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ANATOMY SHAKAVELS

Ear
1.1. Tympanic part of temporal bone (pars tympanica ossis temporalis), identify:
1.1.1. Tympanic ring (annulus tympanicus)
1.1.2. External acoustic opening (porus acusticus externus)
1.1.3. External acoustic meatus (meatus acusticus externus)

1.2. Petrous parts of part of temporal bone (pars petrosa ossis temporalis) Look for:
2.2.1. Mastoid process (processus mastoideus)
2.2.2. Styloid process (processus styloideus)
2.2.3. Stylomastoid foramen (foramen stylomastoideum):
2.2.3.1. What is the name of the cranial nerve that comes out of that
hole? Cranial Nerve VII
2.2.3.2. What is its clinical application?
Dapat terjadi paralisis jika terjadi inflamasi di daerah ini
2.2.3.3. What is the name of the disease? Bell’s Palsy
2.2.4. Trigeminal impression (impression trigeminalis, impressionis ganglion
semilunare Gasseri). What is located here?
Ganglion of the fifth cranial nerve (N. Trigeminus)
2.2.5. Internal acoustic opening (porus acusticus internus).
What is the name of anatomical structure that enter this opening?
Cranial Nerve VII & Cranial Nerve VIII

2. Identify at the specimen parts of the External ear ( auris externa ). Look for:
2.1. Auricle; pinna (auricula). Look for its parts:
2.1.1. Concha of auricle (concha auriculae)
2.1.2. Helix (helix)
2.1.3. Crus of helix (crus helicis)
2.1.4. Auricular tubercle (tuberculum auriculae Darwini)
2.1.5. Lobule of auricle, lobe of the ear (lobulus auriculae)
What is its application especially for female? Explain the reason
Untuk tempat tindik anting dan skin slit smear pada penderita
Leprae karena tempat ini memiliki sedikit vaskularisasi.
2.1.6. Anti helix (anti helix)
2.1.7. Tragus (tragus)
2.1.8. Antitragus (antitragus)
2.1.9. Intertragic incisure; intertragic notch (incisura intertragica)
2.2. External acoustic meatus (meatus acusticus externus)
ANATOMY SHAKAVELS

3. Discuss among the group the role of external ear in hearing process.  Sebagai
acoustic antenna

4. Identify parts of the middle ear (auris media, tympanum) at the Anatomic model Look
for:
4.1. Border of middle ear  Dari membrane timpani hingga foot plate of the
stapes
4.2. Tympanic membrane; ear drum (membrana tympanica)
ANATOMY SHAKAVELS

4.3 Auditory ossicles (ossicula auditoria, ossicula auditus): Malleus


(Hammer; malleus), Incus (Anvil , incus) and Stapes (stirrup , stapes)

4.4 Which of the Ossiculae auditoriae connected to tympanic membrane? Malleus,


Incus, and Stapes

5. Discuss among the group:


5.1 the role of middle ear in hearing process = Mengamplifikasi suara dan
melakukan impedance matching
5.2 the name of a tube that connected middle ear with pharynx. 
Eustachian Tube
5.2.1. What is the role of that tube? Clear mucus from the middle ear into the
nasopharynx, equalizes atmospheric pressure in the middle ear, and protection
from unwanted sounds / loud noises
5.2.2. What is the clinical consequence of that tube? Penyumbatan pada tuba
Eustachius akan menyebabkan terjadinya otitis media

6. Identify parts of the Internal ear (Labyrinth, auris interna) at the Anatomic mode.Look
for:
6.1. Anterior, posterior and lateral semicircular canals (canales semicirculares anterior,
posterior et lateral). What are their function? Equilibrium balance (rotational
movement)
6.2. Vestibule (vestibulum)
ANATOMY SHAKAVELS

6.3. Cochlea (cochlea). What is its function? Sensorineural receptor organ


that converting an acoustic waveform into an electrochemical
stimulus to be able to be transmitted to the CNS

NOSE (NASUS)
1. Identify external parts of the nose at the specimen. Look for :

