf=/usr/spool/lpd/ERRORLOG:
In this example, the queue name is user1_queue, the remote printer queue is lp, the network
computer name is sierra, the location of the spooler queue is
/usr/spool/lpd/user1_queue, the spooler size is 8096 bytes, and the error file name is ERRORLOG.
Refer to the printcap man page for details about each line and other settings that can be used.
4. Make a new sub-directory for the new queue. In this example, the new
sub-directory is user1_queue in /usr/spool/lpd:
# mkdir /usr/spool/lpd/user1_queue
Be sure to enable permissions as needed. Once the queues are set up and the
printer is connected to the appropriate port, print requests can be sent.

The parallel port is a Centronics-compatible 25-pin female connector.


Figure 8 shows the pin numbers and their respective signal names.

Pin number Signal name


Pin 1 Strobe~
Pins 2-9DATA 0-7
Pin 10 ACK~
Pin 11 BUSY
Pin 12 PERROR
Pin 13 SELECT
Pin 14 AUTOFD~
Pin 15 ERROR~
Pin 16 INIT~
Pin 17 SELECTIN~
Pins 18-25 GROUND

Viva-Voce Questions :
1. What is serial port ?
2. What is parallel port ?
3. Give example some devices name which connected via serial port and parallel port.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 68


Experiment No. 9
Aim: To connect two Personal Computer with Telephone line.

Theory/Description:
There are a number of USB bridges on the market. These devices allow a direct
connection between 2 PCs via their USB ports. However, D-Link recommends using a DSB-650 to
add Ethernet networking via USB. Two computers can be connected either via an Ethernet Hub (DE-
805TP/C - the "Hubby" is a great choice for a home network) or via a cross-over cable.

USB bridges are limited in their functionality. They effectively work by accessing a shared piece of
memory built into the bridge. Proprietary software is necessary to allow various computer resources
to be shared. With Ethernet, native support in Windows 95 and Windows 98 allows you to quickly
share printers and CD, DVD, and Hard Drives. With a simple addition of web proxy software, like
Midcore's Midpoint Companion, you can also share Internet access.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 69


Experiment No. 10

Aim: Installation of Modem and Proxy Server.

Theory/Description:

Proxy Server Hardware and Software Requirements


Hardware Requirements
Microsoft Proxy Server has the same hardware requirements as Microsoft Windows NT Server
version 4.0. For more information, see the documentation for Windows NT Server version 4.0.

Software Requirements
The following programs must already be installed on the server computer before Microsoft Proxy
Server can be installed:

 Microsoft Internet Information Server version 2.0


 Microsoft Windows NT Server version 4.0
 Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 Service Pack 1 (provided on the Microsoft Proxy Server
compact disc)
The server computer can be configured as a stand-alone server, a primary domain controller (PDC),
or a backup domain controller (BDC). However, for the highest security level and the best
performance, it is recommended that you install Microsoft Proxy Server on a computer configured as
a stand-alone server. For more information about member servers, PDCs, and BDCs, see the
documentation for Windows NT Server.
For best cache performance, it is strongly recommended that at least one disk drive on the server
computer be configured as a Windows NT File System (NTFS) volume.

More Information :
Before you install Microsoft Proxy Server, complete the following tasks:

Verify your software configuration:

 Verify that Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 Service Pack 1 is installed.


 Verify that Microsoft Internet Information Server 2.0 is installed.
 Verify that TCP/IP is installed on the server.
Verify your hardware configuration:

1.Setting Up the Disk Drives

Microsoft Proxy Server can be installed on computers that have their hard disks configured as file
allocation table (FAT) or NTFS volumes. However, for security and performance, it is recommended
that at least one of the server's hard disks be configured as an NTFS volume.
Features that NTFS volumes provide (and FAT volumes do not) include:

 A maximum file size of up to 64 gigabytes (GB), depending on the size of the disk clusters.

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 Integration with Windows NT Server security to control and audit file, share, and directory
access.

 An Activity log that you can use to restore the disk in the event of a power failure or other
problem.

 Support for flexible per-file compression.

The Web Proxy service of Microsoft Proxy Server stores cached Internet objects on one or more of
the server's disk drives. The particular disk drives used for this purpose are selected during
installation. For best cache performance, it is strongly recommended that you configure all drives
that have space allocated to the cache as NTFS drives.

If your current server disk volume is formatted to use FAT partitions, you can convert these
partitions to NTFS (before or after installing Microsoft Proxy Server) using the Convert program
included with Windows NT Server. Convert does not overwrite data on the disk. For more
information about using this program to convert FAT volumes to NTFS volumes, see your
documentation for Windows NT Server, or type "convert /?" (without the quotation marks) at the
command line in the Command Prompt window.

2. Setting Up the Network Adapter Cards

Before you install Microsoft Proxy Server, verify that network adapter cards are installed and
configured properly. To create a secure configuration, the Microsoft Proxy Server computer must
have at least one network adapter card connected to the private network, plus one network adapter
card, modem, or integrated services digital network (ISDN) adapter to connect to the Internet.

You should install the network adapter cards in your server computer before installing Microsoft
Proxy Server. For more information on installing network adapter cards, refer to documentation
provided with your adapter cards. Once the adapter cards are installed, you can use the Network
Control Panel to configure each card.

To configure additional network adapter cards, perform the following steps:

* Open Control Pane

* Double-click the Network icon, and then click the Adapters tab.

* Click the Add button to add the additional network adapter card.

To configure TCP/IP settings for internal and external network adapter cards, perform the following
steps:

1. Set TCP/IP protocol bindings for the external network adapter card.

Set the binding to TCP/IP, so that it can communicate over the Internet. When binding
this network card to TCP/IP, you are prompted for the card's Internet Protocol
address. This address is usually supplied by your Internet Service Provider (ISP).

If the external network adapter card will be used to connect to the Internet, it must be
bound only to the TCP/IP protocol. In particular, do not bind IPX/SPX or NetBEUI to
the externally connected cards.
RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 71
2. Set protocol bindings for the internal network adapter card.

If the server will be running the Web Proxy service, the network adapter card connected to the
private network must be bound to TCP/IP. If the server will be running the WinSock Proxy service,
the network adapter card connected to the private network can be bound to TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, or
both.

NOTE: You can choose to implement Microsoft Proxy Server on a server that has only one network
adapter card. You can use this configuration primarily to provide limited proxy service in the
following ways:

 Caching service for internal Web Proxy clients.

 n IP application-level gateway to support internal IPX clients that use the WinSock Proxy
service.

