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Kemunculan Istilah Sosiologi

Istilah sosiologi muncul


pertama kali pada tahun
1839 pada keterangan
PENGANTAR SOSIOLOGI sebuah paragraf dalam
pelajaran ke-47 Cours de la
philosophie (kuliah filsafat)
karya Auguste Comte.
Secara Etimologi sosiologi
Drs. Arinto Nurcahyono, M.Hum
berasal dari akar kata Latin
artnur@gmail.com
socius (masyarakat) dan
logos (ilmu).
Company
LOGO
Arinto Nurcahyono 2004

Sosiologi Sebagai Ilmu Pengetahuan Definisi Sosiologi


Ilmu Pengetahuan adalah pengetahuan (knowledge) Ilmu pengetahuan yang mempelajari hubungan timbal
yang tersusun secara sistematis dengan menggunakan balik antara aneka ragam gejala-gejala sosial (Pitirim
kekuatan pemikiran dan selalu dapat diperiksa dan Sorokin: 1928)
ditelaah dengan kritis oleh setiap orang yang ingin Ilmu yang mempelajari hubungan antara manusia dalam
mengetahuinya. Ciri-ciri Ilmu pengetahuan adalah: kelompok-kelompok. (Roucek & Warren: 1962)
1. Sistematis 4. Empiris Penelitian Ilmiah terhadap interaksi dan hasilnya yaitu
2. Metodis 5. Umum organisasi sosial. (William F Ogburn & Meyer F.
3. Rasional 6. Akumulatif Nimkoff: 1964)
 Sosiologi merupakan ilmu sosial yang objeknya adalah Ilmu pengetahuan tentang struktur-struktur dan
masyarakat. Ciri-ciri utama sosiologi sebagai sebuah proses-proses kemasyarakatan yang bersifat stabil.
ilmu adalah: (J.A.A. van Doorn & C.J. Lammers: 1964)
1. Bersifat Empiris Ilmu yang mempelajari struktur sosial dan proses-
2. Bersifat Teoritis proses sosial, termasuk perubahan-perubahan sosial .
3. Bersifat Kumulatif ( Selo Soemardjan & Soelaeman Soemardi: 1974).
4. Bersifat Non etis
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Pengertian Lanjut Sosiologi Pengertian Lanjut Sosiologi
 Sosiologi yang inheren adalah pengakuannya yang  Kekhususan sosiologi adalah bahwa perilaku manusia
rendah hati terhadap realitas dan sifatnya yang selalu dilihat dalam kaitannya dengan struktur-
subversif. Sosiologi selalu tidak percaya pada apa struktur kemasyarakatan dan kebudayaanya yang
yang tampak sekilas dan selalu mencoba menguak dimiliki dan ditunjang bersama (Veeger, 1985)
serta membongkar apa yang tersembunyi (latent) di  Sosiologi memperlajari perilaku sosial manusia
balik realitas nyata (manifes) karena sosiologi dengan meneliti kelompok yang dibangunnya.
Kelompok tersebut mencakup keluarga, suku bangsa,
berkeyakinan bahwa “dunia bukanlah sebagaimana komunitas dan pemerintahan, dan berbgai organisasi
yang nampaknya”, tetapi dunia yang sebenarnya baru sosial, agama, politik, bisnis dan organisasi sosial
dipahami jika dikaji secara mendalam dan lainnya.
diintepretasikan (Berger dan Kellner, 1985)  Sosiologi mempelajari perilaku dan interaksi
kelompok, menelusuri asal-usul pertumbuhannya
serta menganalisis pengaruh kegiatan kelompok
terhadap anggotanya (Occoputional Outlook
Handbook, 1980)
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Objek Sosiologi Komponen-komponen Dasar Masyarakat

