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AP PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW 2016-2017

Attribution Theory – tendency to give explanations for someone’s beh, often by


crediting situation or person’s disposition
Fundamental Attribution Thy – tendency to overestimate the impact of person’s
disposition (or personality) and underestimate impact of situation
Foot-in-the-Door Phem – tendency to comply w/ larger requests after responding to a
smaller request
Door in the face- Ask for large requests get a smaller prize (ask for car get bike)
Zimbardo – Stanford Prison Experiment/Lucifer Effect – Roleplaying: People take on
the role of what they feel are proper for the situation
Cognitive Dissonance – people change their behavior to avoid looking discomfort in
thinking. Person is against gay rights then becomes gay, he will change attitude to gay rights
activist (created by Festinger)
Asch – conformity – tendency to go along with the views and actions of others, even if
you know they are wrong – line test
Milgram – obedience – people tend to obey authority figures; 60% of participants
thought they delivered the max possible level of shock (Most Controversial)
Social Facilitation – improved performance in presence of others; easy tasks get easier
as hard tasks get harder
Social Loafing – in the presence of others, people tend to do less, partly because they
believe others will do it
Deindividualization – loss of self-awareness and self-restraint, typically in a sense of
anomie (mob situation)
Group Polarization – if a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens prevailing
options and attitudes
Groupthink – a mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a
decisionmaking overrules reality.
Just-World Phenomenon – tendency of people to believe that the world is just and
people get what they deserve and deserve what they get
Social Traps – situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing
their self-interests, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
In-group – people with whom one shares a common identity with
Out-group – those perceived as different from themselves
Hindsight Bias – tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have
predicted it beforehand and may contribute to blaming the victim and forming
prejudices against him/her
Social Desirability Bias- People in an experiment respond in a manner that will be viewed
favorly by others.
Scapegoat theory- Prejudice offers an outlet to release anger by blaming someone.
Prejudice – unjustifiable attitude towards a group and its members
False-consensus Effect- the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our
beliefs and behaviors.
Mere exposure effect – the repeated exposure to a stimulus will increase the liking of it
Normative social influence- influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or
avoid disapproval (Asche)
Informational social influence- influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others'
opinions about reality
Altruism – unselfish regard for the welfare to others
Bystander effect – tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other
bystanders are present
Reciprocity Norms – the expectation that we should return help, not harm to those who
have helped us
Social responsibility norm- help those in need
Social exchange- Aim to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
Gender schema theory- the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what
it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly
gender role-a set of expected behaviors for males and for females
Gender Type- The process by which children acquire the values, motives, and behaviors
considered appropriate for their gender in their particular culture
Critical thinking- Examines assumptions, evaluates evidence, and access conclusions.
Biological – explore the links between brain and mind
Cognition – study how we perceive, think, and solve problems
Humanistic – study that says that humans are basically good and possess a free-will
Behavioral Perspective– study that says all beh. is observable.
Psychoanalytic – study of the unconscious, includes childhood and aggression issues
Sociocultural – study of how cultural and political experiences affect our life
Evolutionary – study of the evolutionary of humans over time (from apes)
Developmental – study of our changing abilities(cognitive, physical) from womb to tomb.
Wilhelm Wundt – father of psychology, created first psychological laboratory
Structuralism – analyze sensations, images, and feelings into their most basic elements
Introspection – looking inward at one’s own mental processes (both structuralism and
introspection created by Edward Titchener)
William James – the brain and mind are constantly changing and created Functionalism.
Mary Calkins- First women president of APA.
Margaret Washburn- First women to receive PhD.
Functionalism – underlying causes and practical consequences of certain behaviors and
mental strategies – “steam of consciousness”
Sigmund Freud – founder of psychoanalysis
Psychoanalytic Theory – all behavior is meaningful and driven by unconscious forces
Applied Research – aims to solve practical problems
Basic Research – pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
Hypothesis – is a testable prediction, often induced by a thy, to enable us to accept,
reject, or revise the thy (educational guess)
IV –a factor, manipulated by the experimenter, and whose effect is studies
DV – a factor that may change in response to the IV
Theory – is an explanation that integrates principles, organizes, and predicts beh or
event
Operational definition – a clear statement of what one is looking for in an experiment
TEST RELIABILITY TERMS*
Validity – it measure what you want it to be measured
Reliability – it is replicable and is consistent
Content validity- the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (such as a
driving test that samples driving tasks).
Split half reliability- Cutting test into two halves and giving those halves to two groups.
Predictive Validity- to which a score on a scale or test predicts scores on some criterion
measure (abilities)
Construct Validity- how accurate the specific test is to measure what it is supposed to
measure. (intelligence test)*
Replication- Replicating research study using different people in different situations.
Correlational study- involves assessing the degree of association between two or more
variables or characteristics of interest that occur naturally. This type of research does not
directly manipulate variables but rather observes naturally occurring differences. Does not
prove causation.
Sampling – process by which participants are selected
Sampling bias-when a sample is not representative of the population from which it was
drawn, creates inaccurate generalizations about the population
Population – the amount of participants that can be selected for the sample
Representative sample – take the results from a smaller group and apply that to a larger
group of people
*** A test without standardization is useless*****
Random sample – everyone has an equal chance of being selected for the experiment
because the participants are chosen at random
Control – group that does not take part in the critical part of the experimentation
process, used as a comparison group
Experimenter bias – the experimenter, either unconsciously or consciously, affects the
outcome of the experiment
Single-blind procedure – the subjects do not know to what group they belong
Double-blind procedure – neither the experimenter nor the subject knows to what
group the subjects are in or who receives the placebo
Hawthorne effect – if you know you’re being studied, you will act differently than you
normally/typically would.
Placebo effect- Experimental results brought by expectations alone.