3.Use one default IP gateway.

A Microsoft Proxy Server computer should have only one IP default gateway. The IP address of the
default gateway should be configured on the external network adapter card only.

4.Disable dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP) for the adapter cards.

Use static IP addresses on the adapter cards. DHCP will attempt to reset the IP default
gateway you selected for Microsoft Proxy Server.

3. Setting Up a Modem or ISDN Adapter


RAS and Microsoft Proxy Server
With Microsoft Proxy Server, you can use the Windows NT Server Remote Access Service (RAS)
dial-out client to connect to an ISP. RAS dial-out requires the use of at least one of the following on
the Server computer:

 Modem - You can install one or more modems. High-speed modems, such as 28.8 Kbps
modems, are recommended.

 ISDN adapter - If you are using an ISDN line and have signed up for the ISDN service option
with an ISP, install an ISDN adapter.

When selecting any hardware for use with a dial-up network connection, check the Windows NT
Hardware Compatibility List to confirm that the modem or adapter you are purchasing is supported.
Microsoft has tested the modems and ISDN adapters on this list for use with RAS.

Also, try to select a modem or ISDN adapter that is the same or very close to the one that is used by
the ISP you are using. This helps to ensure optimal performance and the highest possible connection
rates.

For information about selecting and installing a modem or ISDN adapter, see your documentation
for Windows NT Server 4.0 or documentation provided with your modem or ISDN adapter.
Setting Up a Modem

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 72


To set up a modem on the server computer, perform the following steps:

1. Install the modem and start the server computer.

2. In Control Panel, double-click the Modems application icon.

3. Follow the on-screen instructions for installing a new modem.


For information about installing a modem, see your documentation for Windows NT Server 4.0 and
the documentation provided with your modem.
Setting Up an ISDN Adapter
ISDN offers a much faster communication speed than ordinary telephone service that
uses analog equipment. ISDN can operate at speeds of 64 or 128 Kb per second.

Unlike most available modems, not all ISDN hardware uses the same signaling
technology. This may introduce connection problems between your ISDN provider (the
local telephone company)

and your hardware adapter. In some cases, the adapter may not work at all with service in your area.
For this reason it is important to consult with both telephone and Internet service providers you will
be working with in your local area before making a final selection on ISDN adapters. As with
modems, obtaining an adapter that is supported by Microsoft and on the Hardware Compatibility
List is also highly recommended.

To install an ISDN adapter, perform the following steps:

1. Install an ISDN card and start the server computer.

2. In Control Panel, double-click the Network application icon, click the Adapters tab, and click
Add.

3. Follow the on-screen instructions to select or install a device driver for the ISDN adapter.

You must restart the computer after you have installed the ISDN drivers. Otherwise, not all of the
available ISDN ports may be listed on the screen when you configure Remote Access for ISDN.
Setting Up RAS
You can install RAS either during or after the initial Windows NT Server Setup. To install and
configure RAS after Windows NT Server has been installed, use the Network Control Panel. You
will need to log on as a member of the Administrators group. Also, because you are connecting to an
ISP, you need to have the TCP/IP protocol installed before installing RAS.

To install the RAS client with Microsoft Proxy Server, perform the following steps:

1. In Control Panel, double-click Network, click the Services tab, and click Add.

2. In the Network Service box, select Remote Access Service, and then click OK.

3. Follow the on-screen instructions to complete the installation of the Remote Access Service.

Select Dial out only for port usage to configure RAS for dialout-only connection to an ISP. Port
usage can be set by clicking Configure in the Remote Access Service Setup dialog box.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 73


Network protocol settings should include TCP/IP only (the IPX/SPX and NetBEUI check boxes
should be cleared). You can set the network protocols by clicking Network in the Remote Access
Service Setup dialog box.

Installing a modem on the management console

Complete this task to install the modem on the management console.

You must have prepared a dedicated analog telephone line before you install the modem.
You must use this modem or a network VPN connection during remote support situations. A modem
must be installed on the management console to enable the Call Home feature. You can use the
modem to initiate a virtual private network (VPN) connection to IBM during remote support
situations. However, if one or more phone numbers are stored on this page, remote support
connections cannot initiate a VPN connection over the Internet. You must delete all phone numbers
on this page before you can initiate an Internet VPN connection.

To install the modem on the management console, perform the following steps:

1. Remove the modem and accompanying cables from the package. Save the CD and any
documentation that came with the modem for future use.

2. Perform the following steps to connect the power cable from the modem to the power outlet
in the wall:

a. Connect the power cable to the power adapter.

b. Connect the power adapter to the modem.

c. Connect the ac power cable to the wall power outlet.

3. Connect the analog telephone line into the port on the modem that is labeled, "line".

4. Plug the other end of the analog telephone line into the appropriate telephone outlet.

5. Connect the modem to the management console. You can connect the modem to the
management console in one of two ways:

 Connect the modem to the management console directly through a serial port on the
management console. The 9-pin serial connector connects to the management console
while the 25-pin serial connector connects to the modem.

 Connect the modem to the management console through the USB port on the
management console. The USB-to-serial-port convertor connects to the USB port on the
management console while the 9-pin serial connector connects to the USB-to-serial-port
converter and the 25-pin serial connector connects to the modem.

Note: Use the instructions that were provided with the USB-to-serial-port converter to
install the converter.
RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 74
 Ensure that the management console is turned on.

 Use the front power switch to turn on the modem.

4 Perform the following steps to install the modem on the management console:

a. Open the Phone and Modem Options settings for your operating system. In
Windows® 2000, Windows 2003, and Windows XP, click Start > Settings > Control
Panel > Phone and Modem Options.

b. In the Dialing Rules tab, either click New to create a new dialing location, or click
Edit to modify a previously selected dialing location.

c. Move through the General, Area Codes, and Calling Card tabs and enter the required
dialing information for your location, and then click OK.

d. Select the Modems tab.

e. Select Add.

f. In the Install New Modem panel, ensure that the Don't detect my modem; I will
select it from a list box is checked, and then click Next.

g. Click the Have Disk... button.

h. Insert the CD that came with the modem into the CD-ROM drive on your
management console. On the Install From Disk panel, navigate to the CD-ROM directory,
and then click OK.

i. Select MultiTech MT5600BA V9 from the Models list, and then click Next.

j. Select the communications port where you installed the modem, and then click Next.
If a hardware error indicates that compatibility testing did not pass, click Yes to continue.

k. When a message appears that confirms that the installation is successful, click Finish.

l. Click OK to close the Phone and Modems Options window.

