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lesson10et438a.

pptx 1

LESSON 10: THE LAPLACE


TRANSFORM
ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology
Learning Objectives
2

After this presentation you will be able to:

 Explain how the Laplace transform relates to the transient


and sinusoidal responses of a system.
 Convert time functions into the Laplace domain.
 Use Laplace transforms to convert differential equations
into algebraic equations.
 Take the Inverse Laplace transform and find the time
response of a system.
 Use Initial and Final Value Theorems to find the steady-
state response of a system.

lesson10et438a.pptx
The Laplace Transform
3

Laplace transform converts time domain problems into functions of a


complex variable, s, that is related to the frequency response of the
system

Laplace
Transform

Time domain
lesson10et438a.pptx Complex frequency
Complex Frequency and The Laplace
4
Transform
Complex frequency combines transient response
with sinusoidal steady-state response to get total
response of system to input
a.
s    j Complex Frequency

 = exponential decay/increase constant that is


b. related to time constants of systems
transient response. RC = L/R =  in circuit
analysis

et Exponentia lly increasing function over time


a.) Higher frequency e t Exponentia lly decreasing function over time
b.) Faster time constants
lesson10et438a.pptx
Sinusoidal Response From Complex
Frequency
5

The radian frequency  = j2pf same frequency used in phasor


analysis
Laplace related to sine response through Euler's Identity.
Euler's relates complex exponentials to sine and cosine time
functions

e jt  cos(t )  j  sin( t )


e  jt  cos(t )  j  sin( t )

Adding and subtracting the above relationships gives the


exponential forms of sine and cosine
lesson10et438a.pptx
Exponential Forms of Sinusoids
6

Add the identities Subtract the identities

e jt  cos(t )  j  sin( t ) e jt  cos(t )  j  sin( t )


+ -
 jt
e  cos(t )  j  sin( t ) e  jt
 cos(t )  j  sin( t )
e jt  e  jt  2  cos(t ) e jt  e  jt  2 j  sin( t )
e jt  e  jt e jt  e  jt
 cos(t )  sin( t )
2 2j
Exponential form of Cosine Exponential form of Sine

Laplace can give complete response: dc


Since est  e (   j) t  e t  e jt
transient and steady-state sinusoidal
lesson10et438a.pptx
Basic Laplace Transform Pairs
7

Time Domain Function Laplace Domain Function


( t ) Impulse 1
Note: time functions
1 multiplied by constants give
u s ( t ) Unit Step
s Laplace function multiplied
by constant
 at 1
e
sa Examples:
1
e at sa 5
5  u s (t) 
 s
sin( t ) s 2  2  4 
3  sin( 4t )  3   2  4
s  s  16 
cos(t )
s 2  2
1
t Linear ramp (slope 1) lesson10et438a.pptx
s2
Laplace Transform Examples
8

Match the following time functions to correct Laplace domain


function using the transform pairs.

10t 1 1
a.) 1 1 3 3
s2 s5
 at Laplace table
b.) t e 3.2 textbook 4
10 4
 s 
2 3   2  2 s2
5t  (s  1) 
c.) e
1
5 5
d.) e 2t (s  a ) 2

e.) 3 cos( t )
lesson10et438a.pptx
Laplace Theorems
9

Laplace of an unknown function

L f1 (t)  F1 (s)


Capitalize unknown function name
Replace t with s

Examples
Laplace
Operator L i1 (t)  I1 (s)
Symbol
L v1 (t )  V1 (s)
Linearity of transform - can multiply by constant
If L f1 (t)  F1 (s) and L f 2 (t)  F2 (s)
Then L a  f1 (t)  b  f 2 (t)  a  F1 (s)  b  F2 (s)
lesson10et438a.pptx
Laplace Transforms of Calculus
10
Operators
Laplace Transform turns derivative into multiplication by s
If L f1 ( t )   F1 (s) Subtract any
non-zero
initial
d 
Then L  f1 ( t )   s  F1 (s)  f1 (0) conditions
 dt 
For higher order derivatives 0 initial conditions reduces formula to

 d2  d  d2  2
 
L  2 f1 ( t )   s  (s  F1 (s)  f1 (0))  f1 (0) L  2 f1 ( t )   s  F1 (s)
 dt  dt  dt 

lesson10et438a.pptx
Laplace Transforms of Calculus
11
Operators
Laplace turns integration into division by s
If L f1 ( t )   F1 (s)

 d  1
Then L   f1 ( t ) dt    F1 (s)
 dt  s

Examples from circuit analysis:


1 
Capacitor voltage L v C ( t )   L    i C ( t ) dt 
C 
1
v C ( t )    i C ( t ) dt 1 1
VC (s)      I C (s)  
 1 
 I C (s)
C 
C s C s 
lesson10et438a.pptx
More Examples From Circuit Analysis
12

Find the Laplace relationship for inductor voltage


d
v L (t)  L  i L (t)
dt
 d 
L v L ( t )   L  L  i L ( t ) 
 dt 
VL (s)  L  s  I L (s)

Laplace relationship for resistor voltage

vR (t )  R  i R (t ) L v R ( t )   L R  i R ( t ) 
VR (s)  R  I R (s)
lesson10et438a.pptx
Laplace Transforms and Impedance
13

Remember phasor analysis is only valid for sinusoidal steady-state. Turns ac


analysis into an analysis similar to the dc. (Ohm's law)

Resistance R
Inductive Reactance XL  j  L   2p  f j  90
1  1  1
Capacitive Reactance XC    j   - j   90
j  C   C  j

Since Laplace variable represents frequency, it's possible to replace j with s and s
with j. If s is replaced with j, analysis reverts to phasors We can find the
frequency response of a dynamic system by converting differential equation into
Laplace domain and replacing s with j. Sweeping frequency produces Bode plot
of system.
lesson10et438a.pptx
Laplace Transforms and Impedance
14

Laplace “Impedances” (Ohm’s Law) Impedance (Phasors)

Ls 
VL (s) VL ( j)
Inductors Inductors j L 
I L (s ) I L ( j)
1 VC (s) 1 VC ( j)
Capacitors  Capacitors 
Cs I C (s) jC I C ( j)
VR (s) VR ( j)
Resistors R Resistors R
I R (s ) I R ( j)

lesson10et438a.pptx
Laplace Representations of OP AMP
15
Circuits
Find I/O relationship of integrator using Laplace relationships
If(t)
Use OP AMP theory and solve. No I
Iin(t)
enters inverting node and V+=V-=0 due
to ground connection.

Use KCL at inverting node KCL

Substitute into
KCL equation

lesson10et438a.pptx
Laplace Representations of OP AMP
16
Circuits

Integrate both sides of above equation to get Vo(t). Integration is inverse of


differentiation

Take Can use generalized gain


Laplace of formula of inverting OP AMP
Equation lesson10et438a.pptx and Laplace Impedances
Laplace Representations of OP AMP
17
Circuits
Example 10-1: Find the input/output relationship for the circuit shown below.

Generalized gain formula

Use Laplace impedance


relationships to find gain

For inductor

lesson10et438a.pptx
Example 10-1 Solution (2)
18

Substitute into generalized gain formula

And integrator Division by s means


action Integration in time

lesson10et438a.pptx
ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology
19

End Lesson 10: The Laplace Transform

lesson10et438a.pptx