Placebo – sugar pill – something administered that has no real affect on the person
other than what they think mentally
Positive correlation – as one goes up, the other goes up
Negative correlation – as one goes up, the other goes down
Naturalistic observation – observing and recording beh in the wild/natural environment
Mean – average of the scores – add them up and divide by total number of scores
Median – middle score – when all scores are put numerically in order, the middle score
Mode – the most frequently occurring score in the distribution
Range – the lowest score subtracted from the higher score
Standard Deviation – the average distance of scores around the mean
z-score – a type of standard score that tells us how many standard deviation units a
given score is above or below the mean for that group
Myelin Sheath – a fatty covering around the axon of some neurons that speeds the
neural impulse
Axon – wire-like structure ending in the terminal that extends from the cell body
Neurons – a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
Sensory Neurons (afferent) – neurons that carry incoming information from the sense
receptors (nose, ears, hands) to the central nervous system
Interneuron – central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and
intervene between the sensory inputs and the motor outputs
Motor Neurons (efferent) – neurons that carry incoming information from the central
nervous system to the muscles and glands
Neurotransmitters – chemical contained in TERMINAL BUTTONS that enable neurons to
communicate; they fit into the receptor site of neurons like a key fits into a lock. They are
released at the SYNAPTIC VESSELS or SYNAPSES.
Agonist – excite, by causing neurotransmitters to hit site multiple times(also mimics effects)
Antagonists – inhibits, by blocking neurotransmitters
CNS – the brain and spinal cord
PNS – sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
Somatic NS – the division of the PNS that controls the body’s skeletal muscles
Autonomic NS – the part of the PNS that controls the glands and muscles of the internal
organs, like the heart
Sympathetic NS – arouses the body(inhibits digestion, increase glucose, heart beat faster,
norepinephrine and epinephrine released, bladder relaxed, pupil dilated)
Parasympathetic NS – calms the body (contracts bladder + pupil)
Pituitary gland – the endocrine system’s most influential gland, under the influence of
the hypothalamus, this regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
BRAIN
hypothalamus- sex drive, drug addiction, and fear and aggression.
lateral hypothalamus- increases hunger through the release of hormone Orexin (Oreo)
ventromedial hypothalamus- depresses hunger (leptin is right here and allows organism not
to eat. rat experiment)
EEG – an amplified recording of waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s
surface, these waves are measured by electrodes placed on the skull
PET – a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose
goes while the brain performs a certain task
MRI – a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce a computer
generated image that distinguishes between the types of soft tissue in the brain
Ex: Doctor finds abnormality in brain tissue, doctor used a MRI to find out.
FMRI- looks at the blood flow of the brain.
Medulla – connected to the base of the brainstem, controls our blood pressure, heart
rate, and breathing
Reticular Formation – screens incoming info, and filters out irrelevant info, controls
arousal and attention (when cut out, leads to coma)

Thalamus – the brain's sensory switchboard, senses everything except smell.


Pons – above the medulla, makes chemicals involved w/ sleep & facial expressions
Cerebellum – the little brain attached to the rear of the brainstem, controls
coordination, fire muscles movements and balance (MOST LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
HERE)
cerebral cortex -the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral
hemispheres; information-processing center and decision making center. (Human’s have
largest of all animals)
glial cells (glia)-cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
Limbic System – associated with emotions like aggression and fear and drives such as
hunger and thirst and sex (Hippocampus, Hypothalamus, and Amygdala)
Amygdala – part of the limbic system that is involved in emotions, aggression, and fear
Hypothalamus – controls the metabolic functions of body temp, sex arousal, hunger,
thirst, motivation/emotions, and the endocrine system
Hippocampus – part of the limbic system involved in learning and memory( INVOLVED
WITH MAKING NEW MEMORIES!!!)
Temporal Lobe – at side of brain above ears involved in memory, perception, hearing
Occipital Lobe – lower back part of brain involved with processing visual info vision
Peripheral Lobe – top of brain, discriminates between textures and shapes
Frontal Lobe – located under forehead, involved with complex cognitive functions
William Penfield – studied the effects of stimulation on the motor cortex
Phineas Gage – known as the first lobotomy after a rod goes through his head; gives psych
info on part of brain involved w/ emotions and reasoning
Lobotomy- a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably
emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to
the emotion-controlling centers to the inner brain.
associative areas- areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or
sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning,
remember thinking, and speaking.
Angular Gyrus-involved in reading aloud; receives visual information from the visual area
and codes it in auditory form
Broca’s Area – directs muscle movements involved with speech
Wernicke’s Area – involved in language comprehension
Plasticity – brain’s ability to modify itself after some kind of injury/illness (Growing new
dendrites)
Split Brain – corpus callosum cut, not allowing info to travel to other side of brain
*If an image is projected to the left visual field of a split brained person it will be processed
in the right visual cortex.
Corpus Callosum – responsible for higher thinking function, connects two sides of brain
*Patients with seizures have their corpus callosum cut.**
Left Hemi – logical, sequential tasks, solving math problems, verbal logical
Right Hemi – facial recognition, puzzle solver, emotional, artistic creative
Sensory Cortex – receives info from skin surface and sense organs
Motor Cortex – controls voluntary movements, on opposite side of body, in frontal lobe
Brain Stem- oldest part of the brain (also known as reptilian brain)
Hindbrain – lower brain, located at rear base of skull, responsible for reflexive or
automatic behaviors
Forebrain – largest part of brain that controls what we think of as thoughts and reasons
Midbrain – located above Pons, integrates and relay sensory info to main part of brain
**Oldest to newest parts of Brain**
Brain stem→ Limbic System→Cerebral Cortex
Depolarization – this occurs when positive ions enter the neuron, making it susceptible
to fire an action potential
Refractory Period – After a neuron has fired an action potential, it pauses for a short
period to recharge, until it will fire again
Elaborative rehearsal- connecting new things to other things in the long term memory
Threshold – the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Action Potential – a neural impulse that travels down the axon.