6. Configure modem phone numbers.

m. In the navigation, under Real-time manager, select Manage hardware and then select
Storage complexes. Select Configure Modem Remote Support in the Select Actions list
and click Go.

n. Select the appropriate country. If applicable, select the appropriate state. A list of
appropriate phone numbers is displayed.

o. Select the phone number that you want to use.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 75


p. If necessary, specify the prefix that the modem must dial to reach an external phone
line.

q. Click the Populate button next to an empty Phone# field. This places the phone
number that you selected into the empty field.

r. If necessary, manually modify the phone number to work with dialing protocol for
your location.

s. Click the Test button next to the phone number. This creates a modem connection.

t. Verify that the connection was created successfully. You can use the Test connection
status field to view the current state of the connection.

u. Click the Cancel test button to end the test connection before the test is completed.

v. Select another phone number from the available list and use the Populate button to
add additional phone numbers.

w. Click OK to store the modem phone numbers. Click Cancel to exit the page without
saving any changes.

Viva-Voce Questions :
1. What is proxy server ?

2. What is modem ?

3. What is ISDN ?

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 76


Experiment No. 11

Aim: Installation of Windows 2003 server/ Windows 2000 server.

Theory/Description:
Step 1: Plan your installation
When you run the Windows 2000 Server Setup program, you must provide information about
how to install and configure the operating system. Thorough planning can make your
installation of W2K more efficient by helping you to avoid potential problems during
installation. An understanding of the configuration options will also help to ensure that you have
properly configured your system.

I won't go into that part right now but here are some of the most important things you should
take into consideration when planning for your Windows Server 2000 installation:

 Check System Requirements


 Check Hardware and Software Compatibility

 Determine Disk Partitioning Options

 Choose the Appropriate File System: FAT, FAT32, NTFS

 Decide on a Workgroup or Domain Installation

 Complete a Pre-Installation Checklist

After you made sure you can go on, start the installation process.

Step 2: Beginning the installation process


You can install Windows 2000 Server in several methods - all are valid and good, it all depends
upon your needs and your limitations.

 Manual installations usually come in 3 flavors:


 Boot from CD - No existing partition is required.

 Boot from the 4 Setup Boot Disks, then insert the CD - No existing partition is required.

 Boot from an MS-DOS startup floppy, go to the command prompt, create a 4GB FAT32
partition with FDISK, reboot, format the C partition you've created, then go to the CD
drive, go into the I386 folder, and run the WINNT.EXE command.

 Run an already installed OS, such as Windows NT 4.0 Server. From within NT 4.0 go to
the I386 folder in the W2K installation CD and run the WINNT32.EXE command.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 77


 If you want to upgrade a desktop OS such as Windows 98 into Windows 2000
Professional you can follow the same procedure as above (You cannot upgrade Windows
98 into W2K Server).

There are other non-manual installation methods, such as using an unattended file along with a
uniqueness database file, using Sysprep, using RIS or even running unattended installations
from within the CD itself, but we won't go into that right now.

It doesn't matter how you run the setup process, but the moment it runs - all setup methods look
alike.

Step 3: The text-based portion of the Setup program


The setup process begins loading a blue-looking text screen (not GUI). In that phase you will be
asked to accept the EULA and choose a partition on which to install W2K, and if that partition
is new, you'll be asked to format it by using either FAT, FAT32 or NTFS.

1. Start the computer from the CD.

2. You can press F6 if you need to install additional SCSI adapters or other mass-storage
devices. If you do you will be asked to supply a floppy disk with the drivers and you
CANNOT browse it (or a CD for that matter). Make sure you have one handy.

3. Setup will load all the needed files and drivers.

4. Select To Setup W2K Now. If you want, and if you have a previous installation of the
OS, you can try to fix it by pressing R. If not, just press ENTER.

5. In case your server is a new one, or it is using a new hard disk that hasn't been
partitioned yet, you'll get a warning message. Read it, and if you want to continue, press
C.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 78


6. Read and accept the licensing agreement and press F8 if you accept it.

7. Select or create the partition on which you will install W2K. Depending upon your
existing disk configuration choose one of the following:

 If the hard disk is not yet partitioned, you can create and size the partition on which you
will install Windows 2000. Press C.

 If the hard disk is new and you want to create a partition that will span the entire hard
disk's size - press Enter.

Other options
 If the hard disk is already partitioned, but has enough unpartitioned disk space, you can
create an additional partition in the unpartitioned space.
 If the hard disk already has a partition that is large enough, you can install Windows
2000 on that partition. If the partition has an existing operating system, you will
overwrite that operating system if you accept the default installation path. However, files
other than the operating system files, such as program files and data files, will not be
overwritten.

 If the hard disk has an existing partition, you can delete it to create more unpartitioned
space for the new partition. Deleting an existing partition erases all data on that partition.

If you select a new partition during Setup, create and size only the partition on which you will
install Windows 2000. After installation, use Disk Management to partition the remaining space
on the hard disk.

8. Select a file system for the installation partition. After you create the partition on which
you will install W2K, you can use Setup to select the file system with which to format
the partition. W2K supports the NTFS file system in addition to the file allocation table
(FAT) and FAT32 file systems. Windows Server 2003, Windows XP Professional,
Windows 2000, and Windows NT are the only Microsoft operating systems that you can
use to gain access to data on a local hard disk that is formatted with NTFS. If you plan to
gain access to files that are on a local W2K partition with the Microsoft Windows 95 or

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 79


Windows 98 operating systems, you should format the partition with a FAT or FAT32
file system. We will use NTFS.

9. Setup will then begin copying necessary files from the installation point (CD, local I386
or network share).
10. Note: If you began the installation process from an MS-DOS floppy, make sure you have
and run SMARTDRV from the floppy, otherwise the copying process will probably last
more than an hour, perhaps even more. With SMARTDRV (or if setup was run by
booting from CD) the copying will probably last a few minutes, no more than 5 max.

11. The computer will restart in graphical mode, and the installation will continue.

Step 4: The GUI-based portion of the Setup program


The setup process reboots and loads a GUI mode phase.