 Objek sosiologi adalah masyarakat yang dilihat dari a. Populasi, yakni warga suatu masyarakat yang dilihat dari sudut
pandangan kolektif, maka yang dipertimbangkan adalah:
hubungan antar manusia dan proses yang timbul dari
 Aspek-aspek genetik yang konstan.
hubungan manusia di dalam masyarakat .
 Variabel-variabel genetik
 Pengertian masyarkat itu sendiri adalah:  Variabel-variabel demografis.
1. Suatu sistem dari kebiasaan dan tata cara, dari b. Kebudayaan, yakni hasil karya, cipta dan rasa dari kehidupan
wewenang dan kerja sama antara berbagai kelompok bersama yang mencakup:
dan penggolongan, dan pengawasan tingkah laku serta  Sistem lambang-lambang.
kebebasan-kebebasan manusia. (Macher & Page: 1961)  Informasi.
2. Setiap kelompok manusia yang telah hidup dan bekerja c. Hasil-hasil kebudayaan material.
bersama cukup lama sehingga mereka dapat mengatur d. Organisasi sosial, yakni jaringan hubungan antara warga
masyarakat yang bersangkutan , yang mencakup:
diri mereka dan menganggap diri mereka sebagai suatu  Warga masyarkat secara individual
kesatuan sosial dengan batas-batas yang dirumuskan  Peranan-peranan
dengan jelas. (Ralp Linton: 1936).  Kelompok-kelompok sosial
3. Orang-orang yang hidup bersama , yang menghasilkan  Kelas-kelas sosial
kebudayaan. ( Selo Soemardjan: 1968).
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Teori (Sosiologi) Perkembangan Sosiologi
 What is Theory: Faktor yang menelatar belakangi kelahiran sosiologi
Teori merupakan hubungan antara dua variabel atau lebih, yang
telah diuji kebenarannya. adalah karena adanya krisis-krisis yang terjadi di
 Kegunaan Teori pada Sosiologi: dalam masyarakat. Laeyendecker (1983) melihat
krisis tersebut di Eropa Barat terhadap:
1. Teori merupakan ikhtiar dari hal-hal yang telah
diketahui dan diuji kebenarannya.  Tumbuhnya kapitalisme pada akhir abad 15.
2. Memberi petunjuk thd kekurangan-kekurangan  Perubahan-perubahan di bidang sospol, perubahan
pada orang yg mempelajari sosiologi. berkenaan dengan reformasi Martin Luther.
3. Mempertajam atau mengkhususkan fakta yg  Meningkatnya individualisme.
dipelajari oleh sosiologi.  Lahirnya ilmu pengetahuan modern.
4. Dapat mengembangkan suatu sistem klasifikasi  Berkembangnya kepercayaan pada dirinya sendiri.
fakta, membina struktur konsep serta  Revolusi industri pada abad ke-18.
memperkembangkan definisi-definisi.
 Revolusi Perancis 1789
5. Memberikan kemungkinan-kemungkinan untuk
mengadakan proyeksi sosial.
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Pemikiran Pra August Comte August Comte (1798-1857)


 Jauh sebelum August Comte
memproklamirkan kelahiran sosiologi,
orang-orang telah memiliki pengetahuan  Mencetuskan pertama kali nama sosiology
akan kehidupannya yang diperoleh dari dalam bukunya yang tersohor Positive
Philosophy (1838).
pengalaman. Cuma, karena belum terumus
menurut metode-metode yang mantap.
 Di dalam hierarki ilmu, sosiologi menempati
 Para filsuf Yunani, sperti Plato dan urutan teratas-diatas astronomi, fisika, kimia
Aristoleles umumnya berkeyakinan biologi
bahwa seluruh tertib dan keteraturan
dunia dan masyarakat langsung berasal  Pandangan Comte yang dianggap baru pada
dari suatu tertib dan keteraturan yang waktu itu adalah ia percaya bahwa sosiologi
adimanusiawi, abadi, tidak terubahkan, harus didasarkan pada observasi dan klasifikasi
dan ahistoris. yang sistematis, dan bukan pada kekuasaan
serta spekulasi
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Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) Emile Durkheim (1855-1917)

 Istilah sosiologi menjadi lebih populer setengah  Dalam bukunya Rules of Sociology Methode ia
abad kemudian berkat jasa Herbert Spencer menguraikan pentingnya metodologi ilmiah di dalam
filsuf dari Inggris dalam bukunya Principles of sosiologi untuk meneliti fakta sosial.
Sociology (1876).  Tugas sosiologi adalah mempelajari apa yang ia sebut
sebagai fakta-fakta sosial, yakni sebuah kekuatan
 Spencer menerapkan teori evolusi organik pada dan struktur yang berdasarkan eksternal, tetapi
masyarakat manusia dan mengembangkan teori mampu mempengaruhi perilaku individu.
besar tentang evolusi sosial yang diterima secara  Fakta sosial merupakan cara-cara bertindak,
luas beberapa puluh tahun kemudian. berpikir, dan berperasaan, yang berada di luar
 Evolusi sosial pd dasarnya berarti bertambahnya individu, dan mem punyai kekuatan memaksa dan
diferensiasi dan integrasi, peningkatan pembagian mampu mengendalikannya.
kerja, dan suatu tarnsisi dari keadaan homogen  Yang dimaksud fakta sosial tidak hanya bersifat
ke keadaan heterogen. material tapi juga nonmaterial seperti kultur, agama
atau institusi sosial.

