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# lesson10et438a.

pptx 1

## LESSON 10: THE LAPLACE

TRANSFORM
ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology
Learning Objectives
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##  Explain how the Laplace transform relates to the transient

and sinusoidal responses of a system.
 Convert time functions into the Laplace domain.
 Use Laplace transforms to convert differential equations
into algebraic equations.
 Take the Inverse Laplace transform and find the time
response of a system.
 Use Initial and Final Value Theorems to find the steady-
state response of a system.

lesson10et438a.pptx
The Laplace Transform
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## Laplace transform converts time domain problems into functions of a

complex variable, s, that is related to the frequency response of the
system

Laplace
Transform

Time domain
lesson10et438a.pptx Complex frequency
Complex Frequency and The Laplace
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Transform
Complex frequency combines transient response
with sinusoidal steady-state response to get total
response of system to input
a.
s    j Complex Frequency

##  = exponential decay/increase constant that is

b. related to time constants of systems
transient response. RC = L/R =  in circuit
analysis

## et Exponentia lly increasing function over time

a.) Higher frequency e t Exponentia lly decreasing function over time
b.) Faster time constants
lesson10et438a.pptx
Sinusoidal Response From Complex
Frequency
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## The radian frequency  = j2pf same frequency used in phasor

analysis
Laplace related to sine response through Euler's Identity.
Euler's relates complex exponentials to sine and cosine time
functions

## e jt  cos(t )  j  sin( t )

e  jt  cos(t )  j  sin( t )

## Adding and subtracting the above relationships gives the

exponential forms of sine and cosine
lesson10et438a.pptx
Exponential Forms of Sinusoids
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## e jt  cos(t )  j  sin( t ) e jt  cos(t )  j  sin( t )

+ -
 jt
e  cos(t )  j  sin( t ) e  jt
 cos(t )  j  sin( t )
e jt  e  jt  2  cos(t ) e jt  e  jt  2 j  sin( t )
e jt  e  jt e jt  e  jt
 cos(t )  sin( t )
2 2j
Exponential form of Cosine Exponential form of Sine

## Laplace can give complete response: dc

Since est  e (   j) t  e t  e jt
lesson10et438a.pptx
Basic Laplace Transform Pairs
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## Time Domain Function Laplace Domain Function

( t ) Impulse 1
Note: time functions
1 multiplied by constants give
u s ( t ) Unit Step
s Laplace function multiplied
by constant
 at 1
e
sa Examples:
1
e at sa 5
5  u s (t) 
 s
sin( t ) s 2  2  4 
3  sin( 4t )  3   2  4
s  s  16 
cos(t )
s 2  2
1
t Linear ramp (slope 1) lesson10et438a.pptx
s2
Laplace Transform Examples
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## Match the following time functions to correct Laplace domain

function using the transform pairs.

10t 1 1
a.) 1 1 3 3
s2 s5
 at Laplace table
b.) t e 3.2 textbook 4
10 4
 s 
2 3   2  2 s2
5t  (s  1) 
c.) e
1
5 5
d.) e 2t (s  a ) 2

e.) 3 cos( t )
lesson10et438a.pptx
Laplace Theorems
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## L f1 (t)  F1 (s)

Capitalize unknown function name
Replace t with s

Examples
Laplace
Operator L i1 (t)  I1 (s)
Symbol
L v1 (t )  V1 (s)
Linearity of transform - can multiply by constant
If L f1 (t)  F1 (s) and L f 2 (t)  F2 (s)
Then L a  f1 (t)  b  f 2 (t)  a  F1 (s)  b  F2 (s)
lesson10et438a.pptx
Laplace Transforms of Calculus
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Operators
Laplace Transform turns derivative into multiplication by s
If L f1 ( t )   F1 (s) Subtract any
non-zero
initial
d 
Then L  f1 ( t )   s  F1 (s)  f1 (0) conditions
 dt 
For higher order derivatives 0 initial conditions reduces formula to

 d2  d  d2  2
 
L  2 f1 ( t )   s  (s  F1 (s)  f1 (0))  f1 (0) L  2 f1 ( t )   s  F1 (s)
 dt  dt  dt 

lesson10et438a.pptx
Laplace Transforms of Calculus
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Operators
Laplace turns integration into division by s
If L f1 ( t )   F1 (s)

 d  1
Then L   f1 ( t ) dt    F1 (s)
 dt  s

## Examples from circuit analysis:

1 
Capacitor voltage L v C ( t )   L    i C ( t ) dt 
C 
1
v C ( t )    i C ( t ) dt 1 1
VC (s)      I C (s)  
 1 
 I C (s)
C 
C s C s 
lesson10et438a.pptx
More Examples From Circuit Analysis
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## Find the Laplace relationship for inductor voltage

d
v L (t)  L  i L (t)
dt
 d 
L v L ( t )   L  L  i L ( t ) 
 dt 
VL (s)  L  s  I L (s)

## Laplace relationship for resistor voltage

vR (t )  R  i R (t ) L v R ( t )   L R  i R ( t ) 
VR (s)  R  I R (s)
lesson10et438a.pptx
Laplace Transforms and Impedance
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## Remember phasor analysis is only valid for sinusoidal steady-state. Turns ac

analysis into an analysis similar to the dc. (Ohm's law)

Resistance R
Inductive Reactance XL  j  L   2p  f j  90
1  1  1
Capacitive Reactance XC    j   - j   90
j  C   C  j

Since Laplace variable represents frequency, it's possible to replace j with s and s
with j. If s is replaced with j, analysis reverts to phasors We can find the
frequency response of a dynamic system by converting differential equation into
Laplace domain and replacing s with j. Sweeping frequency produces Bode plot
of system.
lesson10et438a.pptx
Laplace Transforms and Impedance
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## Laplace “Impedances” (Ohm’s Law) Impedance (Phasors)

Ls 
VL (s) VL ( j)
Inductors Inductors j L 
I L (s ) I L ( j)
1 VC (s) 1 VC ( j)
Capacitors  Capacitors 
Cs I C (s) jC I C ( j)
VR (s) VR ( j)
Resistors R Resistors R
I R (s ) I R ( j)

lesson10et438a.pptx
Laplace Representations of OP AMP
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Circuits
Find I/O relationship of integrator using Laplace relationships
If(t)
Use OP AMP theory and solve. No I
Iin(t)
enters inverting node and V+=V-=0 due
to ground connection.

## Use KCL at inverting node KCL

Substitute into
KCL equation

lesson10et438a.pptx
Laplace Representations of OP AMP
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Circuits

differentiation

## Take Can use generalized gain

Laplace of formula of inverting OP AMP
Equation lesson10et438a.pptx and Laplace Impedances
Laplace Representations of OP AMP
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Circuits
Example 10-1: Find the input/output relationship for the circuit shown below.

## Use Laplace impedance

relationships to find gain

For inductor

lesson10et438a.pptx
Example 10-1 Solution (2)
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## And integrator Division by s means

action Integration in time

lesson10et438a.pptx
ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology
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## End Lesson 10: The Laplace Transform

lesson10et438a.pptx