It will then begin to load device drivers based upon what it finds on your computer. You don't
need to do anything at this stage.

If your computer stops responding during this phase (the progress bar is stuck almost half-way,
and there is no disk activity) - shut down your computer and begin removing hardware such as
PCI and ISA cards. If it works for you then later try to figure out how to make that specific
piece of hardware work (it's probably not in the HCL).

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 80


1. Click Customize to change regional settings, if necessary.

 Current System Locale - Affects how programs display dates, times, currency, and
numbers. Choose the locale that matches your location, for example, French (Canada).

 Current Keyboard Layout - Accommodates the special characters and symbols used in
different languages. Your keyboard layout determines which characters appear when you
press keys on the keyboard.

If you don't need to make any changes just press Next.

If you do need to make changes press Customize and add your System Locale etc.

Note for Hebrew users: In W2K it is NOT SAFE to install Hebrew language support at this
phase!!! Trust me, do it later. If you don't listen to me, good chances are that you'll get ????
fonts in some Office applications such as Outlook and others.

Read the Install Hebrew on Windows 2000 page for more info.

2. Type your name and organization.

3. Type the product key.

If you'd like to skip this step in the future, please read Install Windows 2000 Without Supplying
the CD Key.

4. Enter the appropriate license type and number of purchased licenses.

5. Type the computer name and a password for the local Administrator account. The local
Administrator account resides in the SAM of the computer, not in Active Directory. If
RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 81
you will be installing in a domain, you need either a pre-assigned computer name for
which a domain account has been created, or the right to create a computer account
within the domain.

6. Choose which components to install or remove from the system.

7. Select the date, time, and time zone settings.

6. Setup will now install the networking components.

After a few seconds you will receive the Networking Settings window. BTW, if you have a NIC
that is not in the HCL (see the What's the HCL? page) and W2K cannot detect it, or if you don't
have a NIC at all, setup will skip this step and you will immediately go to the final phase of the
setup process.

Press Next to accept the Typical settings option if you have one of the following situations:

 You have a functional DHCP on your network.


 You have a computer running Internet Connection Sharing (ICS).

 You're in a workgroup environment and do not plan to have any other servers or Active
Directory at all, and all other workgroup members are configured in the same manner.

Otherwise select Custom Settings and press Next to customize your network settings.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 82


7. Highlight the TCP/IP selection and press Properties.

In the General tab enter the required information. You must specify the IP address of the
computer, and if you don't know what the Subnet Mask entry should be - you can simply place
your mouse pointer over the empty area in the Subnet Mask box and click it. The OS will
automatically select the value it thinks is good for the IP address you provided.

8. In the Workgroup or Domain window enter the name of your workgroup or domain.

 A workgroup is a small group of computers on a network that enables users to work


together and does not support centralized administration.

 A domain is a logical grouping of computers on a network that has a central security


database for storing security information. Centralized security and administration are
important for computers in a domain because they enable an administrator to easily
manage computers that are geographically distant from each other. A domain is
administered as a unit with common rules and procedures. Each domain has a unique
name, and each computer within a domain has a unique name.

If you're a stand-alone computer, or if you don't know what to enter, or if you don't have the
sufficient rights to join a domain - leave the default entry selected and press Next.

If you want to join a domain (NT 4.0 domain of W2K/2003 Active Directory domain) enter the
domain's name in the "Yes, make this computer a member of the following domain" box.

To successfully join a domain you need the following:

 The person performing the installation must have a user account in Active Directory.
This account does not need to be the domain Administrator account.

and

 The computer must have an existing computer account in the Active Directory database
of the domain that the computer is joining, and the computer must be named exactly as
its domain account is named.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 83


or

 The person performing the installation must have appropriate permission to create a
domain account for the computer during installation.

Also, you need to have connectivity to the domain's domain controllers (only to the PDC if on
an NT 4.0 domain) and a fully functional DNS server (only in AD domains). Read the Joining a
Domain in Windows XP Pro and Requirements when Joining a Domain pages for more on this
issue.

Enter the Active Directory domain name (in the form of xxx.yyy, for example: DPETRI.NET)
or the NetBIOS name of the NT 4.0 domain (in the form of xxx, for example: DPETRI). Press
Next.

Note: If you provide a wrong domain name or do not have the correct connectivity to the
domain's DNS server you will get an error message.

A username/password window will appear. Enter the name and password of the domain's
administrator (or your own if you're the administrator on the target domain).

Note: Providing a wrong username or password will cause this phase to fail.

9. Next the setup process will finish copying files and configuring the setup. You do not
need to do anything.

10. After the copying and configuring phase is finished, if Windows Server 2003 finds that
you have a badly configured screen resolution it will advise you to change it and ask you
if you see the new settings right.
11. Setup finishes and displays the finish window. Unfortunately, you must press Finish in
order to reboot..

12. Windows 2000 reboots and you should get the CTRL-ALT-DEL window.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 84


13. That's it! you're done!

Viva-Voce Questions:
1. Explain client-server architecture
2. What is difference between two tier and three tier architecture ?

3. In above two architecture, which one is better and why ?

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 85


Experiment No.12

Aim: Introduction to Server administration.

Theory/Description:
Computer networks can range from a simple peer-to-peer network to a more complex client-server
network. While a complicated network can generally perform more advanced functions, it requires
more involved planning, particularly in regard to the server application.

If you have a client-server network (see Networks 101: Client/Server Networks), you are probably
using the server to share files and printers, and you may also be using it to host a Web site or email,
both of which require a server application.

Servers are designed for nearly every purpose imaginable, from email to applications. Every
application will have specific server requirements, typically designed to run on Windows NT or
2000, Novell Netware, or Linux. Many servers can run multiple applications to serve a variety of
needs. As your network grows, you will find uses for a variety of specialized server applications.

The following is just a brief introduction to the most common types of server applications.

File and Print Servers


File and print servers are typically combined on one server and perform as part of the network
operating system. File and printer servers manage the storage of data and the various printers on the
network. These servers regulate and monitor access to these resources.