Resting potential- Negatively charged ions inside and positive outside
All-or-none – when the depolarized current exceeds the threshold of a neuron, it will
fire unless it’s below, causing is not to fire
Reuptake – neurotransmitters reabsorbed by the terminal buttons of sending neuron
Endorphins- produced in the brain, provides pain relief/ morphine/ runner’s high.
Neurotransmitters and their diseases/side effects
Acetylcholine – activates motor neurons and skeletal muscles, too little = Alzheimer’s
Dopamine – contributes to voluntary movements and pleasurable emotions, lack of it
causes Parkinson’s as too much causes schizophrenia
Serotonin – involved in mood, regulation of sleep, appetite, and body temperature, to
little leads to depression as too much contributes to OCD and mania
Norepinephrine – affects memory, learning, and contributes to changes in mood,
undersupply leads to depression
Glutamate- involved in memory, oversupply leads to migraines/seizures (avoid msg)
Medications/ Treatments
SSRI- prozac, zoloft, treats depression.
Thorazine and Clozapine- treats schizophrenia (Antipsychotics used to treat schizophrenia)
Lithium Carbonate- treats bipolar/ manic depression
Electroconvulsive Therapy- biomedical treatment; typically for severely depressed; brief,
mild electric current is sent through the brain
Top-down Processing – info processed guided by higher level mental processes,
recognizing face & T/-\E C/-\T (I read ‘the cat’, no thinking) using context or experience to
understand something.
Bottom-up Processing – analysis of the stimulus begins w/ the sense receptor and work
up to brain, /-\ (I see something, oh it’s an A) (Start with the small pieces then piece
together)
JND – minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 % of the time
Olfaction - smelling
Cocktail Party Phem – focus of attention on selected aspects of the environment and
block out the rest
Retinal Disparity – comparing the information from each eyeball, the greater difference
between the two images means they are closer
Transduction – the conversation of one form of energy into another, translates the
incoming stimuli into a neural signal
Vision
Retina – process visual info into neural impulses (Transduction occurs here!!!)
*Path neural impulse will take through Retina:
Rods and Cones→ Bipolar cells→ Ganglion Cells→
Optic Nerve
Cornea – protects and bends incoming light rays/focus
Lens – focus light rays on the retina (accommodation)
Iris – controls the pupil’s size
Fovea – central point (only cones) and see color (VISUAL ACUITY BEST HERE)
Pupil – adjusts opening to let in light
Blind spot – point at which optic nerve leaves eye
Optic nerve – carries neural impulse to the brain
Rods – detect black, white, and gray and are on the side of eyes (peripheral and night vision)
Cones – detect color (fine detail) (mainly located in fovea)
Transduction- The process by which our sensory system converts stimulus energy into
neural messages.
Nearsightedness- nearby objects seen more clear, focuses image of distant objects in front of
retina. “Can’t see far”
Farsightedness- a condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects
because the image of near objects is focused behind the retina.
Visual Capture- Tendency for vision to dominate the other senses.
Pineal gland- produces melatonin
Parallel Processing – the processing of several aspects of a problem, simultaneously
Young-Helmholtz Theory – we have three types of cones in the retina: red, blue, green;
we get other colors by mixing and lightening/darkening colors
Opponent Process Theory – the sensory receptors arranged in the retina come in pairs:
red/green, yellow/blue, and black/white based on AFTER IMAGES!
Afterimage – the firing of the cones used after viewing something steadily
Visual Cliff – experiment to tell if a baby has a sense of depth (depth perception)
Feature detectors- nerve cells in brain that respond to shape, movement, and color.
Depth Perception: the ability to see objects in three dimensions.
· Visual Cliff Studies (Gibson & Walk 1960)
· Binocular Cues: cues to depth perception that comes from the use of eyes
working together.
o Retinal Disparity (comparing images from each eye needed for depth
perception. 3D Movies)
o Convergence
Monocular Cues: cues to depth that can be perceived by either eye alone
o Relative Size (The smaller the object the farther away it is)
o Interposition
o Relative Clarity (Hazy objects are farther away.)
o Texture Gradient ( A gradual change from coarse to fine.)
o Relative Height (Tall objects seem farther away)
o Relative Motion or motion parallax (As we move, objects around us seem to move as
well)
o Linear Perspective (Railroad tracks seem to converge with distance.)
o Light and Shadow

Motion Perception: we see movement that is “actually” there


· Phi Phenomenon: an illusion of movement created when two or more lights blink on
and off in quick succession
· Stroboscopic movement: perception of movement in series of still images flashed
quickly in sequence
Perceptual Constancy: Perceptions of characteristics of objects remain the same, even
though sensory information changes.
· Size Constancy:
Objects closer to our eyes will produce bigger images on our retinas (and smaller distance)
but we take distance into account in our estimations of size.
Perceptual Set: predisposition to perceive one thing and not another, determined by
schema.
Mental set- Tendency to approach a problem in a way that it has always been successful to
us.
in the past.
Intensity – loudness, measured in decibels
Frequency - the pitch, a tone’s highness/lowness
Outer ear – sound waves collected
- Source Ear canal Eardrum (thin membrane that vibrates when hit)
Middle ear – transmits and amplifies the vibration
- Hammer Anvil Stirrup Oval window
Conductive hearing loss-Occurs when sound vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the
inner ear are blocked
Sensorineural loss- Hearing loss caused by damage to the inner ear or the nerve from the ear
to the brain.
Inner ear – change to neural impulse
Cochlea -(snail shaped membrane filled w/ fluid that changes vibration to an
electric symbol)
*Path an auditory stimulus passes through- AUDITORY CANAL, EARDRUM, OSSICLES,
OVAL WINDOW, COCHLEA.