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Max Weber (1864-1920) Sosiologi Abad 20


 Fokus minat sosiologi bergeser dari structures ke
 Sebagai ilmu yang mencoba memahami masyarakat agency dari masyarakat yang dipahami terutama
dan perubahan-perubahan sosial yang terjadi di sebagai seperangkat batasan eksternal yang
dalamnya, sosiologi tidak semestinya berkutat pada membatasi bidang pilihan yang bersedia untuk
soal-soal pengukuran yang sifatnya kuantitatif dan anggota-anggota masyarakat tersebut, dan dalam
sekedar mengkaji pengaruh faktor-faktor eksternal, bebrapa hal menentukan perilaku mereka, menuju ke
tetapi penting sosiologi bergerak pada upaya memahi
makna, dan mencoba mencari penjelasan pada faktor- arah baru; memahami latar belakang sosial sebagai
faktor internal yang ada dalam masyarakat itu sumber daya yang diambil oleh aktor-aktor untuk
sendiri. mengejar kepentingan-kepentingan mereka sendiri.
 Weber mengajak para sosiolog keluar dari pikira- Dipelopori oleh Anthony Giddens.
pikiran ortodoks yang acapkali terlalu menekankan  Sosiologi juga menerima pandangan heurmenetika,
pada objektivitas dan kebenaran eksklusif dan secara menekankan bahwa realitas sosial secara instrinsik
terbuka mengajak untuk mengakui relativitas adalah bermakna (diberi makna oleh yang
entepretasi memproduksinya) dan untuk memahami realitas
tersebut maka seseorang harus merekonstrksi
makna yang diberikan aktor tersebut.
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Era tahun 2000-an
 Perkembangan sosiologi semakin mantap diakui banyak pihak
memberikan sumbangan yang sangat penting bagi usaha
pembangunan dan kehidupan sehari-hari masyarakat.
 Kajian sosiologi semakin variatif dan menmbus batas-batas
disiplin ilmu lain.
 Horton dan Hunt (1987) mencatat sejumlah kajian sosiologi
diantaranya :


Sosiologi industru
Perilaku kelompok Introduction to Sociology
 Sosiologi kesehatan
 Sosiologi hukum
 Sosiologi politik Chapter 1
 Perilaku menyimpang THE BASICS OF SOCIOLOGY
 Sosiologi perkotaan/pedesaan.
Kathy S. Stolley
 Sosiologi agama dsb.
Company
LOGO
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Introduction
 The study of sociology starts from the basic  The word sociology itself actually derives from
premise that human life is social life (Rebach the Latin word socius (companion) and the
and Bruhn 2001, 5). Greek word logos (study of ).
 Most of us are constantly involved in  Thus, sociology is most literally the study of
companionship (Abercrombie, Hill, and Turner
interactions with other human beings. From the 2000, 333).
families we are born into, through school, work,  A textbook definition often expands that literal
and play; retirements; and even the gatherings definition of sociology to read something close
that memorialize our deaths, we spend our to the scientific study of the development,
lives within a tapestry woven of interlocking structure, interaction, and collective behavior of
social arrangements. social relationships.
 Sociology focuses on these arrangements,  But so what? What does that definition actually
including how they are created, how they mean? Why is sociology important? Why should
change, and how they impact our lives, anyone study sociology? What does sociology
opportunities, and options (Rebach and Bruhn offer to us in our personal lives? And what does
it offer to wider society?
2001, 5).