A few popular file and print servers include:

 Microsoft Windows Server 2003 (Qualifying nonprofits can purchase


Windows Server 2003 from TechSoup Stock for a $40 administration fee.)
 Mac OS X Server
 RedHat Linux Server
 Ubuntu Server Edition

Note that while Windows 2000 and XP operating systems have built-in file and print-server
functionality, the server version of the OS gives you increased security as well as the ability to
expand your network. Also, if your network consists of machines running on different platforms, you
might want to investigate Samba, a free, open-source software solution that allows users to share
files among computers running Windows, Unix, and Mac.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 86


Groupware and Mail Servers
Groupware servers commonly incorporate different tools for helping users collaborate, including
email; managing calendars and contacts; group meeting scheduling; and other operations. When used
to manage email, groupware servers manage both local (within your network) and global (Internet-
wide) electronic messaging.

There are many examples of groupware servers, but some of the popular ones include:

 Microsoft Exchange Server (Qualifying nonprofits can purchase Microsoft Exchange Server
2007 from TechSoup Stock for a $280 administration fee.)
 Eudora WorldMail Server

In addition to the options listed above, many Linux OS distributions — including the
aforementioned Ubuntu — have built-in groupware functionality.

List Servers
While many groupware servers offer the capability to serve an email listserv or mass email
distribution, there are some servers that handle these tasks exclusively.

Here are a few to look at:

 LISTSERV
 Lyris
 Arrow Mailing List Server
 Mailman

Also, a number of free Web-based services — including Google Groups, Yahoo Groups, and
NPOGroups — will allow your organization to set up a mass email distribution list free of charge.

Fax Servers
Fax servers manage fax traffic in and out of the network, allowing multiple users to send and receive
faxes without a fax machine.

Most of the popular groupware servers have fax servers that you can buy and integrate into your
system, so look there first. One interesting note is that Microsoft Small Business Server (basically
their BackOffice software for fewer than 30 users) includes a fax server. Qualifying nonprofits can
purchase Microsoft Small Business Server from TechSoup Stock for a $68 administration fee.

Some other examples of standalone fax servers are:

 Alt-N RelayFax
 GFiFaxMaker
RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 87
Web Servers
Web servers allow Internet users to attach to your server to view and maintain Web pages. Web
browsers such as Netscape and Internet Explorer request documents from the Web server using
standard protocols, and the Web server retrieves the requested documents and forwards them on to
the browsers. Web servers support a variety of technologies including CGI scripts, Active Server
Pages, and secure connections to extend the power beyond the basic HTML code.

The two most popular Web servers are:

 Apache (for "A patchy" Web server)


 Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS)

Database Servers or Database Management Systems (DBMS)


Though not exactly a server, DBMS systems allow multiple users to access the same database at the
same time. While this functionality is typically built into database software (ex. Microsoft Access
allows concurrent connections to its databases), a larger database or a database with many users may
need a dedicated DBMS to serve all the requests. Examples of commercial and free DBMSs include:

 Microsoft SQL Server (Qualifying nonprofits can purchase Microsoft SQL Server 2005 from
TechSoup Stock for an administration fee of $240.)
 IBM DB2
Oracle's Database Management Products
 MySQL
 PostgreSQL

Terminal Servers or Communication Server


Generally, a terminal server refers to a piece of hardware that allows devices to be attached to the
network without a need for network cards. PCs, "dumb" terminals supporting just a mouse and
monitor, or printers can all be attached via standard ports, and can then be managed by the network
administrator.

Microsoft Terminal Server — included in Windows 2000 operating systems (both client and Server
versions) or later versions of Windows provides the graphical user interface of the Windows desktop
to user terminals that don't have this capability themselves. The latter include the relatively low-cost
Net PCs or "thin clients" that some organizations may purchase as alternatives to the autonomous
and more expensive PC with its own operating system and applications.

Proxy Servers
Proxy servers act as intermediaries between your network users and the wide world of the Internet.
Proxy servers perform a number of functions:

 Masks your network users IP addresses


 Strengthens security by only allowing certain requests to come through and by providing
virus protection
RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 88
 Caches Web page data for a given period of time to allow for more rapid access

Examples of proxy servers include:

 WinGate
 Squid

If your organization is running Windows 2000 Server or later, note that you probably will not need a
dedicated proxy server, as Microsoft has included this functionality in the server platform.

This article is intended only as an introduction to common server applications. With the amount of
time and money thrown at the Internet, many types of servers are springing up to fill every
conceivable need. Whether you need to start up an email list, or provide access to talk radio 24 hours
a day, there is a server for you. For a detailed examination of the various types and competitors in
each of these markets, we recommend visiting the holy grail of server information: the ServerWatch
Web site.

Viva-Voce Questions:
1. Explain various type of server.
2. What is the role of server administrator?
3. What do you mean by concurrent server?
4. Give the name of at least three services provided by Windows Server 2003.

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 89


Experiment No 13
Aim: Configuration of DHCP
Theory/Description:
How to install and configure a DHCP server in an Active Directory domain in Windows 2000

Installing the DHCP Service


You can install DHCP either during or after the initial installation of Windows 2000 Server or
Advanced Server, although there must be a working DNS in the environment. To validate your DNS
server, click Start, click Run, type cmd, press ENTER, type ping friendly name of an existing
DNS server in your environment, and then press ENTER. An unsuccessful reply generates an
"Unknown Host My DNS server name" message.

To install the DHCP Service on an existing Windows 2000 Server:


1. Click Start, click Settings, and then click Control Panel.

2. Double-click Add/Remove Programs, and then click Add/Remove Windows Components.

3. In the Windows Component Wizard, click Networking Services in the Components box, and
then click Details

4. Click to select the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) check box if it is not already
selected, and then click OK.

5. In the Windows Components Wizard, click Next to start Windows 2000 Setup. Insert the
Windows 2000 Advanced Server CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive if you are prompted to do so.
Setup copies the DHCP server and tool files to your computer.

6. When Setup is complete, click Finish.

Configuring the DHCP Service


After you install and start the DHCP service, you must create a scope (a range of valid IP
addresses that are available for lease to the DHCP clients). Each DHCP server in your environment
should have at least one scope that does not overlap with any other DHCP server scope in your
environment. In Windows 2000, DHCP servers within an Active Directory domain environment
must be authorized to prevent rogue DHCP servers from coming online and authorizing a DHCP
Server.

When you install and configure the DHCP service on a domain controller, the server is typically
authorized the first time that you add the server to the DHCP console. However, when you install
and configure the DHCP service on a member server, you need to authorize the DHCP server.

To authorize a DHCP server:


5. Click Start, click Programs, click Administrative Tools, and then click DHCP.

Note You must be logged on to the server with an account that is a member of the
Enterprise Administrators group.