Frequency theory- Rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve. (High pitch)
Place theory- pitch we hear is is where the cochlea's membrane is being stimulated. ( Low
pitch)
Sensory Deprivation – if one sense is deprived, another will become stronger, ie.
blind people have very good hearing
Sensory Adaption – after a while of constant stimulation, will stop detecting sense, ie.
watch or candle burning
Vestibular sense – sense of body position and movement, balance which is determined by
the semicircular canals
Perceptual Set – a mental predisposition to see one thing rather than another
Gestalt – an organized whole, put all individual pieces together to get big picture
(Perception)
- Proximity – objects that are close together are more likely to be perceived as
belonging in the same group
- Similarity – objects that are similar in appearance are more likely to be perceived
- Continuity – Objects that form a continuous form are more likely to be perceived
- Closure – Objects that make up recognizable image are more likely to be perceived
-Figure Ground
Constancy – objects with similar size, shape and brightness are considered a set
Grouping- Organize similar stimuli into coherent groups.
*Metacognition – gain ability to think about the way you think/ self-evaluation
Pavlov – founder of classical conditioning while trying to study digestive system
Classical Conditioning – learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli
NS – neutral stimuli – stimuli that does not trigger a response
UCS – unconditioned stimuli – stimuli that automatically triggers a response
UCR – unconditioned response – an unlearned, natural response to the UCS
CS – conditioned stimuli – after association with the UCS, elicits a certain response
CR – conditioned response – the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
Acquisition – initial stage of CC, in which the association between the NS and UCS takes
place, only lasts about ½ a second
Generalization – tendency to respond to similar stimuli in the same way
Discrimination – the learned ability to distinguish between the CS and other stimuli
Spontaneous Recovery – the reappearing of the CR to the CS
Extinction – the fading of the CR, when there is no UCS
John Garcia – found the effects of radiation on rats (taste aversion)
Operant Conditioning – consequences that follow a beh will increase/decrease
likelihood of them happening again (behavior strengthened by reinforcer or weakened by
punisher)
Edward Thorndike- said that behavior that lead to positive outcomes are most likely to be
repeated, and that responses followed by negative outcomes are not likely to be repeated.
Skinner – founder of operant conditioning & SKINNER BOX
Shaping – procedure in which reinforces behavior through successful approximations
Positive Reinforcement – add good – reinforcing beh by rewarding, give allowance
Negative Reinforcement – take away bad – reinforcing beh by eliminating averse thing (for
example taking headache med so headache is taken away.
Positive Punishment – add bad – reinforcing beh by adding pain/penalty/etc
Negative Punishment – take away good – reinforcing beh by take away phone/keys/etc
Primary Reinforcers – stimuli that is satisfying and requires no learning
food/water/sex
Secondary Reinforcers – stimuli that has acquired its reinforcing power thru experiences
money, praise, grades.
Reinforcement schedules
Continuous – reinforce beh every time it happens
(RATIO FOR NUMBER, INTERVAL FOR TIME)
VARIABLE R – random number of responses slot machine
FIXED R – after a set number of responses buy one get one free
VARIABLE I – after a random amount of time fishing
FIXED I – after a set rate of time paycheck every 2 weeks
Social Learning- learning social behaviors by observing others.
Albert Bandura: observational learning- allows you to profit immediately from the mistakes
and successes of others; his experiment had adult models punching BoBo dolls and then
observed children who watched begin to exhibit many of the same behaviors; social learning
theory, and modeling.
BOBO dolls – after see a parent aggressive, child more likely aggressive – TV violence
Flashbulb Memory – a clear memory of an emotionally significant event: 911, JFK
Information processing theory
Encoding – changing the info into storable content
Storage – placing info into a storage spot for use later
Retrieval – getting the info out of storage
3 Measures of Retention
- Recall- a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier
Ex: fill in the blank test
-Recognition-a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously
learned. Ex: Multiple choice test
-Relearning- a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning
material for a second time
Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve – We lose most information we learn from the time we learn
it, then gradually information is lost. .
Primary sex characteristics- sex organs (Ovaries, penis)
Secondary sex characteristics- pubic hair, breasts, adams apple.
Serial Position effect – tendency to recall the first and last items of a list the best.
Primary effect – tendency to recall the first terms of list
Recency effect – tendency to recall the last terms of list
Mnemonic Devices – ways of remembering info by using creative memory techniques
Chunking – putting many number into parts, change 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 to 123, 465, 789
(made 9 things into 3 = easier to remember)
Method of Loci- Remembering pieces of information and associating them with locations,
familiar environments.
Link method- Forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them
together.
Peg Word System- can be used to memorize an ordered list of words or the specific numbers
associated with the words. Usually rhymes. (one- bun, two- shoe, three- tree)
Priming-the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
Sensory Memory – the immediate, very brief recording of sensory info
Iconic – visual info/memory
Echoic – auditory info/memory
Token economy-an OPERANT conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of
some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various
privileges or treats.
Effortful processing- encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
Three stage processing model- Sensory memory (brief recording of sensory info), STM –
short term memory – temporary memory storage Capacity: 7 items; Length: Several seconds
to a minute, LTM – long term memory – an almost endless amount of storage ability
long-term potentiation- LTP; proLONGed strengthening of POTENTIAL neuron firing; by
stimulating certain neural connections repeated, they become more efficient at releasing
neurotransmitters; neural basis for LEARNING and memory
Implicit – memory of the procedure – how to ride a bike
Explicit – memory of facts – George Washington is first president
Anterograde Amnesia – inability to make new memories, can remember old ones b4.