5
WHAT SOCIOLOGY OFFERS
 People who practice sociology are called A sociological look at the world provides
sociologists. In his classic work Invitation to a number of unique benefits and
Sociology, Peter Berger describes a sociologist perspectives.
as someone who is “intensively, endlessly, Sociology provides an understanding of
shamelessly interested” in the doings of social issues and patterns of behavior. It
humans (1963, 18). helps us identify the social rules that
 To the sociologist, the social world is “a living govern our lives.
laboratory [and] a moving picture that never
stops” (Rebach and Bruhn 2001, 7). Sociologists study how these rules are
created, maintained, changed, passed
 Because any aspect of the social world is fair between generations, and shared
game for sociological study, the potential topics between people living in various parts of
of study are limitless. Simply put, “being a
sociologist means never having to be bored”
the world.
(Kimmel 1998, 8). They also study what happens when
these rules are broken.
 continue

Sociology helps us understand the


workings of the social systems within  Sociology helps us understand why we perceive
which we live our lives. the world the way we do.
Sociologists put our interactions with  We are inundated with messages in a variety of
others into a social context. This means forms about how we, and the world around us,
they look not only at behaviors and both are and should be. These messages come in
relationships, but also how the larger forms as diverse as guidance from parents and
world we live in influences these things. teachers, laws handed down by religious and
Social structures (the way society is political entities, and advertisements ranging
organized around the regulated ways from pitches for athletic shoes to feeding hungry
people interrelate and organize social life) children.
and social processes (the way society  Sociology helps us examine the types of
operates) are at work shaping our lives in messages we are constantly receiving, their
ways that often go unrecognized. source, how and why they influence us, and our
own roles in producing, perpetuating, and
Because of this perspective,sociologists changing them.
will often say that, as individuals, we are  Continue
social products.
 Continue

6
 Sociology helps us identify what we have in  Sociology helps us understand why and how
common within, and between, cultures and society changes.
societies.  Obviously, the social world is constantly
 Sociologists know that, although people in changing. This change has been a major interest
different parts of the city, country, or world dress to sociologists from the beginning of the
differently, speak differently, and have many discipline.
different beliefs and customs, many of the same  However, many sociologists believe that
types of social forces are at work shaping their sociology should not stop with only explaining
lives. society and how and why the world changes.
 They argue that sociologists also have an
 continue obligation to act, using their unique skills and
perspectives to work to improve the world.
 Sociology, they argue, is a “field of
simultaneously concerned with understanding,
explaining, criticizing, and improving (italics
mine) the human condition” (Restivo 1991, 4).

 Sociology is not just common sense.


 Sociology provides us theoretical perspectives  Results of sociological research may be
within which to frame these understandings and unexpected. They often show that things are not
research methods that allow us to study social always, or even usually, what they initially seem.
“People who like to avoid shocking discoveries,
life scientifically. who prefer to believe that society is just what
 Sociology is a social science. That means they were taught in Sunday School, who like the
sociologists work to understand society in very safety of the rules and maxims of what Alfred
structured, disciplined ways. Schultz . . . has called ‘the world-taken-for-
 Like scientists who study the physical world, granted’, should stay away from sociology”
(Berger 1963, 24).
sociologists follow scientific guidelines that
incorporate an assortment of theories and
methods that provide for accuracy in gathering,
processing, and making sense of information.

7
HISTORY OF SOCIOLOGY Enlightenment Thinkers
 Sociology is rooted in the works of  Enlightenment thinkers also helped set the
philosophers, including Plato (427–347 B.C.), stage for the sociologists that would follow.
Aristotle (384–322 B.C.), and Confucius (551–  The Enlightenment “was the first time in history
479 B.C.). that thinkers tried to provide general
explanations of the social world. They were
 Some other early scholars also took able to detach themselves, at least in principle,
perspectives that were sociological. from expounding some existing ideology and to
 Chinese historian Ma Tuan-Lin developed, in attempt to lay down general principles that
the thirteenth century, a sociological history by explained social life” (Collins 1994,17).
looking at the social factors influencing history  Writers of this period included a range of well-
in his general-knowledge encyclopedia Wen known philosophers, such as John Locke; David
Hsien T’ung K’ao (General Study of the Literary Hume; Voltaire (the pseudonym of François-
Remains). Ibn Marie Arouet); Immanuel Kant; Charles-Louis
de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de
 Khaldun (1332–1406), profiled below, Montesquieu; Thomas Hobbes; and Jean-
conducted studies of Arab society (Restivo Jacques Rousseau.
1991, 18–19).