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6. In the console tree of the DHCP snap-in, select the new DHCP server. If there is a red
arrow in the bottom-right corner of the server object, the server has not yet been
authorized.

7. Right-click the server, and then click Authorize.

8. After a few moments, right-click the server again and then click Refresh. The server
should display a green arrow in the bottom-right corner to indicate that the server has
been authorized.

To create a new scope:


1. Click Start, click Programs, point to Administrative Tools, and then click DHCP.

Note In the console tree, select the DHCP server on which you want to create the new DHCP
scope.

2. Right-click the server, and then click New Scope. In the New Scope Wizard, click Next, and
then type a name and description for the scope. This can be any name that you choose, but it
should be descriptive enough to identify the purpose of the scope on your network. For
example, you might use Administration Building Client Addresses.

3. Type the range of addresses that can be leased as part of this scope, for example, a starting IP
address of 192.168.100.1 to an ending address of 192.168.100.100. Because these addresses
are given to clients, they should all be valid addresses for your network and not currently in
use. If you want to use a different subnet mask, type the new subnet mask. Click Next.

4. Type any IP addresses that you want to exclude from the range you entered. This includes
any addresses that may have already been statically assigned to various computers in your
organization. Click Next.

5. Type the number of days, hours, and minutes before an IP address lease from this scope
expires. This determines the length of time that a client can hold a leased address without
renewing it. Click Next to select Yes, I want to configure these options now, and then
extend the wizard to include settings for the most common DHCP options. Click Next.

6. Type the IP address for the default gateway that should be used by clients that obtain an IP
address from this scope. Click Add to place the default gateway address into the list, and
then click Next.

Troubleshooting
* Clients are unable to obtain an IP address
If a DHCP client does not have a configured IP address, it generally means that the client has not
been able to contact a DHCP server. This is either because of a network problem or Clients are
unable to obtain an IP address
If a DHCP client does not have a configured IP address, it generally means that the client has not
been able to contact a DHCP server. This is either because of a network problem or because the
DHCP server is unavailable. If the DHCP server has started and other clients have been able to
obtain a valid address, verify that the client has a valid network connection and that all related client
hardware devices (including cables and network adapters) are working properly.
* The DHCP server is unavailable
When a DHCP server does not provide leased addresses to clients, it is often because the DHCP
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service has failed to start. If this is the case, the server may not have been authorized to operate on
the network. If you were previously able to start the DHCP service, but it has since stopped, use
Event Viewer to check the system log for any entries that may explain the cause.

Note To restart the DHCP service, click Start, click Run, type cmd, and then press ENTER. Type
net start dhcpserver, and then press ENTER.

Viva-Voce Questions:
1. What is DHCP ?

2. What is difference between Static and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ?

3. In above two method , which one is better ?

4. What is the role of DHCP server ?

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 92


Experiment No. 14
Aim: Write a program to encrypt and decrypt a file using a key.

Program:

#include<stdio.h>
#include<iostream.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<fstream.h>
#include<process.h>
#include<string.h>
#include<dos.h>

void submenu(char);

void menu(void)
{
clrscr();
cout<<"**************************************************************************
******";
cout<<"SELECT AN OPTION:-\n\n";
cout<<"1.Encryting a File\n";
cout<<"2.Decrypting a File\n";
cout<<"3.Exit!\n";
cout<<"**************************************************************************
******";

cout<<"\n\n\n--------------------------------------------------------------------------------";
cout<<"\t\t\t NOTE FROM THE AUTHOR\n";
cout<<"--------------------------------------------------------------------------------";
cout<<"-- This is a Simple to Use Utility for Encrypting your messages --\n";
cout<<"-- Just Choose a Key and this Program will Encrypt the message --\n";
cout<<"-- According to that key --\n";
cout<<"-- Suggestions Are Most Welcome --\n";
cout<<"-- Mohit Aggarwal --\n";
cout<<"-- mohitaggarwal@bitbis.com --\n";
cout<<"\n\n$$$$$ KEYS ARE CASE SENSITIVE $$$$$";

char choice;
choice=getch();
submenu(choice);
}

void submenu(char choice)


{
switch(choice)
{
case '1':

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{
char key[20];
clrscr();
cout<<"*******************************ENCRYPTING A
FILE********************************";
cout<<"NOTE:If File is in the Same Directory as that of Program Just Enter File Name\n";

cout<<"**************************************************************************
******";
cout<<"\n\nEnter the Key:";
cin>>key;
if(strlen(key)>20)
{
cout<<"\nKey can be Maximum of 20 Characters";
sound(1000);
delay(1000);
nosound();
cout<<"\nPress Any Key to Continue!";
cout<<"\n\n\n*******************Press 'l' or 'L' to get back to Main
Menu*******************";
int push=getch();
if(push=='L'||push=='l')
{
menu();
}
getch();
clrscr();
submenu('1');
}
else
{
ifstream fin;
char fname[256];
cout<<"\nEnter the File Location:";
cin>>fname;//Program to encrypt the file according to key
fin.open(fname,ios::in);
if(fin==NULL)
{
cout<<"\nFile Not Found!";
sound(1000);
delay(1000);
nosound();
cout<<"\nPress Any Key to Retry!";
cout<<"\n\n\n*******************Press 'l' or 'L' to get back to Main
Menu*******************";
int push=getch();
if(push=='L'||push=='l')
{
menu();
}
clrscr();
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submenu('1');
}
else
{
const int n=100;
char line[n];
ofstream fout;
fout.open("encrypt.txt",ios::trunc);
fout.close();
fout.open("encrypt.txt",ios::app);
while(fin)
{
fin.getline(line,n);

for(int i=0;i<strlen(line);i++)
{
for(int j=0;j<strlen(key);j++)
{
line[i]=line[i]+key[j];
}
fout<<line[i];
}
if(fin.eof()!=0)
{
break;
}
}
fin.close();
fout.close();
cout<<"\n\t\t A File ENCRYPT.TXT HAS BEEN GENERATED";
}
}
break;
}
case '2':
{
clrscr();
cout<<"*******************************DECRYPTING A
FILE********************************";
cout<<"NOTE:If File is in the Same Directory as that of Program Just Enter File Name";