Retrograde Amnesia – inability to remember memories prior to accident
Infantile Amnesia – inability to remember anything before age of 3
People with Amnesia show damage to hippocampus
Recall – retrieval of info already learned – fill in the blank test
Recognition – identify info already learned – multiple choice
Proactive interference – old info interfere w/ new info
Retroactive interference – new info interfere w/ old info
Repression – pushing a memory to the back of mind – cannot be retrieved
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – physiological needs (food, water) safety needs(security,
shelter) belongingness needs (friends, family, community) esteem
needs (achievement, flattery for mastery) self actualization!!!!
Self-actualization – the motivation to achieve one’s full potential
Sexual response cycle – by Masters and Johnson – Excitement Plateau Orgasm
Resolution
Refractory Period – the resting period after an orgasm in which one cannot be achieved
Homeostasis – a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the
regulation of any aspects of body chemistry
Stress – the process by which we respond to certain events that we appraise as
threatening or challenging
GAS – General Adaption Syndrome – made by Hans Selye responses to stress – alarm
resistance, exhaustion (A.R.E.)
Intrinsic motivation – desire to perform behavior for own sake
Extrinsic motivation – desire to perform behavior for reward at end
Bulimia – eating a large amount of food and then purging (barf) it up
Anorexia – not eating food at all (starving)
Obesity – overeating and gaining excessive amount of weight
Drive reduction Theory – physiological need creates an aroused tension states (drive)
that motivates an organism to satisfy that need
spillover effect-response to one event influences our response to another.
James-Lange Thy – experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological
response to emotionally arousing stimuli (stimuli then response then emotion)
Cannon-Bard Thy – emotionally arousing stimuli simultaneously trigger both a
physiological response and emotion (stimuli then response and emote)
Schacter & Singer / 2 Factor Thy – emotion must be physically aroused and cognitively
labeled before emotion (stimuli then response and label then emote)
Signal detection theory- Predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus
(“signal”) amid a background stimulation (“noise”). Assumes that there is no single absolute
threshold and that detection depends partly on a person’s experience, expectations,
motivations and levels of fatigue.
Consciousness – our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Conscious level – the info about yourself and your enviro. you are currently aware of
Nonconscious level – body processes controlled by your mind that we are not aware of
(heartbeat, respiration, and digestion)
Preconscious level – info about yourself and environment that you are currently not
thinking about
Subconscious level – info that we are not completely aware of but we know exists due to
our behaviors
Unconscious level – reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and
memories in which we are ashamed of.
Sleep
Stage 1 onset of sleep; twilight; alpha waves
Stage 2 small bursts of activities – SPINDLES, nonrem sleep
Stage 3 sections of delta waves, hard to wake up, wet bed & sleep
walk in 3&4
Stage 4 all delta waves – deep sleep, growth
REM sleep rapid eye movement, paradoxical sleep, DREAMS.
Nightmare – a scary dream that wakes up the child
Night terror – a high-arousal dream that terrifies a child due to the fact that it occurs in
Stage four sleep.
Insomnia – recurring difficulties either falling asleep or staying asleep
Narcolepsy – uncontrollable sleep attacks, person randomly collapses into REM sleep
Sleep apnea – temporary cessations of breathing during sleep
Somnambulism – sleep walking
Dreams – “the highway to the unconscious”, sequence of images, emotions.
Manifest Content – the storyline of the dream
Latent Content – the underlying meaning of the dream
Hypnosis – a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) SUGGESTS to
another person (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or
behaviors will spontaneously occur
Social inhibition- perform poorly in front of ppl. (avoid social interaction)
Agonists – excite, by causing neurotransmitters to hit site multiple times
Antagonists – inhibits, by BLOCKING neurotransmitters (curare)
Delta waves - happens during deep sleep.
Alpha waves- happen during awakened relaxed state
Psychoactive drugs – a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
Drug Type Ingredients
Meth stimulant meth/dopamine
Cocaine* stimulant cocaine/dopamine
Tobacco stimulant tobacco/dopamine
Caffeine stimulant caffeine/dopamine
Alcohol* depressant
Barbiturates depressant tranquilizers
Opium & Heroin depressant heroin/opium/dopamine
LSD* hallucinogen LSD/serotonin
Marijuana* hallucinogen dopamine/THC/anandamide
Ecstasy* hallucinogen ecstasy/serotonin
Tolerance – the diminishing effects with regular use of the same dose of a drug
Withdrawal – the discomfort and distress that follows discontinuing the use of an
addictive drug, usually cause a person to go back on drug
Stimulants – drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
Depressants – drug that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
ALCOHOL – a depressant ALWAYS, no matter the amount taken (will be on AP test!)
Hallucinogens – psychedelic drug that distorts perceptions and evoke sensory images in
the absence of a sensory input
Opiates – opium and its derivatives, the depress neural activity, temporarily lessening
pain and anxiety
Temperament – a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
Heritability – the proportion of variation among individual that can attribute to genes
Culture – the enduring behaviors, ideas, values, attitudes, and traditions shared by a grp
Norm – an understood rule by society for accepted and expected behavior
Individualism – giving priority to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s
identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identification (U.S.)
Collectivism-giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work
group) and defining one's identity accordingly
Spearman – proposed that general intelligence is linked to many clusters that can be
analyzed by factor analysis (he made up factor analysis)
Emotional intelligence- created by Daniel Goleman, ability to manage emotions and
empathize with others.
Factor analysis – a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test
Gardner – wanted to broaden definition of intelligence, created 8 types of intelligence
(Logical-Mathematical, Linguistic, Musical, Spatial, body-kinesthetic, intrapersonal
(self), interpersonal (others), and naturalist)
Sternberg – created his three types of intelligences (analytical, creative, and practical)
Binet – published first useful test of general mental ability; broke kids up into ‘bright’
and ‘dull’ by how they compared with both their chronological age and mental age
Terman – revised Binet’s test, and called it the Stanford- Binet test.