Term Sociology Three Intellectual Stages


 The term sociology was coined by French Comte saw history as divided into three
philosopher Auguste Comte (1798–1857), who intellectual stages.
would become known as the “Father of The first, or theological, stage included
Sociology.” Comte is profiled below. He first the medieval period in which society was
publicly used the term in his work Positive seen as reflecting the will of a deity.
Philosophy (1896, orig. 1838; Abercrombie, The second, or metaphysical, stage
Hill, and Turner 2000, 67). arose during the Enlightenment and
focused on forces of “nature,” rather
than God, to explain social events.
Comte considered his own time period
the third stage, which he termed the
positivistic, or scientific, stage.

8
Sociology In the United States
 These “early founders of sociology all had a vision
of using sociology” (Turner 1998, 250).  In the United States, social worker and
 Sharing Comte’s belief, many early sociologists sociologist Jane Addams (1860–1935), became
came from other disciplines and made significant an activist on behalf of poor immigrants.
efforts to call attention to social concerns and  Addams established Chicago’s Hull House, a
bring about social change. settlement house that provided community
 In Europe, for example, economist and services such as kindergarten and day care, an
philosopher Karl Marx (1818–83), teamed with employment bureau, and libraries.
wealthy industrialist Friedrich Engels (1820–95),
to address class inequality.
 In Germany, Max Weber (1864–1920), was
active in politics. In France, Emile Durkheim
advocated for educational reforms.

 Sociologists have also been actively involved


 Sociologists are also responsible for some of the throughout the civil rights movement. Ida B.
now familiar aspects of our everyday lives. Wells-Barnett (1862–1931) who is profiled below,
published and spoke out against lynching.
 For example, sociologist William Foote Whyte
(1914– 2000), improved restaurant service by  W.E.B. Du Bois (1868–1963), was involved for
developing the spindles that waitstaff in many most of a century in studying race and social
diners use to submit food orders to the kitchen activism.
(Porter 1962).  Gunnar Myrdal’s An American Dilemma (1944)
 Robert K. Merton (1910–2003), developed the focused public attention on race.
concept of what would become the focus group,  The voter-rights efforts of Charles G. Gomillion in
now widely used in the business world. the 1940s and 1950s were in-strumental in the
U.S. Supreme Court decision that defeated
gerrymandering that had excluded almost all
Macon County blacks from voting (Smith and
Killian 1990, 113).

9
SOCIOLOGISTS IN SOCIETY Applied or Clinical Sociologists
 Contemporary sociologists are continuing the Some sociologists, called applied or
early sociologists’ tradition of using sociology to clinical sociologists, use their skills to
make differences in diverse areas of society.
find answers to practical problems. For
 Many sociologists are, of course, teachers and example:
researchers. However, sociologists are actively
using their skills throughout society in ways  They apply their unique perspectives on
that extend well beyond academics and the conflict and social life to finding new ways to
classroom. assist in mediation and dispute resolution.
 Improving community services (e.g., finding
ways to extend phone service to the
speechdisabled.
 Improving help for victims of violence or
even in designing more effective social
settings for human interactions from child-
care centers to offices to night clubs.

THE SOCIOLOGICAL
IMAGINATION
 Beyond their accomplishments in the
entertainment and sports arenas, sociologists Sociologists talk about the connection
have made many world-changing contributions between learning to understand and
to society.
then change society as being the
 Saul Bellow won the 1976 Nobel Prize in
Literature, and Jane Addams and Emily Balch sociological imagination. C. Wright
both won the Nobel Peace Prize. Mills (1916–62).
 The civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr.
and the Reverend Jesse Jackson studied The sociological imagination is the ability
sociology. to see the interrelationships between
 So did Frances Perkins, an industrial sociologist biography and history, or the
who fought to improve conditions in early-
twentieth-century textile mills. president of the connections between our individual lives
United States, also had a sociology degree and larger social forces at work shaping
(Dreier 2001).
 A number of other notable politicians, including our lives (e.g., racism or political
Shirley Chisolm and Maxine Waters, studied agendas).
sociology.

10
Without a sociological perspective, we
might tend to think of these personal
 Mills urged us to understand that our own experiences primarily in individual terms.
personal fortunes or troubles (e.g., gain/ loss We might locate both the source of a
of a job, divorce) must be understood in terms problem and the solution to that problem
of larger public issues (e.g., the health of the as lying within individuals.
economy, societal changes in the institution of Unemployment, for example, is an
marriage). They cannot be fully understood individual problem for the unemployed
outside of this social context. person that may be due to his or her
characteristics such as work ethic, job
skills, or opportunities.
As Mills puts it, “The very structure of
opportunities has collapsed” (1959, 9).
Finding solutions to these large-scale
problems requires examining the structure
of society (Mills 1959).