cout<<"\n************************************************************************
********";
char fname[256];
char key[20];
cout<<"\nEnter the File Location:";
cin>>fname;//Program to open file
cout<<"\nEnter the Key:";
cin>>key;
if(strlen(key)>20)
{
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cout<<"\nKey can be Maximum of 20 Characters";
sound(1000);
delay(1000);
nosound();
cout<<"\nPress Any Key to Continue!";
cout<<"\n\n\n*******************Press 'l' or 'L' to get back to Main
Menu*******************";
int push=getch();
if(push=='L'||push=='l')
{
menu();
}
getch();
clrscr();
submenu('2');
}
else
{
ifstream fin;
fin.open(fname,ios::in);
if(fin==NULL)
{
cout<<"\nFile Not Found!";
sound(1000);
delay(1000);
nosound();
cout<<"\nPress Any Key to Retry!";
cout<<"\n\n\n*******************Press 'l' or 'L' to get back to Main
Menu*******************";
int push=getch();
if(push=='L'||push=='l')
{
menu();
}
clrscr();
submenu('2');
}
else
{
const int n=100;
char line[n];
ofstream fout;
fout.open("decrypt.txt",ios::trunc);
fout.close();
fin.close();
fin.open(fname,ios::in);
fout.open("decrypt.txt",ios::app);

while(fin)
{
fin.getline(line,n);
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for(int i=0;i<strlen(line);i++)
{
for(int j=0;j<strlen(key);j++)
{
line[i]=line[i]-key[j];
}
fout<<line[i];
}
cout<<line;
if(fin.eof()!=0)
{
//cout<<"EOF";
getch();
break;
}
}
fin.close();
fout.close();
cout<<"\n\t\t A File DECRYPT.TXT HAS BEEN GENERATED";
}
break;
}
}
case '3':
{
exit(1);
break;
}

default:
{
cout<<"\nWRONG CHOICE!";
cout<<"\nPress Any Key to Continue!";
getch();
menu();
}
}
}

void main(void)
{
menu();
cout<<"\n\n\t\t Thankyou for Using this Program!";
getch();
}

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 97


Viva-Voce Questions:
1.What is cryptography?
2. What is the role of cryptanalyst?
3. What is difference between public key and private key cryptography?

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network 98


Experiment No. 15
Aim: Write a program to simulate the stop and wait protocol.
Theory/Description:

Simulation Of Simplex Stop and Wait Protocol with PAR

This Programming assignment will help you understand data link transmission protocol for noisy
simplex channels, by simulating the simplex stop and wait protocol with positive acknowledgement
and retransmission (PAR).

This exercise will simulate the simplex stop and wait protocol with positive acknowledgement and
retransmission(PAR).Simplex protocols for noisy channels are described on pages 197-202 of
Tanenbaum’s Computer Networks(third edition).This program will transmit the contents of an
ASCII data file .The basic solution requires a transmitter function, a receiver function, be
implemented either in a single program or as multiple programs communicating through pipes .An
example of program solution as follows. The transmitter reads data from the file, creates the data
frame, calculates the checksum, applies the gremlin, and then calls the receiver. The receiver checks
the checksum, writes the correct frame to out file, and returns the acknowledgement. This
assignment requires a substantial design and programming effort and programming effort and should
be solved by teams of two students.

Procedure : In this assignment you will simulate the simplex stop and wait protocol with positive
acknowledgement and retransmission (PAR).Use the language or compiler of your choice. You may
work
Either individually or with a partner.
This problem itself is straightforward. The simplex stop and wait PAR is covered on pages 197-
202 of Tanenbaum text and the algorithms for both sender and receiver are specified in Figure 3-11
of that text. Of course, the program can not just be typed in as is and run .For one thing ,the sender
and receiver
would have two separately running processes which can nevertheless communicate with each other
as necessary. For another, the algorithm contains a timing mechanism and event waiting.
The solution described here does not require concurrency. If you know how to write programs
which can be run as separate processes and communicate via pipes. I courage you to pursue that
solution strategy instead of the one outline here. If you want an even greater challenge, implement a
full solution which handles lost frames and uses timers and signals for acknowledgement.
The goal is to simulate the transmission of an ASCII file .The sender will read from the
file(network layer) and read from the file (network layer) and transmit its content to the receiver
,which will write the information to another file (network layer).Filenames are entered at runtime.
The datalink protocol implemented in your program must provide the network layer an error-free,
sequenced transmission service. Your program into frames will break up the input stream. It will
transmit the frames one by one according to protocol. It will reconstruct the data streams one by one
according to the protocol. It will reconstruct the data stream at other end and write it to the file.
The solution simplifies the algorithm by not requiring the timing mechanism or event waiting. Data
frames may be damaged but not lost. The sender and receiver are two separate functions.
The sender is given a stream of input data. It will break the data into data frames of eight bytes. If
the total
Length is not a multiple of eight, pad the last frame with 0’s .If the total length is a multiple of eight,
make the last data frame all 0s.This should be recognized on receiving side as the end of file. Each

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frame will also have a 16bit checksum attached ,using CRC coding based on CRC-CCITT generator
polynomial .
The most advanced solution requires a one-bit sequence number, which can be added as a one-byte
field to frame structure. The others do not require sequence because frames are not lost or delivered
out of order.
The frame will first be passed to gremlin function, which occasionally damage the frame (this
simulates Transmission errors). The result is then “sent” to receiver function .The sender then waits
for ACK or NAK from the receiver .ACK means, “the frame was received OK, so send the next.”
NAK means “The frame was damaged ,please send again.” The sender gets ACK/NAK as the return
value of receiver function. ACK/NAKS are never damaged or lost.
The receiver will read each frame .It must first check for checksum errors. If no error occurred, it
will return an ACK to the sender. Otherwise, it will return a NAK retransmission .Use any values
you wish to represent ACK/NAK .It is the receiver’s responsibility to reassemble frames into output
stream.
The gremlin function uses a random-number generator to determine whether to damage a frame,
and, if so How many and which bits to flip. The probability that a given frame will be damaged (d)
will be entered at runtime. If the frame is to be damaged, the probability of flipping one bit is .5,the
probability of flipping two bits is .3,and the probability of flipping three bits is .2.Every bit in the
frame is equally likely
to be damaged.

Include trace option for both the sender and the receiver. If the trace is on, the sender will output
the message:

Frame: xxx transmitted --yyy

Where xxx is the frame number (just maintain a counter of frames successfully transmitted), and yyy
is the string either “intact” or “damaged”. Depending on whether the gremlin damages it or not.
The receiver will likewise output the message :

Frame: xxx received --yyy


with the analogous meaning. The trace option is specified at run time.