1.1. Root of the nose ( radix nasi )


1.2. Tip of nose, apex of nose ( apex nasi )
1.3. Dorsum of nose ( dorsum nasi )
1.4. Ala of nose ( ala nasi ) yang berbentuk seperti sayap
1.5. Nares , nostril ( nares, apertura nasalis anterior , apertura pyriformis )
lubang hidung
1.6. Nasal septum ( septum nasi ) membatasi cavum nasi kiri dengan kanan
2. Identify at Anatomic model. Look for :
2.1. Nasal septum
2.2. Nasal concha , turbinate ( concha nasi )
ANATOMY SHAKAVELS

2.2.1. Highest nasal concha ( concha nasi superema ) concha ini


terkadang tidak terdapat di semua orang
2.2.2. Superior nasal concha ( concha nasi superior )
2.2.3. Middle nasal concha (concha nasi media )
2.2.4. Inferior nasal concha ( concha nasi inferior ) di bagian lateral
hidung yang terlihat dari luar
2.3. Common nasal meatus ( meatus nasi communis ) :

2.3.1. Inferior nasal meatus ( meatus nasi inferior )


ANATOMY SHAKAVELS

What is the name of the duct that drain to this meatus? ductus
nacrolacrimalis
2.3.2. Middle nasal meatus ( meatus nasi medius )
What is the name of anatomical structure that drain to this meatus? sinus
frontalis, sinus ethmoid anterior, sinus maxillaris
2.3.3. Superior nasal meatus ( meatus nasi superior )
What is the name of anatomical structure that drain to this meatus? sinus
ethmoid posterior, sinus sphenoidalis
2.3.4. What is the function of nasal meatus ? drainage from paranasal sinus and
ductus lacrimalis
2.4. Posterior nasal aperture choanae ( apertura nasalis posterior , choanae )
3. Discuss among the group :

3.1. Paranasal sinuses ( sinus paranasales )


Sinus Frontalis, Sinus Ethmoidalis, Sinus Maxillaris, Sinus Sphenoid
3.2. Division of paranasal sinus
- anteriores : frontalis, maxillaris, ethmoidalis
- posteriors : sphenoidalis, sinus ethmoidalis posterior
3.3. Location of paranasal sinuses
3.4. Function of paranasal sinus
1. Sebagai pengatur kondisi udara
ANATOMY SHAKAVELS

2. Sebagai penahan suhu


3. Membantu keseimbangan kepala
4. Membantu resonansi suara
5. Peredam perubahan tekanan udara
6. Membantu produksi mucus untuk membersihkan rongga hidung
3.5. Clinical relationship between paranasal sinuses and nose.
Bila terjadinya infeksi di hidung dapat naik menuju ke sinus dan
menyebabkan rhinosinusitis.
3.6. Clinical application of the largest paranasal sinus drainage
Largest paranasal sinus drainage= sinus maxilla
Kalau ada sinusitis, drainage akan melewati hiatus semilunaris
Kalau terjadi sinusitis, sekret tidak bisa keluar  Harus diirigasi

MOUTH / PHARYNX./ LARYNX


1. Discuss oral cavity ( cavitas oris ) among the group :
1.1. Boundaries
Lips (anterior), Palate (roof), Muscular floor of the mouth (base),
Cheeks (lateral), and Oropharynx (posterior).
1.2. Division.
Oral cavity dibagi menjadi 2, yaitu Vestibulum oris dan Proper oral
cavity. Vestibulum oris adalah rongga antara bibir dengan gigi
(tempat biasa sikat gigi), sedangkan Proper oral cavity adalah rongga
mulut asli (dari gigi sampai oropharynx).
1.3. Contents
Tongue, teeth, gingiva, frenulum (tongue and lips), uvula, arcus
pharyngeum, and tonsila palatina.

2. Identify at the specimen / anatomic model parts of the mouth. Look for :
2.1. Lips ( labia oris ) :
2.1.1. Superior lip ( labium oris superior )
2.1.1.1. Philtrum ( philtrum )
2.1.1.2. Tubercle ( tuberculum labiorum oris superior )  Penonjolan
dibawah cupid’s bow
2.1.2. Inferior lip ( labium oris inferior )

2.2. Labial commissure ( commissura labiorum oris )  ujung bibir kiri dan
kanan
2.3. Maxillary / upper dental arcade ( arcus dentalis maxillaris / superior )
ANATOMY SHAKAVELS

