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Discovery of Cells:

 1665- English Scientist, Robert Hooke, discovered cells while looking at a thin slice of cork.
 He described the cells as tiny boxes or a honeycomb
 He thought that cells only existed in plants and fungi
Anton van Leuwenhoek
 1673- Used a handmade microscope to observe pond scum & discovered single-celled organisms
 He called them “animalcules”
 He also observed blood cells from fish, birds, frogs, dogs, and humans
 Therefore, it was known that cells are found in animals as well as plants
Development of Cell Theory
 1838- German Botanist, Matthias Schleiden, concluded that all plant parts are made of cells
 1839- German physiologist, Theodor Schwann, who was a close friend of Schleiden, stated that all
animal tissues are composed of cells.
 1858- Rudolf Virchow, German physician, after extensive study of cellular pathology, concluded that
cells must arise from preexisting cells.
The Cell Theory
 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. (Schleiden & Schwann)(1838-39)
 2. The cell is the basic unit of life in all living things. (Schleiden & Schwann)(1838-39)
 3. All cells are produced by the division of preexisting cells. (Virchow)(1858)
Selective permeability - regulates chemical composition of the cell, it selects what enters into the cell
Phospholipids - are lipids that help control the substances that enters and leaves the cell
Phosphor - phosphate head; water-loving (hydrophilic)
Lipid - fatty acid tail; water-fearing (hyrophobic); stores energy for longer period of time
Bi - 2
Proteins - important/essential biological molecules that is a product of a cell’s genetic translation
Cells with more than one nucleus include muscle cells and liver cells, largely because of the massive volume
of cytoplasm and number of organelles that need controlling.
Nucleic Acid: contains hereditary or genetic information
Deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) – genetic materials are found
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) – carries order issued by the DNA concerning protein synthesis
Chromosomes-long thin thread of chromatin, 46 found in human body (blueprint) controls all cellular
activity such as growth and cell division.

 “Powerhouse of the cell”

 Cellular respiration occurs here to release energy for the cell to use
 Bound by a double membrane
 Has its own strand of DNA
 Production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) – Chief energy storing molecule used by the organisms; needed
for growth and repair; energy
 A.k.a. “ER”
 Connected to nuclear membrane
 Highway of the cell
 Rough ER: studded with ribosomes; it makes proteins
 Smooth ER: no ribosomes; it makes lipids

The cells conveyor belt, transports materials

Stores, modifies and packages proteins
 Found only in plant cells
 Contains the green pigment chlorophyll
 Site of food (glucose) production
 Bound by a double membrane
 Chloroplasts absorb light energy, which is the catalyst for photosynthesis.

Actin, also found in muscle cells, mainly help maintain cell shape in their cytoskeletal role. Microtubules
mostly move organelles around the cell. Intermediate filaments also provide structural support.
 Site of protein synthesis, helps in the production of proteins
 Found attached to rough ER or floating free in cytosol
 Produced in a part of the nucleus called the nucleolus
 A polypeptide is a chain of amino acids. In this diagram, you can see the ribosome is making a polypeptide,
also known as a protein.
 Protein examples= (support) collagen, elastin, keratin, (transport) hemoglobin, (hormones)
insulin,(movement) actin, myosin, (defense) antibodies and enzymes

 Garbage disposal of the cell
 Contain digestive enzymes that break down wastes

 Found in plant and bacterial cells
 Rigid, protective barrier
 Located outside of the cell membrane
 Made of cellulose (fiber)
 Aids in cell division
 Usually found only in animal cells
 Made of microtubules and is part of the cytoskeleton
 Organizing Chromosomes. Every animal-like cell has two small organelles called centrioles. They are
there to help the cell when it comes time to divide. They are put to work in both the process
of mitosis and the process of meiosis.

 Large central vacuole usually in plant cells
 Many smaller vacuoles in animal cells
 Storage container for water, food, enzymes, wastes, pigments, etc
 Disposal sites for metabolic byproducts
 Produces pigments that color the cells, that help attract pollinating insects to flowers
 Protects the plant against predators by producing poisonous or unpalatable to animals
 Growth of plant cells
 Pro = before
 Karyose = kernel, which represents the nucleus
 So prokaryotes don’t have a distinct nucleus
 Ex. Bacteria
 Eu = true
 Karyose = kernel, the nucleus
 So eukaryotes are the cells with a true nucleus
 Ex. Found in animals, plants, and fungi (yeast)
What they have in common
 Cell (plasma) membrane
 Ribosomes
 Simple in Prokaryotic, complex in Eukaryotic
 Cytoplasm
 Allow the flow of nutrients and wastes to enter and leave the cell
 Have similar metabolic ( life processes) like photosynthesis and respiration
 Require a supply of energy
 Made from the same basic chemicals
 Carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acid, fats, minerals, and vitamins
 That’s what they have in common, but there are significant differences too.
 The two main ones are age and structure.
Age Differences
 Scientists believe that prokaryotic cells (in the form of bacteria) were the first life forms on earth.
They are considered “primitive” and originated 3.5 billion years ago. That is 2 billion years before
eukaryotic cells and billions of years before our earliest ancestor, the hominids.
 4.6 billion years ago – Earth was formed
 3.5 billion years ago – the first life arose: prokaryotic bacteria
 1.5 billion years ago – eukaryotic cells arose
 500 million years ago – multi-celled eukaryotes arose
 3 million years ago – our earliest ancestor, the hominids, appeared
Structural Differences
 Eukaryotic cells contain two important things that prokaryotic cells do not:
 A nucleus
 Membrane bound organelles
Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cell Structure

Cell Structure Prokaryotic Cell Typical Animal Eukaryotic Cell

Cell Membrane Yes Yes

Cell Wall Yes No

Cilia or Flagella Yes, simple Yes, complex

Endoplasmic Reticulum No Yes

Golgi Complex No Yes

Lysosomes No Yes

Mitochondria No Yes

Nucleus No Yes

Ribosomes Yes, simple Yes, complex