SOCIOLOGY AS AN ACADEMIC DISCIPLINE


 Economics was the first social science. It grew The earliest sociologists discussed
out of the practical application of gathering
factual information for business and taxation throughout this book came to sociology
during the 1700s. from a variety of disciplines.
 In the early 1800s, history developed as an  Emile Durkheim and Max Weber had studied
academic discipline. law.
 Psychology then grew out of medicine,  Charles Horton Cooley (1864–1929), was an
philosophy, and pedagogy. econo-mist.
 Anthropology developed from the European  Lester Ward (1841–1913), was a biologist.
discoveries of the Americas, Africa, and Asia.  Georg Simmel (1858–1918), was a
 Sociology is one of the youngest academic philosopher.
disciplines, established as a distinct field of study  Even today, sociologists come to the
in Europe only during the 1800s. discipline from varying backgrounds, such as
 It was at first indistinguishable from political Andrew M.
science, and most early sociologists wrote about  Greeley (1928–), a Catholic priest turned
political issues outside of academics (Collins sociologist profiled in chapter 10.
1994, 30–32).

11
The Sociological Focus as Compared with Other Social Sciences SOCIOLOGY IN A CHANGING
Social Discipline Share Interests Differential Focus WORLD
Science Focus with Sociology Taken by
Discipline Sociology  Changes in our social world have required
Economic Structure of Materials Social Consequen- Focuses beyond a sociologists to focus attention in new ways.
Good, financial market, ces of production Single Structure
 Among these changes are the growth of
transaction and distribution
internationally connected systems and the
History Context of past event
relationship
Establishing Social
Context
Focuses on the
Present
technologies that increasingly allow our
interactions to be conducted in ways other than
Political
Science
Group Competition of
Power and scarce
Patterns and
Consequences of
Focuses beyond a
Single Structure
face to face (e.g., the Internet and e-mail).
resources of conduct in Government  Although more than 6 billion people now live on
politics or government Earth, many sociologists and others have
Anthropology Variations between Patterns of culture Focuses argued that the advent of jet airliners,
culture type and industrialized telephones, the Internet, and around-the-clock
consequences of rather than pra news services beamed by satellite around the
interaction and
communication
industrial society
world have made the world a smaller place, at
least in a social sense.
Psychology Individualistic Adjustments to life Influence external
Perspective situation to the individual

 They often argue that a process of globalization is


at work. With globalization, geographical  The ways in which technologies change social interaction
constraints on social and cultural patterns are has long been an interest for researchers.
diminishing, and people are becoming  Communication and information technologies contribute to
increasingly aware of those changes (M. Waters globalization and increase the complexity of our social lives.
2001). They also often lead to unanticipated effects.
 Globalization is demonstrated through events as  In recent years, sociologists have given much attention to
diverse as the growing popularity of soccer in the the innumerable implications of the Internet to society.
United States—a sport largely imported from From its initial use by a relatively small, computer-literate
outside—the demand for American movies, blue population of users, the Internet grew rapidly beginning in
jeans, and athletic shoes around the world, the the 1990s (Abbate 1999; Castells 2001).
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA),  It is now used for social interaction, business and
and even the attacks of September 11, 2001. commerce (legitimate and illegitimate), education,
research, news, propaganda, entertainment, and more.
 Other terms that refer to forms of globalization
include the world-economy, world-market, and  There is widespread agreement among sociologists and
world-system. These terms are often used to others that the Internet and other communication
refer to the economic aspects of globalization. technologies are vastly changing society.
 Sociologists have been studying these networks
at least since the early 1970s (Chase-Dunn and
Grimes 1995, 387–88).

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Metode-metode Dalam Sosiologi METHODS of STUDY
 Metode Kualitatif Observation (obtrusive and
1.Metode Historis unobtrusive)
2.Metode Komparasi
3.Metode Studi Kasus
Surveys
a. Interview Experiments
b. Questionnaires
Historical Comparison
c. Participant observer technique
 Metode Kuantitatif Cross-Cultural Comparison
 Metode Deduksi dan Induksi Archival Research
 Metode Empiris dan Rasional
 Metode Fungsionalisme
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Perubahan
Sosial
Interaksi
Sosial

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