2.4. Mandibular / lower dental arcade ( arcus dentalis mandibularis / inferior )

2.5. Tongue ( lingua ). Identify its parts :


2.5.1. Root of tongue ( radix linguae )
Pangkal lidah (“akar” lidah)
2.5.2. Apex of tomgue , tip the tongue ( apex linguae )
Ujung dari lidah
2.5.3. Dorsum of tongue ( dorsum linguae )
Permukaan atas lidah, dibagi menjadi anterior part (bag.
depan), posterior part (bag. belakang).
2.5.4. Frenulum of tongue ( frenulum linguae )

2.5.5. Inferior surface of the tongue ( facies inferior linguae )


Permukaan bawah lidah, ada frenulum.
ANATOMY SHAKAVELS

2.6. Soft palate ( palatum molle , velum palatinum )


Langit-langit mulut bagian belakang, lunak.
2.7. Hard palate ( palatum durum )
Langit-langit mulut bagian depan, keras.
2.8. Isthmus of fauces , oropharyngeal isthmus, ( isthmus faucium )
2.9. Palatoglossal arch, anterior pillar of the fauces ( arcus palatoglossus , arcus
glossopalatinus , plica anterior faucium )
2.10. Palatopharyngeal arch, posterior pillar of the fauces ( arcus palatopharyngeus,
arcus pharyngopalatinus , plica posterior faucium )
2.11. Uvula ( uvula palatina )
2.12. Tonsillar pits ( fossulae tonsillae )
2.13. Palatine tonsil ( tonsilla palatina )
Isthmus faucium merupakan pintu masuk (terowongan) dari Proper
oral cavity ke Oropharynx. Isthmus faucium terdiri dari 2 pasang
arcus yang terdiri dari arcus Palatoglossal (lebih depan) dan arcus
Palatopharyngeal (lebih belakang). Ditengah, kedua arcus akan
menyatu membentuk Uvula palatina. Diantara arcus depan dan arcus
belakang ada tonsilar pit yang diisi oleh tonsila palatina.
3. Identify larynx ( larynx ) at the specimen. Look for:
3.1. Laryngeal cartilages ( cartilagines larynges )
3.1.1. Thyroid cartilage ( cartilago thyreoidea ) :1
Cartilage paling besar disana, lokasi setinggi C4-5.
3.1.2. Cricoid cartilage ( cartilago cricoidea ) :1
Cartilage dibawah cartilago thyroidea, lokasi setinggi C6.
Diantara cartilage thyroidea dan cricoidea, ada membrana
cricothyroidea (u/ emergency tracheostomy).
3.1.3 Epiglottis ( epiglottis ) :1
Cartilage yang berfungsi untuk menutup saluran nafas ketika
sedang menelan.
3.1.4. Arytenoid cartilage ( cartilago arytaenoidea ) :2
3.1.5. Corniculare cartilage ( cartilago corniculata Santorini ) :2
3.1.6. Cuneiform cartilage ( cartilago cuneiformis Wrisbergi ) :2
Ketiga cartilage diatas lokasi nya berada di posterior, urutan nya
dari bawah Arytenoid  Corniculare  Cuneiform.
ANATOMY SHAKAVELS

3.2. Laryngeal prominence (prominentia laryngea cartilago thyreoidea .


What is its other name for male?
Penonjolan di cartilago thyroidea, sering disebut jakun atau Adam’s
apple.
3.3. Laryngeal cavity (cavitas laryngis ). Look for:
3.3.1. Laryngeal inlet (aditus laryngis )
Pintu masuk dari pharynx menuju larynx.
3.3.1.1. Corniculate tubercle (tuberculum corniculatum
Santorini)
3.3.1.2. Cuneiform tubercle (tuberculum cuneiforme Wrisbergi)

3.3.2. Laryngeal vestibule (vestibulum laryngis)


3.3.3. Laryngeal ventricle (ventriculus laryngis)
Setelah masuk ke rongga larynx, akan tampak sebuah dilatasi
(ruangan) yang diesbut vestibulum laryngis, dan di dinding
nya ada celah yang disebut dengan ventriculus laryngis.
3.3.4. Vocal cord ( plica vocalis )
Dibagi menjadi 2 yaitu true dan false vocal cords.
3.3.5. Rima glottidis (rima glottiidis , rima vocalis)
Batas masuk ke rongga glottis.
3.3.6. Infraglottic cavity (cavitas infraglottica)
Kavitas dibawah glottis.