Wechsler – WAIS – study personal strengths and weaknesses in 11 different subjects
IQ formula – Mental age/Chronological age x 100 (autism less than 70)
Achievement Test – designed to determine what an individual has learned
Aptitude Test – designed to predict one’s capacity to learn in the future
Latent Learning- learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to
demonstrate it
Incentives- Anything that motivates you to do a behavior, whether it be positive or neg.
Cognitive map- a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example,
after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned its layout.
Divergent thinking – Thinking of multiple, creative answers.
Convergent thinking – Thinking very logically, only one answer.
Nature v Nurture – the debate of whether you are shaped by your environment or genes
FAS – fetal alcohol syndrome – physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused
by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking
Habituation- decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. as infants gain familiarity
with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus their interest wanes and they look away sooner
Newborn reflexes
Rooting Reflex – when touched on the cheek, a baby will turn its head and seek a nipple
Moro Reflex – when feeling like it is falling, baby flings limbs (arms) out and slowly retract
them
Babinski Reflex – when a baby’s foot is stroked, he/she will spread their toes
Sucking Reflex – when an object is placed into baby’s mouth (roof of mouth is touched), the
infant will suck on it
Grasping Reflex – if an object is placed into baby’s balm (or if palm is stroked), the baby will
try to grasp it
Reflex- Inborn response (knee jerk)
Schemas-a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
Assimilation-interpreting one's new experience from one's existing schemas
Accommodation-adapting current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new info.
Crystallized intelligence – one’s accumulated knowledge & verbal skill, increase with age
Fluid intelligence – one’s ability to reason speedily & abstractly, decrease with age
Harry Harlow – created the Harlow monkey experiment, raise baby monkey’s w/ a wire
mother and bottle vs. a terry cloth mother, most monkey’s liked the comfort rather
than the food and necessary needs provided by the other mother
Mary Ainsworth – studied how different attachment styles affected kids
Secure attachment – confidently explore the novel environment while parents are
present, are distressed when they leave, and come to parents when they return
Avoidant attachment – may resist being held by parent and will explore the novel
environment. They do not go to parent for comfort when they return after absence
Anxious attachment – have ambivalent reactions to parents. They may show extreme
stress when parents leave, but upon return resist being comforted by parent
Trait theory- describe the characteristics that make up human personality in an effort to
predict future behavior.
Types of Parenting created by Baumrind
Authoritarian – set strict standard & apply punishment for violations of rules
Permissive – do not set clear guidelines for kids & randomly enforce rules
Authoritative – have set standards, but able to explain them with kids when broken,
encourage independence, but not too strict on punishments
Erik Erikson’s Stage of Development
Trust v Mistrust – birth to one year, infancy – if needs are dependably met, infants
develop a sense of basic trust
Autonomy v shame/doubt – age 1 to age 2, toddlerhood – learn to exercise will and do
things for themselves, or they doubt their abilities
Initiative v guilt – age 3 to 5, preschooler – learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or
they feel guilty about efforts to be independent
Competence v inferiority – age 6 to puberty, elementary school – learn the pleasures of
applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior
Identity v role confusion – teen years to early 20s, adolescence – work at refining a
sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or
they become confused about who they are
Intimacy v isolation – 20s to early 40s, young adulthood – struggle to form close
relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel isolated
Generativity v stagnation – 40s to 60s, middle adulthood – people discover a sense of
contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they feel a lack of
purpose for their life
Integrity v despair – late 60s to death, late adulthood – when reflecting on their life, the
older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure
Jean Piaget’s Development Stages
Sensorimotor – birth to 2 years of age, experience world through senses and actions,
learn object permanence and stranger anxiety
Preoperational – 2 to 6 years of age, representing things with words rather than images,
use intuitive rather than logical thinking, very egocentric (only see from own view)
Concrete operational – from ages 7 to 11, think logically about concrete events, grasp
concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations, learn conservation
Formal operational – from age 12 through adulthood, they begin to think abstractly,
they understand abstract logic and potential for mature moral reasoning
Kohlberg’s Moral Thinking
Preconventional – obey in order to avoid punishment or get reward
- in the case of stealing medicine in order to save the life of your wife, someone with
this morality would say … no, I don’t want to get in trouble
Conventional – care for others and uphold laws and social rules simply b/c they are laws
- … no, it is illegal to steal and I don’t want to break a law
Postconventional – affirm people’s agreed-upon rights or follow what one personally
perceives as correct or ethically ok
- … yes, my wife needs it and a whole life is much more worth the $50 the medicine
costs, in truth, I would be doing what anyone would do
Freud's Psychosexual stages*
Oral – infant seeks pleasure through their mouths
Anal – toilet training, pleasure in controlling.
Phallic – realize their gender, love mother, hate father
Latency – repress sexual urges to work w/ everyone (dormant)
Genital – pleasure in genitals and sex, last for rest of life.*
Oedipus complex – boys desire to have sex with their mom
Electra complex – same as Oedipus, but girl wants her dad.
Inductive Reasoning- Start small go big (Making generalizations).
Deductive Reasoning- Start big go small.
Fixate – if a problem occurs in one stage, similar problems may come up later in life,
ie. Smoking is an oral fixation, due to a lack of pleasure in oral stage
Representative Heuristics – judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they
seem to represent/match particular prototype, ie. a short, slim, poetry reading
man is a ivy league professor, not a truck drive (don’t think of the many truck drivers
compared to the small number of ivy league professors)
Available Heuristics – estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in
memory, ie. after a horrible house fire, a person will think that a house fire is
more common than a tornado hitting house.
Heuristic- simple thinking strategy to solve a problem.
Fixation- can’t see problem in a new way.
Functional Fixedness – the inability to see the different uses of an object, ie. a paper
clip’s only use is to clip papers (don’t think about making it into a hook, etc.)