PROGRAM INPUT FROM USER:


1. Name of input file.
2. Name of Output file.
3. Probability that a frame will be damaged
4. Whether or not frame tracing should be enabled

PROGRAM OUTPUT SCREEN (AFTER TRANSMISSION COMPLETE)


1. Total number of packets read from sender’s network layer
2. Total number of frames transmitted (correct plus damaged)
3. Total number of frames damaged.
4. Maximum number of retransmissions for any single frame.
5. Total number of packets delivered to receiver’s network layer

Viva-Voce Questions:
1. What is stop and wait protocol ?

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100
2. What is difference between selective repeat and go back N protocol ?
3. What is port ?
4. What is difference between TCP port and UDP port?

Experiment No. 16
Aim: Write a program to simulate echo server.
Program:

/* Echo Server
* Listens on given tcp port (arg 1) and return ("echo") received msgs back to client
*
* http://cs.baylor.edu/~donahoo/practical/CSockets/textcode.html
*
**/

#include <stdio.h> /* standard in and output*/


#include <sys/socket.h> /* for socket() and socket functions*/
#include <arpa/inet.h> /* for sockaddr_in and inet_ntoa() */
#include <stdlib.h> /* for atoi() and exit() */
#include <string.h> /* for memset() */
#include <unistd.h> /* for close() */

#define RCVBUFSIZE 32 /* Size of receive buffer */


#define MAXPENDING 5 /* Maximum outstanding connection requests */

void DieWithError(char *errorMessage); /* Error handling function */


void HandleTCPClient(int clntSocket); /* TCP client handling function */

int main(int argc, char *argv[])


{
int servSock; /* Socket descriptor for server */
int clntSock; /* Socket descriptor for client */
struct sockaddr_in echoServAddr; /* Local address */
struct sockaddr_in echoClntAddr; /* Client address */
unsigned short echoServPort; /* Server port */
unsigned int clntLen; /* Length of client address data structure */

if (argc != 2) /* Test for correct number of arguments */


{
fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s <Server Port>\n", argv[0]);
exit(1);
}

echoServPort = atoi(argv[1]); /* First arg: local port */

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101
/* Create socket for incoming connections */
if ((servSock = socket(PF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, IPPROTO_TCP)) < 0)
DieWithError("socket() failed");

/* Construct local address structure */


memset(&echoServAddr, 0, sizeof(echoServAddr)); /* Zero out structure */
echoServAddr.sin_family = AF_INET; /* Internet address family */
echoServAddr.sin_addr.s_addr = htonl(INADDR_ANY); /* Any incoming interface */
echoServAddr.sin_port = htons(echoServPort); /* Local port */

/* Bind to the local address */


if (bind(servSock, (struct sockaddr *) &echoServAddr, sizeof(echoServAddr)) < 0)
DieWithError("bind() failed");

/* Mark the socket so it will listen for incoming connections */


if (listen(servSock, MAXPENDING) < 0)
{
DieWithError("listen() failed");
}

for (;;) /* Run forever */


{
/* Set the size of the in-out parameter */
clntLen = sizeof(echoClntAddr);

/* Wait for a client to connect */


if ((clntSock = accept(servSock, (struct sockaddr *) &echoClntAddr, &clntLen)) < 0)
DieWithError("accept() failed");

/* clntSock is connected to a client! */

printf("Talking with client %s\n", inet_ntoa(echoClntAddr.sin_addr));

HandleTCPClient(clntSock);
}
/* NOT REACHED */
}

void HandleTCPClient(int clntSocket)


{
char echoBuffer[RCVBUFSIZE]; /* Buffer for echo string */
int recvMsgSize; /* Size of received message */

/* Receive message from client */


if ((recvMsgSize = recv(clntSocket, echoBuffer, RCVBUFSIZE, 0)) < 0)
DieWithError("recv() failed");

/* Send received string and receive again until end of transmission */


while (recvMsgSize > 0) /* zero indicates end of transmission */
{
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102
/* Echo message back to client */
if (send(clntSocket, echoBuffer, recvMsgSize, 0) != recvMsgSize)
DieWithError("send() failed");

/* See if there is more data to receive */


if ((recvMsgSize = recv(clntSocket, echoBuffer, RCVBUFSIZE, 0)) < 0)
DieWithError("recv() failed");
}

close(clntSocket); /* Close client socket */


}

void DieWithError(char *errorMessage)


{
perror(errorMessage);
exit(1);
}

Viva-Voce Questions :

1. What is Echo server?

2. Give prototype declaration of socket system calls?

3. What is listening socket?

RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network


103
RCET/Department of Information Technology/Computer Network
104
CHHATTISGARH SWAMI VIVEKANAND TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
BHILAI (C.G.)

Semester:V . Branch: Information Technology


Subject– Telecom Switching & Computer Network Lab Code: 333523 (33)
Total Practical Periods: 50
Total Marks in End Semester Exam. : 40

Suggested List of Experiments (but should not be limited to):

1. Introduction to Local Area Network with its cables, connectors, Switches, Hubs and
topologies.
2. Installation of UTP, Co-axial cable, Cross cable, parallel cable NIC and LAN card.
3. To study the network topology and IP Addressing scheme of Institute Network.
4. Case Study of Ethernet (10 base 5,10 base 2,10 base T)
5. Installation and working of Net meeting and Remote Desktop.
6. Installation and working with Telnet (Terminal Network).
7. Installation and working with FTP (File Transfer Protocol). Write a program to simulate
FTP Server.
8. Installation and Computers via serial or Parallel ports and enable the computers to share
disk and printer port.
9. To connect two Personal Computer with Telephone line.
10. Installation of Modem and Proxy Server.
11. Installation of Windows 2003 server/ Windows 2000 server.
12. Introduction to Server administration and Configuration of DHCP.
13. Write a program to encrypt and decrypt a file using a key.
14. Write a program to simulate the stop and wait protocol.
15. Write a program to simulate the Go n Back ARQ protocol.
16. Write a program to simulate echo server.

Recommended Books

1. Computer Network and internet by Dougles E. Comer (Pearson Education)


2. List of Software required: -
3. Windows 2003 server/Windows 2000 server.
4. List of Hardware required: -
5. LAN Trainer Kit LAN Card Cable, Connectors, HUB, Switch, Crimping Tools

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