Noam Chomsky – People have an inborn ability to learn language
Benjamin Whorf – linguistic determination – language determines the way we think
Babbling Stage – the stage of speech development in which an infant utters various
sounds at first unrelated to the household language
One-word Stage – the stage of speech development during which a child speaks mostly
in single words, from age 1 to 2
Two-word Stage – beginning at age 2, child speaks mostly in two word statements
Telegraphic Stage – early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram (go car)
using mostly nouns and verbs, omitting auxiliary words
Morpheme- smallest unit of meaning (Walked -the “ed” means in the past)
Phoneme- smallest unit of sound. “ch”
Personality – an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Type A – hard-driving, aggressive, anger-prone people (get more heart problems)
Type B – easygoing, relaxed people
Free association – unscripted, uncensored talking, which is supposed to provide clues to
the unconscious parts of the mind
Id – contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives for basic sexual and
aggressive drives, immediate gratification (devil)
Pleasure principle – id operated on this – strive for pleasure, at all costs
Ego – the largely conscious, executive part of personality that mediates between the
demands of the id, superego, and reality
Reality principle – ego operates on this – u can’t always get what u want, realistically
Superego – the part of the personality that represents internalized ideals and provides
standards for judgments and for future aspirations (angel)
Defense Mechanisms – ego’s productive method of reducing anxiety by unconsciously
distorting reality
Repression – pushing bad thoughts to back of mind, forgetting (Oh, I forgot)
Displacement – taking you anger out on someone else (man/wife/boss)
Projection – pushing your own feelings on to someone else (you look tired)
Reaction Formation – showing the opposite feeling you have (I hate you)
Regression – going back to an earlier stage of development (temper tantrum)
Rationalization – giving reasons why you did what you did (well, I was very tired)
Sublimation – putting bad urges into acceptable social ways (boxing/football)

Horney – Neo-Freudian feminist


Penis Envy – a women’s want for the man’s power (not necessary the actual body part)
Womb Envy – a man’s want to be able to reproduce
Humanism – all humans are basically good and have free will
Rogers – people are genuine, accepting, and empathic
Self-concept – all our thoughts are feelings about ourselves in answer to the question,
“Who am I?” We strive to form a positive one. The difference between a real self and
ideal self will form your self-concept
Real self – who you really are, in terms of personality
Ideal self – who you want to be, your perfect version
Unconditional Positive Regard – an attitude of total acceptance towards another person
Trait Theory – study, define, and track one’s traits over their lifetime, they don’t care
about the why, just what they are
Trait – a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel or act, as assessed by
self-reporting inventories and peer reports
OCEAN
-Conscientiousness – ORGANIZED, careful, and disciplined
-Agreeableness – Soft-hearted, trusting, and helpful
-Neuroticism (emot.) – Calm, secure, and self-satisfied
-Openness – Imaginative, curious
-Extraversion – Sociable, outgoing, and affectionate
Projective Tests – are personality tests that provide ambiguous stimuli designed to
trigger projections of one’s inner dynamics
Rorschach Inkblot – most widely used projective test, series of ten inkblots, participant
looks at inkblot and says what he sees
TAT – participant is given a picture and they must make up a story about the picture
MMPI – the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests.
Originally developed to identify emotional disorders, this test is now used for many
other screening purposes
Internal Locus of Control – the perception that one can control their own faith
External Locus of Control – the perception that one’s fate is controlled by an outside
force and that they have no control over it
Carl Jung – unconscious is really powerful, but contains more that bad thoughts, etc.
Collective Unconscious – Jung’s concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory
traces from our species’ history
Neo-Freudian – followers of Freud who broke off due to his emphasis on childhood
memories and sexually and aggressive urges
Self-efficacy – how capable we think we are in controlling event, determined by previous
events, comparisons w/ others abilities, listening what others say about our
capabilities, and feedback from body
Learned Helplessness – when unable to avoid repeated adverse events, the
person/animal feels helpless and will not try any more to avoid/escape
Inferiority Complex – the avoiding of feelings of inadequacy and insignificance
Spotlight Effect – the tendency to overestimate others’ noticing and evaluating our
appearances, performances, and blunders
Self-serving Bias – a readiness to perceive oneself favorably. Credit for our successes but
blame others for our failures.
Confirmation bias-a major obstacle to problem solving is out eagerness to search for
information that confirms our ideas
Belief bias- the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes
by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
Belief perseverance -clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were
formed has been discredited
Psychological Therapies
Biomedical Therapy- prescribed medication or medical procedures that act directly on brain
or Central Nervous System.
Psychoanalysis- created by Sigmund Freud, which included the following terms:
a) Free association: Say whatever comes to mind, no matter how embarrassing it may
seem.
b) Resistance: Blocks in the flow of your free association.
c) Transference: When the client is angry at his/her Therapist, and is seen as
transferring his/her feelings from other relationships.
Client Centered therapy- a humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers, in which the
therapist uses active listening (repeating and restating what patient says) within a genuine,
accepting, and empathetic environment. G.A.E. (GAY)
Rational-emotive therapy- comprehensive, active-directive, philosophically and empirically
based psychotherapy which focuses on resolving emotional and behavioral problems,
disturbances and irrational beliefs. (created by Albert Ellis)
Eclectic approach-an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems,
uses techniques from various forms of therapy.
Behavior therapy- therapy that eliminates unwanted behavior.
a) Counterconditioning- A behavior therapy procedure that includes:
- Exposure therapies: Systematic desensitization, uses gradually increasing anxiety
triggering stimuli to treat phobias.
- Aversive Conditioning: Associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an
unwanted behavior(alcoholism)
Cognitive-behavior therapy-a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy
(changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
family therapy-therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted
behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family
members toward positive relationships and improved communication
Group Therapy - Psychotherapy conducted with at least three or four non-related
individuals who are similar in some area, such as gender, age, mental illness, or presenting
problem.
Bipolar mood disorder- Person experiences manias and periods of Depression
Dysthymia disorder- A mild but long form of depression.
Anxiety disorders:
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Constant generalized anxiety with no trigger.
Symptoms: Worry, muscular tension, agitation, sleeplessness
Groups at risk: Women are twice as prone to G.A.D. as men.
Panic Disorder (PD): Recurrent Un-cued panic attacks
Panic attack: An episode of immense fear of imminent doom.
Cued vs. Un-cued panic attacks: Response to stimuli vs. unprovoked fear
Agoraphobia: Fear of open spaces (not having help if/when having a panic attack in public)
Phobias: Focused anxiety towards a specific situation/thing.

Social phobia (a.k.a. Social Anxiety Disorder): intense fear of being judged by others
Symptoms:
Behavioral: Avoiding social situations
Physical: Sweating, trembling, and diarrhea when speaking publicly etc.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
3 most common obsessions:
1. Concerns with germs
2. Fear of terrible things
3. Exactness/order
3 most common compulsions:
1. Checking
2. Cleaning
3. Repetitive rituals
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Symptoms: Jumpiness, haunting memories/nightmares, social withdrawal, insomnia
What traumatizes us?
1. Combat (Long-term high stress situation, death of comrades)
2. Disasters (Death of a loved one or friend)
3. Sexual Assaults
Antisocial person. disorder- sociopath or psychopath.
Somatoform disorder- A condition where there is no physiological basis. for example, a
person experiences a loss of sensation in their right arm, so she goes to the doctor and he/she
determines that the person does not have anything wrong with the body…
Dissociative fugue- Have no memory of your identity. ( Can happen anytime)
Absolute threshold- the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50
percent of the time (sound, light, taste)
Subliminal- Below one's absolute threshold for constant awareness. Yes we can perceive
them but there is no scientific evidence they can persuade us
Weber’s Law- The principle that to perceive their difference, two stimuli must differ by a
constant minimum percent rather than a constant amount.
Set point-the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set.
industrial-organizational psychology -the application of psychological concepts and methods
to optimizing human behaviour in workplaces
Theory X -workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money, and
should be directed from above.
Theory Y - given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to
demonstrate their competence and creativity.
Reciprocal determinism -the interacting influences between personality and environmental
factors. ( quiet person studies in the library, and extraverted person goes to parties)
Self reference effect- is a tendency for people to encode information differently depending
on the level on which the self is implicated in the information. When people are asked to
remember information when it is related in some way to the self, the recall rate can be
improved.
Tardive dyskinesia- involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs.
NEUROLEPTICS IS A TYPE OF MEDICATION THAT HAS INCLUDES TARDIVE
DYSKINESIA AS A SIDE EFFECT.
Meta-analysis-procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research
studies
Cross Sectional- in this study people of different ages are compared with one another.
Longitudinal Study-a type of study in which one group of subjects is followed and observed
(or examined, surveyed, etc) for an extended period of time (years)
Survey – a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions, or beh of
people in a questionnaire.
Case Study- Studies an individual in depth
Gate control theory- The theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that
blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain.
Overjustification Effect- The effect of promising a reward for doing what one already enjoys.
***Given variance, find standard deviation****
Variance= 100
Standard deviation= square root of variance=10!!
Descriptive statistics are more appropriate for summarizing, organizing, characterizing
data/sample. Students can list/imply a relevant statistic (e.g., mean, variability, correlation).
Inferential statistics are more appropriate for comparing differences OR finding statistical
significance OR drawing conclusions OR interpreting OR finding if events happened by
chance.
State-dependent memory is the phenomenon through which memory retrieval is most
efficient when an individual is in the same state of consciousness as they were when the
memory was formed.
Episodic memory- memory of memorable, autobiographical events (trip to paris)
Statistically significant- statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result
occurred by chance.
Arousal theory- optimal performance occurs with moderate levels of arousal
Debriefing-Informing participants about the true nature of a experiment after its completion.
Superordinate goals- requiring the work of everyone in a team 2 achieve a goal.
Eysenck personality- (ENP) Extraversion/Introversion, Neuroticism/Stability,
Psychoticism/Socialisation
Conversion disorder- Person has sudden blindness without any biological explanation.
Psychophysics- first psychology to be studied
when light energy hits retina the cones and rods activate the bipolar cells
*Burn your hand on oven pan your hand moves away due to initiation from spinal cord
Deep structure- grammatical, syntax structure of the sentence, how the abstract meanings of
sentences relate to each other(Chomsky)
empiricism- knowledge comes from the senses and that science should be based on
experiments and observations alone.
Social Clock- Society’s expectation of the timing of certain events. (marriage, parenthood)
Self concept- a sense of one’s identity.
imprinting- When animals form attachments during critical period early in life.
Basic Trust- Erikson says that world is trusting- infants gain this while having responsible
and loving parents.
Framing effect- Something worded to appeal to our interests/ advertisements
Misinformation effect- is the tendency of eyewitnesses to an event to incorporate misleading
information about the event into their memories. At the heart of many false memories,
source amnesia refers to misattributing an event to the wrong source.
Down syndrome- one extra chromosome
Paul ekman- he developed 6 basic emotions: sadness, happiness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust.
Speedy low road- fear goes through Thalamus then amygdala bypass cortex
Thinking high road- Thalamus, sensory cortex, prefrontal cort, amygdala
Carroll Izard-found 10 emotions joy, excitement, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, contempt,
fear, shame, guilt
Catharsis-emotional release, releasing aggressive energy relieves aggressive urges
ex: working out, punching a pillow, crying
Adaptation-level phenomenon-our tendency to form judgments defined by our experiences.
Relative deprivation-the perception that one is worse of relative to those we compare
ourselves to.